A Project of the Center for Advanced Study in the Visual Arts, National Gallery of Art
History of Early American Landscape Design

Difference between revisions of "Veranda"

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==History==
 
==History==
[[File:0320.jpg|thumb|left|Fig. 1, [[William Russell Birch]],"York-Island with a View of the Seats of Mr. A. Gracie, Mr. Church &c.," 1808.]]
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[[File:0320.jpg|thumb|left|Fig. 1, William Russell Birch, “York-Island with a View of the Seats of Mr. A. Gracie, Mr. Church &c.,1808, in William Russell Birch, ''The Country Seats of the United States'' (2009), p. 75, pl. 17.]]
Several words were used synonymously to describe covered walks or spaces supported by [[column]]s or piers and attached to, or to part of, a building. This architectural feature spoke to the interrelatedness of architecture and gardens, a relationship that grew out of the romantic interest in landscape characterizing the aesthetics of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries.
 
[[File:0916.jpg|thumb|Fig. 2, Anonymous, "Bracketed Veranda from the inside", 1850.]]
 
Two images exemplify the importance of the [[piazza]], veranda, [[porch]], and [[portico]] in creating and framing views of the garden and landscape. The first is a drawing of [[York Island]], Long Island, by [[William Russell Birch]] (1808), who explained that the [[view]] was taken from the [[piazza]], a place from which one could see "innumerable [[seat]]s, spreading over an extensive country which glittered as the sun arose" [Fig. 1].<ref>William Russell Birch, ''The Country Seats of the United States of North America: With Some Scenes Connected with Them'' (Springland, Pa.: W. Birch, 1808), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/BAIMV4GZ view on Zotero].</ref> The second is from [[A. J. Downing]]'s book on wooden [[picturesque]] houses, ''The Architecture of Country Houses'' (1850) [Fig. 2]. Both illustrated views from the bracketed [[piazza]], or veranda, as [[A. J. Downing|Downing]] preferred to call it, out to the distant [[prospect]].
 
  
Various treatises used all of these terms interchangeably in their definitions. [[Alexander Jackson Davis]] and [[A. J. Downing|Downing]] also used the term 'umbrage' to refer to the same feature on a house, implying a place of shade.<ref> William Pierson, Jr., traces the origins of the feature, specifically found in [[Alexander Jackson Davis]] and [[A. J. Downing|A. J. Downing]]'s work, to the awning or canopy partaking of an oriental flavor. In general, its origin was a semi-enclosed outdoor space that was not at all architectural but was related to the ornamental canopy or tent. This connection might explain why the detail flourished during the high romantic period in American architecture. See Pierson, ''American Buildings and Their Architects: Technology and the Picturesque, the Corporate and the Early Gothic Styles'', vol. 2 (New York: Doubleday, 1978), 300-304, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/J8FITVZG/q/Pierson| view on Zotero.]</ref> [[Mary Elizabeth Latrobe]] mentioned that in New Orleans the [[piazza]] was known as the gallery.<ref name="Latrobe_1951"> Benjamin Henry Latrobe. ''Impressions Respecting New Orleans: Diaries and Sketches, 1818–1820'', ed. Samuel Wilson (New York: Columbia University Press, 1951), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/MJS5EE69/q/latrobe view on Zotero]. </ref> Contrasting usage of these words sometimes could offer distinctions. Rev. Manasseh Cutler, for example, in his description of [[Monticello]], said that the term "[[portico]]" refers to smaller entrance porches and the term "[[piazza]]" to extended covered walkways stretching perpendicularly from the [[portico]]s. For the purposes of this essay, each of the four key terms will be described in turn, highlighting any specific meanings that have been attributed to them.  
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Veranda is one of several words (including [[piazza]], [[porch]], and [[portico]]) used to describe covered [[walk]]s or spaces supported by [[column]]s or piers and attached to, or to part of, a building. This architectural feature spoke to the interrelatedness of architecture and gardens, a relationship that grew out of the romantic interest in landscape characterizing the aesthetics of the 18th and 19th centuries. Two images exemplify the importance of these structures in creating and framing views of the garden and landscape. The first is a drawing of York Island, Long Island, by William Russell Birch (1808), who explained that the [[view]] was taken from the [[piazza]], a place from which one could see “innumerable [[seat]]s, spreading over an extensive country which glittered as the sun arose” [Fig. 1].<ref>William Russell Birch, ''The Country Seats of the United States of North America: With Some Scenes Connected with Them'' (Springland, PA: W. Birch, 1808), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/BAIMV4GZ view on Zotero].</ref> The second is from [[Andrew Jackson Downing|A. J. Downing's]] book on wooden [[picturesque]] houses, ''The Architecture of Country Houses'' (1850) [Fig. 2]. Both illustrate views from the bracketed [[piazza]], or veranda, as [[A. J. Downing|Downing]] preferred to call it, out to the distant [[prospect]].
[[File:1732.jpg|thumb|Fig. 3, [[Batty Langley|Batty]] and [[Thomas Langley]], "Four Examples of Arcades for Piazza's", 1747.]]
 
In 1828, [[Frances Milton Trollope]], the acerbic critic of American art and architecture, described the [[piazza]] as a "luxury almost universal in the country houses of America." Indeed it was a feature found throughout the colonies and dates from the late eighteenth to the mid-nineteenth centuries. From Massachusetts to the lower Mississippi Valley, examples are found on both private and public buildings. The feature was adapted to various styles with appropriate detailing and ornamentation. The [[piazza]] was a projecting [[porch]] or connecting passage that was identifiable in neoclassical [[plantation]] houses in the South, as well as in the Gothic revival suburban cottages of New Jersey and Pennsylvania. There were countless variations ranging from the simple wooden post-and-lintel type, to stone-[[arch]]ed [[piazza]]s depicted by [[Batty Langley]] [Fig. 3] and mentioned in 1839 at [[Laurel Hill Cemetery]] in Philadelphia.
 
[[File:0549.jpg|thumb|left|Fig. 4, Victor de Grailly, ''View of Mount Vernon'', c. 1840-50.]]
 
[[File:0597.jpg|thumb|Fig. 5, William Strickland, "Sketch of the Principal Story of the [United States] Naval Asylum", 1826. Seven piazzas are marked on all the fa&ccedil;ades]]
 
In texts and images related to American gardens of the period under study, although several imported treatises traced "[[piazza]]" back to covered walkways that surrounded the [[square]], the term has not been associated with the Italian term for a medieval or renaissance [[square]]. It was generally described as two related but somewhat distinctive appendages to buildings. First, the [[piazza]] was attached [[porch]]-like to a fa&ccedil;ade so that three sides of the [[piazza]] projected out from the building [Fig. 4], or the sides were recessed into the structure, as on the main fa&ccedil;ade of the U.S. Naval Asylum in Philadelphia [Fig. 5]. At other times it appeared on more than one fa&ccedil;ade [Fig. 6]. In New Orleans one house was described as having [[piazza]]s on all four sides. Both one- and two-story [[piazza]]s were also built. Second, "[[piazza]]" also referred to a covered walkway embedded between two buildings and acting as a connecting link. A single- or even double-height [[piazza]], such as that described in 1799 on a property in Richmond, Va., provided either an entrance or transition space from interior architecture to exterior space. In the case of the University of Virginia, [[piazza]]s linked the entire range of houses around the lawn, and they served as transitional spaces leading to the lawn [Fig. 7].
 
[[File:0233.jpg|thumb|left|Fig. 6, Charles Fraser, ''Another View of Brabants, on French Quarter Creek, [[Seat]] of the Late Bishop Smith'', 1800.]]
 
[[File:0505.jpg|thumb|Fig. 7, Anonymous (artist), Benjamin Tanner, (engraver), ''University of Virginia'', 1826. Seven piazzas are marked on all the fa&ccedil;ades]]
 
The [[piazza]]'s basic structure consisted of a roof supported by pillars or [[column]]s. A [[piazza]] might be walled on each side with Venetian blinds or, as Harriet Martineau described one in 1835, "draperied with vines." Flooring was stone, flag, wooden planks, or gravel. The roof was generally either flat or peaked. James E. Teschemacher (1835), however, described and illustrated a [[piazza]] with a concave roof formed of painted floor cloth fastened on wooden rafters, which were supported by wooden [[arch]]es. Several images depict the piazza at ground level opening directly out into the landscape. Some examples, however, describe broad and spacious flights of stairs leading from the piazza and 'descending into the garden.' At [[Thomas Jefferson|Thomas Jefferson's]] [[Monticello]] (Charlottesville) and [[Poplar Forest]] (Bedford County, Va.), the [[piazza]]s had no immediate access to the ground but instead were raised, balcony-like structures overlooking the garden. Even if not a physical link, the visual connection to the exterior remained critical to the function of this feature.  
 
  
The nineteenth-century architect <span id="Ranlett_cite"></span> William H. Ranlett, who used them often in his residential design, praised [[piazza]]s for their "very expressive" purpose ([[#Ranlett|view text]]). They functioned as sitting areas that were furnished with couches, chairs, and sometimes tables where one could take a meal. They were used to provide a place for walking or sitting and enjoying the breeze, shade and coolness; they also served to keep the sun from warming the interior of the house. Since the feature was designed to provide [[view]]s in addition to protection from the sun, orientation of the piazza had to be planned with regard to the sun and surrounding environment. At [[Hyde Park]], a visitor in 1830 mentioned that one [[piazza]] was open to the Hudson River and the other looked over a beautiful [[lawn]], suggesting that the [[view]] dictated where the [[piazza]]s might be located.
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[[File:0916.jpg|thumb|Fig. 2, Anonymous, “Bracketed Veranda from the inside,” in [[A. J. Downing]], ''The Architecture of Country Houses'' (1850), p. 122, fig. 45.]]
[[File:0350.jpg|thumb|Fig. 8, [[Alexander Jackson Davis]], "View in the Grounds at Blithewood", 1849.]]
 
Ranlett was emphatic when he decreed that a "dwelling should always have one or more of them [[piazza|[piazzas]]]." He regarded the absence of a [[piazza]] on a new house an indication of ignorance, niggardliness, and narrow- minded views.<span id="Downing1 _cite"></span> [[A. J. Downing|Downing]] (1850) went so far as to proclaim the lack of a [[piazza]] or veranda in any but the most utilitarian structure as "unphilosophical and false in taste!" He claimed that it was a resting place, lounging spot, and place of social resort of the whole family across nearly the entire extent of the United States ([[#Downing1|view text]]) [Fig. 8].
 
  
Appearing only in the mid-nineteenth century in treatise literature with any frequency, the term "veranda" (also spelled verandah) was used in 1748 in Pehr Kalm's ''Travels in North America'', in which he described small balconies or [[porch]]es on houses.<ref>Kalm, ''The America of 1750: Peter Kalm's Travels in North America'', trans. and rev. Adolph B. Benson (New York: Wilson-Erickson, 1937), 121. In his study of the veranda, Anthony D. King wrote, "It is generally accepted that the term 'verandah,' as used in England and France, and later in the British colonial world, came into the English landscape from India, the origins being either Persian, or, more likely Spanish or Portuguese." See King, ''The Bungalow: The Production of a Global Culture'', 2nd ed. (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1995), 266.</ref> Many visual and textual examples indicate that veranda served as an intermediary space between a house and its garden. <span id="Downing2_cite"></span> [[A. J. Downing|Downing]] described it as an overhanging or low roof supported by an open colonnade or framework. He recommended that it have a gravel or wooden surface rising six to eight inches above the surrounding ground ([[#Downing2|view text]]). Climbing plants often covered verandas. Some writers refer to arbor-verandas and also mention the latticework that provided screening and support for climbing plants. Ornamental brackets and bargeboards also added to the decorations of the veranda.  
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Treatises often used these terms interchangeably, along with a few less common words. [[A. J. Downing|Downing]] and [[Alexander Jackson Davis]] used the term “umbrage” to refer to the same feature on a house, implying a place of shade;<ref>William Pierson Jr., traces the origins of the feature, specifically found in Alexander Jackson Davis and A. J. Downing's work, to the awning or canopy partaking of an oriental flavor. In general, its origin was a semi-enclosed outdoor space that was not at all architectural but was related to the ornamental canopy or tent. This connection might explain why the detail flourished during the high romantic period in American architecture. See Pierson, ''American Buildings and Their Architects: Technology and the Picturesque, the Corporate and the Early Gothic Styles'', vol. 2 (New York: Doubleday, 1978), 300-4, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/J8FITVZG/q/Pierson| view on Zotero].</ref> <span id="Downing_1850_1_cite"></span> Downing used the term “[[pavilion]]” synonymously with “veranda” ([[#Downing_1850_1|view text]]); and Mary Elizabeth Latrobe mentioned that in New Orleans the [[piazza]] was also known as the gallery.<ref name="Latrobe_1951"> Benjamin Henry Latrobe. ''Impressions Respecting New Orleans: Diaries and Sketches, 1818–1820'', ed. Samuel Wilson (New York: Columbia University Press, 1951), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/MJS5EE69/q/latrobe view on Zotero].</ref> Contrasting usage sometimes reveals distinctions.In his plan for a country house, Downing also used the term "porch" to identify the central area of the veranda leading to the entryway. The 19th-century architect William H. Ranlett <span id="Ranlett2_cite"></span>sometimes distinguished between [[piazza]] and [[veranda]], using “[[piazza]]” for a [[walk]] over which a projecting roof might be added, and “veranda” for a structure that included a roof ([[#Ranlett2|view text]]). Two points are important in the history of these terms: First, these architectural elements served to elide the boundaries of the garden and building by linking interior and exterior space both visually and physically. Second, the associative values of refinement and domesticity, and even national progress, were read into the forms.
  
The term was, as mentioned, often used interchangeably with "[[porch]]," "[[portico]]," and "[[piazza]]." <span id="Ranlett2_cite"></span> Ranlett sometimes distinguished between the two, using "[[piazza]]" for a projecting roof and "veranda" for an overhanging roof ([[#Ranlett2|view text]]). [[A. J. Downing|Downing]] used the term "[[porch]]" to identify that part of the veranda where steps led from the ground to the entryway. He also used the term [["pavilion"]] synonymously with "veranda".  
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Appearing only in the mid-19th century in treatise literature with any frequency, the term “veranda” (also spelled verandah) was used in 1748 in Pehr Kalm's ''Travels in North America'', in which he described small balconies or [[porch]]es on houses.<ref>Kalm, ''The America of 1750: Peter Kalm's Travels in North America'', trans. and rev. Adolph B. Benson (New York: Wilson-Erickson, 1937), 121, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/keywords_in_early_american_landscape_design/items/itemKey/94EZM2V4? view on Zotero]. In his study of the veranda, Anthony D. King wrote, “It is generally accepted that the term ‘verandah,’ as used in England and France, and later in the British colonial world, came into the English landscape from India, the origins being either Persian, or, more likely Spanish or Portuguese.“ See King, ''The Bungalow: The Production of a Global Culture'', 2nd ed. (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1995), 266, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/keywords_in_early_american_landscape_design/items/itemKey/97MQ3BFB viwe on Zotero].</ref> Many visual and textual examples indicate that the veranda served as an intermediary space between a house and its garden. <span id="Downing2_cite"></span> [[A. J. Downing|Downing]] described it as an overhanging or low roof supported by an open colonnade or framework. He recommended that it have a gravel or wooden surface rising six to eight inches above the surrounding ground ([[#Downing2|view text]]). Climbing plants often covered verandas. Some writers refer to [[arbor]]-verandas and also mention the latticework that provided screening and support for climbing plants. Ornamental brackets and bargeboards also added to the decorations of the veranda.  
  
<span id="Downing1 _cite"></span> [[A. J. Downing|Downing]] (1850) expounded at length on the meaning of the veranda, which he saw as a truly American feature not found in European architecture ([[#Downing1|view text]]).<ref> This, of course, was not true because the veranda was featured in both John Plaw, ''Sketches for Country Houses, Villas and Rural Dwellings'' (London: S. Gosnell for J. Taylor, 1800), and J. B. Papworth, ''Penny Cyclopaedia'' (London: J. Taylor, 1818), as pointed out by King, ''The Bungalow'', 266-67. </ref> Always concerned with identifying a national style, he believed that the veranda, in addition to providing shade and transitional zone from house to garden, was not simply ornamental but useful and "connected with the life of the owner of the cottage." Its presence expressed the ownership of a family exhibiting rural taste and a love of [[picturesque|[picturesque]]] character, a family "at home in the country."
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[[File:0350.jpg|thumb|left|Fig. 3, [[Alexander Jackson Davis]], “View in the Grounds at [[Blithewood]],” in [[A. J. Downing]], ''A Treatise on the Theory and Practice of Landscape Gardening'' (1849), frontispiece.]]
[[File:0955.jpg|thumb|left|Fig. 9, [[Alexander Jackson Davis]], "View N.W. at Blithewood", c. 1841.]]
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<span id="Downing1_cite"></span> [[A. J. Downing|Downing]] (1850) expounded at length on the meaning of the veranda, which he saw as a truly American feature not found in European architecture ([[#Downing1|view text]]).<ref>This, of course, was not true because the veranda was featured in both John Plaw, ''Sketches for Country Houses, Villas and Rural Dwellings'' (London: S. Gosnell for J. Taylor, 1800), and J. B. Papworth, ''Penny Cyclopaedia'' (London: J. Taylor, 1818), as pointed out by King, ''The Bungalow'', 266-67, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/keywords_in_early_american_landscape_design/items/itemKey/97MQ3BFB view on Zotero].</ref> Always concerned with identifying a national style, he believed that the veranda, in addition to providing shade and transitional zone from house to garden, was not simply ornamental but useful and “connected with the life of the owner of the cottage.Its presence expressed the ownership of a family exhibiting rural taste and a love of [[picturesque]] character, a family “at home in the country.Downing (1850) went so far as to proclaim the lack of a [[piazza]] or veranda in any but the most utilitarian structure as “unphilosophical and false in taste!” He claimed that it was a resting place, lounging spot, and place of social resort of the whole family across nearly the entire extent of the United States [Fig. 3].
Although the veranda was an architectural feature found in the colonial and early national periods, it became a key component of asymmetrical [[picturesque]] design for both landscape and architecture in the 1840s.<ref>Vincent J. Scully, ''The Shingle Style and the Stick Style: Architectural Theory and Design from Downing to the Origins of Wright'' (New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1971), introduction.</ref> Many illustrations for house pattern books by [[A. J. Downing|Downing]] and his followers depicted plans and elevations in various romantic styles that feature the veranda as an element in a new spatial organization that experimented with the interweaving of interior and exterior space. In his ''Treatise'' (1849) [[A. J. Downing|Downing]] wrote, "architectural beauty must be considered conjointly with the beauty of the landscape or situation," and "if properly designed and constructed . . . will even serve to impress a character on the surrounding landscape."<ref> [[A. J. Downing]], ''A Treatise on the Theory and Practice of Landscape Gardening'' (New York: G. P. Putnam, 1849), 370. </ref> That the frontispiece to his ''Treatise'' illustrated the veranda at [[Blithewood]] underscores the importance of this theoretical stance. Another drawing of [[Blithewood]] [Fig. 9] by [[Alexander Jackson Davis]] presented, from the house and through the semi-enclosed space of the veranda, the view of the landscape toward the river, exemplifying the interpenetration of space that became for [[Alexander Jackson Davis|Davis]] and [[A. J. Downing|Downing]] an important characteristic of their architecture. Architectural historians have written about the veranda as a major component in [[picturesque]] architecture and a mark of distinction between American and English houses of the Gothic revival.<ref> William H. Pierson, Jr., ''American Buildings and Their Architects: Technology and the Picturesque, the Corporate and the Early Gothic Styles'' (New York: Doubleday, 1978), 302-4. See also King, ''The Bungalow'', 267, where the author writes that "[a]n architectural note of the term, verandah," emphasized that "it was common as a fashionable architectural feature in England during the early nineteenth century," and does not recognize an American distinctiveness.</ref>
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[[File:0955.jpg|thumb|Fig. 4, [[Alexander Jackson Davis]], ''View N.W. at [[Blithewood]]'', c. 1841.]]
[[File:0322.jpg|thumb|left|Fig. 10, [[William Russell Birch]], "China Retreat Pennsyla the Seat of Mr Manigault", 1808.]]
 
[[File:0182.jpg|thumb|Fig. 11, Caroline Elizabeth Burgwin Clitherall, attr., ''The Hermitage'', c. 1805.]]
 
The term "[[porch]]," as the 1828 dictionary entry by [[Noah Webster]] indicates, refers to a roofed architectural element often supported by [[column]]s or piers, either attached to a building or existing as an independent garden structure. During the colonial and early Republic periods three kinds of porches were evident throughout America. First, the [[porch]] was either an open or enclosed projecting roofed area of a building that sheltered a doorway or entrance [Fig. 10]. Since most gardens were situated next to the house, a [[porch]] was often a point of access from the house to the ornamental grounds. Eliza Caroline Burgwin Clitherall (active 1801) depicted such a porch at the Hermitage in Wilmington, N.C. [Fig. 11].
 
[[File:0358.jpg|thumb|Fig. 12, Anonymous, Rustic [[Seat]] at Montgomery Place, 1847.]]
 
[[File:1768.jpg|thumb|left|Fig. 13, Anonymous, "Principal Floor" of a Symmetrical Stone Farm House, 1850.]]
 
The second meaning of the term referred to a covered sitting and viewing area that was either attached to the building or was free-standing. In describing the use of [[porch]]es as "decorative marks to the entrances of scenes" (akin to those of a theater proscenium), [[J. C. Loudon]] was referring to their use as embellished shelters over benches or seats placed in the garden. [[A. J. Downing|Downing's]] description of the rustic [[porch]] at [[Montgomery Place]], on the Hudson River in Dutchess County, N.Y., argues that in addition to punctuating or shaping garden scenery, as [[J. C. Loudon|Loudon]] recommended, [[porch]]es, if appropriately placed and decorated, offered a way to situate a [[seat]] in the landscape thereby directing a [[view]] or [[prospect]] [Fig. 12]. Its function also allowed those seated to observe the landscape in all kinds of weather, as described in 1749 by Pehr Kalm. [[A. J. Downing|Downing's]] [[porch]]es make clear the function of the [[porch]] as a mediator between interior and exterior realms. He praised [[porch]]es that were covered with vegetation for easing the transition from outside to inside, and for providing evidence of the cultivated domesticity within the home [Fig. 13].  
 
[[File:1254.jpg|thumb|left|Fig. 14, John Notam, "No. 1 Ground Plan, Smithsonian Institute", December 23, 1846.]]
 
[[File:0551.jpg|thumb|Fig. 15, John Lewis Krimmel, ''Fourth of July in Centre Square'', 1812.]]
 
The third kind of [[porch]] is described by [[A. J. Downing|Downing]] as the carriage [[porch]], or ''porte coch&egrave;re'', where in a grand home the arriving guests drew up under an architectural canopy for shelter. [[John Notman]] similarly inscribed the term ''porte coch&egrave;re'' on his unexecuted design for the Smithsonian Institution in Washington, D.C. [Fig. 14]. He includes porches for the side entrances and [[piazza]]s for galleries running along the fa&ccedil;ades.
 
  
The term "[[portico]]" was also used when referring to a covered space that was supported by [[column]]s or piers and was attached to a building. Semantic distinctions were made, however, using "portico" to identify the principal entrances to the house and "[[piazza]]" for the extended side [[porch]]es. The higher status of the [[portico]], as opposed to [[piazza]], veranda, or [[porch]], was emphasized by its frequent modification by adjectives such as "handsome," "noble," and "elegant" [Fig. 15]. The word "[[portico]]" seems not to have been used to refer to covered walkways that linked separate buildings, as is made clear in the distinction in 1777 regarding the College of William and Mary in Williamsburg, Va.  
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Although the veranda was an architectural feature found in the colonial and early national periods, it became a key component of asymmetrical [[picturesque]] design for both landscape and architecture in the 1840s.<ref>Vincent J. Scully, ''The Shingle Style and the Stick Style: Architectural Theory and Design from Downing to the Origins of Wright'' (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1971), introduction, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/keywords_in_early_american_landscape_design/items/itemKey/297U533X view on Zotero].</ref> Many illustrations for house pattern books by [[A. J. Downing|Downing]] and his followers depicted plans and elevations in various romantic styles that feature the veranda as an element in a new spatial organization that experimented with the interweaving of interior and exterior space. In his ''Treatise'' (1849) [[A. J. Downing|Downing]] wrote, “architectural beauty must be considered conjointly with the beauty of the landscape or situation,” and “if properly designed and constructed. . . will even serve to impress a character on the surrounding landscape.<ref>A. J. Downing, ''A Treatise on the Theory and Practice of Landscape Gardening'' (New York: G. P. Putnam, 1849), 370, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/keywords_in_early_american_landscape_design/items/itemKey/K7BRCDC5 view on Zotero].</ref> That the frontispiece to his ''Treatise'' illustrated the veranda at [[Blithewood]] underscores the importance of this theoretical stance. Another drawing of [[Blithewood]] [Fig. 4] by [[Alexander Jackson Davis]] presented, from the house and through the semi-enclosed space of the veranda, the view of the landscape toward the river, exemplifying the interpenetration of space that became for [[Alexander Jackson Davis|Davis]] and [[A. J. Downing|Downing]] an important characteristic of their architecture. Architectural historians have written about the veranda as a major component in [[picturesque]] architecture and a mark of distinction between American and English houses of the Gothic revival.<ref> William H. Pierson Jr., ''American Buildings and Their Architects: Technology and the Picturesque, the Corporate and the Early Gothic Styles'' (New York: Doubleday, 1978), 302-4, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/keywords_in_early_american_landscape_design/items/itemKey/J8FITVZG view on Zotero]. See also King, ''The Bungalow'', 267, where the author writes that “[a]n architectural note of the term, verandah,” emphasized that “it was common as a fashionable architectural feature in England during the early 19th century,and does not recognize an American distinctiveness, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/keywords_in_early_american_landscape_design/items/itemKey/97MQ3BFB view on Zotero].</ref>
[[File:0646.jpg|thumb|left|Fig. 16, Anonymous, ''[[Montpelier]]'', 1835.]]
 
Margaret Bayard Smith in 1828 said the [[portico]] at President [[James Madison|James Madison's]] plantation, [[Montpelier]], commanded a [[view]], "a beautiful scene," of extensive [[lawn]]s and forests, where viewers walked through the [[portico]] until twilight when the landscape was no longer visible [Fig. 16]. <span id="Mason_cite"></span>[[John Mason]] recalled the [[portico]] at George Mason's Gunston Hall, near Mason Neck, Va., from which "you descended directly into an extensive garden."([[#Mason|view text]]) [[A. J. Downing|Downing's]] 1849 comments conveyed a similar meaning, suggesting that the [[portico]] served to connect the building, visually and also physically, "by gradual transition with the ground about it."
 
[[File:0580.jpg|thumb|Fig. 17, Lewis Miller, "[[Mount Vernon]]" [detail], c. 1835. Miller noted on his drawing that "A lofty [[portico]] ... has a pleasing effect when viewed from the water."]]
 
The [[portico]] served as a focal, as well as a viewing, point. [[Lewis Miller]], for example, in 1849 wrote that at [[Mount Vernon]] the "lofty [[portico]] . . . has a pleasing effect when viewed from the water" [Fig. 17]. Often the [[portico]] was distinguished from the building it ornamented by its material, creating a distant focus for the spectator from the garden or surrounding landscape. A brick building was sometimes ornamented with a contrasting white stone or painted wood [[portico]]. As [[David Bailie Warden]] noted in 1816, such a feature made a house "admirably adapted to the American climate."
 
[[File:1735.jpg|thumb|left|Fig. 18, [[Batty Langley|Batty]] and [[Thomas Langley]], "Gothick [sic] Portico", 1747.]]
 
[[File:0990.jpg|thumb|Fig. 19, [[Thomas Birch]], ''Southeast View of Sedgeley Park'', c. 1819]]
 
[[Portico]]s generally were dressed in a classical style, meaning that classical [[column]]s supported the low-pitched roof and the front was finished with an entablature and pediment. Many descriptions specified Doric (e.g., [[Centre Square]] in Philadelphia), Tuscan (e.g., the [[Woodlands]] near Philadelphia), or Corinthian (e.g., Ranlett's design for a house in Italian bracketed style). Two notable exceptions to the classical style, however, are well known. William Buckland's fanciful octagonal porch at [[Gunston Hall]] (1755-58) had ogee [[arch]]es and is thought to have been inspired by the writings of [[Batty Langley]], who promoted Gothic and chinoiserie details for architectural decoration [Fig. 18]. [[Benjamin Henry Latrobe|Benjamin Henry Latrobe's]] Gothic design for [[Sedgeley]], near Philadelphia (1799) [Fig. 19], which is considered one of the earliest Gothic revival houses in America, had tall slender posts supporting the roof.  
 
  
Thus, two points are important in the history of these terms: First, these architectural elements served to elide the boundaries of the garden and building by linking interior and exterior space both visually and physically. Second, the associative values of refinement and domesticity, and even national progress, were read into the forms.
+
''Therese O'Malley''
--''Therese O'Malley''
+
 
 +
<hr>
  
 
==Texts==
 
==Texts==
 
 
===Usage===
 
===Usage===
  
 +
* Kalm, Pehr, October 29, 1748, describing New Brunswick, NJ (1937: 1:121)<ref>Kalm, Pehr. 1937. ''The America of 1750: Peter Kalm’s Travels in North America. The English Version of 1770'', 2 vols. New York: Wilson-Erickson. [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/94EZM2V4 view on Zotero].</ref>
 +
: “The houses are covered with shingles. Before each door is a '''veranda''' to which you ascend by steps from the street; it resembles a small balcony, and has benches on both sides on which the people sit in the evening to enjoy the fresh air and to watch the passers-by.”
  
* [[Pehr Kalm|Kalm, Pehr]], October 29, 1748, describing New Brunswick, N.J. (1937: 1:121)<ref>Kalm, Pehr. 1937. ''The America of 1750: Peter Kalm’s Travels in North America. The English Version of 1770''. 2 vols. New York: Wilson-Erickson. [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/94EZM2V4 view on Zotero]</ref>
 
 
: "The houses are covered with shingles. Before each door is a '''veranda''' to which you ascend by steps from the street; it resembles a small balcony, and has benches on both sides on which the people sit in the evening to enjoy the fresh air and to watch the passers-by."
 
  
 +
[[File:0229.jpg|thumb|Fig. 5, [[Charles Fraser]], ''The Seat of John Julius Pringle Esquire—on Ashley River'', 1800.]]
 +
*Lambert, John, 1816, describing Charleston, SC (1816: 2:125)<ref name="Lambert 1816">John Lambert, ''Travels through Canada, and the United States of North America in the Years 1806, 1807, and 1808'', 2 vols. (London: Baldwin, Cradock, and Joy, 1816), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/T9KUEDWH view on Zotero].</ref>
  
* [[John Lambert|Lambert, John]], 1816, describing Charleston, S.C. (2:125)<ref name="Lambert 1816">John Lambert, T''ravels through Canada, and the United States of North America in the Years 1806, 1807, and 1808'', 2 vols. (London: Baldwin, Cradock, and Joy, 1816), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/T9KUEDWH view on Zotero.]</ref>
+
: “Almost every house is furnished with balconies and '''verandas''', some of which occupy the whole side of the building from top to bottom, having a gallery for each floor.[Fig. 5]
  
: "Almost every house is furnished with balconies and '''verandas''', some of which occupy the whole side of the building from top to bottom, having a gallery for each floor."
 
 
  
* [[Capt. Basil Hall|Hall, Capt. Basil]], 1828, describing a [[plantation]] he visited during his trip from Charleston, S.C., to Savannah, Ga. (quoted in Jones 1957: 98)<ref>Katharine M. Jones, ''The Plantation South'' (New York: Bobbs-Merrill, 1957), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/AT62T7KC/ view on Zotero].</ref>  
+
* Hall, Capt. Basil, 1828, describing a [[plantation]] he visited during his trip from Charleston, SC, to Savannah, GA (quoted in Jones 1957: 98)<ref>Katharine M. Jones, ''The Plantation South'' (New York: Bobbs-Merrill, 1957), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/AT62T7KC/ view on Zotero].</ref>  
 
   
 
   
: "From the drawing-room, we could walk into a '''verandah''' or [[piazza]], from which, by a flight of steps, we found our way into a [[flower garden]] and [[shrubbery]]."
+
: “From the drawing-room, we could walk into a '''verandah''' or [[piazza]], from which, by a flight of steps, we found our way into a [[flower garden]] and [[shrubbery]].
  
  
* [[Capt. Basil Hall|Hall, Capt. Basil]], 1828, describing Alabama (quoted in Lockwood 1934: 2:389)<ref>Alice B. Lockwood, ed., ''Gardens of Colony and State: Gardens and Gardeners of the American Colonies and of the Republic before 1840'', 2 vols. (New York: Charles Scribner’s for the Garden Club of America, 1931-34), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/JNB7BI9T view on Zotero].</ref>  
+
* Hall, Capt. Basil, 1828, describing Alabama (quoted in Lockwood 1934: 2:389)<ref>Alice B. Lockwood, ed., ''Gardens of Colony and State: Gardens and Gardeners of the American Colonies and of the Republic before 1840'', 2 vols. (New York: Charles Scribner’s for the Garden Club of America, 1931-34), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/JNB7BI9T view on Zotero].</ref>  
  
: "We soon left our comfortless abode [the inn] for as neat and trig [''sic''] a little villa as ever was seen in or out of the Tropics. This mansion, which in India would be called a Bungalow, was surrounded by white railings, within which lay an ornamental garden, intersected by gravel [[walk]]s, almost too thickly shaded by orange hedges, all in flower. From the light airy '''verandah''', we might look upon the Bay of Mobile. . . .Many similar houses nearly as [[picturesque]] as our own delightful habitation, speckled the landscape in the south and east, in rich keeping with the luxuriant foliage of that evergreen latitude."
+
: “We soon left our comfortless abode [the inn] for as neat and trig [''sic''] a little villa as ever was seen in or out of the Tropics. This mansion, which in India would be called a Bungalow, was surrounded by white railings, within which lay an ornamental garden, intersected by gravel [[walk]]s, almost too thickly shaded by orange [[hedge]]s, all in flower. From the light airy '''verandah''', we might look upon the Bay of Mobile. . . Many similar houses nearly as [[picturesque]] as our own delightful habitation, speckled the landscape in the south and east, in rich keeping with the luxuriant foliage of that evergreen latitude.
 
   
 
   
  
*[[Joseph Holt Ingraham|Ingraham, Joseph Holt]], 1835, describing a sugar [[plantation]] near New Orleans, La. (1:80-81)  
+
*Ingraham, Joseph Holt, 1835, describing a sugar [[plantation]] near New Orleans, LA (1835: 1:80–81)  
  
: "The house was quadrangular . . . [and] was built of wood, painted white, with Venetian blinds, and latticed '''verandas''', supported by slender and graceful [[pillar]]s, running round every side of the dwelling. . . . At each extremity of the [[piazza]] was a broad and spacious flight of steps, descending into the garden which enclosed the dwelling on every side."
+
: “The house was quadrangular. . . [and] was built of wood, painted white, with Venetian blinds, and latticed '''verandas''', supported by slender and graceful [[pillar]]s, running round every side of the dwelling. . . At each extremity of the [[piazza]] was a broad and spacious flight of steps, descending into the garden which enclosed the dwelling on every side.
 
   
 
   
  
* [[Sir Charles Lyell|Lyell, Sir Charles]], December 23, 1845, describing Charleston, S.C. (1849: 1:229)<ref name="Lyell_1849">Sir Charles Lyell, ''A Second Visit to the United States of North America'', 2 vols. (New York: Harper, 1849), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/DU6NKKZ5 view on Zotero.]</ref>  
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* Lyell, Sir Charles, December 23, 1845, describing Charleston, SC (1849: 1:229)<ref name="Lyell_1849">Sir Charles Lyell, ''A Second Visit to the United States of North America'', 2 vols. (New York: Harper, 1849), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/DU6NKKZ5 view on Zotero].</ref>  
  
: "Almost all the best houses in Charleston are built with '''verandahs''', and surrounded with gardens."
+
: “Almost all the best houses in Charleston are built with '''verandahs''', and surrounded with gardens.
 
   
 
   
  
* [[Sir Charles Lyell|Lyell, Sir Charles]], December 28, 1845, describing Beaufort, S.C. (1849: 1:231)<ref name="Lyell_1849"></ref>  
+
* Lyell, Sir Charles, December 28, 1845, describing Beaufort, SC (1849: 1:231)<ref name="Lyell_1849"></ref>  
  
: "we approached Beaufort, a [[picturesque]] town composed of an assemblage of villas, the summer residences of numerous planters, who retire here during the hot season, when the interior of South Carolina is unhealthy for the whites. Each villa is shaded by a '''verandah''', surrounded by beautiful live oaks and orange trees laden with fruit."
+
: “we approached Beaufort, a [[picturesque]] town composed of an assemblage of villas, the summer residences of numerous planters, who retire here during the hot season, when the interior of South Carolina is unhealthy for the whites. Each villa is shaded by a '''verandah''', surrounded by beautiful live oaks and orange trees laden with fruit.
  
  
[[File:0961.jpg|thumb|Fig. 24, [[J. C. Loudon]], Perspective view of a house in the village of Riceborough, 1850.]]
+
* Earle, Pliny, January 1848, describing Bloomingdale Asylum for the Insane, New York, NY (''Journal of Medicine'' 10: 64)  
* [[Pliny Earle|Earle, Pliny]], January 1848, describing [[Bloomingdale Asylum for the Insane]], New York, N.Y. (''Journal of Medicine'' 10: 64)  
 
  
: "The Physicians who object to [[yard]]s, or courts, advocate, as a substitute, open '''verandahs''' guarded by lattice-work, such as are found at the Massachusetts State Lunatic Hospital, and at some of the other institutions of this country."
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: “The Physicians who object to [[yard]]s, or courts, advocate, as a substitute, open '''verandahs''' guarded by lattice-work, such as are found at the Massachusetts State Lunatic Hospital, and at some of the other institutions of this country.
 
+
[[File:0961.jpg|thumb|Fig. 6, [[J. C. Loudon]], Perspective view of a house in the village of Riceborough, 1850.]]
 
* [[J. C. Loudon|Loudon, J. C.]], 1850, describing Riceborough, Ga.(p. 332)<ref>J. C. (John Claudius) Loudon, ''An Encyclopaedia of Gardening; Comprising the Theory and Practice of Horticulture, Floriculture, Arboriculture, and Landscape-Gardening'', A new ed., cor. amd improved (London: Longman et al, 1850) [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/W8EQFZUG view on Zotero]</ref>
 
  
: "854. . . . The village of Riceborough . . . is very [[picturesque]]. Most of the houses have '''verandas'''.... (''Hall's Sketches, &c.'', and ''Three Years in North America, &c.'')" [Fig. 24]
 
  
 +
* [[J. C. (John Claudius) Loudon|Loudon, J. C. (John Claudius)]], 1850, describing Riceborough, GA (1850: 332)<ref>J. C. (John Claudius) Loudon, ''An Encyclopaedia of Gardening; Comprising the Theory and Practice of Horticulture, Floriculture, Arboriculture, and Landscape-Gardening'', new ed., cor. and improved (London: Longman et al, 1850), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/W8EQFZUG view on Zotero].</ref>
  
* <div id="Mason"></div>[[General John Mason|Mason, General John]], c. 1830, describing [[Gunston Hall]], [[seat]] of [[George Mason]], Mason Neck, Va. (quoted in Rowland 1964: 1:98)<ref>Rowland, Kate Mason. 1964. ''The Life of George Mason: 1725-1792'', 2 vols. (New York: Russell and Russell, 1964), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/HTZXK292 view on Zotero].</ref>[[#Mason_cite|back up to history]]
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: “854. . . The village of Riceborough. . . is very [[picturesque]]. Most of the houses have '''verandas'''. . . (''Hall's Sketches, &c.'', and ''Three Years in North America, &c.'')[Fig. 6]
  
: "The south front looked to the river; from an elevated little '''portico''' on this front you descended directly into an extensive garden, touching the house on one side."
 
  
 
===Citations===
 
===Citations===
  
* [[Noah Webster|Webster, Noah]], 1828, ''An American Dictionary of the English Language'' (n.p.) <ref name="Webster_1828">Noah Webster, ''An American Dictionary of the English Language'', vol. 1 (New York: S. Converse, 1828), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/N7BSU467 view on Zotero]</ref>  
+
* [[Noah Webster|Webster, Noah]], 1828, ''An American Dictionary of the English Language'' (1828: n.p.)<ref name="Webster_1828">Noah Webster, ''An American Dictionary of the English Language'', vol. 1 (New York: S. Converse, 1828), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/N7BSU467 view on Zotero].</ref>  
  
: "'''VERAN'DA''', n. An oriental word denoting a kind of open [[portico]], formed by extending a sloping roof beyond the main building. ''Todd''."
+
: '''VERAN'DA''', n. An oriental word denoting a kind of open [[portico]], formed by extending a sloping roof beyond the main building. ''Todd''.
  
  
* [[A. J. Downing|Downing, A. J.]], August 1836, "Remarks on the Fitness of the different Styles of Architecture for the Construction of Country Residences, and on the Employment of Vases in Garden Scenery" (''American Gardeners' Magazine'' 2: 283)  
+
* [[Andrew Jackson Downing|Downing, Andrew Jackson]], August 1836, “Remarks on the Fitness of the different Styles of Architecture for the Construction of Country Residences, and on the Employment of Vases in Garden Scenery” (''American Gardeners’ Magazine'' 2: 283)<ref>A. J. Downing, “Remarks on the Fitness of the different Styles of Architecture for the Construction of Country Residences, and on the Employment of Vases in Garden Scenery,” ''American Gardeners’ Magazine, and Register of Useful Discoveries and Improvements in Horticulture and Rural Affairs'' 2, no. 8 (August 1836): 281–86, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/keywords_in_early_american_landscape_design/items/itemKey/J5HZKZAG view on Zotero].</ref>
  
: "There can scarcely be a more appropriate, agreeable and beautiful residence for a citizen who retires to the country for the summer, than a modern Italian villa, with its ornamented chimneys, its broad '''verandah''', forming a fine shady promenade, and its cool breezy apartments."
+
: “There can scarcely be a more appropriate, agreeable and beautiful residence for a citizen who retires to the country for the summer, than a modern Italian villa, with its ornamented chimneys, its broad '''verandah''', forming a fine shady [[promenade]], and its cool breezy apartments.
  
  
* <div id="Downing2"></div>[[A. J. Downing|Downing, A. J.]], 1849, ''A Treatise on the Theory and Practice of Landscape Gardening'' (p. 376)<ref name="Downing_1849">A. J. Downing, ''A Treatise on the Theory and Practice of Landscape Gardening, Adapted to North America; with a view to the improvement of country residences. Comprising historical notices and general principles of the art, directions for laying out grounds and arranging plantations, the description and cultivation of hardy trees, decorative accompaniments to the house and grounds, the formation of pieces of artificial water, flower gardens, etc.: with remarks on rural architecture'', 4th ed. (New York: G. P. Putnam, 1849), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/5M4S2D64 view on Zotero]</ref>[[#Downing2_cite|back up to history]]
+
* <div id="Downing2"></div>[[Andrew Jackson Downing|Downing, Andrew Jackson]], 1849, ''A Treatise on the Theory and Practice of Landscape Gardening'' (1849: 376)<ref name="Downing_1849">A. J. Downing, ''A Treatise on the Theory and Practice of Landscape Gardening'', 4th ed. (New York: G. P. Putnam, 1849), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/5M4S2D64 view on Zotero].</ref>
  
: "In this country no architectural feature is more plainly expressive of purpose in our dwelling-houses than the '''veranda''', or [[piazza]]. The unclouded splendor and fierce heat of our summer sun, render this very general appendage a source of real comfort and enjoyment; and the long '''veranda''' round many of our country residences stands instead of the paved [[terrace]]s of the English mansions as the place for [[promenade]]; while during the warmer portions of the season, half of the days or evenings are there passed in the enjoyment of cool breezes, secure under low roofs supported by the open colonnade, from the solar rays, or the dews of night. . . .  
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: “In this country no architectural feature is more plainly expressive of purpose in our dwelling-houses than the '''veranda''', or [[piazza]]. The unclouded splendor and fierce heat of our summer sun, render this very general appendage a source of real comfort and enjoyment; and the long '''veranda''' round many of our country residences stands instead of the paved [[terrace]]s of the English mansions as the place for [[promenade]]; while during the warmer portions of the season, half of the days or evenings are there passed in the enjoyment of cool breezes, secure under low roofs supported by the open colonnade, from the solar rays, or the dews of night. . .
 
<p></p>
 
<p></p>
: "The various projections and irregularities, caused by '''verandas''', [[portico]]es, etc., serve to connect the otherwise square masses of building, by gradual transition with the ground about it."
+
: “The various projections and irregularities, caused by '''verandas''', [[portico]]es, etc., serve to connect the otherwise square masses of building, by gradual transition with the ground about it.” [[#Downing2_cite|back up to History]]
 
   
 
   
  
* <div id="Ranlett"></div>[[William H. Ranlett|Ranlett, William H.]], 1849, ''The Architect'' ([1849] 1976: 1:21) <ref name= "Ranlett_1849">William H. Ranlett, ''The Architect'', 2 vols. (New York: Da Capo, 1976), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/QGQPCB5J/ view on Zotero.]</ref>[[#Ranlett_cite|back up to history]]
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* <div id="Ranlett"></div>Ranlett, William H., 1849, ''The Architect'' (1849; repr., 1976: 1:21)<ref name= "Ranlett_1849">William H. Ranlett, ''The Architect'', 2 vols. (1849–51; repr. New York: Da Capo, 1976), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/QGQPCB5J/ view on Zotero].</ref>
 +
 
 +
: “'''Verandas''', [[piazza]]s and [[porch]]es are very expressive of purpose, and a dwelling should always have one or more of them; and balconies, which are decidedly ornamental and not without use.” [[#Ranlett_cite|back up to History]]
  
: "'''Verandas''', [[piazza]]s and [[porch]]es are very expressive of purpose, and a dwelling should always have one or more of them; and balconies, which are decidedly ornamental and not without use."
 
 
  
* [[Walter Elder|Elder, Walter]], 1849, ''The Cottage Garden of America'' (p. 218)<ref>Walter Elder, ''The Cottage Garden of America'', (Philadelphia: Moss, 1849), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/NNC7BTFT view on Zotero]</ref>  
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*Elder, Walter, 1849, ''The Cottage Garden of America'' (1849: 218)<ref>Walter Elder, ''The Cottage Garden of America'', (Philadelphia: Moss, 1849), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/NNC7BTFT view on Zotero].</ref>  
  
: "A. What a fine place you have got! that is a neat, well painted front fence; the flower [[plat]] between it and the house, with the evergreen in the centre is beautiful, and that '''verandah''' over the door, covered with flowering vines, looks well."
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: “A. What a fine place you have got! that is a neat, well painted front fence; the flower [[plat]] between it and the house, with the evergreen in the centre is beautiful, and that '''verandah''' over the door, covered with flowering vines, looks well.
  
  
[[File:0919.jpg|thumb|Fig. 25, Anonymous, "Suburban Cottage", 1850.]]
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[[File:0919.jpg|thumb|Fig. 7, Anonymous, “Suburban Cottage,” in [[A. J. Downing]], ''The Architecture of Country Houses'' (1850), pl. opp. p. 109, figs. 33 and 34.]]
[[File:1308.jpg|thumb|Fig. 26, Anonymous, "Regular Bracketed Cottage", 1850.]]
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[[File:1308.jpg|thumb|Fig. 8, Anonymous, “Regular Bracketed Cottage,” in [[A. J. Downing]], ''The Architecture of Country Houses'' (1850), pl. opp. p. 112, figs. 37 and 38.]]
* <div id="Downing1"></div>[[A. J. Downing|Downing, A. J.]], 1850, ''The Architecture of Country Houses'' ([1850] 1968: 47, 109-10, 112-13, 118, 119-20, 122-23, 281, 308, 357-58)<ref>A. J. [Andrew Jackson] Downing, ''The Architecture of Country Houses; Including Designs for Cottages, Farm-houses, and Villas'' (Originally published New York: D. Appleton, 1850. Reprint, New York: De Capo, 1968) [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/GRZPQXQI view on Zotero]</ref> [[#Downing1_cite|back up to history]]
+
* <div id="Downing1"></div>[[Andrew Jackson Downing|Downing, Andrew Jackson]], 1850, ''The Architecture of Country Houses'' (1850; repr., 1968: 47, 109–10, 112–13, 118, 120, 122)<ref name="Downing_1850">Andrew Jackson Downing, ''The Architecture of Country Houses; Including Designs for Cottages, Farm-houses, and Villas'' (New York: D. Appleton, 1850; repr., New York: Da Capo, 1968) [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/GRZPQXQI view on Zotero].</ref>  
  
: "A much higher character is conferred on a simple cottage by a '''veranda''' than by a highly ornamental gable, because one indicates the constant means of enjoyment for the inmates&mdash;something in their daily life besides ministering to the necessities&mdash;while a more ornamental vergeboard shows something, the beauty of which is not so directly connected with the life of the owner of the cottage, and which is therefore less expressive, as well as less useful. . . .  
+
: “A much higher character is conferred on a simple cottage by a '''veranda''' than by a highly ornamental gable, because one indicates the constant means of enjoyment for the inmates—something in their daily life besides ministering to the necessities—while a more ornamental vergeboard shows something, the beauty of which is not so directly connected with the life of the owner of the cottage, and which is therefore less expressive, as well as less useful. . .
 
<p></p>
 
<p></p>
: "[Referring to Design VII] The [[trellis]]-work '''veranda''' along the front of this cottage, and the bay-window in the best apartment, convey at once an expression of beauty arising from a sense of a superior comfort or refinement in the mode of living; and the whole exterior effect, without having any decided architectural merit, is one which we should be very glad to see followed in suburban houses of this class. . . . [Fig. 25]  
+
: [Referring to Design VII] The [[trellis]]-work '''veranda''' along the front of this cottage, and the bay-window in the best apartment, convey at once an expression of beauty arising from a sense of a superior comfort or refinement in the mode of living; and the whole exterior effect, without having any decided architectural merit, is one which we should be very glad to see followed in suburban houses of this class. . . [Fig. 7]
 
<p></p>
 
<p></p>
: "In the Design [VIII] before us . . . there is an air of rustic or rural beauty conferred on the whole cottage by the simple, or '''veranda'''-like [[arbor]], or [[trellis]], which runs round three sides of the building; as well as an expression of [[picturesque|picturesqueness]], by the roof supported on ornamental brackets and casting deep shadows upon the walls.  
+
: “In the Design [VIII] before us. . . there is an air of rustic or rural beauty conferred on the whole cottage by the simple, or '''veranda'''-like [[arbor]], or [[trellis]], which runs round three sides of the building; as well as an expression of [[picturesque|picturesqueness]], by the roof supported on ornamental brackets and casting deep shadows upon the walls.  
 
<p></p>
 
<p></p>
: "To become aware how much this beauty of expression has to do with rendering this cottage interesting, we have only to imagine it stripped of the [[arbor]]-'''veranda''' and the projecting eaves, and it becomes in appearance only the most meagre and common-place building, which may be a house or a barn: at the most, it would indicate nothing more by its chimneys and windows, than that it is a human habitation, and not, as at present, that it is the dwelling of a family who have some rural taste, and some love for [[picturesque]] character in a house. ... [Fig. 26]  
+
: “To become aware how much this beauty of expression has to do with rendering this cottage interesting, we have only to imagine it stripped of the [[arbor]]-'''veranda''' and the projecting eaves, and it becomes in appearance only the most meagre and common-place building, which may be a house or a barn: at the most, it would indicate nothing more by its chimneys and windows, than that it is a human habitation, and not, as at present, that it is the dwelling of a family who have some rural taste, and some love for [[picturesque]] character in a house. . . [Fig. 8]
 
<p></p>
 
<p></p>
: "The larger expression of domestic enjoyment is conveyed by the '''veranda''', or [[piazza]]. In a cool climate, like that of England, the '''veranda''' is a feature of little importance; and the same thing is true in a considerable degree in the northern part of New England. But over almost the whole extent of the United States, a '''veranda''' is a positive luxury in all the warmer part of the year, since in midsummer it is the resting place, lounging spot, and place of social resort, of the whole family, at certain hours of the day. It is not, however, an absolute necessity, like a kitchen or a bed-room, and, therefore, the smallest cottages, or those dwellings in which economy and utility are the leading considerations, are constructed without '''verandas'''. But the moment the dwelling rises so far in dignity above the merely useful as to employ any considerable feature not entirely intended for use, then the '''veranda''' should find its place; or, if not an architectural '''veranda''', then, at least, the [[arbor]]-'''veranda''', covered with foliage. . . . To decorate a cottage highly, which has no '''veranda'''-like feature, is, in this climate, as unphilosophical and false in taste, as it would be to paint a log-hut, or gild the rafters of a barn: unphilosophical, because all that relative beauty suggested by features which indicate a more refined enjoyment than what grows out of the necessities of life should first have its manifestation, since it is the most significant and noble beauty of which the subject is capable; and false in taste, because it is bestowing embellishment on the inferior and minor details, and neglecting the more important and more characteristic features of a dwelling."  
+
: “The larger expression of domestic enjoyment is conveyed by the '''veranda''', or [[piazza]]. In a cool climate, like that of England, the '''veranda''' is a feature of little importance; and the same thing is true in a considerable degree in the northern part of New England. But over almost the whole extent of the United States, a '''veranda''' is a positive luxury in all the warmer part of the year, since in midsummer it is the resting place, lounging spot, and place of social resort, of the whole family, at certain hours of the day. It is not, however, an absolute necessity, like a kitchen or a bed-room, and, therefore, the smallest cottages, or those dwellings in which economy and utility are the leading considerations, are constructed without '''verandas'''. But the moment the dwelling rises so far in dignity above the merely useful as to employ any considerable feature not entirely intended for use, then the '''veranda''' should find its place; or, if not an architectural '''veranda''', then, at least, the [[arbor]]-'''veranda''', covered with foliage. . . To decorate a cottage highly, which has no '''veranda'''-like feature, is, in this climate, as unphilosophical and false in taste, as it would be to paint a log-hut, or gild the rafters of a barn: unphilosophical, because all that relative beauty suggested by features which indicate a more refined enjoyment than what grows out of the necessities of life should first have its manifestation, since it is the most significant and noble beauty of which the subject is capable; and false in taste, because it is bestowing embellishment on the inferior and minor details, and neglecting the more important and more characteristic features of a dwelling. . .” [[#Downing1_cite|back up to History]]
 +
 
 +
 
 +
* <div id="Downing_1850"></div>[[Andrew Jackson Downing|Downing, Andrew Jackson]], 1850, ''The Architecture of Country Houses'' (1850; repr., 1968: 304–5, 308)<ref name="Downing_1850"></ref>
 +
: “[Referring to Design XXV] Every feature is suggested by the country life of those who live in residences of this size in the Middle United States. The broad and massive [[veranda]]—the full second story, overshadowed by the overhanging eaves—. . . [is] expressive of the comparatively modest but cultivated tastes and life of substantial country residents in the older parts of the Northern states."<p></p>
 +
: “In a cottage or villa of this style in England, the [[veranda]] would be useless, for the damp climate, so unlike ours, demands sun and air rather than shelter and shade. . . .<p></p>
 +
: “The [[porch]] of this house, which projects 12 feet, breaks up…the otherwise too long horizontal line of the veranda roof. . .<p></p>
 +
: “This [[porch]], being pierced with [[arch]]es on each side, opens on a continuous [[veranda]], 10 feet wide and 80 feet long, which affords a fine [[promenade]] at all seasons— terminating on one side with the [[green house|green-house]]— and there are few greater luxuries in a country-house in an American summer, such as it is in this latitude, than such a cool and airy [[veranda]]— especially if it looks out upon our fine river or lake scenery. . .” [[#Downing_1850_cite|back up to History]]
  
  
* [[A. J. Downing|Downing, A. J.]], July 1850, "A Few Words on Rural Architecture" ('''Horticulturist''' 5: 10)
+
[[File:0911.jpg|thumb|Fig. 9, Anonymous, “Southern Villa--Romanesque Style,” in [[A. J. Downing]], ''The Architecture of Country Houses'' (1850), pl. opp. p. 353, fig. 168.]]
 +
* <div id="Downing_1850_1"></div>[[Andrew Jackson Downing|Downing, Andrew Jackson]], 1850, ''The Architecture of Country Houses'' (1850; repr., 1968: 357)<ref name="Downing_1850"></ref>
 +
: “[Referring to Design XXXII] On the right of this hall is a noble [[veranda]], which, for want of a better name, we call the ''[[pavilion]]''. . . In short, although this feature may be omitted, without materially diminishing the beauty or convenience of this design, its adoption would give a completeness and significance to a first-rate country-house like this; completeness, since it affords something more than a [[veranda]], viz. ''a room in the open air'', the greatest luxury in a warm summer; significance, since it tells the story of a desideratum growing out of our climate, architecturally and fittingly supplied.” [Fig. 9] [[#Downing_1850_1_cite|back up to History]]
  
: "There are, indeed, few things so beautiful as a cottage of this kind, well designed and tastefully placed. There is nothing, all the world over, so truly rural and so unmistakably country-like as this very cottage, which has been developed in so much perfection in the rural lanes and amidst the [[picturesque]] lights and shadows of an English landscape. And for this reason, because it is essentially rural and country-like, we gladly welcome its general naturalization, (with the needful variation of the '''veranda''', &c., demanded by our climate,) as the type of most of our country dwellings."
 
  
 +
* [[Andrew Jackson Downing|Downing, Andrew Jackson]], July 1850, “A Few Words on Rural Architecture” (''Horticulturist'' 5: 10)<ref>A. J. Downing, “A Few Words on Rural Architecture,” ''Horticulturist and Journal of Rural Art and Rural Taste'' 5, no. 1 (July 1850): 9–11, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/keywords_in_early_american_landscape_design/items/itemKey/ZPF5KGPR view on Zotero].</ref>
  
* <div id="Ranlett2"></div>[[William H. Ranlett|Ranlett, William H.]], 1851, ''The Architect'' ([1851] 1976: 2:38, 53)<ref name= "Ranlett_1849"></ref>[[#Ranlett2_cite|back up to history]]
+
: “There are, indeed, few things so beautiful as a cottage of this kind, well designed and tastefully placed. There is nothing, all the world over, so truly rural and so unmistakably country-like as this very cottage, which has been developed in so much perfection in the rural lanes and amidst the [[picturesque]] lights and shadows of an English landscape. And for this reason, because it is essentially rural and country-like, we gladly welcome its general naturalization, (with the needful variation of the '''veranda''', &c., demanded by our climate,) as the type of most of our country dwellings.”
  
: "The art of landscape gardening is an essential part of the accomplishments of an architect, for the main beauty of a rural dwelling is its harmonizing with the scene of which it forms a part. The same house that looked [[picturesque]] and beautiful on the top of a hill would look extravagant and whimsical on a plain; a country house with a southern front should have a projecting roof and a [[piazza]]; but one fronting the north would look more cold and cheerless by the addition of an overhanging roof or a '''veranda'''. Yet nothing is more common than to see houses in the country with gloomy-looking [[piazza]]s on the north side which is always in shadow, while the back part is left to scorch in the sun without even the protection of a hooded window to cast a shadow."
+
 
 +
* <div id="Ranlett2"></div>Ranlett, William H., 1851, ''The Architect'' (1851; repr., 1976: 2: 53)<ref name= "Ranlett_1849"></ref>
 +
 
 +
: “The art of landscape gardening is an essential part of the accomplishments of an architect, for the main beauty of a rural dwelling is its harmonizing with the scene of which it forms a part. The same house that looked [[picturesque]] and beautiful on the top of a hill would look extravagant and whimsical on a plain; a country house with a southern front should have a projecting roof and a [[piazza]]; but one fronting the north would look more cold and cheerless by the addition of an overhanging roof or a '''veranda'''. Yet nothing is more common than to see houses in the country with gloomy-looking [[piazza]]s on the north side which is always in shadow, while the back part is left to scorch in the sun without even the protection of a hooded window to cast a shadow.” [[#Ranlett2_cite|back up to History]]
 +
 
 +
<hr>
  
 
==Images==
 
==Images==
 
=== Inscribed ===
 
=== Inscribed ===
 
<gallery widths="170px" heights="170px" perrow="7">
 
<gallery widths="170px" heights="170px" perrow="7">
<gallery>
 
  
Image:1755.jpg|[[J. C. Loudon]], Nutt's hive placed in the front of a veranda, in ''The Suburban Gardener'' (1838), p. 714, fig. 307.  
+
Image:1755.jpg|[[J. C. Loudon]], "Nutt's hive is placed in the front of a '''veranda'''", in ''The Suburban Gardener'' (1838), p. 714, fig. 307.
 +
 
 +
Image:1151.jpg|Joseph Collins Wells, ''Design for a cottage for Henry C. Bowen, Esq. J. C. Wells Arch<sup>ct</sup>'', ca. 1846.
 +
 
 +
Image:1488.jpg|Anonymous, "Design for a Simple Country House" and "Plan of Principal Floor," ''Horticulturist,'' vol. 1, no. 4 (October 1846), pl. opp. 153, figs. 42 and 43.
 +
 
 +
Image:1505.jpg|Anonymous, "Design for a Rural Cottage" and "Plan of the Principal Floor," Horticulturist, vol. 2, no. 1 (July 1847). pl. opp. 8.
  
File:1247.jpg|[[Alexander Jackson Davis]], Villa for David Codwise, Elevation and Four Plans, 1835. "Veranda" is inscribed at the main entrance to the principal floor and off the drawing room.  
+
Image:1540.jpg|Anonymous, "Design for a Small Villa" and "First Floor," ''Horticulturist,'' Vol. 3, No. 7 (January 1849), pl. opp. 305.
File:1247_detail.jpg|Detail of [[Alexander Jackson Davis]], Villa for David Codwise, Elevation and Four Plans, 1835. "Veranda" is inscribed at the main entrance to the principal floor and off the drawing room.
+
 
File:1151.jpg|Joseph C. Wells, Ground-floor plan, c. 1846.
+
Image:1548.jpg|Anonymous, "A Suburban Cottage," "First Floor," and "Chamber Floor," ''Horticulturist,'' Vol. 3, No. 11 (May 1849), pl. opp. 497.
File:0950.jpg|Anonymous, ""Design for a Country House"", in ''The Horticulturist'' 4 (December 1849): pl. opp. p. 249.
+
 
File:0951.jpg|Anonymous, "Cottage Villa of Wm. J. Rotch, Esq. New Beford, Mass.", in ''The Horticulturist'' 4 (November 1849): pl. opp. p. 201. "Veranda" is inscribed on either side of the front [[porch]].
+
Image:0951.jpg|(?) Forbes, “Cottage Villa of Wm. J. Rotch, Esq. New Beford, Mass.,” in [[A. J. Downing]], ed., ''Horticulturist'' 4, no. 5 (November 1849): pl. opp. 201. "'''Veranda'''" is inscribed on either side of the front [[porch]].
File:0919.jpg|Anonymous, "Suburban Cottage", in A.J. Downing, ''The Architecture of Country Houses'' (1850), p. 109, Figs. 33 and 34.
+
 
File:0917.jpg|Anonymous, "Bracketed Cottage, with Veranda", in A.J. Downing, ''The Architecture of Country Houses'' (1850), p. 119, figs. 42-43.
+
Image:0950.jpg|Anonymous, “Design for a Country House,in [[A. J. Downing]], ed., ''Horticulturist'' 4, no. 6 (December 1849): pl. opp. 249.
File:1978.jpg|Anonymous, "Principal Floor" of a small bracketed Country House, in A.J. Downing, ''The Architecture of Country Houses'' (1850), pl. opp. pl. 276, figs. 111.
+
 
File:1837.jpg|Anonymous, "A Country House in the Pointed Style", in A.J. Downing, ''The Architecture of Country Houses'' (1850), Design XXV, pl. opp. p. 304, fig. 133 and 134.
+
Image:1561.jpg|Anonymous, ''A Southern Cottage Villa'', in [[A. J. Downing]], ed., ''Horticulturist'' 4, no. 8 (February 1850): pl. opp. 345. "'''Veranda'''" is inscribed on plan of principal floor of the villa.
File:1003.jpg|Anonymous, "Design for a Cottage for a Country Clergyman", in ''The Horticulturist'' 6 (July 1851): pl. opp.p. 297.
+
 
 +
Image:0919.jpg|Anonymous, “Suburban Cottage,in [[A. J. Downing]], ''The Architecture of Country Houses'' (1850), pl. opp. 109, figs. 33 and 34.
 +
 
 +
Image:0917.jpg|Anonymous, “Bracketed Cottage, with '''Veranda''',in [[A. J. Downing]], ''The Architecture of Country Houses'' (1850), pl. opp. 119.
 +
 
 +
Image:0916.jpg|Anonymous, “Bracketed '''Veranda''' from the inside,” in [[A. J. Downing]], ''The Architecture of Country Houses'' (1850), 122, fig. 45.
 +
 
 +
Image:1978.jpg|Anonymous, “Principal Floor” of a small bracketed Country House, in A. J. Downing, ''The Architecture of Country Houses'' (1850), pl. opp. 276, fig. 111.
 +
 
 +
Image:1837.jpg|Anonymous, “A Country House in the Pointed Style,in [[A. J. Downing]], ''The Architecture of Country Houses'' (1850), pl. opp. 304, figs. 133 and 134.
 +
 
 +
Image:1003.jpg|Anonymous, “Design for a Cottage for a Country Clergyman,in [[A. J. Downing]], ed., ''Horticulturist'' 6, no. 7 (July 1851): pl. opp. 297.
  
 
</gallery>
 
</gallery>
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<gallery widths="170px" heights="170px" perrow="7">
 
<gallery widths="170px" heights="170px" perrow="7">
<gallery>
 
  
File:0350.jpg|[[Alexander Jackson Davis]], "View in the Grounds at Blithewood", 1849, in [[A. J. Downing]], ''A Treatise on the Theory and Practice of Landscape Gardening'', (1849), frontispiece.  
+
Image:0320.jpg|William Russell Birch, “York-Island, with a [[View]] of the [[Seat]]s of M.<sup>r</sup> A. Gracie, M.<sup>r</sup> Church &c.,” in ''The Country [[Seat]]s of the United States of North America'' (1808), pl. 17.
File:1836.jpg|Anonymous, "Villa in the Norman Style", in A.J. Downing, ''The Architecture of Country Houses'' (1850), pl. opp. p. 280, fig. 114, Design XX.
+
 
File:0789.jpg|[[Frances Palmer]], ''Wynne Tún'', in William H. Ranlett, ''The Architect'' (1851), vol. 2.
+
Image:2290.jpg|Anonymous, "[[View]] of a Common Country House" and "[[View]] of the Same, Improved," in ''Horticulturist'', vol. 1, no. 1 (July 1846), pl. opp. 13, fig. 2 and 3.
 +
 
 +
Image:0945.jpg|Anonymous, “A Villa in the Tuscan Style,” in [[A. J. Downing]], ed., ''Horticulturist'' 4, no. 1 (July 1849): pl. opp. 1.
 +
 
 +
Image:0350.jpg|[[Alexander Jackson Davis]], “[[View]] in the Grounds at [[Blithewood]],in [[A. J. Downing]], ''A Treatise on the Theory and Practice of Landscape Gardening'', (1849), frontispiece.  
 +
 
 +
Image:1308.jpg|Anonymous, “Regular Bracketed Cottage,” in [[A. J. Downing]], ''The Architecture of Country Houses'' (1850), pl. opp. 112, figs. 37 and 38.
 +
 
 +
Image:0915.jpg|Anonymous, “Bracketed Country House,” in [[A. J. Downing]], ''The Architecture of Country Houses'' (1850), pl. opp. 276, fig. 110.
 +
 
 +
Image:1836.jpg|Anonymous, “Villa in the Norman Style,in [[A. J. Downing]], ''The Architecture of Country Houses'' (1850), pl. opp. 280, fig. 114.
 +
 
 +
Image:0913.jpg|Anonymous, “Small Southern Country House,” in [[A. J. Downing]], ''The Architecture of Country Houses'' (1850), 312, fig. 139.
 +
 
 +
Image:0911.jpg|Anonymous, “Southern Villa--Romanesque Style,” in [[A. J. Downing]], ''The Architecture of Country Houses'' (1850), pl. opp. 353, fig. 168.
 +
 
 +
Image:0961.jpg|[[J. C. Loudon]], Perspective [[view]] of a house in the village of Riceborough, Georgia, in ''An Encyclopædia of Gardening'' (1850), 332, fig. 231.
 +
 
 +
Image:0782.jpg|[[Frances Palmer]], “Villa in the Persian Style,” in William H. Ranlett, ''The Architect'' (1851), vol. 2, pl. 14.
 +
 
 +
Image:0786.jpg|[[Frances Palmer]], “Italian Villa,” in William H. Ranlett, ''The Architect'' (1851), vol. 2, pl. 22, design 33.
 +
 
 +
Image:0789.jpg|[[Frances Palmer]], “Wynne Tún,” in William H. Ranlett, ''The Architect'' (1851), vol. 2, 53.
 +
 
 +
Image:0795.jpg|[[Frances Palmer]], “Cottage Villa in the earliest [[English_style|English Style]],” in William H. Ranlett, ''The Architect'' (1851), vol. 2, pl. 60, design 53.  
  
 
</gallery>
 
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<gallery widths="170px" heights="170px" perrow="7">
 
<gallery widths="170px" heights="170px" perrow="7">
<gallery>
 
  
File:0955.jpg|[[Alexander Jackson Davis]], "View N.W. at Blithewood," c.1841.
+
Image:0226.jpg|[[Charles Fraser]], ''Wigton on Saint James, Goose Creek: The [[Seat]] of James Fraser, Esq.'', c. 1800.
 +
 
 +
Image:0229.jpg|[[Charles Fraser]], ''The [[Seat]] of John Julius Pringle Esquire—on Ashley River'', 1800.
 +
 
 +
Image:0208.jpg|Francis Guy, ''[[Mount]] Deposit from the North'', 1805.
 +
 
 +
Image:1099.jpg|Anonymous, Garden and Library, Friends’ Asylum for the Insane, 1838, in ''Friends' Asylum for the Insane, 1813-1913'' (1913), pl. opp. 70.
 +
 
 +
Image:0955.jpg|[[Alexander Jackson Davis]], ''[[View]] N.W. at [[Blithewood]]'', c. 1841.
  
 
</gallery>
 
</gallery>
 +
 +
<hr>
  
 
==Notes==
 
==Notes==
 
<references></references>
 
<references></references>
 +
 +
[[Category: Keywords]]
 +
[[Category: Transition Between House and Garden]]

Latest revision as of 08:18, April 8, 2021

(Verandah)

History

Fig. 1, William Russell Birch, “York-Island with a View of the Seats of Mr. A. Gracie, Mr. Church &c.,” 1808, in William Russell Birch, The Country Seats of the United States (2009), p. 75, pl. 17.

Veranda is one of several words (including piazza, porch, and portico) used to describe covered walks or spaces supported by columns or piers and attached to, or to part of, a building. This architectural feature spoke to the interrelatedness of architecture and gardens, a relationship that grew out of the romantic interest in landscape characterizing the aesthetics of the 18th and 19th centuries. Two images exemplify the importance of these structures in creating and framing views of the garden and landscape. The first is a drawing of York Island, Long Island, by William Russell Birch (1808), who explained that the view was taken from the piazza, a place from which one could see “innumerable seats, spreading over an extensive country which glittered as the sun arose” [Fig. 1].[1] The second is from A. J. Downing's book on wooden picturesque houses, The Architecture of Country Houses (1850) [Fig. 2]. Both illustrate views from the bracketed piazza, or veranda, as Downing preferred to call it, out to the distant prospect.

Fig. 2, Anonymous, “Bracketed Veranda from the inside,” in A. J. Downing, The Architecture of Country Houses (1850), p. 122, fig. 45.

Treatises often used these terms interchangeably, along with a few less common words. Downing and Alexander Jackson Davis used the term “umbrage” to refer to the same feature on a house, implying a place of shade;[2] Downing used the term “pavilion” synonymously with “veranda” (view text); and Mary Elizabeth Latrobe mentioned that in New Orleans the piazza was also known as the gallery.[3] Contrasting usage sometimes reveals distinctions.In his plan for a country house, Downing also used the term "porch" to identify the central area of the veranda leading to the entryway. The 19th-century architect William H. Ranlett sometimes distinguished between piazza and veranda, using “piazza” for a walk over which a projecting roof might be added, and “veranda” for a structure that included a roof (). Two points are important in the history of these terms: First, these architectural elements served to elide the boundaries of the garden and building by linking interior and exterior space both visually and physically. Second, the associative values of refinement and domesticity, and even national progress, were read into the forms.

Appearing only in the mid-19th century in treatise literature with any frequency, the term “veranda” (also spelled verandah) was used in 1748 in Pehr Kalm's Travels in North America, in which he described small balconies or porches on houses.[4] Many visual and textual examples indicate that the veranda served as an intermediary space between a house and its garden. Downing described it as an overhanging or low roof supported by an open colonnade or framework. He recommended that it have a gravel or wooden surface rising six to eight inches above the surrounding ground (). Climbing plants often covered verandas. Some writers refer to arbor-verandas and also mention the latticework that provided screening and support for climbing plants. Ornamental brackets and bargeboards also added to the decorations of the veranda.

Fig. 3, Alexander Jackson Davis, “View in the Grounds at Blithewood,” in A. J. Downing, A Treatise on the Theory and Practice of Landscape Gardening (1849), frontispiece.

Downing (1850) expounded at length on the meaning of the veranda, which he saw as a truly American feature not found in European architecture ().[5] Always concerned with identifying a national style, he believed that the veranda, in addition to providing shade and transitional zone from house to garden, was not simply ornamental but useful and “connected with the life of the owner of the cottage.” Its presence expressed the ownership of a family exhibiting rural taste and a love of picturesque character, a family “at home in the country.” Downing (1850) went so far as to proclaim the lack of a piazza or veranda in any but the most utilitarian structure as “unphilosophical and false in taste!” He claimed that it was a resting place, lounging spot, and place of social resort of the whole family across nearly the entire extent of the United States [Fig. 3].

Fig. 4, Alexander Jackson Davis, View N.W. at Blithewood, c. 1841.

Although the veranda was an architectural feature found in the colonial and early national periods, it became a key component of asymmetrical picturesque design for both landscape and architecture in the 1840s.[6] Many illustrations for house pattern books by Downing and his followers depicted plans and elevations in various romantic styles that feature the veranda as an element in a new spatial organization that experimented with the interweaving of interior and exterior space. In his Treatise (1849) Downing wrote, “architectural beauty must be considered conjointly with the beauty of the landscape or situation,” and “if properly designed and constructed. . . will even serve to impress a character on the surrounding landscape.”[7] That the frontispiece to his Treatise illustrated the veranda at Blithewood underscores the importance of this theoretical stance. Another drawing of Blithewood [Fig. 4] by Alexander Jackson Davis presented, from the house and through the semi-enclosed space of the veranda, the view of the landscape toward the river, exemplifying the interpenetration of space that became for Davis and Downing an important characteristic of their architecture. Architectural historians have written about the veranda as a major component in picturesque architecture and a mark of distinction between American and English houses of the Gothic revival.[8]

Therese O'Malley


Texts

Usage

  • Kalm, Pehr, October 29, 1748, describing New Brunswick, NJ (1937: 1:121)[9]
“The houses are covered with shingles. Before each door is a veranda to which you ascend by steps from the street; it resembles a small balcony, and has benches on both sides on which the people sit in the evening to enjoy the fresh air and to watch the passers-by.”


Fig. 5, Charles Fraser, The Seat of John Julius Pringle Esquire—on Ashley River, 1800.
  • Lambert, John, 1816, describing Charleston, SC (1816: 2:125)[10]
“Almost every house is furnished with balconies and verandas, some of which occupy the whole side of the building from top to bottom, having a gallery for each floor.” [Fig. 5]


  • Hall, Capt. Basil, 1828, describing a plantation he visited during his trip from Charleston, SC, to Savannah, GA (quoted in Jones 1957: 98)[11]
“From the drawing-room, we could walk into a verandah or piazza, from which, by a flight of steps, we found our way into a flower garden and shrubbery.”


  • Hall, Capt. Basil, 1828, describing Alabama (quoted in Lockwood 1934: 2:389)[12]
“We soon left our comfortless abode [the inn] for as neat and trig [sic] a little villa as ever was seen in or out of the Tropics. This mansion, which in India would be called a Bungalow, was surrounded by white railings, within which lay an ornamental garden, intersected by gravel walks, almost too thickly shaded by orange hedges, all in flower. From the light airy verandah, we might look upon the Bay of Mobile. . . Many similar houses nearly as picturesque as our own delightful habitation, speckled the landscape in the south and east, in rich keeping with the luxuriant foliage of that evergreen latitude.”


  • Ingraham, Joseph Holt, 1835, describing a sugar plantation near New Orleans, LA (1835: 1:80–81)
“The house was quadrangular. . . [and] was built of wood, painted white, with Venetian blinds, and latticed verandas, supported by slender and graceful pillars, running round every side of the dwelling. . . At each extremity of the piazza was a broad and spacious flight of steps, descending into the garden which enclosed the dwelling on every side.”


  • Lyell, Sir Charles, December 23, 1845, describing Charleston, SC (1849: 1:229)[13]
“Almost all the best houses in Charleston are built with verandahs, and surrounded with gardens.”


  • Lyell, Sir Charles, December 28, 1845, describing Beaufort, SC (1849: 1:231)[13]
“we approached Beaufort, a picturesque town composed of an assemblage of villas, the summer residences of numerous planters, who retire here during the hot season, when the interior of South Carolina is unhealthy for the whites. Each villa is shaded by a verandah, surrounded by beautiful live oaks and orange trees laden with fruit.”


  • Earle, Pliny, January 1848, describing Bloomingdale Asylum for the Insane, New York, NY (Journal of Medicine 10: 64)
“The Physicians who object to yards, or courts, advocate, as a substitute, open verandahs guarded by lattice-work, such as are found at the Massachusetts State Lunatic Hospital, and at some of the other institutions of this country.”
Fig. 6, J. C. Loudon, Perspective view of a house in the village of Riceborough, 1850.


“854. . . The village of Riceborough. . . is very picturesque. Most of the houses have verandas. . . (Hall's Sketches, &c., and Three Years in North America, &c.)” [Fig. 6]


Citations

VERAN'DA, n. An oriental word denoting a kind of open portico, formed by extending a sloping roof beyond the main building. Todd.”


  • Downing, Andrew Jackson, August 1836, “Remarks on the Fitness of the different Styles of Architecture for the Construction of Country Residences, and on the Employment of Vases in Garden Scenery” (American Gardeners’ Magazine 2: 283)[16]
“There can scarcely be a more appropriate, agreeable and beautiful residence for a citizen who retires to the country for the summer, than a modern Italian villa, with its ornamented chimneys, its broad verandah, forming a fine shady promenade, and its cool breezy apartments.”


“In this country no architectural feature is more plainly expressive of purpose in our dwelling-houses than the veranda, or piazza. The unclouded splendor and fierce heat of our summer sun, render this very general appendage a source of real comfort and enjoyment; and the long veranda round many of our country residences stands instead of the paved terraces of the English mansions as the place for promenade; while during the warmer portions of the season, half of the days or evenings are there passed in the enjoyment of cool breezes, secure under low roofs supported by the open colonnade, from the solar rays, or the dews of night. . .

“The various projections and irregularities, caused by verandas, porticoes, etc., serve to connect the otherwise square masses of building, by gradual transition with the ground about it.” back up to History


  • Ranlett, William H., 1849, The Architect (1849; repr., 1976: 1:21)[18]
Verandas, piazzas and porches are very expressive of purpose, and a dwelling should always have one or more of them; and balconies, which are decidedly ornamental and not without use.” back up to History


  • Elder, Walter, 1849, The Cottage Garden of America (1849: 218)[19]
“A. What a fine place you have got! that is a neat, well painted front fence; the flower plat between it and the house, with the evergreen in the centre is beautiful, and that verandah over the door, covered with flowering vines, looks well.”


Fig. 7, Anonymous, “Suburban Cottage,” in A. J. Downing, The Architecture of Country Houses (1850), pl. opp. p. 109, figs. 33 and 34.
Fig. 8, Anonymous, “Regular Bracketed Cottage,” in A. J. Downing, The Architecture of Country Houses (1850), pl. opp. p. 112, figs. 37 and 38.
“A much higher character is conferred on a simple cottage by a veranda than by a highly ornamental gable, because one indicates the constant means of enjoyment for the inmates—something in their daily life besides ministering to the necessities—while a more ornamental vergeboard shows something, the beauty of which is not so directly connected with the life of the owner of the cottage, and which is therefore less expressive, as well as less useful. . .

“[Referring to Design VII] The trellis-work veranda along the front of this cottage, and the bay-window in the best apartment, convey at once an expression of beauty arising from a sense of a superior comfort or refinement in the mode of living; and the whole exterior effect, without having any decided architectural merit, is one which we should be very glad to see followed in suburban houses of this class. . . [Fig. 7]

“In the Design [VIII] before us. . . there is an air of rustic or rural beauty conferred on the whole cottage by the simple, or veranda-like arbor, or trellis, which runs round three sides of the building; as well as an expression of picturesqueness, by the roof supported on ornamental brackets and casting deep shadows upon the walls.

“To become aware how much this beauty of expression has to do with rendering this cottage interesting, we have only to imagine it stripped of the arbor-veranda and the projecting eaves, and it becomes in appearance only the most meagre and common-place building, which may be a house or a barn: at the most, it would indicate nothing more by its chimneys and windows, than that it is a human habitation, and not, as at present, that it is the dwelling of a family who have some rural taste, and some love for picturesque character in a house. . . [Fig. 8]

“The larger expression of domestic enjoyment is conveyed by the veranda, or piazza. In a cool climate, like that of England, the veranda is a feature of little importance; and the same thing is true in a considerable degree in the northern part of New England. But over almost the whole extent of the United States, a veranda is a positive luxury in all the warmer part of the year, since in midsummer it is the resting place, lounging spot, and place of social resort, of the whole family, at certain hours of the day. It is not, however, an absolute necessity, like a kitchen or a bed-room, and, therefore, the smallest cottages, or those dwellings in which economy and utility are the leading considerations, are constructed without verandas. But the moment the dwelling rises so far in dignity above the merely useful as to employ any considerable feature not entirely intended for use, then the veranda should find its place; or, if not an architectural veranda, then, at least, the arbor-veranda, covered with foliage. . . To decorate a cottage highly, which has no veranda-like feature, is, in this climate, as unphilosophical and false in taste, as it would be to paint a log-hut, or gild the rafters of a barn: unphilosophical, because all that relative beauty suggested by features which indicate a more refined enjoyment than what grows out of the necessities of life should first have its manifestation, since it is the most significant and noble beauty of which the subject is capable; and false in taste, because it is bestowing embellishment on the inferior and minor details, and neglecting the more important and more characteristic features of a dwelling. . .” back up to History


“[Referring to Design XXV] Every feature is suggested by the country life of those who live in residences of this size in the Middle United States. The broad and massive veranda—the full second story, overshadowed by the overhanging eaves—. . . [is] expressive of the comparatively modest but cultivated tastes and life of substantial country residents in the older parts of the Northern states."

“In a cottage or villa of this style in England, the veranda would be useless, for the damp climate, so unlike ours, demands sun and air rather than shelter and shade. . . .

“The porch of this house, which projects 12 feet, breaks up…the otherwise too long horizontal line of the veranda roof. . .

“This porch, being pierced with arches on each side, opens on a continuous veranda, 10 feet wide and 80 feet long, which affords a fine promenade at all seasons— terminating on one side with the green-house— and there are few greater luxuries in a country-house in an American summer, such as it is in this latitude, than such a cool and airy veranda— especially if it looks out upon our fine river or lake scenery. . .”


Fig. 9, Anonymous, “Southern Villa--Romanesque Style,” in A. J. Downing, The Architecture of Country Houses (1850), pl. opp. p. 353, fig. 168.
“[Referring to Design XXXII] On the right of this hall is a noble veranda, which, for want of a better name, we call the pavilion. . . In short, although this feature may be omitted, without materially diminishing the beauty or convenience of this design, its adoption would give a completeness and significance to a first-rate country-house like this; completeness, since it affords something more than a veranda, viz. a room in the open air, the greatest luxury in a warm summer; significance, since it tells the story of a desideratum growing out of our climate, architecturally and fittingly supplied.” [Fig. 9] back up to History


“There are, indeed, few things so beautiful as a cottage of this kind, well designed and tastefully placed. There is nothing, all the world over, so truly rural and so unmistakably country-like as this very cottage, which has been developed in so much perfection in the rural lanes and amidst the picturesque lights and shadows of an English landscape. And for this reason, because it is essentially rural and country-like, we gladly welcome its general naturalization, (with the needful variation of the veranda, &c., demanded by our climate,) as the type of most of our country dwellings.”


  • Ranlett, William H., 1851, The Architect (1851; repr., 1976: 2: 53)[18]
“The art of landscape gardening is an essential part of the accomplishments of an architect, for the main beauty of a rural dwelling is its harmonizing with the scene of which it forms a part. The same house that looked picturesque and beautiful on the top of a hill would look extravagant and whimsical on a plain; a country house with a southern front should have a projecting roof and a piazza; but one fronting the north would look more cold and cheerless by the addition of an overhanging roof or a veranda. Yet nothing is more common than to see houses in the country with gloomy-looking piazzas on the north side which is always in shadow, while the back part is left to scorch in the sun without even the protection of a hooded window to cast a shadow.” back up to History

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Notes

  1. William Russell Birch, The Country Seats of the United States of North America: With Some Scenes Connected with Them (Springland, PA: W. Birch, 1808), view on Zotero.
  2. William Pierson Jr., traces the origins of the feature, specifically found in Alexander Jackson Davis and A. J. Downing's work, to the awning or canopy partaking of an oriental flavor. In general, its origin was a semi-enclosed outdoor space that was not at all architectural but was related to the ornamental canopy or tent. This connection might explain why the detail flourished during the high romantic period in American architecture. See Pierson, American Buildings and Their Architects: Technology and the Picturesque, the Corporate and the Early Gothic Styles, vol. 2 (New York: Doubleday, 1978), 300-4, view on Zotero.
  3. Benjamin Henry Latrobe. Impressions Respecting New Orleans: Diaries and Sketches, 1818–1820, ed. Samuel Wilson (New York: Columbia University Press, 1951), view on Zotero.
  4. Kalm, The America of 1750: Peter Kalm's Travels in North America, trans. and rev. Adolph B. Benson (New York: Wilson-Erickson, 1937), 121, view on Zotero. In his study of the veranda, Anthony D. King wrote, “It is generally accepted that the term ‘verandah,’ as used in England and France, and later in the British colonial world, came into the English landscape from India, the origins being either Persian, or, more likely Spanish or Portuguese.“ See King, The Bungalow: The Production of a Global Culture, 2nd ed. (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1995), 266, viwe on Zotero.
  5. This, of course, was not true because the veranda was featured in both John Plaw, Sketches for Country Houses, Villas and Rural Dwellings (London: S. Gosnell for J. Taylor, 1800), and J. B. Papworth, Penny Cyclopaedia (London: J. Taylor, 1818), as pointed out by King, The Bungalow, 266-67, view on Zotero.
  6. Vincent J. Scully, The Shingle Style and the Stick Style: Architectural Theory and Design from Downing to the Origins of Wright (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1971), introduction, view on Zotero.
  7. A. J. Downing, A Treatise on the Theory and Practice of Landscape Gardening (New York: G. P. Putnam, 1849), 370, view on Zotero.
  8. William H. Pierson Jr., American Buildings and Their Architects: Technology and the Picturesque, the Corporate and the Early Gothic Styles (New York: Doubleday, 1978), 302-4, view on Zotero. See also King, The Bungalow, 267, where the author writes that “[a]n architectural note of the term, verandah,” emphasized that “it was common as a fashionable architectural feature in England during the early 19th century,” and does not recognize an American distinctiveness, view on Zotero.
  9. Kalm, Pehr. 1937. The America of 1750: Peter Kalm’s Travels in North America. The English Version of 1770, 2 vols. New York: Wilson-Erickson. view on Zotero.
  10. John Lambert, Travels through Canada, and the United States of North America in the Years 1806, 1807, and 1808, 2 vols. (London: Baldwin, Cradock, and Joy, 1816), view on Zotero.
  11. Katharine M. Jones, The Plantation South (New York: Bobbs-Merrill, 1957), view on Zotero.
  12. Alice B. Lockwood, ed., Gardens of Colony and State: Gardens and Gardeners of the American Colonies and of the Republic before 1840, 2 vols. (New York: Charles Scribner’s for the Garden Club of America, 1931-34), view on Zotero.
  13. 13.0 13.1 Sir Charles Lyell, A Second Visit to the United States of North America, 2 vols. (New York: Harper, 1849), view on Zotero.
  14. J. C. (John Claudius) Loudon, An Encyclopaedia of Gardening; Comprising the Theory and Practice of Horticulture, Floriculture, Arboriculture, and Landscape-Gardening, new ed., cor. and improved (London: Longman et al, 1850), view on Zotero.
  15. Noah Webster, An American Dictionary of the English Language, vol. 1 (New York: S. Converse, 1828), view on Zotero.
  16. A. J. Downing, “Remarks on the Fitness of the different Styles of Architecture for the Construction of Country Residences, and on the Employment of Vases in Garden Scenery,” American Gardeners’ Magazine, and Register of Useful Discoveries and Improvements in Horticulture and Rural Affairs 2, no. 8 (August 1836): 281–86, view on Zotero.
  17. A. J. Downing, A Treatise on the Theory and Practice of Landscape Gardening, 4th ed. (New York: G. P. Putnam, 1849), view on Zotero.
  18. 18.0 18.1 William H. Ranlett, The Architect, 2 vols. (1849–51; repr. New York: Da Capo, 1976), view on Zotero.
  19. Walter Elder, The Cottage Garden of America, (Philadelphia: Moss, 1849), view on Zotero.
  20. 20.0 20.1 20.2 Andrew Jackson Downing, The Architecture of Country Houses; Including Designs for Cottages, Farm-houses, and Villas (New York: D. Appleton, 1850; repr., New York: Da Capo, 1968) view on Zotero.
  21. A. J. Downing, “A Few Words on Rural Architecture,” Horticulturist and Journal of Rural Art and Rural Taste 5, no. 1 (July 1850): 9–11, view on Zotero.

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