==History==
[[File:2241.jpg|left|thumb|Fig. 1,James Frothingham, ''Manasseh Cutler'', 1820.]]
[[File:2238.jpg|left|thumb|Fig. 2, "Dr. Cutler’s Church and Parsonage at Ipswich Hamlet, 1787," in Edwin Erle Sparks, ''The United States of America: 1783-1830, Part 1'' (1904).]]
Born in Killingly, Connecticut, to Hezekiah and Susanna Clark, Manasseh Cutler grew up on a prosperous farm whose boundaries extended into Rhode Island. The family’s ancestors were Puritans who had emigrated from Norfolkshire in 1634 [Fig.1]. From his father, Cutler developed a taste for learning, which led him to Yale University where he received—over time—undergraduate, master’s, and doctor of laws degrees.<ref>Peter S. Onuf, “Manasseh Cutler,” ''American National Biography'' (online); Robert Elliot Brown, ''Manasseh Cutler and the Settlement of Ohio, 1788'' (Marietta, OH: Marietta College Press, 1938), 8; and William Darrach and Ernest G. Vietor, “Reverend Manasseh Cutler, LL.D., 1742–1825,” ''Essex Institute Historical Collections'' 90, no. 2 (April 1954): 111–22.</ref> After receiving his undergraduate degree in 1765, he taught school for one year in Dedham, Massachusetts, and married Mary (Polly) Balch, before going into the mercantile and whaling business on Martha’s Vineyard.<ref>Newcomer 1962, 30, and C. Burr Dawes, “Manasseh Cutler (1742–1823), Forefather of American Botany and American Botanical Gardens” (paper, Ohio Academy of Science and the Ohio Academy of Medical History, Ohio Historical Center, Columbus, April 8, 1972), 4.</ref> He was admitted to the bar in 1767.<ref>Lee Nathaniel Newcomer, “The Big World of Manasseh Cutler,” ''New England Galaxy'' 4, no. 1 (Summer 1962): 29–37.</ref>
*Cutler, Manasseh, July 28, 1787, describing New York, NY (1987: 1:307–08)
:“. . . Broadway leads from the fort, or White Hall Square, to the common, and so out of the city through the Bowery. The [[common]] is considerably large, in a triangular form, and surrounded with buildings. On the northern side side of the [[Square]] are three very elegant large public buildings, which make a fine appearance at a distance, all built of free-stone, with a handsome fence inclosing a court-yard in front. . . . Near by it [the prison] is what I at first took to be a beautiful [[summerhouse|summer-house]], raised from the ground. It is in a square form, the sides ornamented with checker-worked banisters, and the roof in the [[Chinese manner|Chinese]] taste; the whole very handsomely painted. I was surprised to see so elegant a [[summerhouse|summer-house]] so near this building, which I found, by the iron-grates to be a prison, but, on inspection, found it was a Gallows, accommodated or turning off six criminals at a time.
:“At the southern end of the city on the point of the Island, where North and East Rivers meet, is an old fort, now much out of repair. . . . This fort is built on a prodigious [[mound]] of earth raised for that purpose, which makes the walls next the harbor near forty feet high, and seems to be well situated for commanding the entrance into both rivers. . . . Around this fort is the Mall, where a vast concourse of gentlemen and ladies are constantly walking a little before sunset and in the evening. On the part of the [[Mall]] next the water, which is of considerable extent, is a broad and most beautiful glacis (built up with free-stone from the water), on which they walk. This is a cool and most delightful walk in an evening, having the sea open as far as Staten Island and Redhook, but in the day-time it greatly wants the shade of trees.”
*Cutler, Manasseh, January 2, 1802, journal entry describing a visit to [[Mount Vernon]], plantation of [[George Washington]], Fairfax County, VA (1888: 2:55–58) :“. . . After leaving Alexandria about three miles, we entered a woodland, which continued, with the exception of a few openings of cultivated fields, until we cam within about a quarter of a mile of the mansion-house on [[Mount Vernon|Mt. Vernon]]. As the road goes out of the [[wood]]s, which consist of tall and beautiful forests, variegated with all the different kinds of trees, native in this part of the country, it passes by a [[gate]], where we leave the road and pass through the gate nearly at right-angles, and enter an open pasture. On passing through the [[gate]], which stands on an [[eminence]], we at once, and very abruptly, come in full [[view]] of the house, on the side back from the river. It appears on an [[eminence]], not like a hill, but a level ground, with a pretty deep valley between, covered with [[wood]]s and bushes of different kinds, which conceal the winding passage from the [[gate]] to the house. . . . In this situation the house, with two ranges of small buildings extending in a curved form, from near the corners of the house, till interrupted by the trees, has quite a picturesque appearance, and the effect is much heightened by coming out of a thick [[wood]], and the sudden and unexpected manner in which it is seen. . . .
:“After breakfast we rambled about the house and gardens, which were not in so high a style as I expected to have found them. The house stands on an elevated level, is two stories, high, with a [[piazza]] in front, supported by a row of pillars on the side toward the river, and is about five or six rods from a steep bank descending to the edge of the water. The river is wide, and affords a most delightful [[prospect]] far distant up and down the stream. as well as beyond the opposite shore. But the whole country appears to be an extended [[wood]]s, with very few houses or cultivated fields in any direction. In front of the house is a grass [[plot]], with trees on each side, and inclosed with a circular ditch. On the right is an [[orchard]], consisting principally of large cherry and peach trees. At the bottom of this [[orchard]], and nearly opposite the eastern end of the house, is a venerable tomb, which contains the remains of the great [[George Washington|Washington]]. This precious monument was the first object of our attention. . . . Situated at the extremity of the grass [[plot]], and on the edge of the bank, it is not seen until you approach near to it. The [[mound]] of earth is not much elevated, and is covered over with a growth of cypress trees, a few junipers, and near it the ever-green holly tree, which conceals it from the [[view]] until you come almost to it. The side of the steep bank to the river is covered with a thicket of forest trees in its whole extent within view of the house. The tomb opens nearly toward the river, at an upright door, which was locked, and all the stone work is covered with earth, overgrown with tall grass and these trees, which appear to have been planted, except at the sides and over the cap of the door. Between the tomb and the bank, a narrow foot-path, much trodden, and shaded with trees, passes round it. . . . After we had taken a melancholy leave of the tomb, we rambled over the gardens and [[shrubbery]], which discovered much taste and neatness of design in its former owner. . . . I collected a quantity of seeds. . .”
*Cutler, Manasseh, November 22, 1803, in a letter to his daughter Mrs. Torrey, describing [[The Woodlands]] (1888: 2:144–46)
:“. . . Since you are quite a gardener, I will mention a visit I made, on my journey, near Philadelphia, to a garden, which in many respects exceeds any in America. It is at the country-seat of Mr. Hamilton, a gentleman of excellent taste and great property. . . . As soon as we had dined, he [Mr. Pickering] called me aside, and told me he had been acquainted with Mr. Hamilton, who was noted for his hospitality, and who lived but half a mile up the river, where he did not doubt we should be kindly entertained. We immediately set out, and arrived about an hour before sunset. His [[seat]] is on an [[eminence]], which forms on its summit an extended plain, at the junction of two large rivers.
:“Near the point of land a superb but ancient house built of stone is situated. In the front, which commends an extensive and most enchanting [[prospect]], is a [[piazza]], supported on large pillars, and furnished with chairs and sofas, like an elegant room. Here we found Mr. H., at his ease, smoking his cigar. . . . We then walked over the [[pleasure ground|pleasure grounds]] in front and a little back of the house. It is formed into [[walk]]s, in every direction, with [[border]]s and flowering [[shrub]]s and trees. Between are [[lawn]]s of green grass, frequently mowed to make them convenient for walking, and at different distances numerous [[copse]] of native trees, interspersed with artificial [[grove]]s, which are set with trees collected from all parts of the world. I soon found the fatigue of walking too great for me, though the enjoyments, in a measure, drove away the pain. . . . We then took a turn in the gardens and the [[greenhouse|green-houses]]. In the gardens, though ornamented with almost all the flowers and vegetables the earth affords, I was not able to walk long. The [[greenhouse|green-houses]], which occupy a prodigious space of ground, I can not pretend to describe. Every part was crowded with trees and plants from the hot climates, and such as I had never seen, all the spices, the tea-plant in full perfection; in short, he assured us there was not a rare plant in Europe, Asia, or Africa, many from China and the islands in the South Seas, none, of which he had obtained any account, which he had not procured.
<gallery widths="170px" heights="170px" perrow="5">
Image:2241.jpg| James Frothingham, ''Manasseh Cutler'', 1820. Courtesy of Ohio University Archives.
Image:2238.jpg| "Dr. Cutler’s Church and Parsonage at Ipswich Hamlet, 1787," in Edwin Erle Sparks, ''The United States of America: 1783-1830, Part 1'' (1904): 60.
==Other Resources==
[https://id.loc.gov/authorities/names/n85009150.html Library of Congress Authority File]
 
[http://botlib.huh.harvard.edu/libraries/archives/CUTLERMA.html Manasseh Cutler Papers, Harvard University Herbaria]
 
[https://www.library.ohio.edu/archives/mss/mss009.pdf Manasseh Cutler Collection, Ohio University]
[http://bioguide.congress.gov/scripts/guidedisplay.pl?index=C001026 Manasseh Cutler Papers, Northwestern University Library]

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