[[File:0417.jpg|thumb|left|Fig. 1, Anonymous, “Rustic prospect-arbor,” in [[A. J. Downing]], ''A Treatise on the Theory and Practice of Landscape Gardening'', 4th ed. (1849), 460, fig. 87.]]
One of the earliest advertisements for the nursery, published in New York’s ''Evening Post'' on June 6, 1825, describes the location of the garden at the intersection of Jamaica and Flatbush turnpikes—at the time, just outside the village of Brooklyn.<ref>Advertisement, ''Evening Post'' (June 6, 1825): 3, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/keywords_in_early_american_landscape_design/items/itemKey/DXBVT3AF view on Zotero].</ref> The site, according to one period commentator, was originally “one of the most stony, rugged, sterile pieces of ground on the whole island,” but was transformed by [[André Parmentier|Parmentier’s]] industry into a richly stocked [[nursery]], laid out according to the principles of “[[picturesque]] gardening.”<ref>“Rural Scenery,” ''New England Farmer'' 6, no. 24 (January 4, 1828): 187, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/keywords_in_early_american_landscape_design/items/itemKey/INS7XKSI/q/rural%20scenery view on Zotero].</ref> It featured winding, sinuous [[walk|walking paths]] and, most notably, a [[rustic style|rustic]] [[belvedere]] (occasionally referred to as an [[arbor]]) [Fig. 1] that allowed for “a view of the whole garden and the surrounding scenery . . . including Staten Island, the Bay, Governor’s Island, and the city of New York.”<ref>J. W. S., “Foreign Notices: —North America,” ''The Gardeners’ Gardener’s Magazine, and Register of Rural and Domestic Improvement'' 8, no. 36 (February 1832): 70–77, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/keywords_in_early_american_landscape_design/items/itemKey/69KZ93MG/q/foreign%20notices view on Zotero].</ref> Although the primary business of the [[nursery]] was to sell plants—with a focus on grape vines, fruit trees, and roses—it also served a dual purpose as a place for public enjoyment.<ref>Advertisement, ''Evening Post'' (June 6, 1825): 3, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/keywords_in_early_american_landscape_design/items/itemKey/DXBVT3AF view on Zotero].</ref> Indeed, many of [[André Parmentier|Parmentier’s]] sales were made through the post or through agents, such as the seedsman Grant Thorburn, and the Horticultural and Botanic Garden functioned more as promotional tool, drawing visitors and modeling how they might lay out the plants acquired there.<ref>Grant Thorburn, a Scottish-born seedsman and author, is identified as an agent in numerous advertisements for Parmentier’s Horticultural and Botanic Garden. Other agents mentioned in various advertisements include the grocers Charles Swan, Harvey Spencer, and John J. Moore.</ref> To that end, [[André Parmentier|Parmentier]] also offered his services as a landscape designer, and was identified by [[A. J. Downing]] as “the only practitioner . . . of any note” in the United States. Downing described his [[nursery]] as having offered “a specimen of the [[natural style]] of laying out grounds, . . . and contributed not a little to the dissemination of a taste for the [[natural style|natural mode]] of [[landscape gardening]].”<ref>A. J. Downing, ''A Treatise on the Theory and Practice of Landscape Gardening'' (New York & London: Wiley and Putnam; Boston: C. C. Little & Co., 1841), 21–22, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/keywords_in_early_american_landscape_design/items/itemKey/QDVESTBX/q/treatise%20on%20the%20theor view on Zotero].</ref>
[[File:0064.jpg|thumb|Fig. 2, Anonymous, ''Map of [[André Parmentier|Mr. Andrew Parmentier’s]] Horticultural & Botanic Garden, at Brooklyn, Long Island, Two Miles From the City of New York'', c. 1828.]]
In about 1828 [[André Parmentier|Parmentier]] published a broadside of his Horticultural and Botanic Garden featuring a map of the grounds, offering our most detailed view of the layout and design of his [[nursery]] [Fig. 2]. The vineyards and rose [[shrubbery|shrubs]] were enclosed by meandering [[walk]]s that led to the “[[rustic style|Rustic]] [[arbor|Arbour]]” and “French Saloon” at the east corner of the [[plot]] (situated at the upper left on the map), and straight [[alley]]s, lined with fruit trees, divided his [[orchard]]s. Along the eastern edge of the nursery, abutting the Jamaica Turnpike, was a small cluster of buildings that included the barn, [[greenhouse]]s, tool and work houses, as well as the Parmentier family’s home and living quarters for laborers; adjacent to the buildings were hot [[bed]]s and an herbaceous plant garden.<ref>The close quarters may have led to a dispute in July 1830, when one of his laborers beat another with a garden hoe. Newspaper reports are mute on what precipitated the attack but noted that the victim, George Fuller, died shortly thereafter. His attacker, Owen Redden, was tried for murder but eventually acquitted by reason of insanity. See “Outrage,” ''New-York Morning Herald'' (July 9, 1830): 2, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/keywords_in_early_american_landscape_design/items/itemKey/SZ2JVFV8 view on Zotero], and “Oyer and Terminer,” ''American'' (June 17, 1831): 2, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/keywords_in_early_american_landscape_design/items/itemKey/VCM3W7RT view on Zotero].</ref>The broadside is likely the document Parmentier sent to the Société d’Horticulture de Paris in 1829, and it was later reprinted, with some alterations, in the February 1832 issue of ''The Gardeners’ Gardener’s Magazine, and Register of Rural and Domestic Improvement''.<ref>The editor of the ''Annales de la Société d’Horticulture de Paris'' noted that Parmentier sent a map of his nursery, along with a letter on the propagation of fruit trees in America; see “Sur les Arbres fruitiers d’Amérique,” ''Annales de la Société d’Horticulture de Paris'' 4 (1829): 352, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/keywords_in_early_american_landscape_design/items/itemKey/WRFUH5XB view on Zotero]. For the 1832 reprint of the map, see ''Gardeners’ Gardener's Magazine'' (February 1832), : 71, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/keywords_in_early_american_landscape_design/items/itemKey/69KZ93MG/q/foreign%20notices view on Zotero].</ref>
The article that accompanied the 1832 publication of the map was intended to aid in the sale of the Horticultural and Botanic Garden. [[André Parmentier|Parmentier]] had died in November 1830 after a prolonged illness, and his widow, Sylvie, endeavored to maintain the property following his death under increasingly difficult circumstances. In March 1831 parts of the property, including a barn and outhouses, were destroyed by arson, and in September of that year the Parmentiers’ son Léon died at the age 12.<ref>For information on the fire at Parmentier’s Horticultural and Botanic Garden, see ''American'' (March 17, 1831): 2, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/keywords_in_early_american_landscape_design/items/itemKey/TNER2ST7 view on Zotero], and for the death notice of Léon Ghislain Leopold Parmentier, see ''American'' (September 20, 1831): 2, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/keywords_in_early_american_landscape_design/items/itemKey/R2NERJC5 view on Zotero].</ref> Sylvie Parmentier subsequently put the nursery up for sale in November 1831. Finding no immediate buyers, she continued to oversee the garden until November 1833, when she sold it to Dr. Adrian Vanderveer of nearby Flatbush. Vanderveer paid $53,000 for the garden, which he divided into lots and sold at auction for nearly $70,000.<ref>Some papers cite the original sale price as $57,000; see “Price of Farms,” ''New-York American'' (November 22, 1833): 4, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/keywords_in_early_american_landscape_design/items/itemKey/ZB28JDE7 view on Zotero]. For additional details of the sale and subsequent auction, see “Parmentier’s Garden,” ''Evening Post'' (October 23, 1833): 2, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/keywords_in_early_american_landscape_design/items/itemKey/CSXXMK56/q/parmentier's%20garden view on Zotero], “All in the Wrong,” ''Commercial Advertiser'' [New York] (November 9, 1833): 3, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/keywords_in_early_american_landscape_design/items/itemKey/4AV8M7X3 view on Zotero], and ''New-York American'' (November 19, 1833): 4, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/keywords_in_early_american_landscape_design/items/itemKey/CQZTHBC6 view on Zotero].</ref>
*S., J. W., February 1832, “Parmentier’s Garden, Near Brooklyn,” (''Gardener’s Magazine'' 8: 70–72)<ref>J. W. S., “Foreign Notices: —North America,” ''The Gardeners’ Gardener’s Magazine, and Register of Rural and Domestic Improvement'' 8, no. 36 (February 1832): 70–77, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/keywords_in_early_american_landscape_design/items/itemKey/69KZ93MG/q/J.%20W.%20S. view on Zotero].</ref>
:“I have compiled from different authorities . . . an account of one of the first [[botanic garden]]s which has ever been established in this country, viz. that of [[André Parmentier|Parmentier]] about two miles from Brooklyn, Long Island. The following map . . . will serve to convey some idea of the general disposition of the whole; but I am confident that neither plan nor description can furnish any adequate idea of the particular beauties of the place. Its establishment may, indeed, be looked upon as an epoch in the history of American horticulture; as, though the various branches of that science were before understood and practised by most of our gardeners, it had not attained its full perfection until the arrival of [[André Parmentier|M. Parmentier]]. . . . [T]he garden of [[André Parmentier|M. Parmentier]] is, perhaps, the most striking instance we have of all the different departments of gardening being combined extensively and with scientific skill. The rapidity with which this garden was formed added to its effect. Nearly twenty-five acres of ground were originally enclosed; and the inhabitants of the vicinity beheld, with astonishment, in the short space of three years, one of the most stony, rugged, sterile pieces of ground on the whole island, which seemed to bid defiance to the labours of man, stored with the most luxuriant fruit, and blooming with the most beautiful flowers. . . .

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Changes - History of Early American Landscape Design
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