[[File:0766.jpg|thumb|left|Fig. 1, Anonymous, ''The Battery New York, By Moonlight'', 1849.]]
 
[[File:1048.jpg|thumb|Fig. 2, Henry Wadsworth Longfellow, Sketch of the Grounds of the Vassall-Carigie-Longfellow House, 1844. A “turf terrace” is noted to the left of the main house.]]
 The term terrace, used to describe both natural and artificial landscape features, denoted a level area or platform, often slightly raised and of varying dimensions and materials. Although Stephen Switzer (1718) made subtle distinctions between kinds of terraces (terrace walks, great terraces, middle terraces, etc.), those distinctions were not generally followed in American usage. In practice, however, a variety of terrace types were incorporated into landscape designs throughout 18th- and 19th-century America. These included long narrow terraces that formed raised [[walk]]s, platforms of earthen and architectural materials adjacent to buildings, and earthen terraces between slopes in [[Fall/Falling_garden|falling gardengardens]]s.
[[File:0896.jpg|thumb|left|Fig. 3, Edwin Whitefield, Sketch of Anson G. Phelps’ Villa, North Tarrytown, New York, 1851.]]
 
[[File:1686.jpg|thumb|Fig. 4, James Smillie after a sketch by A. O. Moore, “Italian Garden and Lake at Wellesley near Boston,” in [[A. J. Downing]], ''A Treatise on the Theory and Practice of Landscape Gardening'' (1849), pl. opp. p. 452.]]
 
Native American platform mounds, such as the one described as a terrace by <span id="Bartram_cite"></span>[[William Bartram]] in 1791, served as stages for the religious and ruling elite of the southeast before European contact ([[#Bartram|view text]]). Visible for miles, these mounds are remarkable not only as architectural monuments but also as testimonies to the leadership that mobilized a massive labor force needed to move such a vast quantity of earth.
In Anglo-American gardens, long, narrow terraces provided raised [[walk]]s that offered excellent viewing platforms, formed circulation routes through the landscape, and made ideal venues for social promenade, as depicted at the [[Battery Park]] in New York by the ''Illustrated London News'' in 1849 [Fig. 1]. In 1718,<span id="Switzer_cite"></span> Switzer declared that gardens without these elevated [[walk]]s “must be esteem’d very deficient.”([[#Switzer|view text]]) Waterside terraces were particularly common in America, because they were created with the fill dredged from rivers and [[canal]]s. Such terraces were built in residential settings, such as the gardens at Maycox Plantation in Virginia, which were described c. 1780–82 by Fran&ccedil;ois Jean Chastellux and at the Vassall-Craigie-Longfellow House in Cambridge [Fig. 2]. In public areas, terraces were found at the [[Battery Park]], described in 1793 by [[John Drayton]], and at the waterfront of Alexandria, Virginia, visited in 1830 by [[Frances Milton Trollope]].
Terraces were also built adjacent to buildings, and were often created from the earth excavated from cellar construction. The term “terrace” referred to raised earthen platforms and to flat roofed structures, both of which were used as balconies, [[promenade]]s, and viewing platforms. These terraces (paved, turfed, graveled, or covered in metal compounds, as advertised in the ''Federal Gazette'' in 1816) were occasionally also ornamented with [[statue|statuary]], vases, urns, and plantings such as flower beds or, more rarely, topiary. Charles Lyell recorded his observations of a highly ornamented terrace in Natchez, Mississippi, in 1846. A paved or turfed terrace extending from the house and often bounded by a balustrade was particularly popular in Italianate architecture of the 1830s and 1840s and was promoted by [[William H. Ranlett]] (1849) and [[Andrew Jackson Downing]] (1849). These terraces required substantial investment to construct and, when planted intensively, to maintain [Figs. 3 and 4]. As <span id="Loudon_cite"></span>[[Jane Loudon]] observed in 1845, “[T]hey are chiefly adapted for mansions and places of considerable extent.” ([[#Loudon|view text]]) <span id="Downing_cite"></span> [[Andrew Jackson Downing|Downing]] suggested that the function of the English paved terrace was often accommodated in America by the [[veranda]] ([[#Downing|view text]]).
[[File:2006.jpg|thumb|left|Fig. 5, Joseph Drayton, ''View near Bordenton, from the Gardens of the Count de Survilliers'', c. 1820.]]
 
[[File:1477.jpg|thumb|Fig. 6, Anonymous, Honorary membership certificate for Nicholas Biddle in “The Horticultural Association of the Valley of the Hudson” [detail], June 1839.]]
 Broad terraces located adjacent to a building provided a transition between the built architecture and the grounds, as [[Batty Langley]], [[Bernard M'Mahon]], [[John Abercrombie]], and [[A. J. Downing]] all noted. The terrace also provided a vantage point from which to admire [[view]]s and [[vista]]s. Both [[John Abercrombie|Abercrombie]] (1817) and [[J. C. (John Claudius) Loudon|J. C. Loudon's]] (1850) discussions of terraces emphasize the importance of selecting sight lines and of building proportionally in order to create an appropriate visual setting for a house, as well as to establish a viewing platform for looking outward. For example, the terrace at [[Point Breeze]], which was described by [[Frances Milton Trollope|Trollope]] and depicted in an anonymous engraving after [[Thomas Birch]] [Fig. 5], was placed to take advantage of striking [[vista]]s. Similarly, flat roofs of buildings (such as those at [[Monticello]]; the Waterworks at [[Fairmount Park]] in Philadelphia; and the [[White House]] in Washington, DC) served as elevated terrace walkways with views of distant scenery. A certificate for the Horticultural Association of the Hudson [Fig. 6] depicts an idealized garden (possibly based on [[Andrew Jackson Downing|Downing’s]] [[Highland Place]]) that includes a terrace, seen at right, framing an extended view of the Newburgh Basin.<ref>For a discussion of this image, see Walter L. Creese, ''The Crowning of the American Landscape: Eight Great Spaces and Their Buildings'' (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1985), 75–78, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/FX78IBSV/q/Creese| view on Zotero].</ref>
[[File:0720.jpg|thumb|left|Fig. 7, Charles Bulfinch, Ground plan of the two wings added to the Pleasant Hill, 1818. The “upper terrace” and “lower terrace” link all the buildings.]]
 
[[File:1042.jpg|thumb|Fig. 8, Michael van der Gucht, Illustration for chapter entitled: “Of different Terrasses and Stairs, with their most exact Proportions,” 1712.]]
Terraces of varying widths were also employed in sites with a steep grade in order to make for arable and easily navigated level areas, to control erosion, and to create the visual effects made possible by a series of slopes and flats (see [[Fall/Falling_garden|Fall]]). These terraces were supported by earthen slopes or masonry [[wall]]s, supports which were referred to variously as banks, slopes, and terrace walls. They were also sometimes simply called by the more general term, “terrace,” as in William Dickinson Martin’s 1808 description of a “perpendicular terrace” at Salem, North Carolina. Designs for public institutions, such as Charles Bulfinch’s 1818 design for two wings to be added to the seat of Joseph Barrell in order to create the McLean Asylum [Fig. 7], used terraces to frame views of the buildings’ fa&ccedil;des while accommodating the slope of the land. The terraces of a [[Fall/Falling_garden|falling garden]] were generally separated by turfed slopes or, less commonly, masonry [[wall]]s. As <span id="Argenville_cite"></span> Antoine-Joseph Dezallier d'Argenville (1712) noted, gardens were less susceptible to erosion if their terraces were created by cutting into an existing hillside rather than constructed out of fill ([[#Argenville|view text]]) [Fig. 8].The planting schemes of [[Fall/Falling_garden|falling garden]] terraces varied from simple turf to kitchen and flower beds, although images of terraces rarely showed plantings in detail. Among the few surviving examples is [[Thomas Jefferson|Jefferson’s]] diagram (c. 1804) for a garden olitory, in which he specified a hedge at the “foot of the terras” designed to accommodate differing heights of the [[lawn]] and [[kitchen garden]]. In 1840, <span id="Hovey_cite"></span>[[C. M. (Charles Mason) Hovey|C. M. Hovey]] referred to the efforts of the Messrs. Winship of Brighton, Massachusetts, to transform the embankment of a railroad right-of-way on [[C. M. (Charles Mason)Hovey|Hovey’s]] land into an attractive terraced garden ([[#Hovey|view text]]). While the use of terraces and slopes to create [[Fall/Falling_garden|falling gardens]] seems to have declined in popularity after the early 19th century, its use continued through mid-century in large formal landscapes of public gardens, such as the University of Virginia, and anywhere uneven or steep topography offered a challenge.
Terraces of varying widths were also employed in sites with a steep grade in order to make for arable and easily navigated level areas, to control erosion, and to create the visual effects made possible by a series of slopes and flats (see [[Fall]]). These terraces were supported by earthen slopes or masonry [[wall]]s, supports which were referred to variously as banks, slopes, and terrace walls. They were also sometimes simply called by the more general term, “terrace,” as in William Dickinson Martin’s 1808 description of a “perpendicular terrace” at Salem, North Carolina. Designs for public institutions, such as Charles Bulfinch’s 1818 design for two wings to be added to the seat of Joseph Barrell in order to create the McLean Asylum [Fig. 7], used terraces to frame views of the buildings’ fa&ccedil;des while accommodating the slope of the land. The terraces of a [[falling garden]] were generally separated by turfed slopes or, less commonly, masonry [[wall]]s. As <span id="Argenville_cite"></span> [[Antoine—''Elizabeth Kryder-Joseph Dezallier dReid''Argenville]] (1712) noted, gardens were less susceptible to erosion if their terraces were created by cutting into an existing hillside rather than constructed out of fill ([[#Argenville|view text]]) [Fig. 8].The planting schemes of [[falling garden]] terraces varied from simple turf to kitchen and flower beds, although images of terraces rarely showed plantings in detail. Among the few surviving examples is [[Thomas Jefferson|Jefferson’s]] diagram (c. 1804) for a garden olitory, in which he specified a hedge at the “foot of the terras” designed to accommodate differing heights of the [[lawn]] and [[kitchen garden]]. In 1840, <span id="Hovey_cite"></span>[[C. M. (Charles Mason) Hovey|C. M. Hovey]] referred to the efforts of the Messrs. Winship of Brighton, Massachusetts, to transform the embankment of a railroad right-of-way on [[C. M. (Charles Mason)Hovey|Hovey’s]] land into an attractive terraced garden ([[#Hovey|view text]]). While the use of terraces and slopes to create [[falling garden]]s seems to have declined in popularity after the early 19th century, its use continued through mid-century in large formal landscapes of public gardens, such as the University of Virginia, and anywhere uneven or steep topography offered a challenge.
—''Elizabeth Kryder-Reid''<hr>
==Texts==
===Usage===
*[[William Byrd II|Byrd, William II]], September 18, 1732, describing the estate of Gov. Alexander Spotswood, near Germanna, VA (1910; repr., 1970: 357–58)<ref>William Byrd, ''The Writings of Colonel William Byrd of Westover in Virginia, Esqr.'', ed. John Spencer Bassett (1910; repr., New York: B. Franklin, 1970), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/3VVVZ9XQ view on Zotero].</ref>
:“After Breakfast the Colo. and I left the Ladys to their Domestick Affairs, and took a turn in the Garden, which has nothing beautiful but 3 '''Terrace''' Walks that fall in '''Slopes''' one below another.”
*Fithian, Philip Vickers, March 18, 1774, describing [[Nomini Hall]], Westmoreland County, VA (1943: 108)<ref>Philip Vickers Fithian, ''Journal & Letters of Philip Vickers Fithian, 1773–1774: A Plantation Tutor of the Old Dominion'', ed. Hunter D. Farish (Williamsburg, VA: Colonial Williamsburg, 1943), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/XJX4WV8F view on Zotero].</ref>
:“From the front yard of the Great House, to the Wash-House is a curious '''''Terrace''''', covered finely with Green turf, & about five foot high with a '''slope''' of eight feet, which appears exceeding well to persons coming to the front of the House&mdash;
*Chastellux, Fran&ccedil;ois Jean Marquis de, 1780–82, describing Maycox Plantation, estate of David Meade, Prince George County, VA (1787: 2:166–67)<ref> Fran&ccedil;ois Jean Chastellux, Marquis de Chastellux, ''Travels in North America in the Years 1780, 1781, and 1782,'' 2 vols. (London: G. G. J. and J. Robinson, 1787),[https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/UXHRGXKX/q/Fran%C3%A7ois%20Jean| view on Zotero].</ref>
:“Mr. Mead’s house is by no means so handsome as that of [[Westover]]. . . . Mr. Mead’s garden, like that of Westover, is in the nature of a '''terrace''' on the bank of the river.”
*[[William Hamilton|Hamilton, William]], 1789 and 1790, in a letter to his secretary, Benjamin Hays Smith, describing [[The Woodlands]], seat of William Hamilton, near Philadelphia, PA (quoted in Madsen 1988: A6, A7)<ref>Karen Madsen, “William Hamilton’s Woodlands,” (paper presented for seminar in American Landscape, 1790–1900, instructed by E. McPeck, Radcliffe Institute for Advanced Study, Harvard University, 1988), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items#items/itemKey/XN8NN9QN/q/madsen?&_suid=1340895272014046677169243049543 view on Zotero].</ref>
:“[September 27, 1789] . . . The first moment after Hilton has finished weeding in the Garden as I directed he should set about weeding the '''terrace''' walk as I will endeavour to have it gravelld during the winter. . .
<p> </p>
:“[October 12, 1789] . . . When the '''terrace''' is weeded, the two [[Border]]s leading from the House to the [[Ice House]] Hill should be cleaned. . .
<p> </p>
:“[June 12, 1790] . . . The newly planted trees & shrubs along the '''terrace''' respecting which you know me to be so anxious, may be alive or dead for ought I know.”
*<div id="Bartram"></div>[[William Bartram|Bartram, William]], 1791, describing the area north of Wrightsborough, GA (1928: 56–57)<ref> William Bartram, ''Travels through North and South Carolina, Georgia, East and West Florida'', ed. Mark Van Doren (New York: Dover, 1928), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/88NA3B2P view on Zotero].</ref> [[#Bartram_cite|back up to History]]
:“many very magnificent monuments of the power and industry of the ancient inhabitants of these lands are visible. I observed a stupendous conical pyramid, or artificial mount of earth, vast tetragon '''terraces''', and a large sunken area, of a cubical form, encompassed with banks of earth; and certain traces of a larger Indian town, the work of a powerful nation, whose period of grandeur perhaps long preceded the discovery of this continent. . . .
<p> </p>
:“old Indian settlements, now deserted and overgrown with forests. These are always on or near the banks of rivers, or great swamps, the artificial mounts and terraces elevating them above the surrounding [[grove]]s.”
*Smith, William Loughton, 1791, describing [[Gunston Hall]], seat of George Mason, Mason Neck, VA (1917: 64)<ref> William Loughton Smith, ''Journal of William Loughton Smith, 1790–1791'' ed. Albert Matthews, (Cambridge, MA: The University Press, 1917), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/ITHQH4P5/q/Loughton| view on Zotero].</ref>
:“The house is rather an ancient brick building, with a neat garden, at the end of which is a high natural '''terrace''' which commands the Potomac.”
*[[John Drayton|Drayton, John]], 1793, describing the [[Battery Park]], New York, NY (quoted in De&aacute;k, 1988: 1:130)<ref> Gloria Gilda De&aacute;k, ''Picturing America, 1497–1899: Prints, Maps, and Drawings Bearing on the New World Discoveries and on the Development of the Territory That Is Now the United States'', 2 vols. (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1988), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/4A6QNFNX| view on Zotero].</ref>
:“The flag staff rises from the midst of a stone tower, and is decorated on the top with a golden ball: and the back part of the ground is laid out in smaller [[walkswalk]]s, '''terraces''', and a [[bowling green]].&mdash; Immediately behind this, and overlooking it, is the government house; built at the expence of the state.”
[[File:0090a.jpg|thumb|450 px|Fig. 10, [[Thomas Jefferson]], “Terras” in a letter describing plans for a “Garden Olitory” at [[Monticello]] c. 1804. ]]
*[[Thomas Jefferson|Jefferson, Thomas]], c. 1804, describing [[Monticello]], plantation of Thomas Jefferson, Charlottesville, VA (Massachusetts Historical Society, Coolidge Collection)
*[[Benjamin Henry Latrobe|Latrobe, Benjamin Henry]], May 11, 1805, describing the [[White House]], Washington, DC (Colonial Williamsburg Foundation; hereafter CWF)
:“The obstructions to the colonnade from the stables, may be prevented by giving them a North door, as horses will easily ascend or descend the '''terras''' on the North side. But the most difficult of all is the adjustment of the new connecting building to the different levels of the three existing buildings. Nothing can be admitted short of the '''terras''' of the offices from the [[White House|Pres’s House]] to the [[pavilion]]s each way being absolutely in the level of the floor of the house.”
*[[Charles Drayton|Drayton, Charles]], November 2, 1806, describing [[The Woodlands]], seat of [[William Hamilton]], near Philadelphia, PA (1806: 57&ndash;58<ref>Charles Drayton, “The Diary of Charles Drayton I, 1806,” Drayton Papers, MS 0152, Drayton Hall, SC, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/HAARCGXN view on Zotero].</ref>
:“From the Cellar one enters under the bow window & into this Screen, which is about 6 or 7 feet square. Through these, we enter a narrow area, & ascend some few Steps [close to this side of the house,] into the garden&mdash;& thro the other opening we ascend a paved winding '''slope''', which spreads as it ascends, into the [[yard]]. This sloping passage being a segment of a circle, & its two outer [[wall]]s <u>concealed</u> by loose [[hedge]]s, & by the projection of the flat roofed Screen of masonry, keeps the [[yard]], & I believe the whole passage <u>out of sight</u> from the house&mdash;but certainly from the garden & [[park]] [[lawn]].”
*Martin, William Dickinson, 1808, describing the [[pleasure ground]]s at [[Salem Academy]], Salem, NC (quoted in Bynum 1979: 29)<ref name="Bynum, 1979">Flora Ann L. Bynum, ''Old Salem Garden Guide,'' (Winston-Salem, NC: Old Salem, 1979), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/TJB9XNMF view on Zotero].</ref> :“Next, I visited a [[flower garden]] belonging to the female department. . . . it is situated on a hill, the East end of which is high & abrupt; some distance down this, they had dug down right in the earth, & drawing the dirt forward threw it on rock, etc., thereby forming a horizontal plane of about thirty feet in circumference; & on the back, rose a perpendicular terrace of some height, which was entirely covered over with a grass peculiar to that vicinage. At the bottom of this '''terrace''' were arranged circular [[seat]]s, which, from the height of the hill in the rear were protected from the sun in an early hour in the afternoon”
*[[Margaret Bayard Smith|Smith, Margaret Bayard]], August 1, 1809, describing [[Monticello]], plantation of [[Thomas Jefferson]], Charlottesville, VA (1906: 68)<ref name="Bayard 1906"> Margaret Bayard Smith, ''The First Forty Years of Washington Society'', ed. by Gaillard Hunt (New York: Charles Scribner’s, 1906), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/FTDFHRFH view on Zotero].</ref>
:“He [[Thomas Jefferson|[Thomas Jefferson]]] took us first to the garden he has commenced since his retirement. It is on the south side of the mountain and commands a most noble view. Little is as yet done. A '''terrace''' of 70 or 80 feet long and about 40 wide is already made and in cultivation. A broad grass [[walk]] leads along the outer edge; the inner part is laid off in beds for vegetables. This '''terrace''' is to be extended in length and another to be made below it. The [[view]] it commands, is at present its greatest beauty.”
*Gerry, Elbridge, Jr., July 1813, describing the [[White House]], Washington, DC (1927: 180–82)<ref>Elbridge Gerry Jr., ''The Diary of Elbridge Gerry, Jr.'' (New York: Brentano’s, 1927), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/8P4QSRIF view on Zotero].</ref>
:“A door opens at each end, one into the hall, and opposite, one into the '''terrace''', from whence you have an elegant [[view]] of all the rivers &c. . . . Lengthways of the house, and thro' the hall, is a walk, which extends on a '''terrace''' at each end for some way. . . .
*Kremer, Eliza Vierling, 1824–29, describing the pleasure grounds at [[Salem Academy]], Salem, NC (quoted in Bynum 1979: 29)<ref name="Bynum, 1979"/>
:“A large garden, some little distance from the Academy, was during the Summer Season, a place for recreation after school hours. . . .
*[[Margaret Bayard Smith|Smith, Margaret Bayard]], August 2, 1828, describing the University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA (1906: 225)<ref name="Bayard 1906"/>
:“on two other sides running from north to south are the [[Pavillion]]s, or Professor’s houses, at about 60 or 70 feet apart, connected by '''terraces''', beneath which are the dormitories, or lodging sleeping rooms of the students. The '''terrace''' projects about 8 feet beyond the rooms and is supported on brick [[arch]]es, forming beneath the arches a paved [[walk]], sheltered from the heat of summer and the storms of winter.”
*[[Frances Milton Trollope|Trollope, Frances Milton]], 1830, describing Alexandria, VA (1832: 2:93)<ref name="Trollope, 1832"> Frances Milton Trollope, ''Domestic Manners of the Americans'', 3rd ed., 2 vols. (London: Wittaker, Treacher, 1832), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/T5RXDF7G/ view on Zotero].</ref>
:“a few weeks’ residence in Alexandria restored my strength sufficiently to enable me to walk to a beautiful little grassy '''terrace''', perfectly out of the town, but very near it, from whence we could watch the various craft that peopled the Potomac between Alexandria and Washington.”
*[[Frances Milton Trollope|Trollope, Frances Milton]], 1830, describing [[Point Breeze]], estate of Joseph Bonaparte (Count de Survilliers), Bordentown, NJ (1832: 2:153)<ref name="Trollope, 1832"/>
:“The country is very flat, but a '''terrace''' of two sides has been raised, commanding a fine reach of the Delaware River; at the point where this '''terrace''' forms a right angle, a lofty chapel has been erected, which looks very much like an observatory.”
*[[Harriet Martineau|Martineau, Harriet]], 1834, describing [[Hyde Park]], seat of [[David Hosack]], on the Hudson River, NY (1838: 1:54)<ref name= "Martineau, 1838"> Harriet Martineau, ''Retrospect of Western Travel'', 2 vols. (London: Saunders and Otley, 1838), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/H2BW5FRU view on Zotero].</ref>
:“The aspect of [[Hyde Park]] from the river had disappointed me, after all I had heard of it. It looks little more than a white house upon a ridge. I was therefore doubly delighted when I found what this ridge really was. It is a natural '''terrace''', overhanging one of the sweetest reaches of the river; and, though broad and straight at the top, not square and formal, like an artificial embankment, but undulating, sloping, and sweeping between the ridge and the river, and dropped with trees; the whole carpeted with turf, tempting grown people, who happen to have the spirits of children, to run up and down the '''slopes''', and play hide-and-seek in the hollows.”
*[[Harriet Martineau|Martineau, Harriet]], 1835, describing Cincinnati, OH (1838: 2:51)<ref name= "Martineau, 1838"/>
:“The proprietor has a passion for gardening, and his ruling taste seems likely to be a blessing to the city. He employs four gardeners, and toils in his grounds with his own hands. His garden is on a '''terrace''' which overlooks the [[canal]], and the most parklike eminences form the background of the [[view]]. Between the garden and the hills extend his vineyards, from the produce of which he has succeeded in making twelve kinds of wine, some of which are highly praised by good judges.”
*Willis, Nathaniel Parker, 1840, describing the [[Fairmount Waterworks]], Philadelphia, PA (1840; repr., 1971: 313)<ref> Nathaniel Parker Willis, ''American Scenery, or Land, Lake and River Illustrations of Transatlantic Nature'', 2 vols. (1840; repr., Barre, MA: Imprint Society, 1971), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/T5CMW67U view on Zotero].</ref>
:“Steps and '''terraces''' conduct to the reservoirs, and thence the [[view]] over the ornamented grounds of the country [[seat]]s opposite, and of a very [[picturesque]] and uneven country beyond, is exceedingly attractive. Below, the court of the principal building is laid out with gravel [[walk]]s, and ornamented with [[fountain]]s and flowering trees; and within the edifice there is a public drawing-room, of neat design and furniture; while in another wing are elegant refreshment-rooms&mdash;and, in short, all the appliances and means of a place of public amusement.” [Fig. 10]
*[[William Ranlett|Ranlett, William]], 1849, describing a proposed villa in Oswego, NY (1849; repr., 1976: 2:14)<ref> William A. Ranlett, ''The Architect,'' 2 vols. (1849–51; repr., New York: Da Capo, 1976), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/QGQPCB5J/q/ranlett view on Zotero].</ref>
:“The design given in this part of the Architect, number XXVI, is the plan of a Villa in the Anglo-Italian style, now in process of erection on the south side of Lake Ontario, in the city of Oswego. . . . On the north side which commands a full view of the lake, a balustrade gallery, or '''terrace''', extends the entire front.” [Fig. 12]
[[File:0778.jpg|thumb|Fig. 12, [[Frances Palmer]], Italian Bracketed Villa at Oswego, New York, 1851.]]
:“Descending the steps we reach the garden, which covers and extent of two or more acres in the form of a parallelogram, the end next Newton street. The '''slope''' is laid out in '''terraces''' on the right of the steps, and on the left is located the range of forcing houses, which is 104 feet long, comprising a centre and two wings, the former the [[greenhouse]], twenty-five feet, and the latter vineries, forty feet each.”
 
{{break}}
 
===Citations===
*<div id="Argenville"></div>[[Antoine-Joseph Dezallier d'Argenville | Dezallier d'Argenville, Antoine-Joseph]], 1712, ''The Theory and Practice of Gardening'' (1712; repr., 1969: 75, 116–18)<ref>A.-J. Dézallier d'Argenville, ''The Theory and Practice of Gardening'', trans. John James (1712; repr., Farnborough, England: Gregg International, 1969), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/RNT8ZVZ8/q/The%20Theory%20and%20Practice%20of%20Gardening| view on Zotero]</ref> [[#Argenville_cite|back up to History]]
:“'''TERRASSES''', when rightly situated, are likewise of great Ornament in Gardens, for their Regularity and Opening; especially when they are well built, and beautified with handsome Stairs, and fine Ascents. Sometimes there are made under them, Vaults, Grots, [[Cascade]]s, and Buffets of Water, with an Order of Architecture, and a great many [[Statue]]s in Niches; and, on the Coping above, are set Vases and Flower-pots, orderly ranged and disposed. . . .
*[[Batty Langley|Langley, Batty]], 1728, ''New Principles of Gardening'' (1728; repr., 1982: vi–vii)<ref>Batty Langley, ''New Principles of Gardening, or The Laying Out and Planting Parterres, Groves, Wildernesses, Labyrinths, Avenues, Parks, &c'' (London: A. Bettesworth and J. Batley, etc., 1728; repr., New York: Garland, 1982), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/MRDTAEKC view on Zotero].</ref>
:“When the Situation of Gardens such, that the making of '''''Slopes''''' and '''''Terraces''''' are necessary, or cannot be avoided, they not only leave them ''naked of Shade'' as aforesaid, but ''break their'' '''''Slopes''''' into so many Angles, that their ''native Beauty'' is thereby destroy’d. Thus if by waste Earth a ''Mount'' be ''raised ten or twelve Feet high'', you shall have its '''Slope''', that should be entire from top to bottom, broken into three, if not four small ''trifling ones'', and those mixt with [[Arch]]s of Circles, ''&c''. that still adds to their ill Effects: So that instead of having one ''grand'' '''''Slope''''' only with an easy Ascent, you have three or four small ones, that are ''poor and trifling''.
*[[Philip Miller|Miller, Philip]], 1754, ''The Gardeners Dictionary'' (1754; repr., 1969: 1367)<ref>Philip Miller, ''The Gardeners Dictionary'' (London: printed for the author, 1754; repr., New York: Verlag Von J. Cramer, 1969), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/356Q24EP view on Zotero].</ref>
:“'''TERRACES''':A '''Terrace''' is a small Bank of Earth, rais’d and trimm’d according to Line and Level, for the proper Elevation of any Person that walks round a Garden, that he may have a better [[Prospect]] of all that lies around him; and these Elevations are so necessary, that those Gardens that have them not, are deficient.

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Changes - History of Early American Landscape Design
HEALD will be upgrading in spring 2021. New features and content will be available this summer. Thank you for your patience!

Changes


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