As an integral element of circulation routes through the designed landscape, walk is one of the most common terms in American garden descriptions. Walks were highly varied in their composition, arrangement, and plantings. While widths varied, a narrow walk limited to foot traffic was often called a path, while a broad, straight walk lined with trees was often called an avenue. Walks were configured in numerous ways and composed of different materials such as brick, shell, gravel, packed dirt, tan (or tan bark), and turf. From most images of walks it is difficult to discern their composition, but contrary to brick paving, which was popular only in colonial revival gardens, textual references appear to indicate that gravel was a surface commonly used. William Forsyth in his 1802 treatise recommended sand or sea-coal ashes on a foundation of brick rubble or gravel for building a walk in a kitchen garden. He noted the ease of maintenance of such surfaces, which were weeded simply by raking (view text). It is interesting to note that despite changing trends in garden styles, treatises remained remarkably consistent in their advice and instruction. Entire passages were frequently borrowed or adapted from earlier publications.
Walks were planted in a variety of ways. They could have borders of low shrubbery or plants, as in a painting by Charles Fraser [Fig. 1], or be lined with pots or statues, as at Vauxhall Garden in New York in 1816. Lombardy poplars and other tall, straight trees accentuated the linearity of axial walks and the formality of urban avenues, including Pennsylvania Ave. in Washington, DC [Fig. 2]. Such spreading shade trees as elm, myrtle, and live oak formed arching canopies over walks, an effect that John James in his 1712 translation of A.-J. Dézallier d’Argenville called “Close” walks (view text). Although this term does not appear to be used in America, the technique, which framed views and invited cooling strolls, was described at sites such as Boston Common.
While their form varied widely, walks served essentially the same functions: to provide passage and to direct movement through the garden; to focus a viewer’s gaze toward an object, building, or prospect; and to structure and divide the garden. In colonial gardens, the walk was often the principal structuring element of the space, dividing a small garden adjacent to a structure into regular geometric shapes, such as the walks depicted in an unidentified late 18th-century garden [Fig. 3]. In more naturalistic and picturesque designs that became popular in the 19th century, walks created routes by which visitors were led to carefully sited garden structures or to crafted vistas, as described in Thomas Jefferson’s c. 1804 plan for his mountaintop landscape [Fig. 4] or A. J. Downing’s 1849 plan for a country seat. In addition, walks offered a means to organize the visual logic of a site by directing a visitor’s gaze to distant views or focal points within the garden, such as obelisks, pavilions, gates, or seats. Walks could also create the illusion of distance if their designers manipulated their dimensions and layout. This resulted in an impression of greater depth, a particularly useful effect in smaller urban lots. The dimensions of walks were determined by the scale of their settings and their use. Forsyth (1802), for instance, recommended that walks be wide enough to admit a cart in kitchen gardens, and Joseph Breck (1851) cautioned designers to leave enough room for persons to “walk comfortably in a social manner” (view text).
In pictorial representations, walks served many of these same functions. In a perspective view of a building’s front façade, the viewer is often encouraged to focus upon the main entrance located at the terminus of a central walk or avenue [Fig. 5]. In the backgrounds of portraits, particularly those from the second half of the 18th century, artists often depicted glimpses through a window of their sitters' gardens, in which walks were presented in perspective with converging sides to suggest the illusion of depth [Fig. 6]. In aerial views, walks were often the principle means of indicating the location and existence of a garden, since plants, changing topography, and surface treatments were less easily rendered in plan. In other images, the walk invites the viewer to dwell upon a destination, such as a garden seat or viewing point, or to venture further into the unseen garden, as in John Trumbull’s 1792 plan for Yale College [See Fig. 8]. In all of these types of images, tracing the line of the walk conveys a sense of movement through the landscape, much as a visitor might have experienced surprising “discoveries” of views.
In addition to being a common feature in early American gardens, walks were also the setting for much recorded activity. William Byrd II in his diary (1732) frequently mentioned his own perambulations in the garden, either alone or with gentlemen guests after he had entertained them with a meal (view text). Charles Willson Peale described strolling through the gardens of Annapolis, Maryland, in language that echoes published accounts of British and European tours. Walks were social venues in public landscape designs such as Boston Common, the State House Yard in Philadelphia, a levee in New Orleans, the Battery Park in New York, Fairmount Park in Philadelphia [Fig. 7], and the avenues of Washington, DC. They were places to see and be seen, and images of them in the second quarter of the 19th century portray their rising popularity as promenades for the general populace. Numerous descriptions and treatises of this period also praised the health-giving properties of these walks and the virtues of fresh air and exercise, particularly for the infirm, mentally ill, and urban poor.
- Smith, John, 1629, describing the Charles River in Massachusetts (quoted in Miller and Johnson 1963: 2:399)
- “in the maine you may shape your Orchards, Vineyards, Pastures, Gardens, Walkes, Parkes, and Corne fields out of the whole peece as you please into such plots, one adjoyning to another, leaving every of them invironed with two, three, foure, or six, or so many rowes of well growne trees as you will, ready growne to your hands, to defend them from ill weather.”
- Penn, William, March 19, 1685, in a letter to James Harrison, regarding Pennsbury Manor, country estate of William Penn, near Philadelphia, PA (quoted in Thomforde 1986: 59)
- “If Ralph this fall, could gett twenty yound populars, about 18 inch round beheaded, to twenty foot, to plant in a walk below ye Steps to ye water It were not emiss. perhaps to 15 foot long for a Round head, may do as well, plant ym in ye 8 mo. [October] is well.”
- Penn, William, October 15, 1685, describing Pennsbury Manor, country estate of William Penn, near Philadelphia, PA (quoted in Thomforde 1986: 54)
- “I desire a. . . handsome walk to ye house of Gravel, or paved wth pitt stones—smooth stones.”
- Jones, Hugh, 1724, describing the Governor’s Palace, Williamsburg, VA (quoted in Lockwood 1934: 2:48)
- “. . . stands the Palace or Governor’s House, a magnificent structure built at the publick Expense, finished and beautified with Gates, fine Gardens, Offices, Walks, a fine Canal, Orchards, and with a great number of the best arms nicely posited by the ingenious Contrivance of the accomplished Colonel Spotswood.”
- Byrd, William, II, September 28, 1732, describing the estate of Gov. Alexander Spotswood, near Germanna, VA (1970: 357–58, 360)
- “After Breakfast the Colo. and I left the Ladys to their Domestick Affairs, and took a turn in the Garden, which has nothing beautiful but 3 Terrace Walks that fall in Slopes one below another. . .
- “The afternoon was devoted to the ladys, who shew’d me one of their most beautiful Walks. They conducted me thro’ a Shady Lane to the Landing, and by the way made me drink some very fine Water that issued from a Marble Fountain, and ran incessantly.” back up to History
- Anonymous, February 2, 1734, describing property for sale in Charleston, SC (South Carolina Gazette)
- “To Be Let or Sold. . . On the island is a New Dwelling House &c. built on a high Bluff, which commands an entire prospect of the Harbour, from the Barr to the Town. A delightful Wilderness with shady Walks and Arbours, cool in the hottest Seasons. A piece of Garden-ground, where all the best kinds of Fruits and Kitchen Greens are produced, and planted with Orange-, Apple-, Peach-, Nectarine-, and Plumb-trees, capable of being made a very good Vineyard.”
- Pinckney, Eliza Lucas, c. May 1743, describing Crowfield, plantation of William Middleton, vicinity of Charleston, SC (1972: 61)
- “From the back door is a spacious walk a thousand foot long; each side of which nearest the house is a grass plat ennamiled in a Serpenting manner with flowers.”
- Moore, Francis, 1744, describing the Trustees' Garden, Savannah, GA (quoted in Marye and Marye 1933: 15)
- “The Garden is laid out with Cross-walks planted with Orange-trees, but the last Winter a good deal of Snow having fallen, had killed those upon the Top of the Hill down to their Roots, but they being cut down, sprouted again, as I saw when I returned to Savannah.”
- Stiles, Ezra, September 30, 1754, describing Springettsbury, near Philadelphia, PA (Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography 16: 375)
- “passing a a long spacious walk, set on each side with trees, on the summit of a gradual ascent, we saw the proprietor’s house, & walkt in the gardens, where besides the beautiful walk, ornamented with evergreens, we saw fruit trees. . . [with] oranges, limes, lemons, citrons. . . Spruce hedges cut into beautiful figures, &c., all forming the most agreeable variety, & even regular confusion & disorder.”
- Sansom, Hannah Callender, June 30, 1762, diary entry describing Belmont, estate of William Peters, near Philadelphia, PA (quoted in Sansom 2010: 183)
- “. . . a broad walk of english Cherre trys leads down to the river, the doors of the hous opening opposite admitt a prospect [of] the length of the garden thro' a broad gravel walk, to a large hansome summer house in a grean. . .”
- Grant, Anne, 1769, describing Oswego, NY (1809: 236)
- Eddis, William, October 1, 1769, describing the Governor’s House, Annapolis, MD (1792: 117)
- “The garden is not extensive, but it is disposed to the utmost advantage; the centre walk is terminated by a small green mount, close to which the Severn approaches; this elevation commands an extensive view of the bay, and the adjacent country.”
- Fithian, Philip Vickers, March 18, 1774, describing Nomini Hall, Westmoreland County, VA (1943: 109)
- “The Area of the Triangle made by the Wash-House, Stable, & School-House is perfectly levil, & designed for a bowling-Green, laid out in rectangular Walks which are paved with Brick, & covered over with burnt Oyster-Shells.”
- Adams, John, February 23, 1777, describing Mount Clare, plantation of Charles and Margaret Tilghman Carroll, Baltimore, MD (quoted in Sarudy 1989: 139)
- Hazard, Ebenezer, May 31, 1777, describing the College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA (quoted in Shelley 1954: 405)
- Rush, Dr. Benjamin, July 15, 1782, describing the country seat of John Dickinsen, near Philadelphia, PA (quoted in Caemmerer 1950: 87)
- Washington, George, February 28, 1785, describing Mount Vernon, plantation of George Washington, Fairfax County, VA (quoted in Johnson 1953: 99–100)
- “My Gardens have gravel walks (as you possibly may recollect) in the usual Style, but if a better composition has been discovered for these, I should gladly adopt it. the matter however which I wish principally to be informed in, is, whether your walks are designed for Carriages, and if so, how they are prepared, to resist the impression of the Wheels. I am making a serpentine road to my door, and have doubts. . . whether any thing short of solid pavement will answer.”
- Washington, George, 1785, describing Mount Vernon, plantation of George Washington, Fairfax County, VA (Jackson and Twohig, eds., 1978: 4:96, 97)
- “[February 28] Planted all the Mulberry trees, Maple trees, & Black gums in my Serpentine walks and the Poplars on the right walk—the Sap of which and the Mulberry appeared to be moving. Also planted 4 trees from H. Hole the name unknown but of a brittle wood which has the smell of Mulberry. . .
- “[March 2]. . . Planted the remainder of the Ash Trees—in the Serpentine walks—the remainder of the fringe trees in the Shrubberies—all the black haws—all the large berried thorns with a small berried one in the middle of each clump—6 small berried thorns with a large one in the middle of each clump—all the swamp red berry bushes & one clump of locust trees.”
- Cutler, Manasseh, July 13, 1787, describing the State House Yard, Philadelphia, PA (1987: 1:263)
- Enys, Lt. John, December 2, 1787, describing the mall in Boston, MA (Cometti, ed., 1976: 202)
- Morse, Jedidiah, 1789, describing the State House Yard, Philadelphia, PA (1789: 331)
- Constantia [Judith Sargent Murray], June 24, 1790, “Description of Gray’s Gardens, Pennsylvania” (Massachusetts Magazine 3: 414)
- Trumbull, John, 1792, describing Yale College, New Haven, CT (Yale University Library, Manuscripts and Archives, Yale Picture Collection, 48A-46, box 1, folder 2)
- “The Temples of Cloacina (which it is too much the custom of New England to place conspicuously,) I would wish to have concealed as much as possible, by planting a variety of Shrubs, such as Laburnums, Lilacs, Roses, Snowballs, Laurels. &c, &c—a gravel walk should lead thro [sic] the Shrubbery to those buildings. . .
- “The yellow is intended to express the gravel walks—& the green the grass and planting. . .
- “The Eating Hall should likewise be hidden as much as the space will admit with similar shrubs. . .
- “The ground in front of the Buildings to be divided by two broad walks leading up to the Chapel and Lecture Rooms, and the sides of the walks to be planted with Elms or other Forest Trees. . .
- Drayton, John, 1793, describing the Battery Park, New York, NY (quoted in Deák 1988: 1:130)
- “After passing these islands [Governor’s, etc.], we came opposite the battery; which is at the extreme point of the town. . . It has no merlons, or embrasuers; but the guns. . . are placed upon carriages on a stone platform en barbette, some few feet above the level of the water. Between the guns, and the water is a public walk; made by a gentle decline from the platform: and going round the ground upon which the battery is placed. Some little distance behind the guns, two rows of elm trees are planted; which in a short time will afford an agreeable shade.”
- Latrobe, Benjamin Henry, July 19, 1796, describing Mount Vernon, plantation of George Washington, Fairfax County, VA (1977: 165)
- “The ground on the West front is laid out in a level lawn bounded on each side with a wide but extremely formal serpentine walk, shaded by weeping Willows.”
- Brooks, Joshua, 1799, describing Mount Vernon, plantation of George Washington, Fairfax County, VA (quoted in Riley 1989: 18)
- Ogden, John Cosens, 1800, describing Bethlehem, PA (1800: 14 and 18)
- “In the rear of this [girl’s school], is another small enclosure, which forms a broad grass walk and is skirted on each side by beds devoted to flowers, which the girls cultivate, as their own. . .
- Clitherall, Eliza Caroline Burgwin (Caroline Elizabeth Burgwin), active 1801, describing the Hermitage, seat of John Burgwin, Wilmington, NC (quoted in Flowers 1983: 126)
- Pintard, John, 1801, describing New Orleans, LA (quoted in Sterling 1951: 231)
- Anonymous, 1801, describing in the Supplement to the Warner & Hanna Directory Chatsworth’s Gardens, Baltimore, MD (Colonial Williamsburg Foundation)
- Jefferson, Thomas, July 1806, describing Monticello, plantation of Thomas Jefferson, Charlottesville, VA (1944: 323)
- Drayton, Charles, November 2, 1806, describing The Woodlands, seat of William Hamilton, near Philadelphia, PA (1806: 55)
- “The Garden consists of a large verdant lawn surrounded by a belt of walk, & shrubbery for some distance. The outer side of the walk is adorned here & there, by scattered forest trees, thick & thin. It is bounded, partly as is described—partly by the Schuylkill & a creek exhibiting a Mill & where it is scarcely noticed, by a common post & rail. The walk is said to be a mile long—perhaps it is something less. One is led into the garden from the portico, to the east or lefthand. or from the park, by a small gate contiguous to the house, traversing this walk, one sees many beauties of the landscape—also a fine statue, symbol of Winter, & age,—& a spacious Conservatory about 200 yards to the West of the Mansion.”
- Anonymous, January 2, 1808, describing in the Washington Expositor the National Mall, Washington, DC (quoted in O’Malley 1989: 99–100)
- “At present these large appropriations afford an increase to the pasturage of the city, more beneficial to the poor citizens, than their culture in the ordinary courses. . . by laying off those in their occupancy so as to afford ample walks open at seasonable hours and under proper regulations to the public, it will give to the city, much earlier than there is otherwise reasonable cause to hope for, agreeable promenades, as conducive to the health of the inhabitants, as to the beauty of the places.”
- Graydon, Alexander, 1811, describing the garden of Israel Pemberton, Philadelphia, PA (1811: 34–35)
- “. . . laid out in the old fashioned style of uniformity, with walks and allies nodding to their brothers, and decorated with a number of evergreens, carefully clipped into pyramidal and conical forms.”
- Gerry, Elbridge, Jr., July 1813, describing the White House, Washington, DC (1927: 180)
- Ripley, Samuel, 1815, describing Gore Place, summer home of Christopher and Rebecca Gore, Waltham, MA (1815: 272–73)
- “The house is a spacious and noble building. . . It is situated in the centre of pleasant grounds, tastefully laid out, surrounded by a walk of a mile in circuit, intersected by several other walks, on all of which are growing trees and shrubbery of various kinds.”
- Lambert, John, 1816, describing Savannah, GA (1816: 2:265–66)
- “This range of buildings extends nearly three quarters of a mile along the town; and opposite to it is a beautiful walk or mall, planted with a double row of trees, the same as those at Charleston— (Melia Azedarach, or Pride of India). . .
- Peale, Charles Willson, August 14, 1816, in a letter to his son, Rembrandt Peale, describing his painting of Belfield, estate of Charles Willson Peale, Germantown, PA (Miller et al. 1991: 3:435)
- Latrobe, Benjamin Henry, February 20, 1819, describing the Montgomery House, New Orleans, LA (1951: 43–45)
- Forman, Martha Ogle, June 13, 1820, describing Rose Hill, home of Martha Ogle Forman, Baltimore County, MD (1976: 104)
- Bryant, William Cullen, August 25, 1821, describing the Vale, estate of Theodore Lyman, Waltham, MA (1975: 108–9)
- “He took me to the seat of Mr. Lyman. . . It is a perfect paradise. . . A hard rolled walk, by the side of a brick wall. . . led us to a grove of young forest trees on the top of [an] eminence.”
- Columbian Institute, 1823, describing the Columbian Institute, Washington, DC (quoted in O’Malley 1989: 127)
- Kremer, Eliza Vierling, 1824–29, describing the pleasure grounds at Salem Academy, Salem, NC (quoted in Bynum 1979: 29)
- “A large garden, some little distance from the Academy, was during the Summer Season, a place for recreation after school hours. . .
- “The hill-side was laid off in terraces and winding walks.”
- Bacon, Edmund, c. 1825, describing Monticello, plantation of Thomas Jefferson, Charlottesville, V (quoted in Adams 1976: 329)
- Hunt, Henry, William Elliot, and William Thornton, 1826, describing a proposed memorial in Washington, DC (U.S. Congress, 19th Congress, 1st Session, House of Representatives, doc. 123, book 138)
- Committee of the Pennsylvania Horticultural Society, 1830, describing a country residence near Philadelphia, PA (quoted in Boyd 1929: 439)
- Trollope, Frances Milton, 1830, describing Hudson Square, New York, NY (1832: 2:160)
- Trollope, Frances Milton, 1830, describing Hoboken, NJ (1832: 2:167)
- Thacher, James, December 3, 1830, describing Hyde Park, seat of Dr. David Hosack, on the Hudson River, NY (New England Farmer 9: 156)
- Ingraham, Joseph Holt, 1835, describing New Orleans, LA (1835: 1:88)
- Anonymous, January 1, 1836, “Leaves from My Note Book” (Horticultural Register 2: 32–33)
- Alcott, William A., 1838, “Embellishment and Improvement of Towns and Villages” (American Annals of Education 8: 337–38)
- “Of our larger cities, even Philadelphia and Boston, we do not hesitate to say that almost every thing, in their structure and condition, is at war with the highest physical and moral well being of their inhabitants. We do not indeed forget their beautiful commons and squares and public walks; but it is impossible for us to believe that a few of these will ever atone for that neglect whose effects stare us in the face, not merely in passing through dirty and filthy avenues, but in traversing almost every street, and in turning almost every corner. A single common, beautiful though it may be, as any spot on the earth’s surface, and refreshed though it were by the balmy breezes which ‘blow soft o’er Ceylon’s isle;’ or a few public squares, remembrances though they be of him whose praises will never cease to be celebrated while the ‘city of brotherly love’ shall remain, will yet never purify the crowded, unventilated cellars and shops—and dwellings, too—of a hundred or a thousand thickly congregated streets. . .”
- Adams, Rev. Nehemiah, 1838, describing Portland, ME ([Adams] 1838: 31)
- Hovey, C. M., November 1839, “Notices of Gardens and Horticulture, in Salem, Mass.,” describing Elfin Glen, residence of P. Dodge, Salem, MA (Magazine of Horticulture 5: 404)
- Willis, Nathaniel Parker, 1840, describing Saratoga, NY (quoted in Deák 1988: 1:424)
- Willis, Nathaniel Parker, 1840, describing the Fairmount Waterworks, Philadelphia, PA (1840; repr., 1971: 313)
- Buckingham, James Silk, 1841, describing New York, NY (1841: 1:38–39)
- Buckingham, James Silk, 1841, describing Rochester, NY (2:215)
- Hovey, C. M., September 1841, describing the residence of R. F. Carman, Fort Washington, NY (Magazine of Horticulture 7: 326)
- Dickens, Charles, 1842, describing the White House, Washington, DC (1842: 153–54)
- Kirkbride, Thomas S., 1844, describing the Pennsylvania Hospital for the Insane, Philadelphia, PA (1851: 24)
- “. . . the brick walks, for use when the ground is soft or covered with snow, have been extended; other walks have been laid out through the different groves, and covered with tan, and their extension, now in progress, will give us more than a mile in the men’s division, and nearly as much in that appropriated to the females. These walks have been so located as to embrace our finest and most diversified views, to wind through the woods and clumps of trees which are scattered through the enclosure; and among them, it is hoped, will soon be seen summer-houses, rustic seats, and other objects of interest, to tempt the patients voluntarily to prolong their walks, and to spend a greater portion of their time out of the wards, and engaged in some agreeable occupation.”
- Downing, A. J., May 1847, describing Wodenethe, residence of Henry Winthrop Sargent, Dutchess County, NY (Horticulturist 1: 504)
- “Our FRONTISPIECE gives a glimpse of this Vinery, at the termination of the main walk of the fruit-garden. This walk is 428 feet long, and is bordered with an espalier rail, upon which many of the choicest peaches, grapes, plums, etc., are trained—not from necessity or for greater protection, as in gardens farther north, for all those fruits ripen perfectly on common standards here, but to give an illustration of this more perfect kind of culture, and to obtain fruit of a larger size and higher color than standards usually produce.” [Fig. 9]
- Lyell, Sir Charles, 1849, describing Natchez, MS (1849: 2:153)
- Londoniensis [pseud.], October 1850, “Notes and Recollections of a Visit to the Nurseries of Messrs. Hovey & Co., Cambridge” (Magazine of Horticulture 16: 445)
- Dufield, Elizabeth Lewis, May 14, 1851, describing Hermitage, estate of Andrew Jackson, Nashville, TN (Ladies Hermitage Association Research #977)
- Committee on the Capitol Square, Richmond City Council, July 24, 1851, describing John Notman’s plans for the Capitol Square, Richmond, VA (quoted in Greiff 1979: 162)
- Parkinson, John, 1629, Paradisi in Sole Paradisus Terrestris (1629; repr., 1975: 5, 537)
- “To forme it [the garden] therfore with walks, crosse the middle both waies, and round about it also with hedges, with squares, knots and trayles, or any other worke within the foure square parts, is according as every mans conceit alloweth of it, and they will be at the charge: For there may be therein walkes eyther open or close, eyther pub-like or private. . . for the fairer and larger your allies and walkes be, the more grace your Garden shall have, the lesse harme the herbes and flowers shall receive, by passing by them that grow next unto the allies sides, and the better shall your Weeders cleanse both the beds and the allies. . . .
- “Having an Orchard containing one acre of ground, two, three, or more, or lesse, walled about, you may so order it, by leaving a broad and large walke betweene the wall and it. . . and by compassing your Orchard on the inside with a hedge (wherein may bee planted all sorts of low shrubs or bushes).”
- Dézallier d’Argenville, A.-J., 1712, The Theory and Practice of Gardening (1712; repr., 1969: 40–41),
- “WALKS in Gardens, like Streets in a Town, serve to communicate between Place and Place, and are as so many Guidances and Means to conduct us throughout a Garden. . .
- “These Walks are very delightful in hot Weather, when you may walk under the Shade of them in the very middle of the Day. . .
- “’Tis a general Rule to keep open the principal Walks, such as those that face a Building, Pavilion, Cascade, or the like; and these likewise should be kept wider than the others, that from the End of the Walk you may see Part of the Front of a House, or some other handsome Object. . .
- “SINGLE Walks are those that consist but of two Rows of Trees or Palisades, to distinguish them from double Walks that have four, which form three Alleys close together, a large one in the Middle, and two on the Sides that accompany it, and are called Counter-walks. . .
- Switzer, Stephen, 1718, Ichnographia Rustica (1718; repr., 1982: 3:46)
- Langley, Batty, 1728, New Principles of Gardening (1728; repr., 1982: 195–201)
- “General DIRECTIONS, &c.. . .
- “IX. That all the Trees of your shady Walks and Groves be planted with Sweet-Brier, White Jessemine, and Honey-Suckles, environ’d at Bottom with a small Circle of Dwarf-Stock, Candy-Turf, and Pinks. . .
- “XVIII. That the Intersections of Walks be adorn’d with Statues, large open Plains, Groves, Cones of Fruit, of Ever-Greens, of Flowering Shrubs, of Forest Trees, Basons, Fountains, Sun-Dials, and Obelisks. . .
- L“XXI. Such Walks as must terminate within the Garden, are best finish’d with Mounts, aviary, Grotto’s, Cascades, Rocks, Ruins, Niches, or Amphitheatres of Ever-Greens, variously mix’d, with circular Hedges ascending behind one another, which renders a very graceful Appearance. . .
- “XXIV. Canals, Fish-Ponds, &c. are most beautiful when environ’d with a Walk of stately Pines, and terminate at each End with a fine Grove of Forest-Trees, or Ever-Greens. . .
- “XXVI. All Grass-Walks should be laid with the same Curvature as Gravel-Walks, and particularly in wet and cold Lands; for, by their being made flat or level from Side to Side, they soon settle into Holes in the Middle, by often walking on, and therein retain Wet, &c. which a circular surfaced Walk resists. The Proportion for the Heights of the Crown, or middle Part of any Grass or Gravel-Walk, is as five is to one, that is, if the Walk be five Foot in Breadth, the Height of the Middle, above the Level of the Sides, must be one Inch; if ten Foot, two Inches; fifteen Foot, three Inches, &c.. . .
- “AVENUE. . .
- All avenues, Mortimer says, should lead to the front of an house, garden-gate, highway-gate, or wood, and terminate in a prospect.—In an avenue to an house, whatever the length of the walk is, it ought to be as wide as the whole breadth of the front; and if wider, better. . .
- “AVENUE, in gardening, is a walk, planted on each side with trees, and leading to some place. See GROVE, GLADE. . .
- “GRASS plots, and walks, make a considerable article in gardening, &c. See WALK, &c.
- “For the second, the turf should be cut on a down, or green, or common, or sheep-walk, where the grass is short and fine; if there be any knobs, or roughnesses, the place must be cleansed and rolled after a shower, before it be cut up. The turf is cut in squares, marked out with lines, raised with a knife, and rolled up; about three inches thick. The quarters, or verges are to be prepared with a fine coat of poor earth to lay the turf on; and after laying, the turf must be well watered, rolled, &c.. . .
- “GRAVEL walk, in gardening.—To lay, or form a walk with gravel, all the good soil is to be pared away, below the roots of any grass, or weeds; then the place to be filled two or three inches with coarse gravel unsearsed, laying it highest in the middle; then rolling it. . .
- Miller, Philip, 1754, The Gardeners Dictionary (1754; repr., 1969: 1503–4)
- “Grass-walks in a Garden are both ornamental and delightful in Summer-time and dry Weather.”
- Miller, Philip, 1759, The Gardeners Dictionary (1759: n.p.)
- “The next thing to be observed is to continue a dry walk, which should lead quite round the whole garden, for as Gardens are designed to promote the exercise of walking, the greater the extent of this dry walk, the better it will answer the Intent. . . and such walks, if laid either with Gravel or Sand, may lead through different Plantations, gently winding about in an easy natural way, which will be more agreeable than those long strait walks, which are too frequently seen in gardens.”
- Mawe, Thomas, and [John Abercrombie, 1778, The Universal Gardener and Botanist (1778: n.p.)
- “Sometimes grass-walks are used, but these are rather improper for general use in Kitchen-gardens, especially in such parts of the garden where wheel-barrows are obliged to come often, which would cut and greatly deface them; besides, they are apt to be wet and disagreeable in all wet weather, and in winter; . . .
- “But when necessary to have the whole space of the Kitchen-garden employed for real use. . . and have a walk round the garden, not more than a yard wide; allowing the same width for the middle-walks, or so as to admit of wheel-barrows passing to bring in the manure, &c. and may either have a four feet wide border all round each quarter, next the walks, or not, as you shall think proper; laying the walks neatly with any gravelly materials, or with coal-ashes, so as to have dry walking, and wheeling with a barrow in all weathers.”
- Sheridan, Thomas, 1789, A Complete Dictionary of the English Language (1789: n.p.)
- “WALK, wa’k. s. . . a length of space, or circuit through which one walks; an avenue set with trees; way, road, range, place of wandering.”
- Marshall, Charles, 1799, An Introduction to the Knowledge and Practice of Gardening (1799: 1:33, 55, 124–26)
- “The walks come next under construction [i.e. after walls], and they are to be begun from the best wall; the border of which being regularly levelled and settled, the walk is to be governed by it. . .
- “The number and breadth of the walks must in a measure be determined by the quantity of allotted ground. . . But better be few and wide, than many and contracted. If the garden is small, one good walk all round is sufficient; and if long and narrow, the cross walks should not be many: six, or eight feet, is not too wide in a moderate sized garden. . .
- “Grass plats and walks should be mowed, as often as there is the least hold for the scythe, for they lose much of their beauty, when the grass gets any thing long; leaves should not be suffered to remain on them as it stains the grass. . .
- “About the house some shady walks ought always to be provided, by thick planting, if not of trees, yet of flowering shrubs, and evergreens, of which the laurel will be found most useful. . .
- Forsyth, William, 1802, A Treatise on the Culture and Management of Fruit Trees (1802: 148)
- “In laying out the quarters, you must be guided in a great measure by the form and size of the garden; but do not lay them out too small, as in that case a great part of the ground will be taken up with walks. . .
- “The middle walks should be about seven feet, which is wide enough to admit a cart; and the others about three or four feet broad; with a border on each side, five or six feet wide, at least, between the walk and the fruit-trees. Walks in kitchen gardens are generally gravelled, and but seldom laid with turf, as the frequent wheeling and treading soon destroys the grass and renders them very unsightly: But a binding sand makes good walks and they are easily kept; for when moss or weeds begin to grow, they may be cleaned with a horse-hoe. . . by which they will be made always to look neat and clean. I, however, give the preference to sea-coal ashes, which in my opinion make the best walks for a kitchen garden, and they are easier kept than any other, being firm and dry, and cleaner to walk on than sand, especially after frost.
- “If the soil be stiff and wet, or subject to detain the moisture, there must be under ground drains made to carry off the water.” back up to History
- Repton, Humphry, 1803, Observations on the Theory and Practice of Landscape Gardening (1803: 83)
- Marshall, William, 1803, On Planting and Rural Ornament (1803: 1:260)
- Gardiner, John, and David Hepburn, 1804, The American Gardener (1804: 123)
- “As to the distribution of gravel-walks. . . first a magnificent one, from fifteen to twenty or thirty feet wide, should range immediately close and parallel to the front of the house, and be conducted directly across the lawn into the nearest side shrubberies; from this main walk, other smaller ones, from five to ten or fifteen feet wide, according to the extent of the ground, should branch off at proper intervals, directed in the serpentine way. . . some leading through the outer boundary plantations, as already hinted. . . others into the internal divisions, and others carried along the boundary plantation of the main lawn; all of which walks being conducted through the different parts, in order to afford the convenience of shade and retirement occasionally, as well as to enjoy the variety of the trees, shrubs, and flowers, variously presenting themselves at different turnings. . .
- “All these gravel-walks should be laid with the best gravel, six or eight inches deep, at least; but if more the better. . .
- Mease, James, c. 1813 (quoted in Gardiner and Hepburn 1818: 149–52)
- “Walks are either of grass or gravel. The former are best made in March, the latter in April; and the sooner in March the grass ones are commenced the better. . .
- “Grass walks are troublesome and attended with a constant demand for labour in cutting every new growth of the herbage; besides, in rainy weather, and early in the morning before the dew of the night has been drawn off by the sun, they are damp and productive of colds: yet, where gravel is difficult to be had, they will often be resorted to, and therefore it may be of use to say a few words here upon the manner of making them. . .
- “Gravel walks however should be preferred, and if possible accomplished. . . The course of the walks being marked out by stumps and lines, the earth should be dug out of them to the depth of eight inches, and thrown into the middle of the plats to give them a convexity, which is agreeable to the eye. That done, rake the bottom of the walk quite level, and lay on the gravel so that the walks shall be at their edges three inches lower than the surface of the plats on either side, as when otherwise they have a mean and flat appearance.
- “[Vol. 3] WILDERNESS. . .
- “As to the walks, those that have the appearance of meanders, where the eye cannot discover more than twenty or thirty yards in length, are generally preferable to all others, and these should now and then lead into an open circular piece of grass; in the centre of which may be placed either an obelisk, statue, or fountain; and, if in the middle of the wilderness there is contrived a large opening, in the centre of which may be erected a dome or banqueting house, surrounded with a green plot of grass, it will be of a considerable addition to the beauty of the whole. From the sides of the walks and openings, the trees should rise gradually one above another to the middle of the quarters, where should always be planted the largest-growing trees, so that the heads of all the trees may appear to view, while their stems will be hid from the sight. . .
- Abercrombie, John, with James Mean, 1817, Abercrombie’s Practical Gardener (1817: 463–64)
- “The Walk.—A common principle is, especially where the field is small, to carry a gravel-'walk'Bold text completely round, so near the outward boundary as to leave only an intervening border for flowers and shrubs. As this method produces the longest tract without sharp returns, and admits many expedients for concealing the opposite boundaries, there seems no reason for departing from it, except to lead the spectator to some object that would otherwise escape him, or to keep some intractable deformity out of sight. . .
- Thorburn, Grant, 1817, The Gentleman & Gardener’s Kalendar (1817: 19 and 33)
- “[March] Make new walks where wanted— clean and roll your gravel and grass walks. . .
- “6105. Walks. In most styles of parterres these are formed of gravel; but in the modern sort. . . which consist of turf, varied by wavy dug beds (1 and 2), and surrounded by shrubbery. . . [Fig. 10]
- Prince, William, 1828, A Short Treatise on Horticulture (1828: 87)
- “GRAV’EL-WALK, n. A walk or alley covered with gravel, which makes a hard and dry bottom; used in gardens and malls. . .
- “WALK, n. wauk. The act of walking; the act of moving on the feet with a slow pace.
- “2. The act of walking for air or exercise; as a morning walk; an evening walk. Pope.
- “5. An avenue set with trees. Milton.”
- Teschemacher, James E., November 1, 1835, “On Horticultural Architecture” (Horticultural Register 1: 410–11)
- “To these remarks for small plots of ground, we would add a few common place rules, such as, that straight lines particularly for short distances, unless terminating in bold curves, are not pleasing to the eye; narrow walks, unless winding at short intervals through woods, are by no means desirable. . .
- Anonymous, April 1, 1837, “Landscape Gardening” (Horticultural Register 3: 128)
- Sayers, Edward, 1838, The American Flower Garden Companion (1838: 15)
- “For perspicuity, admit that the area to be enclosed [for a flower garden] should be from one to three acres, a circumambient walk should be traced at some distance within the fence, by which the whole is enclosed; the inferior walks should partly circumscribe and intersect the general surface in an easy serpentine and sweeping manner, and at such distances as would allow an agreeable view of the flowers when walking for exercise. Walks may be in breadth from three to twenty feet, although from four to ten feet is generally adopted. . . covered with gravel, and then firmly rolled with a heavy roller. . .
- “CHIVES. Allium schoenoprasum. . .
- “Plant the roots for edging to a walk or border, two inches deep, and the same distance apart, in the form you wish them to be.
- “SORREL FRENCH. Rumex acetosa. . .
- “You may have it in a bed any size, the rows being a foot apart, or for edging along the side of a walk. . .
- “THYME. Thumus vulgaris. . .
- “Plant slips in rows four inches apart, for edging. It does well for a walk side, or you may make a bed the same distance, the rows a foot apart.
- “It [a kitchen garden] may be either square or oblong, but is most convenient to work when the sides are straight, with a fence of moderate height. In laying out, I would prefer a border all round the width of the border, the main cross walks four feet wide, to plant currants, gooseberry, and raspberry bushes, four feet apart, or strawberry plants near the farmyard, and convenient for water. . .”
- “WALKS may be considered with reference to their direction, their construction, and their management. In a small garden, the direction of the main walks should generally be governed by the boundary lines; and hence, in a plot of ground which is square or oblong, the walks should be straight and rectangular; the object in such a case being to produce the beauties of regularity and symmetry. On the other hand, when the boundaries of the garden are irregular, the surrounding walk may be irregular also; the object in this irregularity being to create variety by contrast in the direction. When a garden bounded by straight lines, is so large as to contain an acre or two, and the whole of the interior is to be laid out as a pleasure-ground, then the walks may be varied in direction; the boundary being concealed by trees and shrubs, or by artificial undulations of the soil. In general, it may be laid down as a principle, that all walks should be straight when there is no obvious reason why they should be otherwise; and hence, in the case of all winding walks, if there is not a natural and apparently unavoidable reason for their deviating from the straight line, an artificial reason ought to be created. . . All straight walks should lead to some conspicuous object at the further end of the walk, and facing it, so as to appear to belong to it; and this object should be seen the moment the walk is entered upon. . . A winding walk, on the contrary, requires no object at the further end to allure the spectator; because every turn has the effect of an object by exciting his curiosity and inducing him to advance to see what is beyond.”
- Johnson, George William, 1847, A Dictionary of Modern Gardening (1847: 26, 73, 269–70, 620)
- “ALLEYS are of two kinds. 1. The narrow walks which divide the compartments of the kitchen garden; and 2. Narrow walks in shrubberies and pleasure-grounds, closely bounded and overshadowed by the shrubs and trees. . .
- “AVENUE. . . These kind of walks were formerly much more the fashion than they are at present. . .
- “GRAVEL WALKS, like all other Walks, (vide,) require a good substratum of drainage, and the facing of about five inches deep of gravel. It must have no stones mixed with it larger than good-sized marbles, and about one-fourth of it must be much smaller. If a portion of clay is by nature or art incorporated with the gravel, is will bind more firmly, and present when rolled a more compact and even surface. . .
- “WALKS. See Gravel. It may be observed here, that of whatever material a walk is composed, that it is essential to have it well under-drained, and for this purpose an understratum of flints or brick-bats, twelve inches deep, is not too much. Walks so founded, are never wet or soft. Coal ashes, or which is still better, fresh tan, makes a pleasant winter walk, particularly on tenacious soils, as it never adheres to the shoes, either during rain or after frost; half an inch I think is sufficient. It likewise makes a soft and pleasant summer walk, and from its loose nature, is readily cleared from weeds. If not wanted during summer, it may readily be swept clean off after a few dry days. It is invaluable for covering walks or footpaths in the kitchen garden, when there is much wheeling of manure or soil. . . —Gard. Chron.”
- “The following little plan of a flower garden, of this kind, on a small scale, is adopted from one of the designs of our late friend, Mr. LOUDON. It is supposed to be formed in a plot of smooth level lawn, and to be surrounded by a boundary walk, which may, or may not, be backed by a belt of evergreens and flowering shrubs. In the former case, it would make a complete little scene by itself in a portion of the garden or grounds.” [Fig. 11]
- Elliott, Charles Wyllys, October 1848, “Reviews: Cottages and Cottage Life” (Horticulturist 3: 181)
- Downing, A. J., 1849, A Treatise on the Theory and Practice of Landscape Gardening (1849; repr., 1991: 114, 342, 530–31)
- “Walks are laid out for purposes similar to Drives, but are much more common, and may be introduced into every scene, however limited. They are intended solely for promenades or exercise on foot, and should therefore be dry and firm, if possible, at all seasons when it is desirable to use them. Some may be open to the south, sheltered with evergreens, and made dry and hard for a warm promenade in winter; others formed of closely mown turf, and thickly shaded by a leafy canopy of verdure, for a cool retreat in the midst of summer. Others again may lead to some sequestered spot, and terminate in a secluded rustic seat, or conduct to some shaded dell or rugged eminence, where an extensive prospect can be enjoyed. Indeed, the genius of the place must suggest the direction, length, and number of the walks to be laid out, as no fixed rules can be imposed in a subject so everchanging and different. It should, however, never be forgotten, that the walk ought always to correspond to the scene it traverses, being rough where the latter is wild and picturesque, sometimes scarcely differing from a common footpath, and more polished as the surrounding objects show evidence of culture and high keeping. . .
- “In our remarks on walks and roads, we omitted to say anything of the best manner of making gravel walks. . . A very thin coat of gravel will render a walk superior to a path which consists only of the natural soil, and such surfacing in our dry climate (though it frequently requires renewing), is often sufficient for distant walks, or those little used except in fine weather. But the approach road, and all walks immediately about the dwelling, should be laid at least a foot thick with gravel, to insure dryness, and a firm footing at all times and seasons. . .
- “Undoubtedly in almost all examples in the natural style of landscape gardening slate-colored gravel. . . is much the most agreeable to the eye, being unobtrusive, just differing sufficiently with soil to be readily recognised as artistical in its effect, while it harmonizes with the color of the ground, and the soft tints of vegetation. A thirst after something new has induced some persons, even in the interior, to substitute, at considerable cost, the white gravel of the sea-shore for the common pit or beach gravel. The change, we think, is, in point of taste, not a happy one. The strong white of this gravel, as the painters would say, disturbs the tone of a simply beautiful landscape, whose prevailing tints are those of the broad lawn and rich overshadowing trees; and the glare of these snowy white pebbles is not, we confess, so pleasing in our eyes as the cooler and more quiet color of the slate or grey gravel.”
- Breck, Joseph, 1851, The Flower-Garden (1851: 20)
- “The walks of the flower-garden should be constructed of such material as will make firm and dry walking at all seasons of the year.” back up to History
- New York State Lunatic Asylum Trustees, 1851, describing the ideal grounds for a lunatic asylum (quoted in Hawkins 1991: 53)
- Ranlett, William H., 1851, The Architect (1851; repr., 1976: 2:47)
- “The little cottage. . . was built last year for Augustus W. Clason, Esq. of Westchester. . . The grounds contain fifteen acres, of which five are wooded with a very old growth, and the rest lie in grass. It is intended to throw walks through the lawn and adorn their borders, but not to set apart any one spot for a garden.”
- Jaques, George, February 1851, “Trees in Cities” (Magazine of Horticulture 17: 50–52)
- “I propose, at present, to speak first of planting trees upon side-walks. In American cities, it is customary to construct streets with a wide carriageway in the middle, and a walk for pedestrians on either side. Trees are usually planted on the line between these foot-walks and the carriageway. . .
Batty Langley, One of two “Designs for Gardens that lye irregularly to the ground House. . . ,” in New Principles of Gardening (1728), pl. XI. Walks are seen leading up to the mount at F.
Batty Langley, The Design of an Elegant Kitchen Garden Contain’g ARP 1.2.20. Including Walks, in New Principles of Gardening (1728), pl. V.
John Nancarrow, Plan of the Seat of John Penn, junr Esqr in Blockley Township and County of Philadelphia, c. 1785. The walk meanders across the grounds from the Mansion House at “a” to the ah-ha at “g.”
Thomas Jefferson, Plan for the City of Washington, March 1791.
Andrew Ellicott (creator), Samuel Hill (engraver), Plan of the City of Washington in the Territory of Columbia, 1792. There is a tree lined walk running east west on the central axis of the Mall in the center of the plan. The word "walk" is inscribed in the description of the plan on the bottom right.
Thomas Jefferson, Letter describing plans for a “Garden Olitory,” c. 1804.
Anonymous, “The Espalier Walk in the Fruit Garden at Wodenethe,” in A. J. Downing, ed., Horticulturist 1, no. 11 (May 1847): pl. opp. 489.
Anonymous, “Plan of the foregoing grounds as a Country Seat, after ten years’ improvement,” in A. J. Downing, A Treatise on the Theory and Practice of Landscape Gardening, 4th ed. (1849), 114, fig. 24.
Anonymous, “The Irregular Flower-garden,” in A. J. Downing, A Treatise on the Theory and Practice of Landscape Gardening, 4th ed. (1849), 428, fig. 76. “the flower-beds b”
G. & F. Bill (firm), Birds eye view of Mt. Vernon the home of Washington, c. 1859.
Batty Langley, “Part of a Park Exhibiting their manner of Planting, after a more Grand manner than has been done before,” in New Principles of Gardening (1728), pl. XIII.
Christian Remick, A Prospective View of part of the Commons, c. 1768.
Sydney L. Smith (engraver) from a watercolor drawing by Christian Remick (c. 1768) . A Prospective View of part of the Commons, 1902. Boston Pictorial Archive, Boston Public Library.
Edward Savage, The West Front of Mount Vernon, c. 1787—92.
Anonymous, A View of Mount Vernon, c. 1790.
George Isham Parkyns, Mount Vernon, 1795.
Thomas Jefferson, Bird’s-eye view of the University of Virginia, c. 1820.
Charles W. Burton, View of the Capitol, 1824.
Anonymous, “Entrance to Mount Auburn,” in American Magazine of Useful and Entertaining Knowledge 1, no. 1 (September 1834): 9.
Fitz Hugh Lane after Charles Hubbard, The National Lancers with the Reviewing Officers on Boston Common, 1837.
Anonymous, Plan of a Flower Garden, in Magazine of Horticulture 6, no. 5 (May 1840): 187, fig. 6.
Anonymous, Plan of a Flower Garden, in Magazine of Horticulture 6, no. 5 (May 1840): 187, fig. 7.
Robert Mills, Alternative plan for the grounds of the National Institution, 1841.
Anonymous, “A Small Arabesque Flower Garden,” in A. J. Downing, ed., Horticulturist 2, no. 11 (May 1848): 504.
Anonymous, “Beaverwyck, the Seat of Wm. P. Van Rensselaer, Esq.,” in A. J. Downing, A Treatise on the Theory and Practice of Landscape Gardening, 4th ed. (1849), pl. opp. 51, fig. 7.
Anonymous, “View in the Grounds at Pine Bank,” in A. J. Downing, A Treatise on the Theory and Practice of Landscape Gardening , 4th ed. (1849; repr., 1991), pl. opp. 57.
Anonymous, “View in the Grounds of James Arnold, Esq.” in A. J. Downing, A Treatise on the Theory and Practice of Landscape Gardening, 4th ed. (1849), pl. opp. 57.
Anonymous, “Plan of a Suburban Garden,” in A. J. Downing, ed., Horticulturist 3, no. 8 (February 1849): pl. opp. 353.
Frederick Graff, Plan of Lemon Hill and Sedgley Park, Fairmount and Adjoining Property, October 15, 1851.
Edward Sachse, View of Washington, 1852.
Batty Langley, Garden with a canal, in New Principles of Gardening (1728), pl. IV.
Benjamin Henry Latrobe, Garden plan with outbuildings, from “Buildings Erected or Proposed to be Built in Virginia,” 1795—99.
Benjamin Henry Latrobe, Sedgeley, c. 1799.
Amy Cox, attr., Box Grove, c. 1800.
Charles Fraser, Wigton on Saint James, Goose Creek: The Seat of James Fraser, Esq., c. 1800.
John L. Boqueta de Woiseri, A View of New Orleans taken from the plantation of Marigny, November 1803.
Francis Guy, Bolton, view from the South, c. 1805.
William Russell Birch, View from Springland, c. 1808.
William Russell Birch, “The View from Springland,” in The Country Seats of the United States of North America: With Some Scenes Connected with Them (1808), pl. 2.
Anne-Marguerite-Henriette Rouillé de Marigny Hyde de Neuville, The Moreau House, July 2, 1809.
Rebecca Chester, A Full View of Deadrick’s Hill, 1810.
George Bridport, Design for Washington Monument, Washington Square, Philadelphia, 1816.
Benjamin Henry Latrobe, Elevation of the South front of the President’s house, copied from the design as proposed to be altered in 1807, January 1817.
William Rush, North East or Franklin Public Square, Philadelphia, 1824.
Alexander Jackson Davis, Castle Garden, N. York, c. 1825—28.
Anthony Imbert after Alexander Jackson Davis, View of the Battery and Castle Garden, 1826—28.
Alexander Jackson Davis, Unexecuted Design for Cross-Block Terrace Development (perspective), c. 1831.
Alexander Jackson Davis, Ithiel Town, and James Dakin, New York University, Washington Square, 1833.
Anonymous, “View of Mount Auburn,” in American Magazine of Useful and Entertaining Knowledge 2, no. 6 (February 1836), 234.
William S. Jewett, Mount Washington, 1847.
M. Schmitz (artist), Thomas S. Sinclair (lithographer), John B. Colahan (surveyor), Map of Washington Square, Philadelphia, 1843.
Anonymous, “The Shrubbery and Flower Garden,” in Cultivator 5, no. 4 (April 1848): 114.
Weingärtner & Sarony, “Smithsonian Institution, from the North East,” in Robert Dale Owen, Hints on Public Architecture (1849), pl. opp. 108.
Anonymous, “Example of the beautiful in Landscape Gardening,” in A. J. Downing, A Treatise on the Theory and Practice of Landscape Gardening, 4th ed. (1849), opp. 273, fig. 15.
Robert P. Smith, View of Washington, c. 1850.
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- A.-J. (Antoine Joseph) Dézallier d’Argenville, The Theory and Practice of Gardening; Wherein Is Fully Handled All That Relates to Fine Gardens, . . . Containing Divers Plans, and General Dispositions of Gardens; . . . , trans. by John James (London: Geo. James, 1712; repr., London: Farnborough, 1969), view on Zotero.
- Stephen Switzer, Ichnographia Rustica, or The Nobleman, Gentleman and Gardener’s Recreation. . . , 1st ed., 3 vols. (London: D. Browne, 1718; repr., New York: Garland, 1982), view on Zotero.
- Batty Langley, New Principles of Gardening, or The Laying out and Planting Parterres, Groves, Wildernesses, Labyrinths, Avenues, Parks, &c. (London: A. Bettesworth and J.Batley, etc., 1728; repr., New York: Garland, 1982), view on Zotero.
- Ephraim Chambers, Cyclopaedia, or An Universal Dictionary of Arts and Sciences. . . , 5th ed., 2 vols. (London: D. Midwinter et al., 1741), view on Zotero.
- Philip Miller, The Gardeners Dictionary (1754; New York: Verlag Von J. Cramer, 1969), view on Zotero.
- Philip Miller, The Gardeners Dictionary: Containing the Methods of Cultivation and Improving the Kitchen, Fruit, and Flower Garden. As Also, the Physick Garden, Wilderness, Conservatory, and Vineyard. . . Interspers’d with the History of the Plants, the Characters of Each Genus and the Names of All the Particular Species, in Latin and English; and an Explanation of All the Terms Used in Botany and Gardening, Etc. , 7th ed. (London: Philip Miller, 1759), view on Zotero.
- Thomas Mawe and John Abercrombie, The Universal Gardener and Botanist, or A General Dictionary of Gardening and Botany (London: Printed for G. Robinson et al., 1778), view on Zotero.
- Thomas A. Sheridan, A Complete Dictionary of the English Language, Carefully Revised and Corrected by John Andrews. . . , 5th ed. (Philadelphia: William Young, 1789), view on Zotero.
- William Marshall, On Planting and Rural Ornament: A Practical Treatise . . ., 2 vols. (London: G. and W. Nicol, G. and J. Robinson, T. Cadell, and W. Davies, 1803), view on Zotero.
- John Gardiner and David Hepburn, The American Gardener, Containing Ample Directions for Working a Kitchen Garden Every Month in the Year, and Copious Instructions for the Cultivation of Flower Gardens, Vineyards, Nurseries, Hop Yards, Green Houses and Hot Houses (Washington, DC: Printed by Samuel H. Smith, 1804), view on Zotero.
- Bernard M’Mahon, The American Gardener’s Calendar: Adapted to the Climates and Seasons of the United States. Containing a Complete Account of All the Work Necessary to Be Done. . . for Every Month of the Year. . . (Philadelphia: Printed by B. Graves for the author, 1806), view on Zotero.
- Grant Thorburn, The Gentleman and Gardener’s Kalender for the Middle States of North America, 2nd ed. (New York: E. B. Gould, 1817), view on Zotero.
- J. C. (John Claudius) Loudon, An Encyclopaedia of Gardening; Comprising the Theory and Practice of Horticulture, Floriculture, Arboriculture, and Landscape-Gardening, 4th ed. (London: Longman et al., 1826), view on Zotero.
- William Prince, A Short Treatise on Horticulture (New York: T. and J. Swords, 1828), view on Zotero.
- Noah Webster, An American Dictionary of the English Language, 2 vols. (New York: S. Converse, 1828), view on Zotero.
- James E. Teschemacher, “On Horticultural Architecture,” Horticultural Register, and Gardener’s Magazine 1 (November 1, 1835): 409–12, view on Zotero.
- Anonymous, “Landscape Gardening,” Horticultural Register, and Gardener’s Magazine 3 (April 1, 1837): 121–31, view on Zotero.
- Robert Buist, The American Flower Garden Directory, 2nd ed. (Philadelphia: Carey and Hart, 1841), view on Zotero.
- A. J. Downing, “Design for a Small Flower Garden,” The Horticulturist and Journal of Rural Art and Rural Taste 2, no. 11 (May 1848): 503–5, view on Zotero.
- Charles Wyllys Elliott, “Reviews: Cottages and Cottage Life,” The Horticulturist and Journal of Rural Art and Rural Taste 3, no. 4 (October 1848): 179–82, view on Zotero.
- A. J. [Andrew Jackson] Downing, A Treatise on the Theory and Practice of Landscape Gardening, Adapted to North America, 4th edn (1849; repr., Washington, DC: Dumbarton Oaks Research Library and Collection, 1991), view on Zotero.
- Joseph Breck, The Flower-Garden, or Breck’s Book of Flowers (Boston: John P. Jewett, 1851), view on Zotero.
- Kenneth Hawkins, “The Therapeutic Landscape: Nature, Architecture, and Mind in Nineteenth-Century America” (PhD diss., University of Rochester, 1991), view on Zotero.
- William H. Ranlett, The Architect, 2 vols. (1849–51; repr. New York: Da Capo, 1976), view on Zotero.
- George Jaques, “Trees in Cities,” Magazine of Horticulture, Botany, and All Useful Discoveries and Improvements in Rural Affairs 17, no. 2 (February 1851): 50−52, view on Zotero.