<span id="Langley_cite"></span>In 1728, English writer Batty Langley discouraged the use of embroidery, compartiment, or cut-work parterres by proclaiming that the house should open onto a “plain” parterre—a bordered [[square]] of grass, perhaps with a [[basin]] in the center ([[#Langley|view text]]) [<span id="Fig_10_cite"></span>[[#Fig_10|See Fig. 10]]]. <span id="Miller_cite"></span>Philip Miller continued this trend in ''The Gardeners Dictionary'' (1733) ([[#Miller|view text]]). This mode of parterre design was an important antecedent to the practice of placing the house within a [[lawn]] setting.
<span id="Latrobe_cite"></span>The marked disfavor in which elaborate parterres were held in England by the end of the 18th century influenced the reception of them in America. English-born architect [[Benjamin Henry Latrobe]] (1796) disapproved of [[George Washington]]’s Washington’s inclusion of a parterre in the form of a “richly flourishing Fleur de Lis” in the midst of his [[flower garden]], which was otherwise arranged in “[[square]]s, and boxed with great precision” ([[#Latrobe|view text]]). [[Benjamin Henry Latrobe|Latrobe]] complained that the parterre was old-fashioned, an opinion upheld by leading garden treatise writers. <span id="Marshall_cite"></span>British author Charles Marshall (1799) claimed that scrolls and flourishes typical of the embroidery, compartiment, or cut-work parterre “have got out of fashion, as a taste for open and extensive gardening has prevailed.” He recommended instead that parterres be made up of regularized [[bed]]s, neatly edged with box, and set within a squared [[plot]] ([[#Marshall|view text]]).
In the 19th century, as the function of the so-called “plain,” or unembellished, parterre was replaced slowly by the [[lawn]], the term began to refer exclusively to densely planted [[bed]]s. These patterns were achieved through an extensive use of plants and [[shrub]]s as opposed to the inorganic materials that had been featured in the 17th and 18th centuries. <span id="MMahon_cite"></span>Moreover, [[Bernard M’Mahon]] (1806) argued that the parterre, displaced by the [[lawn]] from its position adjacent to the house, could be “introduced in some of the more internal parts” of the [[pleasure ground]], where it could serve as a [[flower garden]] and be divided into flower [[bed]]s edged with box or turf ([[#MMahon|view text]]).
==Texts==
===Usage===
[[File:0056.jpg|thumb|Fig. 5, [[John Bartram|John]] or [[William Bartram]], ''"A Draught of [[Bartram_Botanic_Garden_and_Nursery|John Bartram’s House and Garden]] as it appears from the River''", 1758.]]
*[[Alexander Garden|Garden, Alexander]], 1754, in a letter to [[Cadwallader Colden]], describing [[Bartram Botanic Garden and Nursery]], vicinity of Philadelphia, PA (Colden 1920: 4:472)<ref>Cadwallader Colden, ''The Letters and Papers of Cadwallader Colden'', 9 vols. (New York: New-York Historical Society, 1918–37), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/AWRMN2FD view on Zotero].</ref>
:“. . . he disdains to have a garden less than Pensylvania & Every den is an [[arbor|Arbour]], Every run of water, a [[Canal]], & every small level Spot a '''Parterre'''.” [Fig. 5]
*<div id="Latrobe"></div>[[Benjamin Henry Latrobe|Latrobe, Benjamin Henry]], July 19, 1796, describing [[Mount Vernon]], [[plantation]] of [[George Washington]], Fairfax County, VA (1977: 165)<ref>Benjamin Henry Latrobe, ''The Virginia Journals of Benjamin Henry Latrobe, 1795–1798'', ed. Edward C. Carter II, 2 vols. (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1977), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/SZEEBG9K view on Zotero].</ref> [[#Latrobe_cite|back up to History]]
:“The ground on the West front of the house is laid out in a level [[lawn]]. . . On one side of this [[lawn]] is a plain [[Kitchen garden]], on the other a neat [[flower garden]] laid out in [[square]]s, and boxed with great precision. Along the North [[Wall]] of this Garden is a plain [[Greenhouse]]. The Plants were arranged in front, and contained nothing very rare, nor were they numerous. For the first time since I left Germany, I saw here a '''parterre''', chipped and trimmed with infinite care into the form of a richly flourishing Fleur de Lis: The expiring groans I hope of our Grandfather’s pedantry.”
*[[Ephraim Chambers|Chambers, Ephraim]], 1741, ''Cyclopaedia'' (1743: 1:n.p.)<ref>Ephraim Chambers, ''Cyclopaedia, or An Universal Dictionary of Arts and Sciences. . . . '', 5th ed., 2 vols. (London: D. Midwinter et al., 1741–43), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/PTXK378N view on Zotero].</ref>
:“'''PARTERRE''', in gardening, that open part of a garden into which we enter, coming out of the house; usually, set with flowers, or divided into [[bed]]s, encompassed with platbands, ''&c''. See GARDEN.
:“The '''''Parterre''''' is a level division of ground, which, for the most part, faces the south and best front of a house, and is generally furnished with [[green]]s, flowers, ''&c''.
<gallery widths="170px" heights="170px" perrow="7">
Image:1414.jpg|Michael van der Gucht, “A '''Parterre ''' of Imbroidered Work mixt wth Knots of Grass,” in A.-J. Dezallier d’Argenville, ''The Theory and Practice of Gardening'' (1712), 37.
Image:1415.jpg|Michael van der Gucht, “A '''Parterre ''' of Compartiments,” in A.-J. Dezallier d’Argenville, ''The Theory and Practice of Gardening'' (1712), 38.
Image:1413.jpg|Michael van der Gucht, “A '''Parterre ''' after ye [[English_style|English]] Manner,” “A Parterre of Cutwork for Flowers” and “A Parterre of Orange Trees,” in A.-J. Dezallier d’Argenville, ''The Theory and Practice of Gardening'' (1712), 42.
Image:1425.jpg|Michael van der Gucht, “The general Plan of a Garden drawn upon Paper” and “The same Plan of Garden mark’d out upon ye Ground,” in A.-J. Dezallier d’Argenville, ''The Theory and Practice of Gardening'' (1712), 124.
Image:1426.jpg|Michael van der Gucht, “The '''Parterre ''' C drawn & Squar’d over upon Paper,” “The same '''Parterre ''' C Squared out & traced upon ye Ground,” and “The Grove V & ye [[Bowling green|Bowling-green ]] X design’d upon paper,” in A.-J. Dezallier d’Argenville, ''The Theory and Practice of Gardening'' (1712), 130.
Image:1412.jpg|Stephen Switzer, “Designs for '''Parterre Quarters''' [[Quarter]]s,” in ''Ichnographia Rustica'' (1718), vol. 2, pl. 29.
Image:1053.jpg|Batty Langley, “Design of a ''rural Garden'', after the new manner,” in ''New Principles of Gardening'' (1728), pl. III. “Plate. III is the Design of a ''rural Garden'', after the new manner, where the front of the House opens upon a ''large plain Parterre''. . .”
Image:1383.jpg|Batty Langley, One of two “Designs for Gardens that lye irregularly to the grand House. . . ,” in ''New Principles of Gardening'' (1728), pl. X. “In Plate X, the House opens. . . to the ''South'' upon the '''''Parterre ''' of Grass and Water'' C. . .”
Image:1384.jpg|Batty Langley, One of two “Designs for Gardens that lye irregularly to the ground House. . . House opening to the North upon a plain Parterre of Grass,” in ''New Principles of Gardening'' (1728), pl. XI. House opens “to the ''North'' upon a ''plain '''Parterre ''' of Grass'', and to the ''South'', upon a '''''Parterre ''' of Grass and Water''. . .”,” in ''New Principles of Gardening'' (1728), pl. XI. Parterre is indicated at C at the right center edge of the plan.
Image:1385.jpg|Batty Langley, “Design of a Small Garden Situated in a Park,” in ''New Principles of Gardening'' (1728), pl. XII. House opens “to the ''South'', on a ''grand Parterre of Grass''. . .”
Image:1338.jpg|[[J. C. Loudon]], Ground-lines of gardens and '''parterres''', in ''An Encyclopædia of Gardening'', 4th ed. (1826), 375, figs. 361 and 362.
Image:1796.jpg|[[J. C. Loudon]], “Intricate and fanciful figures of '''parterres''',” in ''An Encyclopædia of Gardening'', 4th ed. (1826), 375, figs. 363a, 363b and 364.
Image:1351.jpg|[[J. C. Loudon]], Plan of [[French_style|French]] '''parterre ''' of embroidery, in ''An Encyclopædia of Gardening'', 4th ed. (1826), 797, fig. 550."[[French_style|French]] '''parterre''' which they call '''parterre''' of embroidery."
Image:1374.jpg|[[J. C. Loudon]], “The house and [[French_style|French]] '''parterre''',” in '''An Encyclopædia of Gardening'', 4th ed. (1826), 1026, fig. 730.
Image:0935.jpg|Alexander Walsh, “Plan of a Garden,” in ''New England Farmer'' 19, no. 39 (March 31, 1841): 308. “D has a circle in the centre 26 feet in diameter, a '''parterre ''' for annual flowers. . .”
Image:0960.jpg|John J. Thomas, “Plan of a Garden,” in ''Cultivator'' 9, no. 1 (January 1842): 22, fig. 8. “. . . the '''parterre''', or flower [[bed]]s cut into the turf on the [[lawn]], at ''k''.”
</gallery>
<gallery widths="170px" heights="170px" perrow="7">
Image:0056.jpg|[[John Bartram|John]] or [[William Bartram]], ''A Draught of [[Bartram_Botanic_Garden_and_Nursery|John Bartram’s House and Garden]] as it appears from the River'', 1758.
Image:0394.jpg|Anonymous, “The [[Conservatory]],” [[Montgomery Place]], in [[A. J. Downing]], ed., ''Horticulturist'' 2, no. 4 (October 1847): 159, fig. 28.
Image:0997.jpg|Anonymous, “Design for a [[Geometric_style|Geometric]] [[Flower_garden|Flower Garden]],” in [[A. J. Downing]], ed., ''Horticulturist'' 2, no. 12 (June 1848): 558, fig. 67.
Image:0777.jpg|[[Frances Palmer]], “Ground [[Plot]] of 4-1/4 Acres,” in William H. Ranlett, ''The Architect'' (1851), vol. 2, pl. 6.
<gallery widths="170px" heights="170px" perrow="7">
Image:1765.jpg|[[J. C. Loudon]], “View “[[View]] of the [[French_style|French]] parterre,” in ''The Suburban Gardener'' (1838), 586, fig. 240.
Image:0250.jpg|Anonymous, The Castello Plan of New York (“Afbeeldinge Van de Stadt Amsterdam in Nieuw Neederlandt”), 1660.
Image:0017.jpg|Anonymous, Illustration of Williamsburg buildings, flora and fauna. Modern impression taken from the original 1740s copperplate [Bodleian Plate re-strike].
Image:0285.jpg|Nicholas Garrison, ''A [[View ]] of Bethlehem, one of the Brethren’s Principal Settlements, in Pennsylvania, North America'', 1757.
Image:0248.jpg|Claude Joseph Sauthier, ''A Plan of the Town of Newbern in Craven County, North Carolina'', 1769. '''Parterres''' can be seen on either side of the lawn indicated by a “C”.
Image:0299.jpg|Claude Joseph Sauthier, John Hawk’s plan of the Governor’s House and grounds in New Bern, NC, 1783.
Image:09062274.jpg|[[Pierre Pharoux]], Plan of Courthouse [[Square]]in Esperanza, Architectural drawings and maps of Pierre Pharoux, Speranza1795, 1794—95HM 2028.
Image:0280.jpg|Ralph Earl, ''Townscape of Bennington'', 1798.
Image:19771977_detail_parterre.jpg|Charles Varlé (artist), Francis Shallus (engraver), ''Warner & Hanna’s Plan of the City and Environs of Baltimore'', 1801. Detail. '''Parterres''' are represented as grids to mark [[Geometric style|geometric]] gardens near buildings.
Image:0195.jpg|Francis Guy, ''Bolton, [[view ]] from the South'', c. 1805.
Image:0102.jpg|Joseph Jacques Ramée, Plan of the Campus Grounds, Union College, 1813.
Image:1349.jpg|[[J. C. Loudon]], Plan of a [[Flower_garden|flower garden ]] in the old [[French_style|French style]], in ''An Encyclopædia of Gardening'', 4th ed. (1826), 794, fig. 545.
Image:1350.jpg|[[J. C. Loudon]], Plan of "[[walk|''Walks'']]s", in ''An Encyclopædia of Gardening'', 4th ed. (1826), 796, fig. 549.
image:1099.jpg|Anonymous, Garden and Library, Friends’ Asylum for the Insane, 1838, in ''Friends’ Asylum for the Insane, 1813–1913'' (1913), pl. opp. 70.
 
Image:0555a_detail2.jpg|Anonymous, [[Plat]] of 117 Broad Street [detail], 1797 . Register Mesne Conveyance, Charleston County, S.C.
 
Image:0555a.jpg|Anonymous, [[Plat]] of 117 Broad Street, 1797. Register Mesne Conveyance, Charleston County, S.C.
</gallery>

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Changes - History of Early American Landscape Design
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