A Project of the Center for Advanced Study in the Visual Arts, National Gallery of Art
History of Early American Landscape Design

Humphry Marshall

[http://www.nga.gov/content/ngaweb/research/casva/research-projects.html A Project of the National Gallery of Art, Center for Advanced Study in the Visual Arts ]

Humphry Marshall (October 10, 1722–November 5, 1801), an American botanist and international exporter of plants, established a botanic garden at his home in rural Pennsylvania and wrote Arbustum Americanum (1785), a catalogue of indigenous American trees and shrubs.

History

Fig. 1, Humphry Marshall, Arbustrum [sic] Americanum (1785), title page.

Through independent study and exploration, Humphry Marshall overcame his rudimentary childhood education to become a pioneering authority on American botany. His parents were English Quaker immigrants who established a farm near the west branch of the Brandywine creek in Chester County, Pennsylvania. Marshall spent his early life in agricultural labor and as an apprentice to a stone mason, before assuming responsibility for the family farm around 1848.[1] Thereafter, according to William Darlington, Marshall began “indulging his taste, and employing his leisure time in collecting and cultivating useful ornamental plants” (view text).[2] Marshall’s study of plants was aided by books on botany and material medica, such as John Gerard’s The Herball, or, Generall Historie of Plantes (1633) and John Quincy’s Lexicon Physico-medicum (probably 6th ed., 1743).[3] On foraging trips, Marshall gathered plants and seeds for the small botanic garden he developed on his father’s property. He was also “in the practice of Collecting a few Seeds” for his cousin John Bartram in Philadelphia.[4] Fellow Chester County Quakers who ventured into distant areas contributed to the diversification of Marshall’s garden. While managing a trading store in Pittsburgh, James Kenny collected botanical specimens in company with Bartram and sent seeds back to Marshall in November 1762.[5] After moving from Chester County to North Carolina, the Irish Quaker William Millikan (c.1710/15–1795) sent Marshall pine cones and flowers in June 1765 (view text). He erected a greenhouse in 1764 and made other improvements after inheriting a large section of his father’s estate in 1767 (view text).

It was also in 1767 that Marshall began a lively transatlantic correspondence with the English Quaker physician and plant collector John Fothergill (1712–1780), who was then laying out an American garden at his country house, Upton.[6] In the course of an eight-year correspondence, Marshall sent at least ten boxes of seeds and plants to Fothergill.[7] In return, Fothergill sent Marshall books on botany[8] and a number of scientific instruments, including a microscope, a thermometer, a reflecting telescope, and “a small pocket-glass for viewing flowers” (view text).[9] In 1772 Fothergill reported that, with Marshall’s assistance, he had assembled an exceptional collection of American plants, “some never seen in England before,” so that “It is acknowledged by the ablest botanists . . . that there is not a richer bit of ground in curious American plants, in Great Britain: and for many of the most curious, I am obliged to thy diligence and care” (view text).

Fothergill encouraged Marshall’s plan of exporting plants to Great Britain, assuring him in October 1768, “I doubt not but many of our gardeners would be glad to purchase such boxes, containing assortments of new and curious plants, at a considerable price, and sufficient to pay for the care and pains in raising them” (view text). Benjamin Franklin was less optimistic, however (view text), when Marshall wrote in November 1771 to ask that he “promote a corrispon[dence] between me and Some of the Seeds men or Nursery Men in and about London or any Country Gentlemen that is Curious in Making Collections of our American Vegetables or Simples” (view text). Thomas Parke, a Philadelphia Quaker pursuing his medical training in Britain, was equally discouraging, writing to Marshall in July 1772: “I have taken some pains to oblige thee, in endeavouring to recommend thee to some seedsmen, &c., in England; but fear I have had but poor success” (view text).

Fig. 2, George Samuel after Thomas Medland, A South View of a Villa at Grove Hill, Camberwell, Surry, 1792.

Undeterred, Marshall laid out an extensive botanic garden in 1773 on property he had purchased the previous year near his father’s farm. He continued to add to his garden during the Revolutionary War, acquiring in May 1777, for example, a flowering shrub and other North Carolina plants from Moses Mendenhall (1743–1805), a fellow Quaker with Chester County connections.[10] Thomas Bond (1712–1784), a Quaker physician in Philadelphia who had studied under the French botanist Antoine Laurent de Jussieu (1748–1836) at the Royal Botanic Garden in Paris,[11] recruited Marshall’s assistance with a series of mutually beneficial botanical exchanges with the French (view text).[12] Requests for American trees and plants came from the royal garden in Paris and from Louis de Noailles (1713–1793), who operated an experimental garden at Saint-Germain-en-Laye (view text). Louis XVI reportedly “examined every article” in a box from Marshall that reached Paris in 1781 (view text). Orders from several other French clients followed, including a request for nearly two hundred plants in April 1789 from Jacques-Louis Descemet (1761–1839), nurseryman and florist to the King’s brother.[13]

Demand for America’s flowering shrubs and useful trees increased throughout Europe following the Revolutionary War. Aided by his nephew Moses Marshall, who joined his household in April 1784, Marshall provided seeds and plants to clients in England, Scotland, France, Italy, Brussels, Holland, and Germany.[14] In 1783 Marshall sent two boxes of American plants to the Italian physicist Abbé Felice Fontana (1730–1805), who was building the natural history collections of the Royal Museum of Physics and Natural History in Florence (view text).[15] Through the agency of Sir Joseph Banks, President of the Royal Society in London, the contents of several boxes from Marshall were planted in the Royal Botanic Garden at Kew (view text).[16] A single order from the London firm of Grimwood, Hudson, and Barret in 1787 called for 1,300 plants.[17] Marshall’s shipments sustained the transatlantic vogue for creating discrete garden areas dedicated to American plants. The English Quaker physician John Coakley Lettsom (1744–1815), who had purchased the greenhouse and hothouse plants of his deceased colleague John Fothergill, desired Marshall’s help in developing an American garden at his suburban London villa, Grove Hill (view text) [Fig. 2]. Like Fothergill, Lettsom provided Marshall with books on botany, such as Thomas Walter’s Flora Caroliniana (1788), and assisted him with scientific instruments.[18]

Fig. 3, Thomas S. Sinclair after John T. French, “Prunus Americana,” in Thomas Nuttall, The North American Sylva (1849), vol. 2., pl. 48.

Marshall also provided seeds and plants to Pennsylvania neighbors.[19] The clergyman and botanist Henry Muhlenberg (1753–1815), who was creating an herbarium in Lancaster, offered seeds imported from Germany in exchange for the shrubs and roots Marshall sent him in 1789 (view text).[20] Marshall provided maple and poplar trees to Frederick Eugene Francois, Baron de Beelen-Bertholff (1729–1805), former envoy from the Austrian Netherlands, who was laying out extensive gardens at his estate in Chester County.[21] William Hamilton sent Marshall long lists of plants he desired for his estate The Woodlands on the outskirts of Philadelphia, and frequently urged Marshall to visit him there (view text).[22] While laying out the State House Yard in Philadelphia in 1785, the wealthy British merchant Samuel Vaughan turned to Marshall for his “advice and assistance” in collecting “a specimen of every tree in America that will grown in this state” (view text).

Fig. 4, James Trenchard after William Bartram, Franklinia Alatamaha, c. 1786.

The boom in Marshall’s botanical business owed much to his publication in 1785 of Arbustum Americanum: The American Grove, or, An Alphabetical Catalogue of Forest Trees and Shrubs, the first American imprint on native trees and shrubs by an American author [Fig. 1].[23] The book employed Linnaean taxonomic nomenclature and featured the earliest scientific descriptions of several plants thereafter denoted by the suffix “Marsh.”, among them Taxus canadensis Marsh. (ground hemlock) and Prunus Americana Marsh. (American plum) [Fig. 3], and Franklinia Alatamaha [Fig. 4]. Convinced of the book’s importance, Samuel Vaughan had overseen and largely funded its publication (view text). Although American sales were slow, the Arbustum sold well in England. German and French translations were published in 1788, the latter by Charles Lezermes, an assistant in the nurseries of the King of France.[24] The Moravian minister and botanist Samuel Kramsch (1758–1824) claimed that several of his botanical colleagues, including Jacob van Vleck (1751–1831) and Christian Frederick Kampf (1708–1808), each owned a copy of Marshall’s Arbustum, and that he used it as a textbook during the years 1786 to 1788 while a teacher at Nazareth Hall, where his young pupils included the future botanists Lewis David von Schweinitz (1780–1834) and Christian Frederick Denke (1775–1838) (view text).[25]

In addition to contributing to knowledge of American flora, Marshall intended Arbustum Americanum to serve as a commercial catalogue. With an eye to overseas customers, he noted in his introduction: “The foreigner, curious in American collections, will be hereby better enabled to make a selection suitable to his own particular fancy.” The book concluded with a full-page advertisement offering Marshall’s “BOXES of SEEDS, and growing PLANTS, of the FOREST TREES, FLOWERING SHRUBS, &c. of the American United States” (view text). Marshall gave copies of the Arbustum to several men of science, including Benjamin Franklin (view text) and Sir Joseph Banks (view text), and sent copies to foreign businessmen, such as the nursery and seedsman Richard Burnett (fl. 1774–1803) in Richmond, Dublin [26] and the London merchant Charles Eddy.[27]

Marshall’s contributions to American horticulture and botany were recognized during his lifetime by honorary membership in the Philadelphia Society for Promoting Agriculture (1785) and election to the American Philosophical Society (1786).[28] In 1848 a public park located a few miles from his house in the village of Marshallton was named Marshall Square Park in his honor (view text).[29] In 1913 the Chester County Historical Society held a program of “Exercises in Memory of Humphry Marshall and William Darlington” in the “beautful grove which his [Marshall’s] hands planted.” [30] On that occasion a memorial stone was erected in front of the main entrance to the property, with an inscription reading in part, The Home and Arboretum of Humphry Marshall, Early American Botanist.[31]

Robyn Asleson


Texts

  • Millikan, William, June 10, 1765, letter from New Marlborough, NC, to Humphry Marshall (Ridlon 1907: 636)[32]
“As to the pine Cones if any Comes to Perfection I shall I believe take Care to send some Or buy Other Seed or plant that I Can procure. As to the Carolina pines I remain at a Loss about it yet,—there is a flower that Resembles the Garding pink but I am Doubtfull Whether it is the Right.” back up to History


  • Fothergill, John, March 2, 1767, in London, letter to Humphry Marshall (Darlington 1849: 495)[33]
“I received thy kind letter, as well as the box of seeds, and the duplicate it contained. I think myself much indebted to thee, and shall endeavour, as occasions may offer, to show that I am not insensible of thy kindness, nor ungrateful. I knew not whether anything would be more acceptable to a botanist, than [Philip] MILLER’S Gardeners Dictionary, which I hope thou will receive with this; and if thou art possessed of one before, dispose of it, and accept the produce as an acknowledgment for thy kindness.
“As it may suit thy other concerns, I should be glad if thou would proceed to collect the seeds of other American shrubs and plants, as they fall in thy way; and if thou meets with any curious plant or shrub, transplant it at a proper time into thy garden, let it grow there a year or two; it may then be taken up in autumn, its roots wrapped in a little moss, and laid in a coarse box, just made close enough to keep out mice, but not to exclude the air.
“If thou knows of any plant possessed of particular virtues, and that is known by experience to be useful in the cure of diseases, this I should be glad to have in particular, both the parts used, and seeds of the same.”


  • Fothergill, John, May 18, 1767, in London, letter to Humphry Marshall (Darlington 1849: 497)[34]
“Thou will see by the inclosed, that it was wrote a considerable time ago, to acknowledge the favour of thy collection of seeds. I was at that time prevented from sending it, and the more discouraged, as I could not get MILLER’S Gardener’s Dictionary, which is still out of print. I have sent, however, an abridgment of this work, not long since published, which I hope will prove acceptable; though this is not intended as a compensation for thy trouble, but merely as an acknowledgment.
“If thou will continue thy farther care in collecting American seeds, and inform me in what manner I can, with most advantage to thyself, compensate thy care and labour, it will be an additional satisfaction.”


  • Fothergill, John, October 29, 1768, in London, letter to Humphry Marshall (Darlington 1849: 497–98)[34]
“I am greatly obliged to thee for several parcels of curious seeds, birds, and insects. I. . . have been searching, in vain, for. . . the list of books thou mentioned as being acceptable to thee.
“I have sent by our friend, John Hunt, who is returning to Pennsylvania, a small pocket-glass for viewing flowers, and ten guineas in consideration of thy time and trouble, in collecting these things for me. . . .
“As it may fall in thy way, I should be glad thou would continue thy care in collecting for me such seeds and plants as I have not hitherto received from thee; and I think it would be worth while to sow a part of all the seeds thou gathers, in thy own garden, or some little convenient spot provided for the purpose. There are many curious seeds that lose the property of vegetation by a sea-voyage. The plants thus raised by seed at home, might be removed from the bed they were sown on, the second autumn, or spring following, into boxes of earth, and sent to us in the spring, so as to arrive here in the third or fourth month, and would then succeed very well.
“I doubt not but many of our gardeners would be glad to purchase such boxes, containing assortments of new and curious plants, at a considerable price, and sufficient to pay for the care and pains in raising them.
“There is a curious water plant, the Colocasia, that grows in some deep waters in the Jerseys, perhaps in your province likewise. . . I should be glad thou would endeavour to send some both ways [wrapped in moss and put in tub of mud]; and the ripe seeds likewise, put into a wide-mouthed bottle filled with mud, and covered over with leather.
“There is a kind of Dogwood, whose calyx is its greatest beauty; it chiefly grows in Virginia, whether with you I know not. I want a few plants of it.” back up to History


  • Fothergill, John, January 25, 1769, in London, letter to Humphry Marshall (Darlington 1849: 499–500)[35]
“Before this time I hope thou hast received a pretty long letter by our friend JOHN HUNT, to whose care I also committed ten guineas, and a small glass for viewing the flowers of plants.
“I have just received thy last collection of seeds, and the box of plants that accompanied it; both were very acceptable, and the plants came in as good condition as possible.
“By this opportunity I have sent two glasses of the value thou desires; and if these are not satisfactory, either in size or shape, please to dispose of them, and give me proper dimensions, and I will take care that they shall be sent. In respect to the seeds and plants to be sent in future, please to keep this general order in view, viz.: To send me any new plant that occurs to thee, that thou hast not sent to me before; and of the more curious flowering plants or shrubs, I shall always be glad to receive duplicates of the plants, when occasion offers. The Magnolias, Kalmias, Rhododendrons, &c, are always acceptable. . .
“Please to remember to raise a few of all the curious plants whose seeds occur to thee, and send here, and some of the seeds likewise, together with any account thou can collect of their real virtues and uses.
“I believe JOHN BARTRAM’S son had directions from me, through our late friend, P. COLLINSON, to make me a collection of drawings, together with an account of all your land Tortoises. If, therefore, anything upon this subject occurs to thee, or thou meets with any new kind, please to send them to him.
“It is very admirable that you abound with many plants, many animals, altogether unknown in other parts of the globe, not dissimilar in temperature. Golden rods, Asters, Lychnoideas, Sunflowers, you have more than all the world besides. Tortoises, I think, likewise, and some other animals, are peculiarly abundant with you.”


  • Fothergill, John, March 15, 1770, in London, letter to Humphry Marshall (Darlington 1849: 501–2)[36]
“Dr. FRANKLIN will send all the instruments thou requests, for which I shall pay him, cheerfully. Some of the books thou desires are, at present, out of print; but I shall get and send the rest as soon as I can. . .
“I doubt not but you have many curious herbaceous plants yet unnoticed: struck with the greater objects of shrubs and trees, these humbler ones have been overlooked. Get a complete collection of these into some corner of thy garden, and send us a few roots, as thou art able to propagate them. There are few trees in your parts, and not many shrubs, which we have not in our gardens. We have many herbaceous plants, likewise; but I dare say, a very small number of those that are natives of your parts of America. Look carefully after some Ferns for me; as also bulbous plants, as they flower early, for the most part: and all sweet-scented or showy flowers, or such as are of known efficacy in the cure of some diseases.
“Thy account of the long-lived Tortoise is very agreeable; and I am much obliged to thy correspondent, BARTRAM, for some curious drawings. He has a very good hand; and I shall be glad to receive from him all his works, and satisfy him for his trouble, when he informs me how much I am indebted to him.”


  • Franklin, Benjamin, March 18, 1770, in London, letter to Humphry Marshall (1973: 17:110)[37]
“Immediately on the Receipt of your Letter, I ordered a Reflecting Telescope for you which was made accordingly. Dr. Fothergill had since desired me to add a Microscope and Thermometer, and will pay for the whole. . .
“I thank you for the Seeds, with which I have oblig’d some curious Friends.”


  • Fothergill, John, February 11, 1771, in London, letter to Humphry Marshall (Darlington 1849: 504)[38]
“As I have now got most of the common American plants in plenty, I would not give thee the trouble of sending more seeds or plants, of the kinds I have received from thee, except such as I may hereafter desire to make up for my defects. Any new kinds, either plants or seeds, will be very acceptable.”


  • Franklin, Benjamin, April 22, 1771, in London, letter to Humphry Marshall (1974: 18:82)[39]
“I am much obliged by your kind present of curious seeds. They were welcome gifts to some of my friends.”


  • Fothergill, John, April 23, 1771, in London, letter to Humphry Marshall (Darlington 1849: 505–6)[40]
“In the insect box I have put up a little tract, tending to show in what manner plants may be best conveyed to Europe, and insects collected. There is, likewise, a small Botanical Dictionary, and an introduction to a translation of some of LINNAEUS’S works, which I thought would not be wholly useless to thee, or unacceptable.
“If thou wants any further helps, that I can give thee, let me know, and I shall supply them as far as I can.
“I am not yet in possession of a living root of your great Water Lily, or Colocasia. I could wish to have a large one taken up in autumn, well wrapped up in moss, and sent as early as may be convenient, or else soon in the spring. . . .
“I am now in possession of the common North American plants; but there are new discoveries made every day. Early spring flowers of any kind, or plants or shrubs that are either useful or curious in their appearance, will be acceptable; and I shall not value the things I receive merely by their quantity, but their worth, when viewed in the light I have described. A curious Fern is as acceptable to me as the most showy plant. . . .
“I am economist enough to save the covers of my letters, instead of throwing them into the fire. I give them to my gardener to wrap his seeds in; some of them I have thrust into the empty box, for the like purpose.
“If I should omit sending thee the future translations of LINNAEUS’S work, put me in mind of it.”


  • Marshall, Humphry, November 27, 1771, letter to Benjamin Franklin (1974: 18:255–56)[39]
“I have also Sent thee a small Box of Seeds that I had Left after packing a few for Dr. Fothergill but I was in So much hast that I omitted Drawing a list of them. They are Chiefly Lapt up in paper and the Name wrote on With my pencil. My Book of observation on the Sun is Like Wise in the Box. And as thou Signifies it Would be some Pleasure to thee to Serve me in Some Small matters I Should take it kind of thee and as a favour if itt Should lay in thy Way to promote a corrispon[dence] between me and Some of the Seeds men or Nursery men in and about London or any Country Gentlemen that is Curious in Making Collections of our American Vegetables or Simples as I am Pretty Well acquainted With the most Sorts that Grows in our Parts of the Country having been in the practice of Collecting a few Seeds for this many years for my Cousin John Bartram, and Within this four or five Years have Sent Some Boxes of plants and Seeds to Dr. Fothergill; I think I Could afford to Collect Boxes of Young plants of the most of our Common trees and Shrubs as Well as Seeds at a little Lower rate than they are Commonly Done for, if thou Should meet With any Such Gentlemen that Should have a mind to try me for a season or two, and they Would Please to Send their orders, I Should Endeavour to Comply With them.
“Be Pleased to favour me So much after thou hast opened and perused My book of observations to present them to the royall Society in My Name.” back up to History


  • Parke, Thomas, July 5, 1772, in London, letter to Humphry Marshall (Darlington 1849: 525)[41]
“I have taken some pains to oblige thee, in endeavouring to recommend thee to some seedsmen, &c., in England; but fear I have had but poor success, as yet. I shall, however, continue to make inquiry, and if any should choose to employ thee, I shall immediately acquaint thee.” back up to History


  • Fothergill, John, November 1772, letter from Cheshire to Humphry Marshall (Darlington 1849: 508–10)[42]
“We save all the earth, and even the moss, from America, throw it upon some vacant border, and cover it with a little earth, that even if a few casual seeds should be in it, we may save them.
“Our spring was late and unfriendly to plants, so that many were but just showing themselves above ground when I came away (about two months ago); but my gardener writes to me, that they are in a very prosperous condition, and some never seen in England before. Under a north wall, I have a good border, made up of that kind of rich black turf-like soil, mixed with some sand, in which I find most part of the American plants thrive best. . . It is acknowledged by the ablest botanists we have, that there is not a richer bit of ground, in curious American plants, in Great Britain: and for many of the most curious, I am obliged to thy diligence and care. . . I have an Umbrella Tree, above twenty feet high, that flowers with me abundantly, every spring. The small Magnolia, likewise, flowers with me finely. I have a little wilderness, which, when I bought the premises, was full of old Yew trees, Laurels, and weeds. I had it cleared, well dug, and took up many trees, but left others standing for shelter. Among these I have planted Kalmias, Azaleas, all the Magnolias, and most other hardy American shrubs. It is not quite eight years since I made a beginning; so that my plants must be considered but as young ones. . .
“Amongst the rest of the plants, which thou had sent me, was the Claytonia, of which there is not, I believe, another plant in England: a new species of Serapion; and a most curious Adianrum. Other things will show themselves, I doubt not, to both our satisfaction. . .
“If the ships are not all sailed for your port, I propose to send some books by them, which I hope may prove acceptable. And in the mean time, I shall be glad thou may now and then be picking up one little addition or another, to the stock of plants thou hast already furnished me with.
“The Tetragonotheca, a native of your Province, but known chiefly, I believe, to John Bartram, is no longer in England. I write to him by this opportunity, to request a root or two, if he can procure them, or a few seeds. If they fall in thy way, please to add them to the rest. I had a plant of the great American Nymphaea [Nelumbium], from W. YOUNG. It put out leaves, and the appearance of a flower; but did not flourish. I should be glad of another root, if it could be easily obtained. . .
“I know not whether J. BARTRAM or any of his family continue to send over boxes of seeds as usual. He collected them with much care, and they mostly gave satisfaction. W. YOUNG has been very diligent, but has glutted the market with many common things; as the Tulip trees, Robinias, and the like. But, contrary to my opinion, he put them into the hands of a person who, to make the most of them, bought up, I am told, all the old American seeds that were in the hands of the seedsmen here, and mixed them with a few of W. YOUNG’S, to increase the quantity. Being old and effete, they did not come up; and have thereby injured his reputation. I am sorry for him; have endeavoured to help him; but he is not discreet.” back up to History


  • Fothergill, John, February 6, 1773, in London, letter to Humphry Marshall (Darlington 1849: 510–11)[42]
“I must desire thee still to proceed in thy vegetable researches, as it falls in thy way. . . Bulbous roots of all kinds are easily conveyed. The Orchis, likewise, may be easily sent. . . Don't forget the Fern tribe. This is a very pleasing part of the creation.
“I have sent the second part of LINNNAEUS and shall not omit the rest, as they are published. I have also sent a few numbers (all that are yet published), of a very useful work for young botanists, now carrying on here. There are three plates to each plant, and one sheet of description. The coloured plates make the price high; and the whole, when finished, will come to upwards of 15 guineas. These will not be half the money; and in respect to use, are as valuable as the whole. I shall continue to send them to thee, as they come out, which is very slowly. . . .
“We have got the true Tea Plant, at length, in England. We are endeavouring to propagate it, and hope we shall succeed, not to as to raise it as a commodity, but merely, in this country, as a curious article. It would thrive in Virginia and Maryland extremely well. I propose to send thee a pretty good account of it, wrote by an acquaintance of mine.”


  • Franklin, Benjamin, February 14, 1773, letter to Benjamin Marshall (1976: 20:71)[43]
“I received the box of seeds you were so good as to send me, the beginning of last year, with your Observations on the Spots of the Sun. The seeds I distributed among some of my friends who are curious: please to accept my thankful acknowledgments for them. . .
“As to procuring you a Correspondence with some ingenious Gentelman here, who is curious, which you desire, I find many who like to have a few Seeds given them, but do not desire large Quantities, most considerable Gardens being now supply’d like Dr. Fothergill’s, with what they chuse to have; and there being Nursery-men now here, who furnish what Particulars are wanted, without the Trouble of a foreign Correspondence and the Vexations at the Customhouse.” back up to History


  • Fothergill, John, June 28, 1774, in London, letter to Humphry Marshall (Darlington 1849: 512)[44]
“I. . . am obliged to thee for thy kind intention of looking out for a few more plants for me.
“I hope the glasses came safe, and were agreeable to thy orders. I intended them as a compensation for thy endeavours to serve me, and shall readily do what further thou may think needful, as an equivalent. I have sent two more numbers of MILLER’s botanical work; and a treatise on Coffee, with an excellent coloured plate. Nothing more of LINNAEUS’S is yet translated; when it is, I shall not fail to send it.
“I shall hope to receive, by the autumn ships, some little addition to my garden, as it may occasionally fall in thy way. I have most of your usual plants; but there are divers still unnoticed. I hope I have a plant of your large Nymphaea; but, for all that, I should be exceedingly glad to have another. If seeds are sent, be kind enough to crack the shells of some of them before they are put into the mud they should be sent in. I find the shells are so hard, that they will not give way to the embryo plant without this aid, at least in this country.
“Look carefully after your Ferns. You have a great variety. I have more American Ferns than most of my acquaintance; but I know you must have more, and various Polypodies, likewise. I am reckoned to have the best collection of North American Plants of any private person in the neighbourhood. I am obliged to thee for many of them.”


  • Fothergill, John, August 23, 1775, letter from Cheshire to Humphry Marshall (Darlington 1849: 513–15)[45]
“I am much obliged to thee for several very kind letters, and a box of plants, amongst which are some new Ferns, and a few other rare plants. For these, and many others, I am still in thy debt, but, at present, without any opportunity of repaying thee. . .
“At present, I cannot expect anything, as all intercourse between America and Britain will be cut off, and I am afraid for a long time. Be attentive, however, to increase thy collection at home, by putting every rare plant thou meets with in a little garden, and as much like their natural situation, as to shade, dryness or moisture, as possible. For instance, most of the Ferns like shade and moisture; these may be planted on some north border, where the sun shines but little except in the morning; and so of the rest.
“My garden is about five miles from London, warm and sheltered, rather moist than dry; and I have the satisfaction of seeing all North American plants prosper amazingly. There are few gardens in the neighbourhood of London, Kew excepted, that can show either so large or so healthy a collection. . .
“Many of thy plants are there in good perfection. . .
“The instruments are all sent by Dr. Franklin.”


  • Bond, Thomas, 1779, in Philadelphia, PA, letter to Humphry Marshall (Belden 1965: 122)[46]
“Knowing you to be a lover of useful knowledge and acquisitions, I take this opportunity. . . to let you know Mons. Gerard, the French minister, is a gentleman of the same turn. . . It is in his power—it is his wish, to improve the useful productions of his new world. He wants our curiosities and novelties; we want his valuable collections from all other parts of the world. This is, therefore, to request you would come forth with me, to make an offer of mutual good offices; and to furnish me with a list of such seeds, vegetables, plants, trees, etc. as this country wants, and what we could give him.” back up to History


  • Bond, Thomas, November 3, 1779, letter to Humphry Marshall (Darlington 1849: 537)[47]
“I received your botanic collection for our friend [the French Minister] Mr. GERARD, which I am certain, from the list, will be a very agreeable present to a man who will not only prize them duly, but will show a grateful acknowledgment for them. They shall be sent to him in your name, with great care, by the first opportunity.” back up to History


  • Bond, Thomas, October 26, 1780, letter to Humphry Marshall (Darlington 1849: 538)[48]
“Mr. MARBOIS, has apply’d to me in behalf of the Marshal NOAILLES, and the Royal Garden at Paris, to enter into a commerce of exchange of such trees, plants, &c., as would be a mutual advantage and improvement, in the natural productions of Europe and America.
“They do not desire botanical curiosities; but such things only as would enrich France,—such as Pines, Oaks, Hickories, Poplars, Persimmons, Magnolias, &c., and wish to have a parcel of the nuts sent as soon as possible—for planting next spring.”


  • Bond, Thomas, November 20, 1780, in Philadelphia, PA, letter to Humphry Marshall (Darlington 1849: 538–39)[48]
“Your two letters and botanic collection came safe to hand; but not being at home, I missed a wished-for opportunity of. . . sending the list of seeds which our new correspondents Desire to have sent them. . . I think it would be best for you to come up yourself, and hear what Proposals the Minister of France and Mr. MARBOIS have further to make; the catalogue being very large, and will give you much trouble to collect.
“I perceive by your last letter, 'tis your inclination to send this box to our former friend, Mr. GERARD, on the generous plan of reciprocal correspondency. This I highly approve, and shall ship it this week; and make no doubt he will make a very useful exchange for us and the public.”


  • Bond, Thomas, December 2, 1780, in Philadelphia, PA, letter to Humphry Marshall (Darlington 1849: 539)[48]
“I received last night your letter and box, which I shall inform the Chevalier of, and know his pleasure about it. The collection, though small, is valuable and curious. I wish to keep up a correspondency in Europe, on a small scale, and solely with a view of furnishing each country, reciprocally, with such things as may be useful. This I hope you will enable me to do. As the other is a very large affair, and will cost you much trouble, you ought to be well paid for it. I had not time to translate the direction, about the manner of preserving the seeds: you must, therefore—when you have perused it—send it again; or rather bring it and I will introduce you to the Minister.”


  • Bond, Thomas, March 16, 1781, in Philadelphia, PA, letter to Humphry Marshall (Darlington 1849: 539)[48]
“Mr. GERARD . . . desires we would continue our correspondency. He sent us two boxes of curious seeds. . . Another may be expected every day. Mr. WHARTON tells me, the King of France examined every article of our collection, and was extremely pleased with it. This is a very respectful and may be a very useful correspondency. Let us support it with the patriotic spirit it deserves. I have a prospect of adding to it greatly, via Pittsburg.” back up to History


  • Lettsom, John Coakley, c. March 1781, letter to Humphry Marshall (Darlington 1849: 541)[49]
“I received thy letters dated the 19th and 29th of October, and November 10th, with some shrubs, and afterwards various seeds.
“I think full half the shrubs are now in a thriving state, and many of the seeds are above ground. For these last I am still indebted to thee five guineas.
“I have sent thee some books, &c, which I hope will arrive safe, and meet with thy free acceptance.”


  • Bond, Thomas, July 12, 1781, in Philadelphia, PA, letter to Humphry Marshall (Darlington 1849: 540)[50]
“There lately arrived here, after a series of misfortunes, a young Swede gentleman, by name of GUSTAVUS FREDERIC HILLMAN, a regular bred physician, a good naturalist and botanist, and was bred under LINNAEUS. He appears to me to be a man worthy and learned, and may be of great use in this country, in many respects. I think he might be of service to your neighbours, as a physician, and to you, in your botanic collections. As you have a large house and small family, if it was not inconvenient to you to let him have lodgings with you, for a short time. . . If he has not a favourable answer from you soon, he will be obliged to re-embark for Europe.”


  • Bond, Thomas, August 24, 1781, in Philadelphia, PA, letter to Humphry Marshall (Darlington 1849: 540–41)[50]
“I find a letter I wrote you, some time since, concerning Mr. HILLMAN, was not come to hand. He is since engaged in the Pennsylvania Hospital.
“Several of the botanic plants GERARD sent, have grown, but the greater part failed. There is one very fine plant of the Jalap. The Gentian did not grow. The garden seeds mostly grew; some of them are an acquisition. I wrote to Mr. MARTIN, about the seeds you mentioned, but have not received an answer. . .
“I think it will be best to make another collection for our friend GERARD. I will write to him for more seeds, to be put up more carefully.”


  • Parke, Thomas, September 5, 1782, in Philadelphia, PA, letter to Humphry Marshall (Darlington 1849: 528)[51]
“The bearer, WILLIAM HAMILTON, Esq., intending to pass through part of Chester County, is desirous of being introduced to my friend MARSHALL’S acquaintance. His knowledge of Botany and Natural History—his taste for cultivating the many curious productions of America, united to his very amiable character—will, I am confident, gain him a welcome reception at Bradford.”


  • Fontana, Abbé Felice, 1783, letter forwarded by George Logan to Humphry Marshall (Darlington 1849: 550–51)[52]
“We wish to be informed if we can be supplied with any of the natural productions of America, either by barter for the productions of Italy, or at a moderate price.
“Quadrupeds, birds, insects, worms or serpents, . . . minerals, seeds, and plants,—particularly that plant called Dionoea muscipula, which is found in low marshy places in South Carolina. For such articles we shall be willing to pay the customary price, or return the value of them in such plants as we are in possession of; a catalogue of which we now send you.
“If any gentlemen of the Philosophical Society of Philadelphia are willing to enter on such a friendly intercourse with the Royal Museum of the Grand Duke, they will please address their letters to Monsieur L'Abbé FONTANA, à Florence.”


  • Fontana, Abbé Felice, January 16, 1784, in Pisa, Italy, letter to Humphry Marshall (Darlington 1849: 552)[53]
“It is with a great pleasure that I have received. . . your letters, and the two boxes of American plants, which you was so good to forward to us; which came almost all alive, and hope they will thrive well in our country. . . I am not in Florence now; and consequently it is not in my power to send you anything, except few seeds that I shall endeavour to get from the garden of the University, reserving to me self the pleasur to send you something more by the first occasion.” back up to History


  • Lettsom, John Coakley, February 28, 1784, in London, letter to Humphry Marshall (Darlington 1849: 542–43)[54]
“Thy very obliging letter, with the present of the seeds, came safe, for which I return many thanks.
“I have wrote to Dr. [Thomas] PARKE by this opportunity, and desired him in my name, to make some compensation for thy trouble for the same, and for such as thou choose to send me by the subsequent opportunities.
“I have not yet introduced many exotics into my grounds. I have a few Magnolias, Kalmias, and Evergreen Oaks; but, as I have devoted a large space of ground for American shrubs and trees, duplicates will not be disagreeable to me. Seeds I shall take the best care of; but shrubs, and trees growing, fruit-trees, and any others, will be full as acceptable as seeds, where they can be sent but both shall receive a hospitable reception at my villa of Grove Hill.
“The major part of Dr. Fothergill’s hot and green house plants I purchased; but I had no Americans, which were in general in his ground; and this leaves me more open to receive duplicates. I should wish to have some little information respecting soil and growth, though ever so short.” back up to History


  • Marshall, Moses, June 27, 1784, in Bedford, letter to Humphry Marshall, (Darlington 1849: 553)[55]
“These four days past, we have been amongst the Pine Mountains, where we have seen plenty of the Cucumber Trees, Rhododendrons, and Mountain Raspberry [Rubus odoratus, L.]: and yesterday, about Juniata, we found broad, willow-leaved Oak [Quercus imbricaria, Mx.?], and red-berried Elder.
“In coming along, I have seen many strange plants; but may be chiefly varieties of what we have already. However, I shall gather what seed I can, of any such, or bring the plants.”


  • Vaughan, Samuel, April 13, 1785, in Philadelphia, PA, letter to Humphry Marshall (USDA History Collection)[56]
“I want to send to England a box of plants & seeds as complete as may be. . . I have further an order for some particular plants which I have mislaid, shd. I find it shall wish to know from you where I can send it so as to come quickest to you. If convenient shd. like to receive a list of such things as you wd. propose putting up in [illeg.] as also a note of the probable cost. I shall have frequent orders.
“I find a mem[orandu]:m. mentioning Cardinal, Blue Scarlet.”


  • Parke, Thomas, April 27, 1785, in Philadelphia, PA, letter to Humphry Marshall (Darlington 1849: 529)[57]
W. HAMILTON has sent a number of curious flowering shrubs and fruit trees, to be transplanted at his seat on the Schuylkill; and his gardener informs me, the most of them are healthy, and appear likely to live.
“I have lately received a letter from my friend, Robert Barclay, dated in December last, wherein he requests I would apply to thee to send him a collection of seeds of such herbaceous plants as were in thy list of the year 1783. He adds, if they could be sent in March, by some safe conveyance, he should be glad to have them forwarded; but, as his letter did not reach me in time, I expect it will not do to forward them before next fall. However, I leave it to thy better judgment,—and request thee to collect the seeds, and send them when thee thinks the season will be most favourable.”


  • Vaughan, Samuel, April 30, 1785, in Philadelphia, PA, letter to Humphry Marshall (USDA History Collection)[58]
“The day after your departure I laid your Botanical Catalogue before the Society for promoting Agriculture & on friday, before the Philosophical Society, they each were sensible of the merit & utility of the work & wished it might be published, but the present state of their finances, did not authorise them to undertake the publication. . .
“As the work will give much original Botanical Information of the new World, be of public utility, also reputable & serviceable to you, by collecting for the curious I am very anxious for its immediate publication, therefore would venture in behalf of my friends here and in Europe to subscribe for 50 or 60 copies & also use my interest for procuring other subscrips.” back up to History


  • Vaughan, Samuel, May 14, 1785, in Philadelphia, PA, letter to Humphry Marshall (USDA History Collection)[59]
“Conformable to your letter of 5 Ins[tant]. I sent an advertisement to the papers & hope it will have the deserved effect, but if not, as I think it calculated to promote Botanical knowledge, hitherto but little attended to in the new world, it shall not want the necessary assistance to carry it on, but this keep to yourself, as it might, if known, injure the subscription. I can by no means approve of its being published in England, as I wish America to have the whole merit & it will be sooner accomplished. . . .
“I am now planting trees & shrubs in the state house square, & as I wish to collect there a specimen of every sort in America that will grow in this state, I wish to have your advice & assistance, as soon as convenient.” back up to History


  • Vaughan, Samuel, May 28, 1785, in Philadephia, PA, letter to Humphry Marshall (USDA History Collection)[60]
“As it is my wish to plant in the State-house square specimens of every tree & shrub that grows in the several states on this Continent that will thrive here, I have Inclosed a sketch of such as I have been able to procure since the 7th. of last month, with a list of such others as have occurred to me hitherto, but as I am unacquainted with the vast variety remaining & that you have have turned your thoughts in that line, I have to request & shall be much obliged to you for a list of such as occur to you, with directions in what state or place they are to be had; that I may lay out to procure them to plant in the fall.
“Planted in the State-house square. . .” [List of 86 plant varieties follows]


  • Marshall, Humphry, October 4, 1785, in West Bradford, PA, letter to John Coakley Lettsom (Darlington 1849: 543–44)[61]
“I must acknowledge myself much obliged to thee, for getting my thermometer repaired, and sending me the several books thou hast. But, instead of LINNAEUS’S Genera Plantarum, translated into English by COLIN MILNE, thou hast sent the Lichfield publication, which I had sent me before by my friend BARCLAY. . .
“The box is filled up with some other articles, as per catalogue inclosed, being a few seeds, nuts, &c, not dried much—which, if they don't mould, will come over in perfection; and if they do, they may vegetate, perhaps, better than if dried.”


  • Marshall, Humphry, 1785, Advertisement published in Arbustrum Americanum(1785: viii–ix, 170)[62]
“In this my Countrymen are presented at one view with a concise description of their own native Forest Trees and Shrubs, as far as hitherto discovered. And those whose fancy may lead to this delightful science, may by a little application, from hence be enabled scientifically to examine and arrange, not only those of the shrubby, but the several and various species of the herbaceous class. The foreigner, curious in American collections, will be hereby better enabled to make a selection suitable to his own particular fancy. If he wishes to cultivate timber for oeconomical purposes, he is here informed of our valuable Forest Trees: if for adorning his plantation or garden of our different ornamenting flowering shrubs.
“ADVERTISEMENT.
“BOXES of SEEDS, and growing PLANTS, of the FOREST TREES, FLOWERING SHRUBS, &c. of the American United States; are made up in the best manner and at a reasonable rate by the Author. All Orders in this line, directed for Humphry Marshall, of Chester County, Pennsylvania; to the Care of Dr. THOMAS PARKE, in Philadelphia, will be carefully and punctually attended to.” back up to History


  • Marshall, Humphry, December 5, 1785, letter to Benjamin Franklin (Darlington 1849: 522–23)[63]
“I had it in contemplation to mention to thee for thy approbation, or sentiments thereon, a proposal that I had made, last winter, to my cousin, WM. BARTRAM, and nephew, Dr. MOSES MARSHALL, of taking a tour, mostly through the western parts of our United States, in order to make observations, &c, upon the Natural productions of those regions; with a variety of which, hitherto unnoticed, or but imperfectly described, we have reason to believe they abound; which, on consideration, they at that time seemed willing to undertake, and I conceive would be so still, provided they should meet with proper encouragement and support for such a journey; which they judge would be attended with considerable expense, for the transportation of their collections, &c, and for their subsistence during a period of fifteen or eighteen months, or more, which would at least be necessary for the completion of the numerous observations, and objects they would have to make remarks on, and collect. Should such proposals be properly encouraged, I apprehend they would engage to set out early in the spring, and throughout their journey make diligent search and strict observation upon everything within the province of a naturalist; but more especially upon Botany, for the exercise of which there appears, in such a journey, a most extensive field; for, from accounts of our western territories, they are said to abound with varieties of strange trees, shrubs, and plants, no doubt applicable to many valuable purposes in arts or manufactures, and to be replete with various species of earths, stones, salts, inflammable minerals, and metals (the many uses of obtaining a knowledge of which is sufficiently obvious); remarks, experiments, &c, upon every of which they propose making; as also to make collections, and preserve specimens, of everything that may enrich useful science, or amuse the curious naturalist; to the conducement of which, they would willingly receive and observe any reasonable instructions that might facilitate their discoveries, or direct their researches.
“I have taken the freedom to mention these proposals to thee knowing that thou was always ready and willing to promote any useful knowledge and science, for the use of mankind; and if, on consideration of the premises, thou should approve thereof, thou may communicate them to the members of the Philosophical Society, or any other set of gentlemen, that would be willing or likely to encourage such an undertaking. Perhaps Congress, or some of the members, might promote their going out with the surveyors, when they lay out the several new states.
“I have ordered my nephew, the Doctor, to present thee with one of my Catalogues of the Forest Trees of our Thirteen United States; which I hope thou'll accept of, for thy perusal.” back up to History


  • Dickinson, Mary, June 12, 1786, in Wilmington, letter to Humphry Marshall (Darlington 1849: 566)[64]
“A relation of mine in England, who is wife to David Barclay, has requested me to send her some seeds of the most curious natural productions of America. I thought I would take the freedom to ask thy assistance, knowing how very curious thee is in this way.”


  • Parke, Thomas, June 18, 1786, in Philadelphia, PA, letter to Humphry Marshall (Darlington 1849: 529)[65]
“A young gentleman being about to sail for London, from whence he intends to go to Edinburgh to finish his medical education, is desirous of taking a box of seeds of the most curious flowering shrubs, &c., to present to the Professor of Botany in that University. . . He is willing to pay £5 for the collection, and expects to have a sample of the most curious, particularly of the Franklinia.”


  • Marshall, Humphry, November 14, 1786, in West Bradford, Chester County, PA, letter to Sir Joseph Banks (Darlington 1849: 560–62)[66]
“I received thy favour, dated April the 5th, 1786, in which thou seems desirous of trying an experiment upon the curing the root of Ginseng; for which purpose thou desires that I would procure thee one or two hundred weight of the fresh root. . . which requisition I have endeavoured to comply with, but have not been able to procure for thee more than about one hundred weight of the fresh root, and that at a considerable expense; having to employ a young man, a nephew of mine [Moses Marshall], that lives with me, to travel about two hundred miles to the westward, through a dismal mountainous part of our country. . .
“I expect thou’ll be willing to pay a reasonable compensation, which would be, at least, an English crown a pound, I should apprehend. But, if thou thinks that too much, be pleased to pay what thou thinks would be a compensation, adequate to the trouble and cost the young doctor hath been at; and I hope, if thou, or any of the members of the Royal Society, should see cause to employ him, or me, in future, that we would endeavour to serve you as reasonable as any other persons; and as my nephew is well versed in the knowledge of Botany, and would gladly be employed in researches in that line, or to explore our western regions in search of minerals, fossils, or inflammables, and objects of History, &c., provided he could meet with proper encouragement, I, therefore, make free to mention something of the kind to thee, that if the Royal Society should have a mind to employ any person, on this side the water, for such purposes, he would be willing to serve them.
“I have sent thee one of my pamphlets, entitled the American Grove, and expect thou'll present it to the Royal Society, in my name, if thou thinks it worth their notice and acceptance; as also one for thyself, which I hope will be accepted.
“P.S. If the Ginseng is to plant, as I expect it is, it should be planted in a shady situation, and in a rich black mould, or soil: as I have experienced it will not bear our summer heat, without being shaded,—especially in the middle of the day.
“But your country not being so hot, perhaps it may bear the heat of the sun with you. However, I should advise a shady situation for it, and rich ground. And if any more should be wanted, perhaps it might be procured some small matter reasonabler than this sent, my nephew having found, in his route, where it grows pretty plenty.”


  • Eddy, Charles, July 18, 1787, in London, letter to Humphry Marshall (quoted in Harshberger 1929: 270)[67]
“I have an idea if thy Nephew could spare the time to come to come to this Country even for a very short time he might find a great Advantage in observing which Plants are the most valuable and scarce here—am told that when the Scarlet Azalea was first introduced here a single plant was sold for £40 St[erlin]g. to a nurseryman for propagation. James Phillips informs me that very few of the American Grove are yet disposed of" back up to History


  • Merian, Samuel, August 10, 1787, in Philadelphia, PA, letter to Humphry Marshall (quoted in Harshberger 1929: 270)[67]
“A friend of myne living in the country knowing by the American Grove that you can provide with those shrubs and trees therein described desired me to whrite for the annexed plants.”


  • Wistar, Caspar, October 21, 1787, letter to Humphry and Moses Marshall (Darlington 1849: 568–69)[68]
“With this I send a Treatise on the effects of Foxglove, which I mentioned to friend H. M. when he was last in town. Dr. M. will he pleased to find that he is in possession of a plant of such efficacy, and perhaps will cultivate a greater quantity of it. As the book is in great demand, I wish he would return it by the first opportunity that offers, after he has read it.
“If you have any of the plant to spare, I will be much obliged to you for a few leaves of it, and also a few seeds, with the book, when it is returned.”


  • Banks, Joseph, February 6, 1788, in London, letter to Humphry Marshall (USDA History Collection)[69]
“The Plants of which you have a list. . . being wanted for Kew Garden his Majesties Botanic institution I have at the desire of Mr. Aiton the gardener undertaken to apply to you for them. . . .
“You will contrive to have them ship’d at a reasonable expense & properly take care of their passage as their safe arrival & reasonable price will enable me to recommend you to Custom here.” [List of 28 plants follows]


  • Kramsch, Rev. Samuel, July 2, 1788, in Nazareth, letter to Humphry Marshall (Darlington 1849: 571–73)[70]
“I take the liberty, though not personally acquainted, but highly esteemed by your excellent botanical work styled Arbustum Americanum, or American Grove, to trouble you with a few lines. . .
“I am a German by birth. . . I came to this country in the year 1783, at the latter end of it. I belong to that Society which is called the United Brethren, or, as they call them here, the Moravians. . .
“As I loved the study of Natural History, and especially Botany, from my childhood, I was very happy. . . when my call brought me to North America. The first year, I searched, with great care, the country about Bethlehem, to examine new plants I never saw before. . . I inquired very often if nobody ever undertook to write a botanical work for this country, a Flora Americana, or the like; but I could not learn of any. But, how glad was I, when I first saw your excellent book advertised. My colleagues in that science, viz., Rev. Mr. HUBNER, the Rev. JACOB VAN VLECK, and Dr. KAMPMAN, each of us, we procured us with it.
“I got new feal [zeal?] in Botany, when I came to Nazareth, in searching the country round about. Natural History, and especially Botany, was one of the sciences I should teach here in our boarding-school, or academy; and my young scholars were exceeding glad to see a book in that science also from their native country: and perhaps it is the first place where it is used as a school-book.
“But, dear sir, though I am not a native of these states, but a warm friend to them, and because it is my ardent wish that also Natural History, as other sciences, should become more extensive and flourishing, I beg your pardon that I remember here your promise, given at the introduction to the American Grove. ‘The author would have been happy, could he have given also a descriptive catalogue of our native herbaceous plants. At present, circumstances oblige him to confine himself to forest trees and shrubs; however, he has such a work in contemplation should this meet with the encouragement of the public.’
“ . . . I think it would be necessary to consider once about the plan, that it may become as useful as possible to the public. I would flatter myself, if you would be incited, through these lines, to consider the matter once more. Perhaps you could hear some or other thought, if you would put once something about this point in a public paper, Columbian Magazine, or American Museum; and perhaps by that channel your learned friends in the United States could lend their accounts, hints, or notes, for public use to you.
“Would you do me the favour to inform me where one could get Dr. KALM’S Journeys through N. America, and CLAYTON’S Flora Virginica, it would be greatly obliging to me.” back up to History


  • Lettsom, John Coakley, August 10, 1788, letter to Humphry Marshall (Darlington 1849: 548)[71]
“The plant described by thee, and designed to honour my name, is a species of Polygala, and is, I believe, a new one. . .
“Perhaps thou may send me some plants, at the fall of the leaf; and it is necessary that I should compensate thee; and therefore, I give thee the liberty of drawing upon me for ten pounds sterling.
“I wish a healthy plant of Ginseng could be sent with the plants.”


  • Parke, Thomas, October 10, 1788, in Philadelphia, PA, letter to Humphry Marshall (Darlington 1849: 530)[72]
“I intended to have sent thee a copy of [Thomas] WALTER’S Flora Caroliniana but find one is already thy property, by direction of Doctor LETTSOM.”


  • Marshall, Humphry, November 4, 1788, letter to John Coakley Lettsom (Darlington 1849: 548–49)[73]
“Thine, dated 10th of August, with several books, came safe to hand.
“With this, I send a small box of plants the list of contents inclosed which I hope will not prove unacceptable; though there is little of novelty in the collection to recommend it, except the Azalea, which I believe is yet rare.
“I had discovered my error, with regard to the small plant sent thee last year, and might sooner have done it, had I been careful. However, it has gone but to thyself, except lately, by the name of Polygala, to SIR JOSEPH BANKS.
“The Plumed Andromeda, of BARTRAM, is the Cyrilla. The Franklinia, I believe, is a species of Gordonia.
“I am much pleased with WALTER’S Flora, which appears to be well executed. Every addition to botanical knowledge will always prove acceptable.”


  • Lettsom, John Coakley, February 2, 1789, letter to Humphry Marshall (Darlington 1849: 549)[74]
“I write now to acknowledge the receipt of thy letter of November last, and to add that yesterday the box was safely landed; and, on a cursory inspection, the plants contained seem healthy.
“At the expense of much labour and money, I have brought some fine bog earth on my premises which your countrymen thrive best in; and I hope soon to possess an ample collection of them.
“I am obliged to thee for thy intention of increasing my Americans, as opportunity may offer. [John] FRASER, to whom a few of us in London subscribed an annual sum, has not answered our expectations. His catalogue, enclosed, are the seeds and plants of his own property. His subscribers, at least I—had very few indeed.”


  • Banks, Sir Joseph, May 6, 1789, in London, letter to Humphry Marshall (USDA History Collection)[75]
“Your Box of Plants was received safe & to all appearance in good order. have no doubt that as the spring advances we shall find in it several Plants which will enrich our Botanical knowledge. . . .
“The Franklinia is as you conjecture a species of Gordonia a drawing of that Plant sent here by Mr. Bartram to Mr. Barclay has been compared with specimens; so that no doubt now can remain on that subject.
“Mr. Aiton has desir’d me to request from you a similar Box of Plants by the next fall for his Majesty’s Garden where those of the Last Box are already planted & has given me the under written List of Plants more particularly wanted there. . .” [list of sixteen plants] back up to History


  • Parke, Thomas, May 18, 1789, in Philadelphia, PA, letter to Humphry Marshall (Darlington 1849: 531)[76]
“R. BARCLAY writes me that he is much pleased with the plants received, which, with W. BARTRAM’s drawing of the Franklinia, arrived in good order. The botanists in England will not, however, allow it to be properly named. BARCLAY says he shall want some plants from thee in the fall; and wishes to know whether the Cranberry plant cannot be sent to England, to be propagated.”


  • Parke, Thomas, July 10, 1789, in Philadelphia, PA, letter to Humphry Marshall (USDA History Collection)[75]
“I received a few days ago an open Letter for thee. . . from Descenet at Paris. . . He is very desirous of knowing whether he can depend on having the seeds sent agreeably to his Garden. . .
“I received a Letter from my friend R. Barclay who informs me Aiton the Kings Gardener is about publishing a Catalogue of all the Botanic Collection at Kew—when tis published he promises thee a Copy. RB wishes to have a Box of Cranberry plants as before mentioned.”


  • Kramsch, Rev. Samuel, July 25, 1789, in Salem, NC, letter to Humphry Marshall (Darlington 1849: 573–74)[77]
“I pity you extraordinary that you met with so little encouragement for a description of the herbaceous plants, occasioned by the dull sale of the American Grove. I always think some hints, either in the Columbian Magazine, or the American Museum, should encourage this study.
“The spirit of home-made manufactories is now happily spread abroad. We begin to look upon everything what might be useful for it. We should now also know that treasures we possess in the United States, concerning vegetables. Proposals should be made in that respect, to get a complete catalogue; and afterwards, we should learn and discover all the use of them.
“I botanized hereabouts, as much as time would permit it, and found a great variety of plants between here and my former place. . . As soon as time is over for that purpose, I shall sent you the catalogue of all my plants, which I have found here and in Pennsylvania.”


  • Muhlenberg, Rev. Henry, January 18, 1790, in Lancaster, PA, letter to Humphry Marshall (Darlington 1849: 575–76)[78]
“I would have answered your kind letter, and have returned my thanks sooner for the shrubs and roots you were pleased to send to me, if I had not waited, though in vain, for an opportunity of sending the Viburnum Opulus you wanted. I have been all about, and can find none that are small enough. However, I shall try again, in spring, at some other places, where I formerly have seen some.
“I have made different excursions this year, after I had the pleasure of seeing you here; and have added greatly to my Flora. If I am not mistaken, I found a great number of your spiraea Hypericifolia at the Susquehanna. It blossoms the latter end of July, with a fine yellow flower; but I doubt whether it should not be called Hypericum Kalmianum or prolificum, as the capsule is very different from Spiraea. When the exemplar you sent to me blossoms, I will be better able to judge.
“Your Arbustum has been translated and reprinted in Germany. I have wrote for several exemplars and expect them this year.
“As I know that your nephew has studied physic, I make bold to send him the late edition of Linnaei Materia Medica, and hope the present will be not unacceptable. I have a great many botanical writings, and shall be happy if I can serve you or him in botanical researches, through a loan of them. Pray remember my best respects to him; and tell him how gladly I would embrace an opportunity of a correspondence, which certainly would be an advantage to our botanical studies.
“You were pleased to mention to me, that you had an edition of WALTER’s Flora Caroliniensis. If you could spare that work for a few weeks, and send it to Lancaster for my perusal, I should think myself greatly indebted to you. It should be returned with expedition and undamaged. . . .
“I shall pass by your house, the latter end of May, on my way to Philadelphia; and then hope to see you, your nephew, and your garden. Against that time, I expect to receive a great many of fresh seeds from Germany, of which you shall have whatever may be pleasing.” back up to History


  • Kramsch, Rev. Samuel, February 20, 1790, letter from Salem, NC, to Humphry Marshall (Darlington 1849: 574–75)[79]
“When I wrote my last letter to you, I imagined to make good harvest in the fall, concerning seeds, fruits, and the like; but. . . it was not in my power to bring the list of plants in order, and to copy it for you.
“The scarlet blowing Azalea, I shall hardly find living sixty miles distant from the big mountains. For the Physik nut I will inquire.”


  • Banks, Sir Joseph, April 3, 1790, in London, letter to Humphry Marshall (USDA History Collection)[75]
“The Plants sent by you this year arrived safe & in good condition except that some of the pieces of the root of Violas &c. were so small that I fear we shall not be able to preserve them I should be glad if larger pieces could be sent in future even tho a higher price was charged. . .
“Enclosed is a List for this year the plants of which I should wish to receive in the autumn about the same time as the last came here as that is the best season for sending the list is forwarded Early as some of the Plants may be to be sought for in the Course of the summer.”


  • Parke, Thomas, April 20, 1790, in Philadelphia, PA, letter to Humphry Marshall (Darlington 1849: 531)[80]
“I apply’d to J. B. for the plants thee mentioned. I could not procure the whole number ordered, but, as a great favour, obtained some of each sort, with a few of some he calls a new species, as per his account inclosed.
“Did thee not promise some seeds for Lord SUFFIELD? If a few could be sent him, I think he would be pleased; and as the plants cannot go till the fall, it would manifest an attention to his orders.”


“I was truly sorry that I did not see you when you were last at Philadelphia. I hope, the next time you come down, you will give me a call. If I can tempt you no other way, I promise to show you many plants that you have never yet seen, some of them curious.”


  • Beelen Bertholf, Baron de, October 12, 1791, letter to Humphry Marshall (Gutowski 1988: 33)[82]
“I am very much oblige to you for the maple and lombardy poplar trees, which you sent forward to me by the negro man.”


  • Banks, Sir Joseph, March 2, 1791, in London, letter to Humphry Marshall (USDA History Collection)[75]
“I shall be very glad of specimens when you Collect them especially of new or very Rare Plants with such names as you chuse written upon them as they will serve as interpreters between us. . . .
“The enclosed leaf grows here from your Plants; but as it does not Flower we have no means of Discovering what it is. I shall thank you if you can spare a specimen of it with the Flower to enclose it to me in a Letter or at least let me know what name it is known by.” [List of 33 plants follows]


  • Banks, Sir Joseph, 1792, in London, letter to Humphry Marshall (USDA History Collection)[75]
“You Box arrivd as usual safe & in good condition.
“I shall be obligd to you for the Following sorts next year on the same terms & anything new you chuse to put among them. . . [list of 33 plants follows]
“I am sorry the specimens were in a bad order & so small as I am not able unless they were larger & more carefully dried to ascertain what they have been. The following are all the characters I have been able to make. . . [list of plants follows]
“I heartily wish you success in your undertakings & shall be happy when in my power to recommend you to Custom here be in other manner serviceable to you.”


  • Parke, Thomas, October 9, 1792, in Philadelphia, PA, letter to Humphry Marshall (USDA History Collection)[75]
“I have just now obtained from John Bartram a Box of Plants agreeably to thy request. To make up for some, contained in thy list, I find he has added considerably to the number requested in the Order given him. . .
“The Ships. . . are expected to sail next Seventh day the 13th Inst. by which time I shou’d like to have the Boxes for P. Bond & Thornton.
[Invoice and receipt enclosed with letter] “Box containing growing Roots of curious Trees Shrubs & Herbacious Plants [List of 45 varieties follows]
“1 Case growing Roots of American Trees Shrubs & c.”


  • Banks, Sir Joseph, August 28, 1793, in London, letter to Humphry Marshall (UDSDA History Collection)[75]
“The Baron Itzenplitz who writes to you with this Letter is a particular Friend of mine & has opened a Correspondence with you at my desire you will find him a man of probity in his dealings on whom you may fully depend a Paymaster in whatever he may order from you & I should think it probable if you oblige him that he may have it in his Power to recommend you to much business in Germany.”


  • Parke, Thomas, April 29, 1795, in Philadelphia, PA, letter to Humphry Marshall (Darlington 1849: 531–32)[83]
“Sir JOHN MENZIES wishes to improve his grounds, in Scotland, by mixing such of the American forest trees with the native Pines of Great Britain, as are likely to agree with the soil and climate; and desires a collection of such trees as can be got in Pennsylvania, or rather, that an assortment of seeds may be sent him by the first opportunity. He also wishes a small assortment of apples, pears, and peaches, of the best grafted or inoculated kinds, in trees of two or three years old.”


  • Dickinson, John, October 29, 1796, in Wilmington, letter to Humphry Marshall (Darlington 1849: 566–67)[84]
“Dr. DANIEL BANCROFT having a demand, from Europe, for some samples in Natural History, described in thy book, wishes thy acquaintance.
“I therefore beg leave thus to introduce him; being well assured it will give thee pleasure to pay attention to a gentleman engaged in such pursuits, as well as to serve our native land, by rendering the products, with which it is so eminently blessed, more known in other parts of the world; an office that perhaps may communicate benefits to distant regions, and generations yet unborn.”


  • Dickinson, John, November 1, 1796, letter to Humphry Marshall (Darlington 1849: 567)[84]
“ARCHIBALD HAMILTON ROWAN, for whom I have a particular esteem, has been requested by his excellent wife, from whom he is so unhappily banished, to send her a collection of American seeds; and it will afford me a great deal of pleasure, if I can assist him in making it.
“I understand that the seeds intended are those of flowers and shrubs, but chiefly the latter, with some few seeds of trees.
“If thou or the Doctor will be so kind as to give directions for my being supplied with a collection to the amount of ten or fifteen dollars, it will be regarded as a great favour. . . .
“The collection will be the more valuable, if the properest names are given, and the seasons for planting mentioned.”


[November 23, 1796] “I am much obliged to you for the seeds you were so good as to send me, of the Pavia, and of the Podophyllum or Jeffersonia.
“When you were last here it was so late, and you were of course so much hurried, as to prevent your deriving any satisfaction in viewing my exotics. I hope when you come next to Philadelphia, that you will allot one whole day, at least, for the Woodlands. It will not only give me real pleasure to have your company, but I am persuaded it will afford some amusement to yourself.
“Your nephew [Moses Marshall] did me the favour of calling, the other day; but he, too, was in a hurry, and had little opportunity of satisfying his curiosity. I flatter myself, however, that during his short stay he saw enough to induce him to repeat his visit. The sooner this happens, the more agreeable it will be to me.
“When I was at your house, a year ago, I observed several matters in the gardening way, different from any in my possession. Being desirous to make my collection as general as possible, I beg to know if you have, by layers, or any other mode, sufficiently increased any of the following kinds so as to be able, with convenience, to spare a plant of each of them, viz.:—Ledum palustre, Carolina Rhamnus, Azalea coccinea, Mimosa Intsia, and Laurus Borbonia. Any of them would be agreeable to me; as also would be a plant, or seeds Hippophae Canadensis, Aralia hispida, Spiraea nova from the western country; Tussilago Petasites, Polymnia tetragonotheca, Hydrophyllum Canadense, H. Virginicum, Polygala Senega, P. biflora, Napoea scabra dioica, Talinum, a nondescript Sedum from the west, somewhat like the Telephium, two kinds of a genus supposed, by Dr. MARSHALL, to be between Uvularia and Convallaria [probably the Streptopus, of MICHAUX, which the MARSHALLS proposed to call Bartonia], and Rubia Tinctorum. I should also be obliged to you for a few seeds of your Calycanthus, Spigelia Marilandica, Tormentil from Italy, and two of your Oaks with ovate entire leaves. . .”
[May 3, 1799] “I have not until this time been able to comply with my promise of sending you a Tea Tree.
“. . . I now take the opportunity of forwarding you. . . a very healthy one, as well as several of other kinds, which I believe are not already in your collection; together with a small parcel of seeds. . .
“Should anything else, in my possession, occur to you as a desirable addition to the variety in your garden, I beg you will inform me. You may be assured, whatever it is, if I have two of the kind, you will be welcome to one. Sensible as I am of your kindness and friendship to me, on all occasions, you have a right, and may freely command every service in my power.
“Doctor Parke informs me you were lately in Philadelphia. Had it been convenient to you to call at the Woodlands, I should have had great pleasure in seeing you. I have not heard of Dr. MARSHALL’s having been in this neighbourhood since I was last at Bradford. From the pressing invitation I gave him, I am willing to hope that, in case of his coming to town, he will not forget to give me a call. I beg you will present him with my best respects, and request of him to give me a line of information, as to the Menziesia ferruginea, particularly of its vulgar name, if it has one, where it grows, if he knows the name of any person in its neighbourhood, who is acquainted with it, so, as to direct or show it to any one who may go to look after it.
“I intend, next month, to go to Lancaster; and if convenient to me, when there, to spare my George, I have thoughts of sending him to Redstone, for the Menziesia, and Podophyllum diphiyllum. If Dr. MARSHALL knows of any curious and uncommon plants, growing in the neighbourhood with those I have mentioned, I will be obliged to him to give me any intelligence by which he may suppose they can be found: or, if he knows any person or persons at Redstone, or Fort Pitt, who are curious in plants, of whom any questions on the subject may be asked, he cannot do me a greater service than by giving me their names and place of abode.
“I do not know how your garden may have fared during this truly long and severe winter, which has occasioned the loss of several valuable ones in mine; amongst which are the Wise Briar [probably Schrankia uncinata, Willd.; Mimosa Intsia, Walt.] and Hibiscus speciosus, which I got from you. The plants, also, of Podophyllum diphyllum, which I raised last year, from seeds I received from your kindness, have, I fear, been all destroyed. They have not shown themselves above ground this spring. A tree, too (the only one I had of Juglans Pacane, or Illinois Hickory), which I raised twenty-five years ago from seed, is entirely killed.
“In case you have seeds of the kinds named in the list hereto adjoined, I will thank you exceedingly for a few. Any of them which you have not, at present, I beg you will oblige me with them in the ensuing fall. I am very desirous to know if your Iva, or Hog’s Fennel, from Carolina, produces seeds. In that case, I must entreat you for a few of them.
“You will permit me, also, to remind you of your promise to spare me a plant or two of the White Persimmon, one of Azalea coccinea, and of the sour Calycanthus. If convenient to let me have a plant or two of your Stuartia Malachodendron, and of Magnolia acuminata, you will do me a great favour.
“Anything left for me at the toll-gate, on the middle ferry wharf to the care of Mr. TRUEMAN, who constantly attends there, will reach me the same day that it arrives there. . . .
“I am very desirous to compare a flower of your Stuartia with J. Bartram’s; and will be obliged to you for a good specimen. back up to History


“My first object, after my arrival in America, was to form an acquaintance with all those interested in the study of Botany. . . .
“I next visited the old established gardens of Mr. Marshall, author of a small “Treatise on the Forest-Trees of North America.” This gentleman, though then far advanced in age and deprived of his eye-sight, conducted me personally through his collection of interesting trees and shrubs, pointing out many which were then new to me, which strongly proved his attachment and application to the science in former years, when his vigour of mind and eye-sight were in full power. This establishment, since the death of Mr. Marshall, (which happened a few years ago,) has been, in some respects, kept up by the family but is now very much on the decline, only a few old established trees being left as a memento of what formerly deserved the name of a respectable botanic garden.”


“In the year 1774, the late Humphrey [sic] Marshall established his Botanic Garden, at Marshallton: he applied himself very diligently to the improvement of the place, and to the collection of plants, especially such as were indigenous to the United States. The Garden soon obtained a reputation; and for many years before the death of Mr. Marshall, it had become an object of curiosity to men of science: Mr. Frederick Pursh informs us, that it was the first place of a Botanical character visited by him, after his arrival in America. After the decease of Mr. Humphrey Marshall, in the year 1801, we believe that no improvements were made in the garden, and since the death of Doctor Moses Marshall, in 1813, the Botany of the place seems to have been entirely neglected. But it still exhibits many interesting relics, as pine and fir trees—the willow leaved and English oaks, the Kentucky nickar tree, the buckeye, and several species of magnolia. The trees we have mentioned, with various interesting shrubs and herbaceous plants, which survive the general ruin, are memorials of the interest which was formerly taken in the garden by its venerable founder. . . .
“The science of plants was his favourite study, and before he established his botanic garden, at Marshallton, he had cultivated one on a smaller scale, on the plantation now occupied by Joshua Marshall. In 1785, he published the Arbustum Americanum, or catalogue of American Forest Trees and Shrubs, in which he was assisted by his nephew, the late Doctor Moses Marshall, who was a botanist of considerable merit, and, at the request of his uncle, had travelled through many of the States, in search of American plants.”


“On our return to Germantown I studied all the plants of that locality, describing them all minutely. I went also fishing and hunting, and described the birds, reptiles, fishes, &c. An excursion to Westchester was taken with Col. F. [Forrest] to see MARSHALL’s Botanic garden, and we returned by Norristown. We visited also BARTRAM’S Botanic garden and several other places. . .
“I went to see again Mr. Marshall at Westchester, and visited with him the singular magnesian rocks, where alone grow the Phemeranthus or Talinum teretifolium.”


  • Darlington, William, 1837, Flora Cestrica (1837: 138, 359, 405)[88]
“CAROLINIAN SOLANUM. . . This is a vile, pernicious weed; and extremely difficult to subdue, or eradicate. It is believed to have been introduced by the late Humphrey [sic] Marshall, into his Botanic Garden at Marshallton,—whence it has spread around the neighborhood; and strongly illustrates the necessity of caution, in the introduction of mere Botanical curiosities into good agricultural districts.
“MARRUBIUM-LIKE LEONURUS. . . This foreign has probably escaped from the Botanic Garden of the late HUMPHREY [sic] MARSHALL, and bids fair to become extensively naturalized in the surrounding country.
“M. LUPULINA, L. . . . This is an introduced plant; and not generally naturalized in this County. I am not certain that I have observed it, except in the vicinity of the late Humphrey [sic] Marshall’s Botanic Garden.”


  • Resolution of the Town Council of the Borough of West Chester, PA, March 13, 1848 (Darlington 1849: 492–93)[89]


“Whereas it has been deemed expedient and proper to improve the public Square, on which the upper reservoir connected with the Water-works of the borough is situated, by laying out the same in suitable walks, and introducing various ornamental trees and shrubbery: And whereas it will be convenient and necessary to designate the said Square by some appropriate name; And whereas the late Humphry Marshall of Chester County was one of the earliest and most distinguished horticulturists and botanists of our country, having established the second botanic garden in this republic; and also prepared and published the first treatise on the forest trees and shrubs of the United States, and diffused a taste for botanical science which entitles his memory to the lasting respect of his countrymen:
“Therefore resolved, by the Burgesses and Assistant Burgesses of the Borough of West Chester, in Council assembled, That the public Square, aforesaid, shall for ever hereafter be designated and known by the name of ‘The Marshall Square,’ in commemoration of the exemplary character, and scientific labours, of our distinguished fellow-citizen, the late Humphry Marshall, of West Bradford Township, Chester County.” back up to History


  • Darlington, William, 1849, on Humphry Marshall (1849: 22, 487–88, 490–91)[90]
back up to History
“In 1773, the second botanical garden within the British provinces of North America, was established by Humphry Marshall, in the township of West Bradford, Chester County, Pennsylvania, at the site of the present village of Marshallton. Humphry, however, had been previously indulging his taste, and employing his leisure time in collecting and cultivating useful and ornamental plants at his paternal residence, near the Brandywine. . .
"In 1764, it became expedient to enlarge the dwelling in which he resided with his parents. This addition was built of brick; and the entire work of digging and tempering the clay, making and burning the bricks, and building the walls, was performed by Humphry himself. He also erected a green-house, adjoining the dwelling; which was, doubtless, the first conservatory of the kind ever seen, or thought of, in the county of Chester. [back up to History]
“The Botanic Garden, at Marshallton, was planned and commenced in the year 1773, and soon became the recipient of the most interesting trees and shrubs of our country, together with many curious exotics; and also of a numerous collection of our native herbaceous plants. A large portion of these yet survive, although the garden, from neglect, has become a mere wilderness; while a number of our noble forest trees, such as Oaks, Pines, and Magnolias (especially the Magnolia acuminata), all planted by the hands of the venerable founder, have now attained to a majestic altitude.
“For several years prior to the establishment of the Marshallton Garden, Humphry had been much engaged in collecting native plants and seeds, and shipping them to Europe; but after that event, being aided by his nephew, Dr. Moses Marshall, he greatly extended his operations, and directed his attention with enhanced zeal and energy to the business of exploring, and making known abroad, the vegetable treasures of these United States. The present generation of botanists have but an imperfect idea of the services rendered to the science, by the skill and laborious industry of those faithful pioneers; but the letters here given, will show that they contributed largely to the knowledge of American plants.
“His sight. . . was never so entirely lost, but that he could discern the walks in his garden, examine his trees, and recognise the localities of his favourite plants. In tracing those walks with his friends, pointing out the botanical curiosities, and reciting their history, he took the greatest delight to the last.”

Images


Other Resources

Library of Congress Authority File

American National Biography Online

American Philosophical Society online exhibit on Arbustrum Americanum

Humphry and Moses Marshall Papers, 1721–1863, University of Michigan

Humphry Marshall Papers, 1785–1792, History Collection, National Agricultural Library, United States Department of Agriculture

Humphry Marshall Papers in the Frederick J. Dreer Autograph Collection, Historical Society of Pennsylvania


Notes

  1. William Darlington, Memorials of John Bartram and Humphry Marshall: With Notices of Their Botanical Contemporaries (Philadelphia: Lindsay & Blakiston, 1849), 485–87, view on Zotero.
  2. “The Chester County Cabinet of Natural Science,” Register of Pennsylvania 1 (1828): 302, view on Zotero.
  3. Darlington 1849, 488, view on Zotero; John Quincy, Lexicon Physico-Medicum: Or, A New Medicinal Dictionary, 6th ed. (London: T. Longman, 1743), view on Zotero. John Gerard, The Herball, Or, Generall Historie of Plantes, 3rd ed. (London: Adam Islip, Joyce Norton, and Richard Whitaker, 1636), view on Zotero.
  4. Humphry Marshall to Benjamin Franklin, November 27, 1771, The Papers of Benjamin Franklin, ed. William B. Willcox, 47 vols. (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1974), 18:255–56, view on Zotero.
  5. James Kenny, “Journal of James Kenny, 1761–1763 (con.),” ed. John W. Jordan, Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography 37 (April 1913): 174, view on Zotero; see also (January 1913): 46, view on Zotero and “James Kenny’s ‘Journey to Ye Westward,’ 1758–1759,” ed. John W. Jordan, Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography 37 (October, 1913): 420, view on Zotero.
  6. Darlington 1849, 495, 497–99, 501, 513–15, view on Zotero.
  7. Louise Conway Belden, “Humphry Marshall’s Trade in Plants of the New World for Gardens and Forests of the Old World,” Winterthur Portfolio 2 (1965): 109–10, view on Zotero.
  8. Darlington 1849, 495, 497–98, 499–500, 504, 505, 509, 511, 512, view on Zotero; Belden 1965, 110, view on Zotero.
  9. Benjamin Franklin, The Papers of Benjamin Franklin, ed. William B. Willcox, 47 vols. (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1973) 17:110, 150–52, view on Zotero; Franklin 1974, 18:82, view on Zotero; Darlington 1849, 497, view on Zotero.
  10. Belden 1965, 108, view on Zotero.
  11. Edmund Berkeley, “Benjamin Franklin and a ‘Dear Ould Friend,’” Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society 137 (September 1993): 402, view on Zotero; Darlington 1849, 316–17, view on Zotero.
  12. Darlington 1849, 537–39, view on Zotero.
  13. Belden 1965, 123, view on Zotero; Buffington-Marshall Papers, Scrapbook 4 [Manuscript 77045], item 1453, view on Zotero.
  14. For Marshall’s correspondents, see the list compiled from letters preserved in the Historic Society of Pennsylvania in John W. Harshberger, “Additional Letters of Humphry Marshall, Botanist and Nurseryman,” Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography 53 (July 1929): 271–75, view on Zotero, and the finding aids for the Humphry and Moses Marshall Papers in the William L. Clements Library, University of Michigan; view website and the Buffington-Marshall Papers (Scrapbook 4 [Manuscript 77045]), Chester County Historical Society, view website. See also Francis W. Pennell, “Humphry Marshall, Botanist,” Bulletin of Friends’ Historical Association 24 (Autumn 1935), 80, view on Zotero; Belden 1965, 114–15, 123–24, view on Zotero.
  15. Darlington 1849, 550–52, view on Zotero.
  16. Darlington 1849, 560–63, view on Zotero; Belden 1965, 115, 117, view on Zotero.
  17. Belden 1965 107,119–22, view on Zotero.
  18. Thomas Walter, Flora Caroliniana (London: J. Fraser, 1788), view on Zotero; Darlington 1849, 530, 543, 549, view on Zotero.
  19. In addition to the following examples, see Harshberger 1929, 271–72, 275, view on Zotero.
  20. James A. Mears, “Some Sources of the Herbarium of Henry Muhlenberg (1753–1815),” Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society 122 (June 1978): 155–74, view on Zotero; Matthias Schönhofer, Letters from an American Botanist: The Correspondences of Gotthilf Heinrich Ernst Mühlenberg (1753–1815) (Stuttgart: Franz Steiner Verlag, 2014), view on Zotero.
  21. Robert R. Gutowski, “Humphry Marshall’s Botanic Garden: Living Collections 1773–1813” (master’s thesis, University of Delaware, 1988), 33, view on Zotero.
  22. Darlington 1849, 528–29, 577–80, view on Zotero.
  23. Humphry Marshall, Arbustum Americanum: The American Grove, Or, An Alphabetical Catalogue of Forest Trees and Shrubs (Philadelphia: Joseph Crukshank, 1785), view on Zotero.
  24. Joseph Ewan, “Fougeroux de Bondaroy (1732–1789) and His Projected Revision of Duhamel Du Monceau’s ‘Traité’ (1755) on Trees and Shrubs: I. An Analytical Guide to Persons, Gardens, and Works Mentioned in the Manuscripts,” Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society 103 (December 1959): 814, view on Zotero; Frans A. Stafleu, “Review: Arbustum Americanum,” Taxon 17 (August 1968), 427–28, view on Zotero; Harshberger 1929, 27, view on Zotero; Pennell 1935, 81, view on Zotero; Belden 1965, 113, view on Zotero.
  25. Levin Theodore Reichel, A History of Nazareth Hall, from 1755 to 1855; and of the Reunions of Its Former Pupils, in 1854 and 1855 (Philadelphia: J. B. Lippincott & Company, 1855), 45, view on Zotero; Francis W. Pennell, “The Botanist Schweinitz and His Herbarium,” Bartonia 16 (1934): 1–8, view on Zotero; James R. Troyer, “Early American Moravian Botanists in North Carolina and Elsewhere,” Journal of the North Carolina Academy of Science 125 (2009): 1–6, view on Zotero.
  26. Humphry Marshall to Richard Burnett ["Richard B.”], December 8, 1788; see also Richard Burnett, letter to Moses Marshall, February 11, 1793, with order for plants and seeds, items 144 and 1509, Scrapbook 5 [Manuscript 77046], Buffington–Marshall papers MS Coll.168, Chester County Historical Society, view on Zotero. Burnett specialized in bulbs (“flower roots”) from Holland, kitchen garden, flower, and grass seeds,” and fruit trees at his gardens “opposite the waterfall” in Richmond; see his advertisements in Saunders’s News-Letter (Dublin), 1774–99. Burnett is listed as a subscriber to William Speechly’s A Treatise on the Culture of the Vine: Exhibiting New and Advantageous Methods of Propagating, Cultivating, and Training That Plant, So as to Render It Abundantly Fruitful. Together with New Hints on the Formation of Vineyards in England (York, England: G. Peacock, 1790), xvii, view on Zotero.
  27. Harshberger 1929, 282; see also 274–75 for additional business correspondents in England, Germany, France, and Holland, view on Zotero.
  28. Samuel Vaughan to Humphry Marshall, April 30, 1785, Darlington 1849, 555; see also 289, view on Zotero.
  29. A local nurseryman, Paschall Morris, was allowed to grow ornamental plants on the property, and the Chester County botanist Josiah Hoopes, proprietor of one of the nation’s largest nurseries, landscaped the grounds, designed the benches and fountains, and established a small arboretum there. See James Jones, Made in West Chester: The History of Industry in West Chester, Pennsylvania, 1867 to 1945 (West Chester, PA: Taggart Printing, 2003), 20, view on Zotero; Catherine Quillman, “West Chester: Home for Botanists and Gardeners,” West Chester Patch (September 8, 2011), view on Zotero.
  30. Irwin C. Williams, John Russell Hayes, and John W. Harshburger, Exercises in Memory of Humphry Marshall and William Darlington, at Marshallton, Pa. (West Chester, PA: F. S. Hickman, 1913), view on Zotero.
  31. John W. Harshberger, “The Old Gardens of Pennsylvania, II.—Humphry Marshall’s,” Garden Magazine 32 (1920): 139, view on Zotero.
  32. Gideon Tibbetts Ridlon, History of the Families Millingas and Millanges of Saxony and Normandy (Lewiston, ME: The author, 1907), view on Zotero.
  33. Darlington 1849, 495 view on Zotero.
  34. 34.0 34.1 34.2 Darlington 1849, 497 view on Zotero.
  35. Darlington 1849, 499-500 view on Zotero.
  36. Darlington 1849, 501-502 view on Zotero.
  37. Franklin 1973, view on Zotero.
  38. Darlington 1849, 504 view on Zotero.
  39. 39.0 39.1 Franklin 1974, view on Zotero.
  40. Darlington 1849, 505-6 view on Zotero.
  41. Darlington 1849, 525 view on Zotero.
  42. 42.0 42.1 Darlington 1849, 508-510 view on Zotero.
  43. Benjamin Franklin, The Papers of Benjamin Franklin, ed. William B. Willcox, 47 vols. (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1976), view on Zotero.
  44. Darlington 1849, 512 view on Zotero.
  45. Darlington 1849, 513-15 view on Zotero.
  46. Belden 1965, view on Zotero.
  47. Darlington 1849, 537 view on Zotero.
  48. 48.0 48.1 48.2 48.3 Darlington 1849, 538 view on Zotero.
  49. Darlington 1849, 541 view on Zotero.
  50. 50.0 50.1 Darlington 1849, 541 view on Zotero.
  51. Darlington 1849, 528 view on Zotero.
  52. Darlington 1849, 550-1 view on Zotero.
  53. Darlington 1849, 552 view on Zotero.
  54. Darlington 1849, 542-543 view on Zotero.
  55. Darlington 1849, 553 view on Zotero.
  56. Humphry Marshall Papers, 1785–1792, USDA History Collection, Special Collections, National Agricultural Library, Series X, Manuscripts, Box 10/4, view on Zotero.
  57. Darlington 1849, 529 view on Zotero.
  58. Humphry Marshall Papers, 1785–1792, USDA History Collection, Special Collections, National Agricultural Library, Series X, Manuscripts, Box 10/4, view on Zotero.
  59. Humphry Marshall Papers, 1785–1792, USDA History Collection, Special Collections, National Agricultural Library, Series X, Manuscripts, Box 10/4, view on Zotero.
  60. Humphry Marshall Papers, 1785–1792, USDA History Collection, Special Collections, National Agricultural Library, Series X, Manuscripts, Box 10/4, view on Zotero.
  61. Darlington 1849, 543-544 view on Zotero.
  62. Marshall, 1785, view on Zotero.
  63. Darlington 1849, 522-523 view on Zotero.
  64. Darlington 1849, 566 view on Zotero.
  65. Darlington 1849, 529 view on Zotero.
  66. Darlington 1849, 560-562 view on Zotero.
  67. 67.0 67.1 Harshberger, 1929, view on Zotero.
  68. Darlington 1849, 568-569 view on Zotero.
  69. Humphry Marshall Papers, 1785–1792, USDA History Collection, Special Collections, National Agricultural Library, Series X, Manuscripts, Box 10/4, view on Zotero.
  70. Darlington 1849, 571-573 view on Zotero.
  71. Darlington 1849, 548 view on Zotero.
  72. Darlington 1849, 530 view on Zotero.
  73. Darlington 1849, 548-9 view on Zotero.
  74. Darlington 1849, 549 view on Zotero.
  75. 75.0 75.1 75.2 75.3 75.4 75.5 75.6 Humphry Marshall Papers, 1785–1792, USDA History Collection, Special Collections, National Agricultural Library, Series X, Manuscripts, Box 10/4, view on Zotero.
  76. Darlington 1849, 531 view on Zotero.
  77. Darlington 1849, 573-574 view on Zotero.
  78. Darlington 1849, 575-576 view on Zotero.
  79. Darlington 1849, 574-575 view on Zotero.
  80. Darlington 1849, 531 view on Zotero.
  81. Darlington 1849, 577 view on Zotero.
  82. Gutowski 1988, view on Zotero.
  83. Darlington 1849, 531-532 view on Zotero.
  84. 84.0 84.1 Darlington 1849, 566-567 view on Zotero.
  85. Frederick Pursh, Flora Americae Septentrionalis; Or, a Systematic Arrangement and Description of the Plants of North America, 2 vols. (London: White, Cochrane, & Co., 1814), view on Zotero.
  86. "Chester County Cabinet of Natural Science,” view on Zotero.
  87. Constantine Samuel Rafinesque, A Life of Travels in North America and South Europe, or Outlines of the Life, Travels and Researches of C.S. Rafinesque (Philadelphia: F. Turner, 1836), view on Zotero.
  88. William Darlington, Flora Cestrica: An Attempt to Enumerate and Describe the Flowering and Filicoid Plants of Chester County in the State of Pennsylvania. With Brief Notices of Their Properties, and Uses, in Medicine, Domestic and Rural Economy, and the Arts (West-Chester, PA: The author, 1837), view on Zotero.
  89. Darlington 1849, 492-493 view on Zotero.
  90. Darlington 1849, 490-491 view on Zotero.

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