A Project of the Center for Advanced Study in the Visual Arts, National Gallery of Art
History of Early American Landscape Design

Difference between revisions of "Seat"

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==History==
 
==History==
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[[File:0312.jpg|thumb|252px|Fig. 1, William Russell Birch, “Hampton, the Seat of Genl. Chas. Ridgely, Maryland,” in ''The Country Seats of the United States'' (2009), (1808), pl. 4.]]
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In the discourse of landscape design, seat possessed two distinct yet equally prevalent meanings, as indicated by Thomas Sheridan’s 1789 dictionary entry. One sense referred to seat as a large estate, usually marked by a country house or mansion, for example, [[William Hamilton|William Hamilton’s]] [[The Woodlands]], near Philadelphia; or General Charles Ridgely’s Hampton, in Baltimore County, Maryland. A seat was also a garden structure for sitting.
  
[[File:0312.jpg|thumb|left|252px|Fig. 1, [[William Russell Birch]], "Hampton, the Seat of Genl. Chas. Ridgely, Maryland," 1808, in William Russell Birch and Emily Cooperman, ''The Country Seats of the United States'' (2009), p. 49, pl. 4.]]
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The meaning of seat as estate was exemplified in colonial America by William Byrd II’s Westover, on the James River, Virginia, and [[Henry Pratt|Henry Pratt’s]] [[Lemon Hill]] in Philadelphia. Such country houses were often featured in portraits that flattered the owner and signaled to the public that the colonies and new republic were home to a cultured elite rivaling that of Great Britain. These images typically located the house at the center of the property, with the landscape and various outbuildings extending beyond it. This placement, which communicated the importance of the house as the base of operations for the landowner, was a visual shorthand for the landowner’s affluence and power. Observers such as William Hugh Grove (1732) and Thomas Gwatkin (1770) often likened seats to small villages. By the mid 18th century, however, the community-like aspects of seats were downplayed in favor of their rural associations, which contrasted sharply with the increasingly crowded conditions of America’s cities. English emigré William Russell Birch, in his series ''The Country Seats of the United States of America'' (1808), depicted the homes of the mid-Atlantic elite situated in naturalistic landscapes in emulation of British tableaux [Fig. 1].<ref>Emily Tyson Cooperman, “William Russell Birch (1755–1834) and the Beginnings of the American Picturesque” (PhD diss., University of Pennsylvania, 1999), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/VSCXM9WR view on Zotero]. See also Emily T. Cooperman, introduction to ''The Country Seats of the United States of North America'', by William Russell Birch (1808; repr., Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania, 2009), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/TNTZAF2Q view on Zotero].</ref>
In the discourse of landscape design, seat possessed two distinct yet equally prevalent meanings, as indicated by [[Thomas Sheridan]]’s 1789 dictionary entry. One sense referred to seat as a large estate, usually marked by a country house or mansion, for example, [[William Hamilton|William Hamilton's]] [[Woodlands]], near Philadelphia; or Gen. Charles Ridgely’s [[Hampton (Baltimore County, Md.)|Hampton]], in Baltimore County, Md. A seat was also a garden structure for sitting.
 
  
[[File:1680.jpg|thumb|252px|Fig. 2, Anonymous, Garden seat from Somerset County, Md., 1780.]]  
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[[File:1680.jpg|thumb|left|252px|Fig. 2, Anonymous, Garden seat from Somerset County, MD, 1780.]]  
The meaning of seat as estate was exemplified in colonial America by [[William Byrd II|William Byrd II's]] [[Westover]], on the James River, Va., and [[Henry Pratt|Henry Pratt's]] [[Lemon Hill]] in Philadelphia. Such country houses were often featured in portraits that flattered the owner and signaled to the public that the colonies and new republic were home to a cultured elite rivaling that of Great Britain. These images typically located the house at the center of the property, with the landscape and various outbuildings extending beyond it. This placement, which communicated the importance of the house as the base of operations for the landowner, was a visual shorthand for the landowner’s affluence and power. Observers such as [[William Hugh Grove]] (1732) and [[Thomas Gwatkin]] (1770) often likened seats to small villages. By the mid-eighteenth century, however, the community-like aspects of seats were downplayed in favor of their rural associations, which contrasted sharply with the increasingly crowded conditions of America’s cities. English emigré [[William Russell Birch]], in his series ''The Country Seats of the United States of America'' (1808), depicted the homes of the mid- Atlantic elite situated in naturalistic landscapes in emulation of British tableaux [Fig. 1].<ref>Emily Tyson Cooperman, “William Russell Birch (1755–1834) and the Beginnings of the American Picturesque” (Ph.D. diss., University of Pennsylvania, 1999), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/VSCXM9WR view on Zotero]. See also Emily T. Cooperman, introduction to ''The Country Seats of the United States of North America'', by William Russell Birch (1808; reprint, Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania, 2009), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/TNTZAF2Q view on Zotero].</ref>
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[[File:0854.jpg|thumb|Fig. 3, [[Alexander Jackson Davis]], Shore Seat for [[Montgomery Place]], Annandale-on-Hudson, New York (elevation and plan), 1870—79.]]
[[File:0854.jpg|thumb|left|175px|Fig. 3, [[Alexander Jackson Davis]], Shore Seat for Montgomery Place, 1870-79.]]
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As a category of garden furniture, seat could refer to either the object upon which one sat [Fig. 2] or the structure housing such objects [Fig. 3]. Accounts found in foreign treatises available in America (such as those by Antoine-Joseph Dezallier D’Argenville, Isaac Ware, William Marshall, Humphry Repton, and John Abercrombie) focused on seats as places of rest, terminations to [[walk]]s, or vantage points from which to contemplate [[view]]s. Like other garden structures, such as [[pavilion]]s or [[summerhouse]]s, seats influenced the viewer’s experience of the garden by providing points of rest that framed [[vista]]s in the garden and [[view]]s beyond. The use of seats to direct one’s route through a garden was demonstrated by [[A. J. Downing]] in his 1847 description of [[Montgomery Place]], Dutchess County, New York. [[Andrew Jackson Downing|Downing]] noted the placement of various seats and related [[view]]s that he encountered on the course of his [[walk]] through the grounds. Many other garden observers, including Henry Wansey (1794), John Cosens Ogden (1800), and Eliza Caroline Burgwin Clitherall (active 1801), also commented upon the interrelationships between seats, [[walk]]s, and [[view]]s. Popular gardening journals likewise recommended placing seats along [[walk]]s. For example, in 1841 Alexander Walsh proposed a number of seats in a garden design published in the ''New England Farmer''. Two seats were situated at cross-walks and another two were ensconced in an arched [[arbor]], placed alongside the main axial [[walk]].
  
[[File:1723.jpg|thumb|225px|Fig. 4, [[James Gibbs]], "Two other Seats for the same purpose [for the ends of walks]," in ''A Book of Architecture'' (1728), pl. 83.]]
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[[File:1723.jpg|thumb|Fig. 4, [[James Gibbs]], “Two other Seats for the same purpose [for the ends of [[walk]]s],in ''A Book of Architecture'' (1728), pl. 83.]]
As a category of garden furniture, seat could refer to either the object upon which one sat [Fig. 2] or the structure housing such objects [Fig. 3]. Accounts found in foreign treatises available in America (such as those by [[A.-J. Dézallier D’Argenville]], [[Isaac Ware]], [[William Marshall]], [[Humphry Repton]], and John Abercrombie) focused on seats as places of rest, terminations to [[walk]]s, or vantage points from which to contemplate [[view]]s. Like other garden structures, such as [[pavilion]]s or [[summerhouse]]s, seats influenced the viewer’s experience of the garden by providing points of rest that framed [[vista]]s in the garden and [[view]]s beyond. The use of seats to direct one’s route through a garden was demonstrated by [[A. J. Downing]] in his 1847 description of [[Montgomery Place]], Dutchess County, N.Y. [[A. J. Downing|Downing]] noted the placement of various seats and related [[view]]s that he encountered on the course of his [[walk]] through the grounds. Many other garden observers, including Henry Wansey (1794), John Cosens Ogden (1800), and Eliza Caroline Burgwin Clitherall (active 1801), also commented upon the interrelationships between seats, [[walk]]s, and [[view]]s. Popular gardening journals likewise recommended placing seats along [[walk]]s. For example, in 1841 [[Alexander Walsh]] proposed a number of seats in a garden design published in ''The New England Farmer''. Two seats were situated at cross-walks and another two were ensconced in an arched [[arbor]], placed alongside the main axial [[walk]].
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Garden seats took on a variety of forms. In the 18th century, European and British pattern books and design manuals such as [[James Gibbs|James Gibbs’s]] ''A Book of Architecture'' (1728) were an important source for American seat designs [Fig. 4]. Drawings by [[Thomas Jefferson]] and by his granddaughter, Cornelia Jefferson Randolph [Fig. 5], demonstrate the influence of William Kent’s designs on garden furniture, which appeared in William Chambers’s ''Plans, Elevations, Sections and Perspective Views of the Gardens and Buildings at Kew in Surrey'' (1763), a volume that [[Thomas Jefferson|Jefferson]] owned.<ref> William Bainter O’Neal, ''Jefferson’s Fine Arts Library: His Selections for the University of Virginia Together with His Own Architectural Books'' (Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1976), 57, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/CUP9BNW2 view on Zotero].</ref>
  
[[File:0082.jpg|thumb|left|150px|Fig. 5, Cornelia Jefferson Randolph, attr., “A Garden Seat by Mr. Jones, From Chamber’s Kew,” c. 1820.]]
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[[File:0082.jpg|thumb|left|Fig. 5, Cornelia Jefferson Randolph, attr., “A Garden Seat by Mr. Jones, From Chamber’s Kew,” c. 1820.]]
[[File:1737.jpg|thumb|175px|Fig. 6, Batty and Thomas Langley, "An Umbrello, to a Seat, for to Terminate a walk, View, &c. in a Garden," in ''Gothic Architecture'' (1747), pl. 31.]]
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[[File:1737.jpg|thumb|Fig. 6, Batty and Thomas Langley, “An Umbrello, to a Seat, for to Terminate a [[walk]], [[View]], &c. in a Garden,in ''Gothic Architecture'' (1747), pl. 31.]]
Garden seats took on a variety of forms. In the eighteenth century, European and
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Seat designs could be differentiated by national and historical styles, as well as by placement and function. Batty and Thomas Langley, for instance, proposed a seat in keeping with the Gothic style in their 1747 text about Gothic architecture [Fig. 6]. [[J. C. Loudon]], in ''An Encyclopaedia of Gardening'' (1826), distinguished among seats found inside garden buildings, roofed seats that could be either fixed or portable, and those lacking any sort of roof. [[J. C. Loudon|Loudon]] explained that in form, seats could be simple (like the trunk of a tree) or more complex (such as a cast-iron couch with decorative treatment). These distinctions were echoed by [[Jane Loudon]] in ''Gardening for Ladies'' (1845), a book that was co-edited by [[Andrew Jackson Downing|Downing]] in America.
British pattern books and design manuals such as [[James Gibbs|James Gibbs’s]] ''A Book of Architecture'' (1728) were an important source for American seat designs [Fig. 4]. Drawings by [[Thomas Jefferson]] and by his granddaughter, Cornelia Jefferson Randolph [Fig. 5], demonstrate the influence of William Kent’s designs on garden furniture, which appeared in [[William Chambers|William Chambers’s]] ''Plans, Elevations, Sections and Perspective Views of the Gardens and Buildings at Kew in Surrey'' (1763), a volume that [[Thomas Jefferson|Jefferson]] owned.<ref> William Bainter O’Neal, ''Jefferson’s Fine Arts Library: His Selections for the University of Virginia Together with His Own Architectural Books'' (Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1976), 57. [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/CUP9BNW2 view on Zotero].</ref>
 
  
Seat designs could be differentiated by national and historical styles, as well as by placement and function. [[Batty Langley|Batty]] and Thomas Langley, for instance, proposed a seat in keeping with the Gothic style in their 1747 text about Gothic architecture [Fig. 6]. [[J. C. Loudon]], in ''An Encyclopaedia of Gardening'' (1826), distinguished among seats found inside garden buildings, roofed seats that could be either fixed or portable, and those lacking any sort of roof. [[J. C. Loudon|Loudon]] explained that in form, seats could be simple (like the trunk of a tree) or more complex (such as a cast-iron couch with decorative treatment). These distinctions were echoed by [[Jane Loudon]] in ''Gardening for Ladies'' (1845), a book that was co-edited by [[A. J. Downing|Downing]] in America.
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In ''A Treatise on the Theory and Practice of Landscape Gardening'' (1849), [[Andrew Jackson Downing|Downing]] himself provided an extensive illustrated typology of seat styles, emphasizing the propriety of certain styles for different landscapes. For example, he believed that Grecian or Gothic seats were appropriate for elegant grounds, whereas [[rustic style|rustic]] seats were more suited to the irregular aesthetic of the landscape garden. Such [[rustic style|rustic]] seats were quite popular in the 19th century, as suggested by the discussion of them in horticultural journals, such as the ''Horticultural Register'', and in descriptions by both treatise writers and observers of the American landscape. See, for example, Thomas Bridgeman (1832), Edward Sayers (1838), Anna Cora Ogden Mowatt Ritchie (1839), C. M. Hovey (1840), and Georges Jaques (1852).
  
In ''A Treatise on the Theory and Practice of Landscape Gardening'' (1849), [[A. J. Downing|Downing]] himself provided an extensive illustrated typology of seat styles, emphasizing the propriety of certain styles for different landscapes. For example, he believed that Grecian or Gothic seats were appropriate for elegant grounds, whereas [[rustic style|rustic]] seats were more suited to the irregular aesthetic of the landscape garden. Such [[rustic style|rustic]] seats were quite popular in the nineteenth century, as suggested by the discussion of them in horticultural journals, such as the ''Horticultural Register'', and in descriptions by both treatise writers and observers of the American landscape. See, for example, Thomas Bridgeman (1832), Edward Sayers (1838), Anna Cora Ogden Mowatt Ritchie (1839), C. M. Hovey (1840), and Georges Jaques (1852).
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''Anne L. Helmreich''
  
-- ''Anne L. Helmreich''
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<hr>
  
 
==Texts==
 
==Texts==
 
 
===Usage===
 
===Usage===
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*Anonymous, n.d., advertising design and construction services for parks and gardens (quoted in Chase 1973: 37–39)<ref>David B. Chase, “The Beginnings of the Landscape Tradition in America,” ''Historic Preservation'' 25 (1973): 34–41, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/KJMNEZBX view on Zotero].</ref>
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:“Designs all sorts of Buildings, well suited to both town and country, [[Pavilion]]s, Summer-Rooms, '''Seats''' for Gardens. . . also Water-houses for [[Park]]s. . . Eye Traps to represent a Building terminating a [[walk]], or to hide some disagreeable Object, Rotundas, Colonades, [[Arcade]]s, Studies in [[Park]]s or Gardens, [[greenhouse|Green House]]s for the Preservation of Herbs.”
  
*Anonymous, n.d., advertising design and construction services for parks and gardens (quoted in Chase 1973: 37–39): <ref>David B. Chase, ‘The Beginnings of the Landscape Tradition in America’, Historic Preservation, 25 (1973), 34–41,  [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/KJMNEZBX view on Zotero]. </ref>
 
 
:“Designs all sorts of Buildings, well suited to both town and country, [[Pavilion]]s, Summer-Rooms, '''Seats''' for Gardens . . . also Water-houses for [[Park]]s . . . Eye Traps to represent a Building terminating a [[walk]], or to hide some disagreeable Object, Rotundas, Colonades, [[Arcade]]s, Studies in [[Park]]s or Gardens, [[greenhouse|Green House]]s for the Preservation of Herbs.”
 
 
 
* [[William Strachey|Strachey, William]], 1612, describing the seats of Powhatan in Virginia (quoted in Wright and Freund 1967: 57) <ref> Louis B. Wright and Virginia Freund, eds., ''The Historie of Travell into Virginia Britania (1612)'' (Nendeln and Liechtenstein: Kraus, 1967), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/NUX26H7J view on Zotero].</ref>
 
  
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*Strachey, William, 1612, describing the seats of Powhatan in Virginia (quoted in Wright and Freund 1967: 57)<ref> Louis B. Wright and Virginia Freund, eds., ''The Historie of Travell into Virginia Britania (1612)'' (Nendeln and Liechtenstein: Kraus, 1967), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/NUX26H7J view on Zotero].</ref>
 
:“He hath divers '''seates''' or howses, his Chief when we came into the Country was upon ''Pamunky''-River, on the North side which we call Pembrook-side, called ''Werowocomaco'', which by interpretacion signifyes Kings-howse.”
 
:“He hath divers '''seates''' or howses, his Chief when we came into the Country was upon ''Pamunky''-River, on the North side which we call Pembrook-side, called ''Werowocomaco'', which by interpretacion signifyes Kings-howse.”
  
  
*[[William Byrd II|Byrd, William, II]], c. June 25, 1729, describing [[Westover]], seat of William Byrd II, on the James River, Va. (quoted in Tinling 1977: 1:410) <ref> Marion Tinling, ed., ''The Correspondence of the Three William Byrds of Westover, Virginia, 1684-1776'', 2 vols. (Charlottesville, Va.: University Press of Virginia, 1977), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/J5UXEFHR view on Zotero].</ref>
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*Byrd, William, II, c. June 25, 1729, describing Westover, seat of William Byrd II, on the James River, VA (quoted in Tinling 1977: 1:410)<ref> Marion Tinling, ed., ''The Correspondence of the Three William Byrds of Westover, Virginia, 1684–1776'', 2 vols. (Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1977), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/J5UXEFHR view on Zotero].</ref>
 
 
 
:“My habitation has the na[me of] the prettyest '''seat''' in this country.”
 
:“My habitation has the na[me of] the prettyest '''seat''' in this country.”
  
  
* [[William Hugh Grove|Grove, William Hugh]], 1732, describing Williamsburg, Va. (quoted in Stiverson and Butler 1977: 26) <ref>Gregory A. Stiverson and Patrick H. Butler III, eds., "Virginia in 1732: The Travel Journal of William Hugh Grove," ''Virginia Magazine of History and Biography'' 85 (1977): 18–44, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/ACNK9DG9 view on Zotero].</ref>
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*Grove, William Hugh, 1732, describing Williamsburg, VA (quoted in Stiverson and Butler 1977: 26)<ref>Gregory A. Stiverson and Patrick H. Butler III, eds., “Virginia in 1732: The Travel Journal of William Hugh Grove,''Virginia Magazine of History and Biography'' 85 (1977): 18–44, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/ACNK9DG9 view on Zotero].</ref>
 
 
 
:“I went by ship up the [York] river, which has pleasant '''Seats''' on the Bank which Shew Like little villages, for having Kitchins, Dayry houses, Barns, Stables, Store houses, and some of them 2 or 3 Negro Quarters all Seperate from Each other but near the mansion houses make a shew to the river of 7 or 8 distinct Tenements, tho all belong to one family.”
 
:“I went by ship up the [York] river, which has pleasant '''Seats''' on the Bank which Shew Like little villages, for having Kitchins, Dayry houses, Barns, Stables, Store houses, and some of them 2 or 3 Negro Quarters all Seperate from Each other but near the mansion houses make a shew to the river of 7 or 8 distinct Tenements, tho all belong to one family.”
  
  
* Anonymous, August 17, 1747, describing property for sale in Somerset County, N.J. (''New York Gazette'')
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*Anonymous, August 17, 1747, describing property for sale in Somerset County, NJ (''New York Gazette'')
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:“TO BE SOLD, A pleasant Country '''Seat''', fitting for a Gentleman or Store-keeper. . . a good [[Orchard]], containing about 200 Apple Trees, and may be extended at Pleasure.”
  
:“TO BE SOLD, A pleasant Country '''Seat''', fitting for a Gentleman or Store-keeper . . . a good [[Orchard]], containing about 200 Apple Trees, and may be extended at Pleasure.”
 
 
 
* [[Professor Thomas Gwatkin|Gwatkin, Prof. Thomas]], 1770, describing the appearance of seats in Williamsburg, Va. (Colonial Williamsburg Foundation; hereafter CWF)
 
  
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*Gwatkin, Prof. Thomas, 1770, describing the appearance of seats in Williamsburg, VA (Colonial Williamsburg Foundation)
 
:“And the huts of the Negroes which are situated round about give the '''seat''' of a substantial planter something of the Air of a small village.”
 
:“And the huts of the Negroes which are situated round about give the '''seat''' of a substantial planter something of the Air of a small village.”
  
  
 
[[File:0036.jpg|thumb|225px|Fig. 7, Thomas Lee Shippen, Plan of Westover, 1783.]]
 
[[File:0036.jpg|thumb|225px|Fig. 7, Thomas Lee Shippen, Plan of Westover, 1783.]]
* [[D. Benjamin Rush|Rush, Dr. Benjamin]], July 15, 1782, describing the country seat of [[John Dickinsen]], near Philadelphia, Pa. (quoted in Caemmerer 1950: 87) <ref name="Caemmerer 1950"> H. Paul Caemmerer, ''The Life of Pierre-Charles L’Enfant, Planner of the City Beautiful, The City of Washington'' (Washington, D.C.: National Republic Publishing Company, 1950), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/PHWTAERT view on Zotero].</ref>
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*Rush, Dr. Benjamin, July 15, 1782, describing the country seat of John Dickinsen, near Philadelphia, PA (quoted in Caemmerer 1950: 87)<ref name="Caemmerer 1950"> H. Paul Caemmerer, ''The Life of Pierre-Charles L’Enfant, Planner of the City Beautiful, The City of Washington'' (Washington, DC: National Republic Publishing Company, 1950), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/PHWTAERT view on Zotero].</ref>
 
 
 
:“The ground contiguous to this shed was cut into beautiful [[walk]]s and divided with cedar and pine branches into artificial [[grove]]s. The whole, both the buildings and [[walk]]s, were accommodated with '''seats'''.”
 
:“The ground contiguous to this shed was cut into beautiful [[walk]]s and divided with cedar and pine branches into artificial [[grove]]s. The whole, both the buildings and [[walk]]s, were accommodated with '''seats'''.”
  
  
* [[Thomas Lee Shippen|Shippen, Thomas Lee]], December 31, 1783, describing [[Westover]], seat of William Byrd III, on the James River, Va. (1952: n.p.) <ref>Thomas Lee Shippen, ''Westover Described in 1783: A Letter and Drawing Sent by Thomas Lee Shippen, Student of Law in Williamsburg, to His Parents in Philadelphia'' (Richmond, Va.: William Byrd Press, 1952), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/3IWWPMJ5 view on Zotero].</ref>
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*Shippen, Thomas Lee, December 31, 1783, describing Westover, seat of William Byrd III, on the James River, VA (1952: n.p.)<ref>Thomas Lee Shippen, ''Westover Described in 1783: A Letter and Drawing Sent by Thomas Lee Shippen, Student of Law in Williamsburg, to His Parents in Philadelphia'' (Richmond, VA: William Byrd Press, 1952), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/3IWWPMJ5 view on Zotero].</ref>
 
 
 
:“I have markd some little crooked ugly figures for Gentlemen’s '''seats''', which tho’ they do not beautify indeed the picture, add much to the [[prospect]], about as many '''Seats''' are to be seen on the other side.” [Fig. 7]
 
:“I have markd some little crooked ugly figures for Gentlemen’s '''seats''', which tho’ they do not beautify indeed the picture, add much to the [[prospect]], about as many '''Seats''' are to be seen on the other side.” [Fig. 7]
  
  
[[File:1983.jpg|thumb|225px|Fig. 8, [[Jeremiah Paul]], "Robert Morris’ Seat on Schuylkill," July 20, 1794.]]
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[[File:1983.jpg|thumb|225px|Fig. 8, Jeremiah Paul, “Robert Morris’ Seat on [[Schuylkill_River|Schuylkill]],July 20, 1794.]]
* [[Rev. Manasseh Cutler|Cutler, Rev. Manasseh]], July 13, 1787, describing [[The Hills]] (later [[Lemon Hill]]), estate of [[Robert Morris]], Philadelphia, Pa. (1987: 1:256–57) <ref> William Parker Cutler, ''Life, Journals, and Correspondence of Rev. Manasseh Cutler, LL. D'' (Athens, Ohio: Ohio University Press, 1987), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/3PBNT7H9 view on Zotero].</ref>
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*[[Manasseh Cutler|Cutler, Manasseh]], July 13, 1787, describing [[The Hills]] (later [[Lemon Hill]]), estate of [[Robert Morris]], Philadelphia, PA (1987: 1:256–57)<ref> William Parker Cutler, ''Life, Journals, and Correspondence of Rev. Manasseh Cutler, LL.D.'' (Athens: Ohio University Press, 1987), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/3PBNT7H9 view on Zotero].</ref>
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:“We continued our route, in [[view]] of the [[Schuylkill_River|Schuylkill]], and up the river several miles, and took a [[view]] of a number of Country-'''seats''', one belonging to [[Robert Morris|Mr. R. Morris]], the American financier, and who is said to be possessed of the greatest fortune in America. His country-'''seat''' is not yet completed, but it will be superb. It is planned on a large scale, the gardens and [[walk]]s are extensive, and the villa, situated on an [[eminence]], has a commanding [[prospect]] down the [[Schuylkill_River|Schuylkill]] to the Delaware.” [Fig. 8]
  
:“We continued our route, in [[view]] of the [[Schuylkill]], and up the river several miles, and took a [[view]] of a number of Country-'''seats''', one belonging to [[Robert Morris|Mr. R. Morris]], the American financier, and who is said to be possessed of the greatest fortune in America. His country-'''seat''' is not yet completed, but it will be superb. It is planned on a large scale, the gardens and [[walk]]s are extensive, and the villa, situated on an [[eminence]], has a commanding [[prospect]] down the [[Schuylkill]] to the Delaware.” [Fig. 8]
 
 
 
* G., L., June 15, [1788?], describing the [[Woodlands]], seat of [[William Hamilton]] near Philadelphia, Pa. (quoted in Madsen 1989: 19) <ref> Karen Madsen, ‘To Make His Country Smile: William Hamilton’s Woodlands’, ''Arnoldia'', 49 (1989), 14–23,
 
[https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/K567H4M4 view on Zotero].</ref>
 
  
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*G., L., June 15, [1788?], describing [[The Woodlands]], seat of [[William Hamilton]] near Philadelphia, PA (quoted in Madsen 1989: 19)<ref> Karen Madsen, “To Make His Country Smile: William Hamilton’s Woodlands,” ''Arnoldia'' 49 (1989): 14–23, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/K567H4M4 view on Zotero].</ref>
 
:“[The [[walk]]s were] planted on each side with the most beautiful & curious flowers & shrubs. They are in some parts enclosed with the Lombardy poplar except here & there openings are left to give you a [[view]] of some fine trees or beautiful [[prospect]] beyond, & in others, shaded by [[arbour]]s of the wild grape, or [[clump]]s of large trees under which are placed '''seats''' where you may rest yourself & enjoy the cool air.”
 
:“[The [[walk]]s were] planted on each side with the most beautiful & curious flowers & shrubs. They are in some parts enclosed with the Lombardy poplar except here & there openings are left to give you a [[view]] of some fine trees or beautiful [[prospect]] beyond, & in others, shaded by [[arbour]]s of the wild grape, or [[clump]]s of large trees under which are placed '''seats''' where you may rest yourself & enjoy the cool air.”
  
  
* Constantia [pseud.], June 24, 1790, “Description of Gray’s Gardens, Pennsylvania” (''Massachusetts Magazine'' 3: 415)
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*Constantia [Judith Sargent Murray], June 24, 1790, “Description of Gray’s Gardens, Pennsylvania” (''Massachusetts Magazine'' 3: 415)<ref>Constantia [Judith Sargent Murray], “Description of Gray’s Gardens, Pennsylvania,” ''Massachusetts Magazine, or, Monthly Museum of Knowledge and Rational Entertainment'' 7, no. 3 (July 1791): 413–17, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/keywords_in_early_american_landscape_design/items/itemKey/IAJKF9C4 view on Zotero].</ref>
 
 
 
:“At every turn shaded '''seats''' are artfully contrived, and the ground abounds with [[arbour]]s, [[alcove]]s, and summer houses, which are handsomely adorned with odoriferous flowers.”
 
:“At every turn shaded '''seats''' are artfully contrived, and the ground abounds with [[arbour]]s, [[alcove]]s, and summer houses, which are handsomely adorned with odoriferous flowers.”
  
  
* [[Pierre-Charles L'Enfant|L’Enfant, Pierre-Charles]], 1791, describing Washington, D.C. (quoted in Caemmerer 1950: 136, 151) <ref name="Caemmerer 1950"></ref>
+
*[[Pierre-Charles L'Enfant|L’Enfant, Pierre-Charles]], 1791, describing Washington, DC (quoted in Caemmerer 1950: 136, 151)<ref name="Caemmerer 1950"></ref>
 +
:“[March 11, in a letter to Thomas Jefferson]. . . The remainder part of that ground towards Georgetown is more broken. It may afford pleasant '''seats''', but, although the bank of the river between the two creeks can command as grand a [[prospect]] as any of the other spots, it seems to be less commendable for the establishment of a city, not only because the level surface it presents is but small, but because the hights from beyond Georgetown absolutely command the whole. . .
 +
:“[June 22, in a report to George Washington]. . . I next made the distribution regular with streets at right angle ''north-south'' and ''east west'' but afterwards I opened others on various directions as [[avenue]]s to and from every principal places, wishing by this not merely to contrast with the general regularity nor to afford a greater variety of pleasant '''seats''' and [[prospect]] as will be obtained from the advantageous ground over the which the [[avenue]]s are mostly directed but principally to connect each part of the city with more efficacy.”
  
:<p>“[11 March, in a letter to Thomas Jefferson] . . . The remainder part of that ground towards Georgetown is more broken. It may afford pleasant '''seats''', but, although the bank of the river between the two creeks can command as grand a [[prospect]] as any of the other spots, it seems to be less commendable for the establishment of a city, not only because the level surface it presents is but small, but because the hights from beyond Georgetown absolutely command the whole. . . .</p>
 
:<p>“[22 June, in a report to George Washington] . . . I next made the distribution regular with streets at right angle ''north-south'' and ''east west'' but afterwards I opened others on various directions as [[avenue]]s to and from every principal places, wishing by this not merely to contrast with the general regularity nor to afford a greater variety of pleasant '''seats''' and [[prospect]] as will be obtained from the advantageous ground over the which the [[avenue]]s are mostly directed but principally to connect each part of the city with more efficacy.”</p>
 
 
 
* [[Henry Wansey|Wansey, Henry]], 1794, describing Worcester, Mass. ([1794] 1970: 64) <ref>Henry Wansey, ''Henry Wansey and His American Journal'', ed. by David John Jeremy (Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society, 1970), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/UQTHRX3W view on Zotero].</ref>
 
  
 +
*Wansey, Henry, 1794, describing Worcester, MA (1794; repr., 1970: 64)<ref>Henry Wansey, ''Henry Wansey and His American Journal'', ed. David John Jeremy (1794; repr., Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society, 1970), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/UQTHRX3W view on Zotero].</ref>
 
:“Most of the houses have a large court before them, full of lilacs and other shrubs, with a '''seat''' under them, and a paved [[walk]] up the middle.”
 
:“Most of the houses have a large court before them, full of lilacs and other shrubs, with a '''seat''' under them, and a paved [[walk]] up the middle.”
  
  
* Blandulus [pseud.], November 1794, describing [[Pleasant Hill]], seat of Joseph Barrell, Charlestown, Mass. (quoted in Hammond 1982: 95) <ref>Charles Arthur Hammond, ‘“Where the Arts and the Virtues Unite”: Country Life Near Boston, 1637-1864’ (unpublished Ph.D. diss., Boston University, 1982), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/VVFZVIKT view on Zotero].</ref>
+
*Blandulus [pseud.], November 1794, describing Pleasant Hill, seat of Joseph Barrell, Charlestown, MA (quoted in Hammond 1982: 95)<ref>Charles Arthur Hammond, “‘Where the Arts and the Virtues Unite’: Country Life Near Boston, 1637–1864” ( PhD diss., Boston University, 1982), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/VVFZVIKT view on Zotero].</ref>
 
 
 
:“Whereonce the breastwork mark’d the scenes of
 
:“Whereonce the breastwork mark’d the scenes of
 
::blood,
 
::blood,
Line 105: Line 88:
  
  
* [[Timothy Dwight|Dwight, Timothy]], 1796, describing mill seats in Massachusetts (1821: 2:352)<ref name="Dwight">Timothy Dwight, ''Travels; in New-England and New-York'', 4 vols. (New Haven: The Author, 1821-22), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/VHBP7TH2 view on Zotero].</ref>
+
*[[Timothy Dwight|Dwight, Timothy]], 1796, describing mill seats in Massachusetts (1821: 2:352)<ref name="Dwight">Timothy Dwight, ''Travels; in New-England and New-York'', 4 vols. (New Haven: The Author, 1821–22), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/VHBP7TH2 view on Zotero].</ref>
 
+
:“Immediately below the [[bridge]] [over Miller’s River] is a [[Fall/Falling_garden|fall]], furnishing excellent mill-'''seats''', which are occupied by several mills. These are uniformly supplied with an abundance of water, and wear the aspect of great activity, and business, particularly in the sawing of timber.”
:“Immediately below the [[bridge]] [over Miller’s River] is a [[fall]], furnishing excellent mill-'''seats''', which are occupied by several mills. These are uniformly supplied with an abundance of water, and wear the aspect of great activity, and business, particularly in the sawing of timber.”
 
  
  
* [[Timothy Dwight|Dwight, Timothy]], 1799, describing New York, N.Y. (1822: 3:481–82) <ref name="Dwight"></ref>
+
*[[Timothy Dwight|Dwight, Timothy]], 1799, describing New York, NY (1822: 3:481–82)<ref name="Dwight"></ref>
 
 
 
:“the heights, and many of the lower grounds, contain a rich display of gentlemen’s country '''seats''', connected with a great variety of handsome appendages.”
 
:“the heights, and many of the lower grounds, contain a rich display of gentlemen’s country '''seats''', connected with a great variety of handsome appendages.”
  
  
* [[François-Alexandre-Frédéric, duc de La Rochefoucauld Liancourt|La Rochefoucauld Liancourt, François-Alexandre-Frédéric, duc de]], 1799, describing a house in Charleston, S.C. (1800: 2:437–38) <ref> François-Alexandre-Frédéric, duc de La Rochefoucauld Liancourt, ''Travels through the United States of North America, the Country of the Iroquois, and Upper Canada, in the Years 1795, 1796, and 1797'', ed. by Brisson Dupont and Charles Ponges, trans. by H. Newman, 2nd edn, 4 vols. (London: R. Philips, 1800), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/SRMDWJ2M view on Zotero].</ref>
+
*La Rochefoucauld Liancourt, François-Alexandre-Frédéric, duc de, 1799, describing a house in Charleston, SC (1800: 2:437–38)<ref> François-Alexandre-Frédéric, duc de La Rochefoucauld Liancourt, ''Travels through the United States of North America, the Country of the Iroquois, and Upper Canada, in the Years 1795, 1796, and 1797'', ed. Brisson Dupont and Charles Ponges, trans. H. Newman, 2nd ed., 4 vols. (London: R. Philips, 1800), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/SRMDWJ2M view on Zotero].</ref>
 
+
:“Half a mile from Batavia. . . stands Middletonhouse, the property of Mrs. MIDDLETON, mother-in-law to young Mr. Isard, which is esteemed the most beautiful house in this part of the country. The out-buildings, such as kitchen, wash-house, and offices, are very capacious. The ensemble of these buildings calls to recollection the ancient English country-'''seats'''.”
:“Half a mile from Batavia . . . stands Middletonhouse, the property of Mrs. MIDDLETON, mother-in-law to young Mr. Isard, which is esteemed the most beautiful house in this part of the country. The out-buildings, such as kitchen, wash-house, and offices, are very capacious. The ensemble of these buildings calls to recollection the ancient English country-'''seats'''.”
 
 
 
 
 
[[File:0304.jpg|thumb|225px|Fig. 9, [[William Russell Birch]], "Woodlands, the Seat of Mr. Wm. Hamilton, Pennsylva.," 1808, in William Russell Birch and Emily Cooperman, ''The Country Seats of the United States'' (2009), p. 69, pl. 14.]]
 
*[[François-Alexandre-Frédéric, duc de La Rochefoucauld Liancourt|La Rochefoucauld Liancourt, François-Alexandre-Frédéric, duc de]], 1799, describing the [[Woodlands]], seat of William Hamilton, near Philadelphia, Pa. (quoted in Madsen 1988: B3) <ref>Karen Madsen, ‘William Hamilton’s Woodlands’, 1988, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/XN8NN9QN view on Zotero].</ref>
 
 
 
:“You pass the Schuylkill at [[Gray's Garden|Gray’s-Ferry]], the road to which runs below [[Woodlands]], the '''seat''' of Mr. William Hamilton: it stands high, and is seen upon an [[eminence]] from the opposite side of the river.” [Fig. 9]
 
  
  
* [[John Cosens Ogden|Ogden, John Cosens]], 1800, describing Bethlehem, Pa. (pp. 18, 27) <ref>John C. Ogden, ''An Excursion into Bethlehem & Nazareth, in Pennsylvania, in the Year 1799''(Philadelphia: Charles Cist, 1800), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/U5CTTBGB view on Zotero].</ref>
+
[[File:0304.jpg|thumb|225px|Fig. 9, William Russell Birch, “[[The Woodlands|Woodlands]], the Seat of Mr. Wm. Hamilton, Pennsylva.,” in ''The Country Seats of the United States'' (1808), pl. 14.]]
 +
*La Rochefoucauld Liancourt, François-Alexandre-Frédéric, duc de, 1799, describing [[The Woodlands]], seat of [[William Hamilton]], near Philadelphia, PA (quoted in Madsen 1988: B3)<ref>Karen Madsen, “William Hamilton’s Woodlands,” (paper presented for seminar in American Landscape, 1790–1900, instructed by E. McPeck, Radcliffe Institute for Advanced Study, Harvard University, 1988), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/XN8NN9QN view on Zotero].</ref>
 +
:“You pass the Schuylkill at [[Gray’s Garden|Gray’s-Ferry]], the road to which runs below [[The Woodlands|Woodlands]], the '''seat''' of Mr. William Hamilton: it stands high, and is seen upon an [[eminence]] from the opposite side of the river.” [Fig. 9]
  
:<p>“'''Seats''' are placed for rest, and to enable the visitors to [[view]] the river at leisure. . . .</p>
 
:<p>“The island is not large, but affords fine [[walk]]s and an area for exercise, as well as '''seats''' and shelters for visitors.”</p>
 
  
 +
*Ogden, John Cosens, 1800, describing Bethlehem, PA (1800: 18, 27)<ref>John C. Ogden, ''An Excursion into Bethlehem & Nazareth, in Pennsylvania, in the Year 1799'' (Philadelphia: Charles Cist, 1800), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/U5CTTBGB view on Zotero].</ref>
 +
:“'''Seats''' are placed for rest, and to enable the visitors to [[view]] the river at leisure. . .
 +
:“The island is not large, but affords fine [[walk]]s and an area for exercise, as well as '''seats''' and shelters for visitors.”
  
* [[Caroline Elizabeth Burgwin Clitherall|Clitherall, Eliza Caroline Burgwin (Caroline Elizabeth Burgwin)]], active 1801, describing the [[Hermitage]], seat of John Burgwin, Wilmington, N.C. (quoted in Flowers 1983: 126) <ref>John Flowers, "People and Plants: North Carolina’s Garden History Revisited," ''Eighteenth Century Life'', 8 (1983): 117–29, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/FCVW8GHV view on Zotero].</ref>
 
  
 +
*Clitherall, Eliza Caroline Burgwin (Caroline Elizabeth Burgwin), active 1801, describing the Hermitage, seat of John Burgwin, Wilmington, NC (quoted in Flowers 1983: 126)<ref>John Flowers, “People and Plants: North Carolina’s Garden History Revisited,” ''Eighteenth Century Life'' 8 (1983): 117–29, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/FCVW8GHV view on Zotero].</ref>
 
:“These [gardens] were extensive and beautifully laid out. There was [''sic''] [[alcove]]s and [[summerhouse|summer houses]] at the termination of each [[walk]], '''seats''' under trees in the more shady recesses of the Big Garden, as it was called, in distinction from the [[flower garden]] in front of the house.”
 
:“These [gardens] were extensive and beautifully laid out. There was [''sic''] [[alcove]]s and [[summerhouse|summer houses]] at the termination of each [[walk]], '''seats''' under trees in the more shady recesses of the Big Garden, as it was called, in distinction from the [[flower garden]] in front of the house.”
  
  
*[[Thomas Jefferson|Jefferson, Thomas]], 1804, describing [[Monticello]], [[plantation]] of Thomas Jefferson, Charlottesville, Va. (Massachusetts Historical Society, Jefferson Papers)
+
*[[Thomas Jefferson|Jefferson, Thomas]], 1804, describing [[Monticello]], [[plantation]] of [[Thomas Jefferson]], Charlottesville, VA (Massachusetts Historical Society, Jefferson Papers)
 
 
 
:“[[Temple]]s or '''seats''' at those spots on the [[walk]]s most interesting either for [[prospect]] or the immediate scenery.”
 
:“[[Temple]]s or '''seats''' at those spots on the [[walk]]s most interesting either for [[prospect]] or the immediate scenery.”
  
  
* [[Joseph Scott|Scott, Joseph]], 1806, describing the Schuylkill River in Pennsylvania (p. 53) <ref>Scott, Joseph, ''A Geographical Description of Pennsylvania'' (Philadelphia: Printed by R. Cochran, 1806). [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/55XKIWPN/]</ref>
+
*Scott, Joseph, 1806, describing the Schuylkill River in Pennsylvania (1806: 53)<ref>Joseph Scott, ''A Geographical Description of Pennsylvania'' (Philadelphia: Printed by R. Cochran, 1806), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/55XKIWPN/ view on Zotero].</ref>
 
 
 
:“The banks of the river are, in many places, adorned with beautiful country '''seats''', belonging to the wealthy citizens of Philadelphia. To these their families usually retire, in the summer months, from the bustle, and noise of the city, and to enjoy the salubrity of the country air.”
 
:“The banks of the river are, in many places, adorned with beautiful country '''seats''', belonging to the wealthy citizens of Philadelphia. To these their families usually retire, in the summer months, from the bustle, and noise of the city, and to enjoy the salubrity of the country air.”
  
  
* [[William Dickinson Martin|Martin, William Dickinson]], 1809, describing the [[pleasure ground|pleasure grounds]] at Salem Academy, Salem, N.C. (quoted in Bynum 1979: 29) <ref name="Bynum 1979">Flora Ann L. Bynum, ''Old Salem Garden Guide'' (Winston-Salem, N.C.: Old Salem, 1979), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/TJB9XNMF view on Zotero].</ref>
+
*Martin, William Dickinson, 1809, describing the pleasure grounds at Salem Academy, Salem, NC (quoted in Bynum 1979: 29)<ref name="Bynum 1979">Flora Ann L. Bynum, ''Old Salem Garden Guide'' (Winston-Salem, NC: Old Salem, 1979), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/TJB9XNMF view on Zotero].</ref>
 +
:“Next, I visited a [[flower garden]] belonging to the female department. . . But it is situated on a hill, the East end of which is high & abrupt; some distance down this, they had dug down right in the earth, & drawing the dirt forward threw it on rock, etc., thereby forming a horizontal plane of about thirty feet in circumference; & on the back, rose a perpendicular [[Terrace/Slope|terrace]] of some height, which was entirely covered over with a grass peculiar to that vicinage. At the bottom of this [[Terrace/Slope|terrace]] were arranged circular '''seats''', which, from the height of the hill in the rear were protected from the sun in an early hour in the afternoon.”
  
:“Next, I visited a [[flower garden]] belonging to the female department. . . . But it is situated on a hill, the East end of which is high & abrupt; some distance down this, they had dug down right in the earth, & drawing the dirt forward threw it on rock, etc., thereby forming a horizontal plane of about thirty feet in circumference; & on the back, rose a perpendicular [[terrace]] of some height, which was entirely covered over with a grass peculiar to that vicinage. At the bottom of this [[terrace]] were arranged circular '''seats''', which, from the height of the hill in the rear were protected from the sun in an early hour in the afternoon.”
 
  
 +
*Martin, William Dickinson, May 20, 1809, describing [[The Woodlands]], seat of [[William Hamilton]], near Philadelphia, PA (Colonial Williamsburg Foundation)
 +
:“Altho’ much has been done to beautify this delightful '''seat''', much still remains to be done, for the perfecting it in all the capabilities which nature in her boundless profusion has bestowed.”
  
* [[William Dickinson Martin|Martin, William Dickinson]], May 20, 1809, describing the [[Woodlands]], seat of William Hamilton, near Philadelphia, Pa. (CWF)
 
  
:“Altho’ much has been done to beautify this delightful '''seat''', much still remains to be done, for the perfecting it in all the capabilities which nature in her boundless profusion has bestowed.”
+
*Smith, Margaret Bayard, August 1, 1809, describing [[Monticello]], [[plantation]] of [[Thomas Jefferson]], Charlottesville, VA (1906: 73)<ref>Margaret Bayard Smith, ''The First Forty Years of Washington Society'', ed. Gaillard Hunt (New York: Charles Scribner’s, 1906), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/FTDFHRFH view on Zotero].</ref>
 +
:“Mr. J. explained to me all his plans for improvement, where the roads, the [[walk]]s, the '''seats''', the little [[temple]]s were to be placed.”
  
  
* [[Margaret Bayard Smith|Smith, Margaret Bayard]], August 1, 1809, describing [[Monticello]], [[plantation]] of [[Thomas Jefferson]], Charlottesville, Va. (1906: 73) <ref>Margaret Bayard Smith, ''The First Forty Years of Washington Society'', ed. by Gaillard Hunt (New York: Charles Scribner’s, 1906), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/FTDFHRFH view on Zotero].</ref>
+
*Foster, Sir Augustus John, 1812, describing [[Monticello]], [[plantation]] of [[Thomas Jefferson]], Charlottesville, VA (1954: 143)<ref>Sir Augustus John Foster, ''Jeffersonian America: Notes on the United States of America Collected in the Years 1805–1806–1807 and 1811–1812'', ed. Richard Beale Davis (San Marino, CA: Huntington Library, 1954), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/7FU8NDF4 view on Zotero].</ref>
 +
:“It is a very delightful ride of twenty-eight miles from Montpellier to the late President [[Thomas Jefferson|Mr. Jefferson’s]] '''seat''' at [[Monticello]].”
  
:“Mr. J. explained to me all his plans for improvement, where the roads, the [[walk]]s, the '''seats''', the little [[temple]]s were to be placed.”
 
  
 +
*Warden, David Bailie, 1816, describing Analostan Island, seat of Gen. John Mason, Washington, DC (quoted in Phillips 1917: 49)<ref>Philip Lee Phillips, ''The Beginnings of Washington: As Described in Books, Maps, and Views'' (Washington, DC: The author, 1917), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/QXZXNN8N view on Zotero].</ref>
  
* [[Sir Augustus John Foster|Foster, Sir Augustus John]], 1812, describing [[Monticello]], [[plantation]] of [[Thomas Jefferson]], Charlottesville, Va. (1954: 143) <ref>Sir Augustus John Foster, ''Jeffersonian America: Notes on the United States of America Collected in the Years 1805-1806-1807 and 1811-1812'', ed. by Richard Beale Davis (San Marino, Calif.: Huntington Library, 1954), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/7FU8NDF4 view on Zotero].</ref>
+
:"ANNALOSTAN ISLAND
 +
: . . . Annalostan Island is evidently of modern formation. . . The highest [[eminence]], on which the house stands, is fifty feet above the level of the river. The common tide rises to the height of three feet. I can never forget how de-lighted I was with my first visit to this island. The amiable ladies whom I had the pleasure to accompany, left their carriage at Georgetown, and we walked to the mansion-house under a delicious shade. The blossoms of the cherry, apple, and peach trees, of the hawthorn and aromatic [[shrub]]s, filled the air with their fragrance. . . The house, of a simple and neat form, is situated near that side of the island which commands a [[view]] of the Potomac, the President's House, Capitol, and other buildings. The garden, the sides of which are washed by the waters of the river, is ornamented with a variety of trees and [[shrub]]s, and, in the midst, there is a [[lawn]] covered with a beautiful verdure. The [[Summerhouse|summer-house]] is shaded by oak and lin-den-trees, the coolness and tranquility of which invite to contemplation. The refresh-ing breezes of the Potomac, and the gentle murmuring of its waters against the rocks, the warbling of birds, and the mournful as-pect of the weeping-willows, inspire a thousand various sensations. What a delicious shade-
  
:“It is a very delightful ride of twenty-eight miles from Montpellier to the late President [[Thomas Jefferson|Mr. Jefferson’s]] '''seat''' at [[Monticello]].”
+
:"Ducere sol[l]icitae jucunda oblivia vitae"
  
 +
:The [[view]] from this spot is delightful. It embraces the [[picturesque]] banks of the Po-tomac, a portion of the city, and an expanse of water, of which the bridge terminates the [[view]]. . . A few feet below the [[Summerhouse|sum-mer-house]] the rocks afford the '''seats''', where those who are fond of fishing may indulge in this amusement. From the [[portico]] on the oppo-site [139] side of the house, Georgetown, Calorama, the beautiful '''seat''' of Joel Barlow, Esq. and the adjacent finely-wooded hills, appear a [[vista]]."
  
* [[John Lambert|Lambert, John]], 1816, describing Boston, Mass. (2:328) <ref>John Lambert, ''Travels through Canada, and the United States of North America in the Years 1806, 1807, and 1808'', 2 vols. (London: Baldwin, Cradock, and Joy, 1816),  [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/T9KUEDWH view on Zotero].</ref>
 
  
:“From an elevated part of the town the spectator enjoys a succession of the most beautiful [[view]]s that imagination can conceive. Around him, as far as the eye can reach, are to be seen towns, villages, country '''seats''', rich farms, and [[pleasure ground|pleasure-grounds]], seated upon the summits of small hills, hanging on the brows of gentle [[slope]]s, or reclining in the laps of spacious valleys, whose shores are watered by a beautiful river, across which are thrown several [[bridge]]s and causeways.”
+
*Lambert, John, 1816, describing Boston, MA (1816: 2:328)<ref>John Lambert, ''Travels through Canada, and the United States of North America in the Years 1806, 1807, and 1808'', 2 vols. (London: Baldwin, Cradock, and Joy, 1816), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/T9KUEDWH view on Zotero].</ref>
 +
:“From an elevated part of the town the spectator enjoys a succession of the most beautiful [[view]]s that imagination can conceive. Around him, as far as the eye can reach, are to be seen towns, villages, country '''seats''', rich farms, and [[pleasure ground|pleasure-grounds]], seated upon the summits of small hills, hanging on the brows of gentle [[Terrace/Slope|slopes]], or reclining in the laps of spacious valleys, whose shores are watered by a beautiful river, across which are thrown several [[bridge]]s and causeways.”
  
  
* [[John Randolph|Randolph, John]], 1820s, describing an estate in Roanoke, Va. (quoted in Martin 1991: 223n. 46) <ref>Peter Martin, ''The Pleasure Gardens of Virginia: From Jamestown to Jefferson'' (Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1991).
+
*Randolph, John, 1820s, describing an estate in Roanoke, VA (quoted in Martin 1991: 223n. 46)<ref>Peter Martin, ''The Pleasure Gardens of Virginia: From Jamestown to Jefferson'' (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1991), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/6TAHS88N view on Zotero].</ref>
[https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/6TAHS88N]</ref>
 
 
 
 
:“From my earliest childhood I have delighted in the [[grove]]s and solitudes of poor old Matoax. I now recall several of my favorite '''seats''' where I used to ruminate, ‘chewing the cud of sweet and bitter fancies,’ all bitter now.”
 
:“From my earliest childhood I have delighted in the [[grove]]s and solitudes of poor old Matoax. I now recall several of my favorite '''seats''' where I used to ruminate, ‘chewing the cud of sweet and bitter fancies,’ all bitter now.”
  
  
* [[Charles Willson Peale|Peale, Charles Willson]], c. 1825, describing Belfield, estate of Charles Willson Peale, Germantown, Pa. (Miller, Hart, and Ward, eds., 2000: 381) <ref>
+
*[[Charles Willson Peale|Peale, Charles Willson]], c. 1825, describing [[Belfield]], estate of Charles Willson Peale, Germantown, PA (Miller et al., eds., 2000: 5:381)<ref>Lillian B. Miller and et al., eds., ''The Selected Papers of Charles Willson Peale and His Family'', vol. 5, ''The Autobiography of Charles Willson Peale'' (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2000), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/IZAKPCBG view on Zotero].</ref>
Lillian B. Miller and et al, eds., ''The Selected Papers of Charles Willson Peale and His Family: The Autobiography of Charles Willson Peale. Vol. 5.'' (New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1983–2000), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/IZAKPCBG view on Zotero].</ref>
 
 
 
 
:“He wanted a place to keep the garden seeds & Tools, and in a part of the Garden where a '''seat''' in the shade was often wanted, he built a shed or small room, and to hide that Salt-like-box, and to try his art of Painting, he made the front like [a] [[gateway|Gate Way]] with a step to form a '''seat''', and above, steps painted as representing a passage through an [[Arch]] beyond which was represented a western sky, and to ornament the upper part over the [[arch]], he painted several figures on boards cut to the outlines of said figures as representing [[statue]]s in sculpture.”
 
:“He wanted a place to keep the garden seeds & Tools, and in a part of the Garden where a '''seat''' in the shade was often wanted, he built a shed or small room, and to hide that Salt-like-box, and to try his art of Painting, he made the front like [a] [[gateway|Gate Way]] with a step to form a '''seat''', and above, steps painted as representing a passage through an [[Arch]] beyond which was represented a western sky, and to ornament the upper part over the [[arch]], he painted several figures on boards cut to the outlines of said figures as representing [[statue]]s in sculpture.”
  
  
 
[[File:0300.jpg|thumb|225px|Fig. 10, Thomas Birch, ''Fairmount Water Works'', 1821.]]  
 
[[File:0300.jpg|thumb|225px|Fig. 10, Thomas Birch, ''Fairmount Water Works'', 1821.]]  
* [[John P. Sheldon|Sheldon, John P.]], December 10, 1825, describing [[Fairmount Waterworks]], Philadelphia, Pa. (quoted in Gibson 1988: 5) <ref>Jane Mork Gibson, "The Fairmount Waterworks," ''Bulletin, Philadelphia Museum of Art'', 84 (1988), 5–40, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/RZEZDDEN view on Zotero].</ref>
+
*Sheldon, John P., December 10, 1825, describing Fairmount Waterworks, Philadelphia, PA (quoted in Gibson 1988: 5)<ref>Jane Mork Gibson, “The Fairmount Waterworks,''Philadelphia Museum of Art Bulletin'' 84 (1988): 5–40, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/RZEZDDEN view on Zotero].</ref>
 
 
 
:“Delightful '''seats''', surrounded by various kinds of trees and [[shrubbery]], with gardens containing [[summerhouse|summer houses]], [[vista]]s, embowered [[walk]]s, &c meet your [[view]] in almost every direction, [[wood]]s sloping gently to the river’s edge, by the side of smooth [[lawn]]s, add to the pleasing variety of the scene; and the Schuylkill, with its noble dam and [[bridge]]s serves as a most beautiful finish to the foreground.” [Fig. 10]
 
:“Delightful '''seats''', surrounded by various kinds of trees and [[shrubbery]], with gardens containing [[summerhouse|summer houses]], [[vista]]s, embowered [[walk]]s, &c meet your [[view]] in almost every direction, [[wood]]s sloping gently to the river’s edge, by the side of smooth [[lawn]]s, add to the pleasing variety of the scene; and the Schuylkill, with its noble dam and [[bridge]]s serves as a most beautiful finish to the foreground.” [Fig. 10]
  
  
* [[Juliana Margaret Conor|Connor, Juliana Margaret]], 1827, describing the garden at the pottery (Lot 48) on Main Street, Salem, N.C. (quoted in Bynum 1979: 28) <ref name="Bynum 1979"></ref>
+
*Connor, Juliana Margaret, 1827, describing the garden at the pottery (Lot 48) on Main Street, Salem, NC (quoted in Bynum 1979: 28)<ref name="Bynum 1979"></ref>
 
 
 
:“Afterwards walked into the garden belonging to the establishment where we saw what I conceived to be a curiosity and in itself extremely beautiful. It was a large [[summerhouse|summer house]] formed of eight cedar trees planted in a circle, the tops whilst young were chained together in the center forming a cone. The immense branches were all cut, so that there was not a leaf, the outside is beautifully trimmed perfectly even and very thick within, were '''seats''' placed around and doors or openings were cut, through the branches, it had been planted 40 years.”
 
:“Afterwards walked into the garden belonging to the establishment where we saw what I conceived to be a curiosity and in itself extremely beautiful. It was a large [[summerhouse|summer house]] formed of eight cedar trees planted in a circle, the tops whilst young were chained together in the center forming a cone. The immense branches were all cut, so that there was not a leaf, the outside is beautifully trimmed perfectly even and very thick within, were '''seats''' placed around and doors or openings were cut, through the branches, it had been planted 40 years.”
  
  
* Bernhard, Duke of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach, 1828, describing the [[Bloomingdale Asylum for the Insane]], New York, N.Y. (quoted in Little 1972: 64) <ref>Nina Fletcher Little, ''Early Years of the McLean Hospital, Recorded in the Journal of George William Folsom, Apothecary at the Asylum in Charlestown'' (Boston: Francis A. Countway Library of Medicine, 1972), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/Q8IX8NHN/ view on Zotero].</ref>
+
*Bernhard, Duke of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach, 1828, describing the Bloomingdale Asylum for the Insane, New York, NY (quoted in Little 1972: 64)<ref>Nina Fletcher Little, ''Early Years of the McLean Hospital, Recorded in the Journal of George William Folsom, Apothecary at the Asylum in Charlestown'' (Boston: Francis A. Countway Library of Medicine, 1972), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/Q8IX8NHN/ view on Zotero].</ref>
 
 
 
:“The Lunatic Asylum is five miles from the city [New York] on a hill, in a very healthy situation, the road leads between country '''seats''' and handsome gardens and is one of the most pleasant I have seen in America.”
 
:“The Lunatic Asylum is five miles from the city [New York] on a hill, in a very healthy situation, the road leads between country '''seats''' and handsome gardens and is one of the most pleasant I have seen in America.”
  
  
* [[Benjamin L. C. Wailes|Wailes, Benjamin L. C.]], December 29, 1829, describing [[Lemon Hill]], estate of [[Henry Pratt]], Philadelphia, Pa. (quoted in Moore 1954: 359) <ref>John Hebron Moore, ‘A View of Philadelphia in 1829: Selections from the Journal of B.L.C. Wailes of Natchez’, ''Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography'', 78 (July) (1954), 353–60, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/Z9IBV7A4 view on Zotero].</ref>
+
*Wailes, Benjamin L. C., December 29, 1829, describing [[Lemon Hill]], estate of [[Henry Pratt]], Philadelphia, PA (quoted in Moore 1954: 359)<ref>John Hebron Moore, “A View of Philadelphia in 1829: Selections from the Journal of B. L. C. Wailes of Natchez,''Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography'' 78 (July 1954): 353–60, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/Z9IBV7A4 view on Zotero].</ref>
 
 
 
:“But the most enchanting [[prospect]] is towards the grand pleasure grove & [[green house]] of a [[Henry Pratt|Mr. Prat[t]]], a gentleman of fortune, and to this we next proceeded by a circutous [''sic''] rout, passing in [[view]] of the fish ponds, [[bower]]s, [[rustic style|rustic]] retreats, [[summerhouse|summer houses]], [[fountain]]s, [[grotto]], &c., &c. The [[grotto]] is dug in a bank [and] is of a circular form, the side built up of rock and arched over head, and a number of Shells [?]. A dog of natural size carved out of marble sits just within the entrance, the guardian of the place. A narrow aperture lined with a [[hedge]] of [[arbor]] vitae leads to it. Next is a round fish pond with a small [[fountain]] playing in the [[pond]]. An Oval & several oblong fish ponds of larger size follow, & between the two last is an artificial [[cascade]]. Several summer houses in [[rustic style]] are made by nailing bark on the outside & thaching the roof. There is also a [[rustic style|rustic]] '''seat''' built in the branches of a tree, & to which a flight of steps ascend. In one of the [[summerhouse|summer houses]] is a Spring with '''seats''' arrond it. The houses are all embelished [''sic''] with marble busts of Venus, Appollo, Diana and a Bacanti. One sits on an Island on the fish pond. All the [[pond]]s filled with handsome coloured fish.”
 
:“But the most enchanting [[prospect]] is towards the grand pleasure grove & [[green house]] of a [[Henry Pratt|Mr. Prat[t]]], a gentleman of fortune, and to this we next proceeded by a circutous [''sic''] rout, passing in [[view]] of the fish ponds, [[bower]]s, [[rustic style|rustic]] retreats, [[summerhouse|summer houses]], [[fountain]]s, [[grotto]], &c., &c. The [[grotto]] is dug in a bank [and] is of a circular form, the side built up of rock and arched over head, and a number of Shells [?]. A dog of natural size carved out of marble sits just within the entrance, the guardian of the place. A narrow aperture lined with a [[hedge]] of [[arbor]] vitae leads to it. Next is a round fish pond with a small [[fountain]] playing in the [[pond]]. An Oval & several oblong fish ponds of larger size follow, & between the two last is an artificial [[cascade]]. Several summer houses in [[rustic style]] are made by nailing bark on the outside & thaching the roof. There is also a [[rustic style|rustic]] '''seat''' built in the branches of a tree, & to which a flight of steps ascend. In one of the [[summerhouse|summer houses]] is a Spring with '''seats''' arrond it. The houses are all embelished [''sic''] with marble busts of Venus, Appollo, Diana and a Bacanti. One sits on an Island on the fish pond. All the [[pond]]s filled with handsome coloured fish.”
  
  
* [[Frances Milton Trollope|Trollope, Frances Milton]], 1830, describing Philadelphia, Pa. (1832: 2:48–49; 152) <ref>Frances Trollope, ''Domestic Manners of the Americans'', 3rd edn, 2 vols. (London: Wittaker, Treacher, 1832), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/T5RXDF7G view on Zotero].</ref>
+
*Trollope, Frances Milton, 1830, describing Philadelphia, PA (1832: 2:48–49; 152)<ref>Frances Trollope, ''Domestic Manners of the Americans'', 3rd ed., 2 vols. (London: Wittaker, Treacher, 1832), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/T5RXDF7G view on Zotero].</ref>
 
+
:“Near this enclosure [at the State House] is another of much the same description, called [[Washington Square (Philadelphia)|Washington Square]]. Here there was an excellent crop of clover; but as the trees are numerous, and highly beautiful, and several commodious '''seats''' are placed beneath their shade, it is, spite of the long grass, a very agreeable retreat from heat and dust. It was rarely, however, that I saw any of these '''seats''' occupied; the Americans have either no leisure, or no inclination for those moments of ''delassement'' that all other people, I believe, indulge in. . . it is nevertheless the nearest approach to a London square that is to be found in Philadelphia. . . “The Delaware river, above Philadelphia, still flows through a landscape too level for beauty, but it is rendered interesting by a succession of gentlemen’s '''seats''', which, if less elaborately finished in architecture, and garden grounds, than the lovely villas on the Thames, are still beautiful objects to gaze upon as you float rapidly past on the broad silvery stream that washes their [[lawn]]s.”
:“Near this enclosure [at the State House] is another of much the same description, called [[Washington Square (Philadelphia)|Washington Square]]. Here there was an excellent crop of clover; but as the trees are numerous, and highly beautiful, and several commodious '''seats''' are placed beneath their shade, it is, spite of the long grass, a very agreeable retreat from heat and dust. It was rarely, however, that I saw any of these '''seats''' occupied; the Americans have either no leisure, or no inclination for those moments of ''delassement'' that all other people, I believe, indulge in. . . . it is nevertheless the nearest approach to a London square that is to be found in Philadelphia. . . . “The Delaware river, above Philadelphia, still flows through a landscape too level for beauty, but it is rendered interesting by a succession of gentlemen’s '''seats''', which, if less elaborately finished in architecture, and garden grounds, than the lovely villas on the Thames, are still beautiful objects to gaze upon as you float rapidly past on the broad silvery stream that washes their [[lawn]]s.”
 
 
 
  
* [[A. J. Downing|Downing, A. J.]], January 1837, “Notices on the State and Progress of Horticulture in the United States,” describing [[Hyde Park]], seat of Dr. David Hosack, on the Hudson, N.Y. (''Magazine of Horticulture'' 3: 5)
 
  
:“The most distinguished amateur and patron of gardening, in every sense of the word, in this state, was the late Dr. Hosack. [[Hyde Park]], on the Hudson, the '''seat''' of this gentleman, has been probably the best specimen of a highly improved residence in the United States.”
+
*[[Andrew Jackson Downing|Downing, Andrew Jackson]], January 1837, “Notices on the State and Progress of Horticulture in the United States,” describing [[Hyde Park]], seat of [[David Hosack]], on the Hudson, NY (''Magazine of Horticulture'' 3: 5)<ref>A. J. Downing, “Notices on the State and Progress of Horticulture in the United States,” ''Magazine of Horticulture, Botany, and All Useful Discoveries and Improvements in Rural Affairs'' 3, no. 1 (January 1837): 1–10, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/keywords_in_early_american_landscape_design/items/itemKey/HPNHTESI/q/Notices%20on%20the%20State%20and%20Progress%20of%20Horticulture view on Zotero].</ref>
 +
:“The most distinguished amateur and patron of gardening, in every sense of the word, in this state, was the late [[Dr. Hosack]]. [[Hyde Park]], on the Hudson, the '''seat''' of this gentleman, has been probably the best specimen of a highly improved residence in the United States.”
  
  
* [[Anna Cora Ogden Mowatt Ritchie|Ritchie, Anna Cora Ogden Mowatt]], 1839, describing [[Bonaparte’s Park]] at estate of Joseph Bonaparte (Count de Survilliers), Bordentown, N.J. (quoted in Weber 1854: 186) <ref>Constance Weber, ‘A Sketch of Joseph Bonaparte’, in ''Godey’s Lady's Book'' (Philadelphia: L. A. Godey, 1854), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/NEDC6TSD/ view on Zotero].</ref>
+
*Ritchie, Anna Cora Ogden Mowatt, 1839, describing Bonaparte’s Park at estate of Joseph Bonaparte (Count de Survilliers), Bordentown, NJ (quoted in Weber 1854: 186)<ref>Constance Weber, “A Sketch of Joseph Bonaparte,in ''Godey’s Lady’s Book'' (Philadelphia: L. A. Godey, 1854), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/NEDC6TSD/ view on Zotero].</ref>
 
 
 
:“Equally rustic '''seats''' are scattered beneath the shade of the tall trees on its banks, and upon its clear surface a flock of snow-white swans were floating about.”
 
:“Equally rustic '''seats''' are scattered beneath the shade of the tall trees on its banks, and upon its clear surface a flock of snow-white swans were floating about.”
  
  
* [[C. M. Hovey|Hovey]], C. M., September 1840, “Notes on Gardens and Gardening, in New Bedford, Mass,” describing the estate of [[James Arnold]], New Bedford, Mass. (''Magazine of Horticulture'' 6: 364)
+
*Hovey, C. M. (Charles Mason), September 1840, “Notes on Gardens and Gardening, in New Bedford, Mass.,” describing the estate of James Arnold, New Bedford, MA (''Magazine of Horticulture'' 6: 364)<ref>Charles Mason Hovey, “Notes on Gardens and Gardening, in New Bedford, Mass.,” ''Magazine of Horticulture, Botany, and All Useful Discoveries and Improvements in Rural Affairs'' 6, no. 9 (September 1840): 361–66, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/QQC7WWZB view on Zotero].</ref>
 
 
 
:“Continuing through the winding [[walk]]s, shady [[bower]]s, and umbrageous retreats, through which rustic '''seats''' were placed, we arrived at the shell [[grotto]].”
 
:“Continuing through the winding [[walk]]s, shady [[bower]]s, and umbrageous retreats, through which rustic '''seats''' were placed, we arrived at the shell [[grotto]].”
  
  
* [[Rev. Nehemiah Adams|Adams, Rev. Nehemiah]], 1842, describing [[Boston Common]], Boston, Mass. ([Adams] 1842: 54) <ref>Nehemiah Adams, ''Boston Common'' (Boston: William D. Ticknor and H. B. Williams, 1842), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/VXTWGJ58 view on Zotero].</ref>
+
*Adams, Nehemiah, 1842, describing [[Boston Common]], Boston, MA (1842: 54)<ref>Nehemiah Adams, ''Boston Common'' (Boston: William D. Ticknor and H. B. Williams, 1842), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/VXTWGJ58 view on Zotero].</ref>
 
+
:“One of the next improvements in the [[Boston Common|Common]] we suspect will be a suitable supply of proper '''seats''' in the [[mall]]. As a defence against our American propensity to whittle, the city government caused some of the wooden '''seats''' to be sheathed with sheet iron. Vain defence against the knife of an American whittler! . . . The city government thought that they would ‘try what virtue there is in stones.’ Blocks of granite have been deposited there for '''seats'''. . . The stone '''seats''' are smooth only on the upper side, and their rough look is not strictly in Boston taste, though it is excusable, considering the penitentiary object which led to their substitution for wooden '''seats'''. . . The idea of sitting on a natural, rough rock, to enjoy the beauties of nature, is poetical and in good keeping, but we have tried in vain to make those stone '''seats''' on the [[mall]] seem poetical.”
:“One of the next improvements in the [[Boston Common|Common]] we suspect will be a suitable supply of proper '''seats''' in the [[mall]]. As a defence against our American propensity to whittle, the city government caused some of the wooden '''seats''' to be sheathed with sheet iron. Vain defence against the knife of an American whittler! . . . The city government thought that they would ‘try what virtue there is in stones.’ Blocks of granite have been deposited there for '''seats'''. . . . The stone '''seats''' are smooth only on the upper side, and their rough look is not strictly in Boston taste, though it is excusable, considering the penitentiary object which led to their substitution for wooden '''seats'''. . . . The idea of sitting on a natural, rough rock, to enjoy the beauties of nature, is poetical and in good keeping, but we have tried in vain to make those stone '''seats''' on the [[mall]] seem poetical.”
 
 
 
  
* [[James Silk Buckingham|Buckingham, James Silk]], 1842, describing Red Sulphur Springs, Va. (CWF)
 
  
 +
*Buckingham, James Silk, 1842, describing Red Sulphur Springs, VA (Colonial Williamsburg Foundation)
 
:“In the centre of the valley, is a triangular [[plot]] of grass, which has been enclosed with well-finished rails, painted white, and laid out in [[walk]]s like a [[lawn]], having also several large and fine trees, under which '''seats''' are placed for enjoying the shade.”
 
:“In the centre of the valley, is a triangular [[plot]] of grass, which has been enclosed with well-finished rails, painted white, and laid out in [[walk]]s like a [[lawn]], having also several large and fine trees, under which '''seats''' are placed for enjoying the shade.”
  
  
* Anonymous, December 6, 1842, “Letter from Ministry at New Lebanon to Ministry at Graveland” (Western Reserve Historical Society Library, Shaker Manuscript Collection)
+
*Anonymous, December 6, 1842, “Letter from Ministry at New Lebanon to Ministry at Graveland” (Western Reserve Historical Society Library, Shaker Manuscript Collection)
 
 
 
:“And it is my will that your '''seats''' be prepared after the following order. Ye may take boards of sufficient width & thickness to form a '''seat'''. These may be planed. Place these upon square blocks of sufficient bigness to elevate the '''seat''' of a suitable height; and these are sufficient for '''seats''', upon my holy ground. And if ye desire to build a shed, near by the meeting ground under which you can place these '''seats''', at such parts of the year as they are not wanted, ye may freely do it; but if my feast ground is located near your dwellings, you had better carry them there to place under shelter.”
 
:“And it is my will that your '''seats''' be prepared after the following order. Ye may take boards of sufficient width & thickness to form a '''seat'''. These may be planed. Place these upon square blocks of sufficient bigness to elevate the '''seat''' of a suitable height; and these are sufficient for '''seats''', upon my holy ground. And if ye desire to build a shed, near by the meeting ground under which you can place these '''seats''', at such parts of the year as they are not wanted, ye may freely do it; but if my feast ground is located near your dwellings, you had better carry them there to place under shelter.”
  
  
* [[Henry Wadsworth Longfellow|Longfellow, Henry Wadsworth]], c. 1845, describing the [[Vassall-Craigie-Longfellow House]], Cambridge, Mass. (quoted in Evans 1993: 41) <ref>Catherine Evans, ''Cultural Landscape Report for Longfellow National Historic Site, History and Existing Conditions'' (Boston: National Park Service, North Atlantic Region, 1993), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/9TI9GUQN view on Zotero].</ref>
+
*Longfellow, Henry Wadsworth, c. 1845, describing the Vassall-Craigie-Longfellow House, Cambridge, MA (quoted in Evans 1993: 41)<ref>Catherine Evans, ''Cultural Landscape Report for Longfellow National Historic Site, History and Existing Conditions'' (Boston: National Park Service, North Atlantic Region, 1993), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/9TI9GUQN view on Zotero].</ref>
 
 
 
:“Made the [[flower garden]]; laying it out in the form of a Lyre. Built also the [[rustic style|rustic]] '''seat''' in the Old Apple tree. Set out the roses under the Library windows.”
 
:“Made the [[flower garden]]; laying it out in the form of a Lyre. Built also the [[rustic style|rustic]] '''seat''' in the Old Apple tree. Set out the roses under the Library windows.”
  
  
[[Image:0359.jpg|thumb|225px|Fig. 11, Anonymous, "The Lake," Montgomery Place, in [[A. J. Downing]], ed., ''Horticulturist'' 2, no. 4 (October 1847): 158, fig. 27.]]
+
[[Image:0359.jpg|thumb|225px|Fig. 11, Anonymous, “The [[Lake]],” [[Montgomery Place]], in [[A. J. Downing]], ed., ''Horticulturist'' 2, no. 4 (October 1847): 158, fig. 27.]]
* [[A. J. Downing|Downing, A. J.]], 1847, describing Montgomery Place, country home of Mrs. Edward (Louise) Livingston, Dutchess County, N.Y. (quoted in Haley 1988: 20, 47, 50) <ref>Jacquetta M. Haley, ed., ''Pleasure Grounds: Andrew Jackson Downing and Montgomery Place'' (Tarrytown, N.Y.: Sleepy Hollow Press, 1988), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/SSZXJFSC/ view on Zotero].</ref>
+
*[[Andrew Jackson Downing|Downing, Andrew Jackson]], 1847, describing [[Montgomery Place]], country home of Mrs. Edward (Louise) Livingston, Dutchess County, NY (quoted in Haley 1988: 20, 47, 50)<ref>Jacquetta M. Haley, ed., ''Pleasure Grounds: Andrew Jackson Downing and Montgomery Place'' (Tarrytown, NY: Sleepy Hollow Press, 1988), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/SSZXJFSC/ view on Zotero].</ref>
 
+
:“I forgot to beg you before you leave [[Montgomery Place]] to sketch the [[view]] from the bold rustic '''seat''' with rustic balustrade in front*on the high west river [[walk]]. It seems to me one of the very finest things I have seen anywhere.
:<p>“I forgot to beg you before you leave Montgomery Place to sketch the [[view]] from the bold rustic '''seat''' with rustic balustrade in front* on the high west river [[walk]]. It seems to me one of the very finest things I have seen anywhere.
+
:<nowiki>*</nowiki> that '''seat''' about half way between the steps & the south terminus. . .
:<nowiki>*</nowiki> that '''seat''' about half way between the steps & the south terminus. . . .</p>
+
:“A path on the left of the broad [[lawn]] leads one to the fanciful rustic-gabled '''seat''', among a growth of locusts at the bottom of the [[Terrace/Slope|slope]]. . . Half-way along this morning ramble, a rustic '''seat''', placed on a bold little plateau, at the base of a large tree, eighty feet above the water, and fenced about with a rustic barrier, invites you to linger and gaze at the fascinating river landscape here presented. . .
:<p>“A path on the left of the broad [[lawn]] leads one to the fanciful rustic-gabled '''seat''', among a growth of locusts at the bottom of the [[slope]]. . . Half-way along this morning ramble, a rustic '''seat''', placed on a bold little plateau, at the base of a large tree, eighty feet above the water, and fenced about with a rustic barrier, invites you to linger and gaze at the fascinating river landscape here presented. . . .</p>
+
:“A little farther on, we reach a flight of rocky steps, leading up to the [[border]] of the [[lawn]]. At the top of these is a rustic '''seat''' with a thatched canopy, curiously built round the trunk of an aged pine. . .
:<p>“A little farther on, we reach a flight of rocky steps, leading up to the [[border]] of the [[lawn]]. At the top of these is a rustic '''seat''' with a thatched canopy, curiously built round the trunk of an aged pine. . . .</p>
+
:“This part of the grounds [the [[lake]]] is seen to the most advantage, either toward evening, or in moonlight. Then the effect of contrast in light and shadow is most striking, and the seclusion and beauty of the spot are more fully enjoyable than at any hour. Then you will most certainly be tempted to leave the curious rustic '''seat''', with its roof wrapped round with a rude entablature like Pluto’s crown.” [Fig. 11]
:<p>“This part of the grounds [the [[lake]]] is seen to the most advantage, either toward evening, or in moonlight. Then the effect of contrast in light and shadow is most striking, and the seclusion and beauty of the spot are more fully enjoyable than at any hour. Then you will most certainly be tempted to leave the curious rustic '''seat''', with its roof wrapped round with a rude entablature like Pluto’s crown.” [Fig. 11]</p>
 
 
 
  
[[File:1097.jpg|thumb|225px|Fig. 12, Thomas S. Sinclair, "Plan of the Pleasure Grounds and Farm of the Pennsylvania Hospital for the Insane at Philadelphia," in Thomas S. Kirkbride, ''American Journal of Insanity'' 4 (April 1848): n.p.]]
 
* [[Thomas S. Kirkbride|Kirkbride, Thomas S.]], April 1848, describing the [[pleasure ground|pleasure grounds]] and farm of the [[Pennsylvania Hospital for the Insane]], Philadelphia, Pa. (''American Journal of Insanity'' 4: 349)
 
  
 +
[[File:1097.jpg|thumb|225px|Fig. 12, Thomas S. Sinclair, “Plan of the [[Pleasure Ground]]s and Farm of the [[Pennsylvania Hospital for the Insane]] at Philadelphia,” in Thomas S. Kirkbride, ''American Journal of Insanity'' 4 (April 1848): pl. opp. 280.]]
 +
*Kirkbride, Thomas S., April 1848, describing the [[pleasure ground|pleasure grounds]] and farm of the [[Pennsylvania Hospital for the Insane]], Philadelphia (''American Journal of Insanity'' 4: 349)<ref>Thomas S. Kirkbride, “Description of the Pleasure Grounds and Farm of the Pennsylvania Hospital for the Insane, with Remarks,” ''American Journal of Insanity'' 4, no. 4 (April 1848): 347–54, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/keywords_in_early_american_landscape_design/items/itemKey/9RWM2FH8/q/kirkbride view on Zotero].</ref>
 
:“The [[summerhouse|summer-houses]], [[rustic style|rustic]]-'''seats''', exercising-swings &c., in this division are all in particularly pleasant positions. The cottage fronts the [[wood]]s, and in every part this portion of the grounds is completely protected from intrusion and observation.” [Fig. 12]
 
:“The [[summerhouse|summer-houses]], [[rustic style|rustic]]-'''seats''', exercising-swings &c., in this division are all in particularly pleasant positions. The cottage fronts the [[wood]]s, and in every part this portion of the grounds is completely protected from intrusion and observation.” [Fig. 12]
  
  
* Loudon, J. C., 1850, describing the public gardens in Philadelphia, Pa. (pp. 332–33)
+
*[[J. C. (John Claudius) Loudon|Loudon, J. C. (John Claudius)]], 1850, describing the public gardens in Philadelphia, PA (1850: 332–33)
 
+
:“856. ''[[public garden|Public Gardens]]''. . .
:<p>“856. ''[[public garden|Public Gardens]]''. . . .</p>
+
:“''[[Promenade]] at Philadelphia''. There is a very pretty enclosure before the walnut tree entrance to the state-house, with good well-kept gravel [[walk]]s, and many beautiful flowering trees. It is laid down in grass, not in turf; which, indeed, Mrs. Trollope observes, ‘is a luxury she never saw in America. Near this enclosure is another of a similar description, called [[Washington Square (Philadelphia)|Washington Square]], which has numerous trees, with commodious '''seats''' placed beneath their shade.’ (''Ibid''. [''D. M. &c''.] vol. ii. p. 48.) . . .
:<p>“''[[Promenade]] at Philadelphia''. There is a very pretty enclosure before the walnut tree entrance to the state-house, with good well-kept gravel [[walk]]s, and many beautiful flowering trees. It is laid down in grass, not in turf; which, indeed, Mrs. Trollope observes, ‘is a luxury she never saw in America. Near this enclosure is another of a similar description, called [[Washington Square (Philadelphia)|Washington Square]], which has numerous trees, with commodious '''seats''' placed beneath their shade.’ (''Ibid''. [''D. M. &c''.] vol. ii. p. 48.) . . .</p>
+
:“''Waterworks at Fair Mount, near Philadelphia''. ‘. . . On the farther side of the river is a gentleman’s '''seat''', the beautiful [[lawn]] of which slopes down to the water’s edge; and groups of weeping willows and other trees throw their shadows on the stream.’ (''Domestic Manners of the Americans'', vol. ii. p. 44.)”
:<p>“''Waterworks at [[Fairmount Waterworks|Fair Mount]], near Philadelphia''. ‘. . . On the farther side of the river is a gentleman’s '''seat''', the beautiful [[lawn]] of which slopes down to the water’s edge; and groups of weeping willows and other trees throw their shadows on the stream.’ (''Domestic Manners of the Americans'', vol. ii. p. 44.)”</p>
 
  
 
===Citations===
 
===Citations===
 +
*Dezallier d’Argenville, Antoine-Joseph, 1712, ''The Theory and Practice of Gardening'' (1712: 78)<ref> A.-J. (Antoine Joseph) Dézallier d’Argenville, ''The Theory and Practice of Gardening; Wherein Is Fully Handled All That Relates to Fine Gardens, . . . Containing Divers Plans, and General Dispositions of Gardens. . . '', trans. John James (London: Geo. James, 1712), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/RNT8ZVZ8 view on Zotero].</ref>
 +
:“'''SEATS''', or Benches, besides the Conveniency they constantly afford in great Gardens, where you can scarce ever have too many, there is such need of them in walking, look very well also in a Garden, when set in certain Places they are destin’d to, as in the Niches or Sinkings that face principal [[Walk]]s and [[Vista]]s, and in the Halls and Galleries of [[Grove]]s.”
  
* [[A.-J. Dézallier d’Argenville|[Dézallier d’Argenville, A.-J.]]], 1712, ''The Theory and Practice of Gardening'' ([1712] 1969: 78) <ref> A.-J. (Antoine Joseph) Dézallier d’Argenville, ''The Theory and Practice of Gardening; Wherein Is Fully Handled All That Relates to Fine Gardens, ... Containing Divers Plans, and General Dispositions of Gardens; ...'', trans. by John James (London: Geo. James, 1712), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/RNT8ZVZ8 view on Zotero].</ref>
 
  
: “'''SEATS''', or Benches, besides the Conveniency they constantly afford in great Gardens, where you can scarce ever have too many, there is such need of them in walking, look very well also in a Garden, when set in certain Places they are destin’d to, as in the Niches or Sinkings that face principal [[Walk]]s and [[Vista]]s, and in the Halls and Galleries of [[Grove]]s.”
+
*Ware, Isaac, 1756, ''A Complete Body of Architecture'' (1756: 636, 641)<ref>Isaac Ware, ''A Complete Body of Architecture'' (London: T. Osborne and J. Shipton, 1756), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/2EK2USKV view on Zotero].</ref>
 +
:“The first principle is here that there be space to [[walk]], and '''seats''' to rest. These must be proportioned also to one another: it would be absurd to terminate a vast [[walk]] with a plain bench; nor less ridiculous to erect a pompous [[temple]] where there was not the extent of a hundred yards from the building. . .
 +
:“He who would know where to place his [[pavilion]], '''seat''', or [[temple]], in a garden, must first understand what the purpose of it is, and what the true beauty and excellence of the garden itself.”
  
  
* [[Isaac Ware|Ware, Isaac]], 1756, ''A Complete Body of Architecture'' (pp. 636, 641) <ref>
+
*Sheridan, Thomas, 1789, ''A Complete Dictionary of the English Language'' (1789: n.p.)<ref>Thomas A. Sheridan, ''A Complete Dictionary of the English Language, Carefully Revised and Corrected by John Andrews. . . '', 5th ed. (Philadelphia: William Young, 1789), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/T5GU4CBQ view on Zotero].</ref>
Isaac Ware, ''A Complete Body of Architecture'' (London: T. Osborne and J. Shipton, 1756), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/2EK2USKV view on Zotero].</ref>
 
 
 
:<p>“The first principle is here that there be space to [[walk]], and '''seats''' to rest. These must be proportioned also to one another: it would be absurd to terminate a vast [[walk]] with a plain bench; nor less ridiculous to erect a pompous [[temple]] where there was not the extent of a hundred yards from the building. . . .</p>
 
:<p>“He who would know where to place his [[pavilion]], '''seat''', or [[temple]], in a garden, must first understand what the purpose of it is, and what the true beauty and excellence of the garden itself.”</p>
 
 
 
 
 
* [[Thomas Sheridan|Sheridan, Thomas]], 1789, ''A Complete Dictionary of the English Language'' (n.p.) <ref>Thomas A. Sheridan, ''A Complete Dictionary of the English Language, Carefully Revised and Corrected by John Andrews....'', 5th edn (Philadelphia: William Young, 1789), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/T5GU4CBQ view on Zotero].</ref>
 
 
 
 
:“'''SEAT''', se’t. s. A chair, bench, or any thing on which one may sit; chair of state; tribunal; mansion, abode; situation, site.”
 
:“'''SEAT''', se’t. s. A chair, bench, or any thing on which one may sit; chair of state; tribunal; mansion, abode; situation, site.”
  
  
* Anonymous, 1798, ''Encyclopaedia'' (7:561)
+
*Anonymous, 1798, ''Encyclopaedia'' (1798: 7:561)
 +
:“‘V. '''SEATS''' have a two-fold use; they are useful as places of rest and conversation, and as guides to the points of [[view]] in which the beauties of the surrounding scene are disclosed. Every point of [[view]] should be marked with a '''seat'''; and speaking generally, no '''seat''' ought to appear but in some favourable point of [[view]]. This rule may not be invariable, but it ought seldom to be deviated from.
 +
:“In the ruder scenes of neglected nature, the simple trunk, rough from the woodman’s hands, and the butts or stools of rooted trees, without any other marks of tools upon them than those of the saw which severed them from their stems, are '''seats''' in character; and in romantic or recluse situations, the cave or the [[grotto]] are admissible. But wherever human design has been executed upon the natural objects of the place, the '''seat''' and every other artificial accompaniment ought to be in unison; and whether the bench or the [[alcove]] be chosen, it ought to be formed and finished in such a manner as to unite with the [[wood]], the [[lawn]], and the [[walk]], which lie around it.
 +
:“The colour of '''seats''' should likewise be suited to situations: where uncultivated nature prevails, the natural brown of the [[wood]] itself ought not to be altered; but where the rural art presides, white or stone colour has a much better effect.’ ''Practical Treatise on Planting and Gardening p. 593 &c.''”
  
:<p>“‘V. '''SEATS''' have a two-fold use; they are useful as places of rest and conversation, and as guides to the points of [[view]] in which the beauties of the surrounding scene are disclosed. Every point of [[view]] should be marked with a '''seat'''; and speaking generally, no '''seat''' ought to appear but in some favourable point of [[view]]. This rule may not be invariable, but it ought seldom to be deviated from.</p>
 
:<p>“In the ruder scenes of neglected nature, the simple trunk, rough from the woodman’s hands, and the butts or stools of  rooted trees, without any other marks of tools upon them than those of the saw which severed them from their stems, are '''seats''' in character; and in romantic or recluse situations, the cave or the [[grotto]] are admissible. But wherever human design has been executed upon the natural objects of the place, the '''seat''' and every other artificial accompaniment ought to be in unison; and whether the bench or the [[alcove]] be chosen, it ought to be formed and finished in such a manner as to unite with the [[wood]], the [[lawn]], and the [[walk]], which lie around it.</p>
 
:<p>“The colour of '''seats''' should likewise be suited to situations: where uncultivated nature prevails, the natural brown of the [[wood]] itself ought not to be altered; but where the rural art presides, white or stone colour has a much better effect.’ ''Practical Treatise on Planting and Gardening p. 593 &c.''”</p>
 
  
 +
*Repton, Humphry, 1803, ''Observations on the Theory and Practice of Landscape Gardening'' (1803: 69, 153)<ref>Humphry Repton, ''Observations on the Theory and Practice of Landscape Gardening'' (London: Printed by T. Bensley for J. Taylor, 1803), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/VVQPC3BI view on Zotero].</ref>
 +
:“This would be a proper place for a covered '''seat''', with a shed behind it for horses or open carriages; but it should be set so far back as to command the [[view]] under the branches of trees, which are very happily situated for the purpose. . .
 +
:“Yet the summit of a naked brow, commanding [[view]]s in every direction, may require a covered '''seat''' or [[pavilion]]; for such a situation, where an architectural building is proper, a circular [[temple]] with a dome, such as the [[temple]] of the Sybils, or that of Tivoli, is best calculated.”
  
* [[Humphry Repton|Repton, Humphry]], 1803, ''Observations on the Theory and Practice of Landscape Gardening'' (pp. 69, 153) <ref>Humphry Repton, ''Observations on the Theory and Practice of Landscape Gardening'' (London: Printed by T. Bensley for J. Taylor, 1803), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/VVQPC3BI view on Zotero].</ref>
 
 
:<p>“This would be a proper place for a covered '''seat''', with a shed behind it for horses or open carriages; but it should be set so far back as to command the [[view]] under the branches of trees, which are very happily situated for the purpose. . .</p>
 
:<p>“Yet the summit of a naked brow, commanding [[view]]s in every direction, may require a covered '''seat''' or [[pavilion]]; for such a situation, where an architectural building is proper, a circular [[temple]] with a dome, such as the [[temple]] of the Sybils, or that of Tivoli, is best calculated.”</p>
 
 
 
* [[John Abercrombie|Abercrombie, John]], with James Mean, 1817, ''Abercrombie’s Practical Gardener'' (p. 465) <ref>John Abercrombie, ''Abercrombie’s Practical Gardener Or, Improved System of Modern Horticulture'' (London: T. Cadell and W. Davies, 1817), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/TH54TADZ/ view on Zotero].</ref>
 
  
 +
*Abercrombie, John, with James Mean, 1817, ''Abercrombie’s Practical Gardener'' (1817: 465)<ref>John Abercrombie, ''Abercrombie’s Practical Gardener Or, Improved System of Modern Horticulture'' (London: T. Cadell and W. Davies, 1817), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/TH54TADZ/ view on Zotero].</ref>
 
:“Fine points of [[view]] claim, in the first place, to be distinguished by '''seats'''. '''Seats''' merely serving as places of rest might announce an intrinsic object by some difference in their construction; and if there be no distant [[prospect]] to engage attention, greater elegance in the accompaniments may create a pleasant resting-place. As to the manner of finishing a '''seat'''; where the house is in sight, a correct taste will expect the bench or [[alcove]] to correspond with the style of the house, so far at least as to be avowedly artificial, neat in the workmanship, and painted. In neglected or wild scenes, withdrawn from the polished [[lawn]], pleasing illusions may be induced by a rough block of timber, the arms of a fantastic root, or forest fagots romantically interwoven, offering a '''seat''' under the canopy of a tree, or within a cave or [[grotto]]. This is admissible on principle, in proportion as every thing surrounding is in character. Not that it can be denied, that whimsical '''seats''' at variance with the situation sometimes afford a degree of amusement, and may do no harm in little gardens, or in a scene too tame to be spoiled: but the effect terminates with the oddity; a place destitute of character can excite no romantic interest.”
 
:“Fine points of [[view]] claim, in the first place, to be distinguished by '''seats'''. '''Seats''' merely serving as places of rest might announce an intrinsic object by some difference in their construction; and if there be no distant [[prospect]] to engage attention, greater elegance in the accompaniments may create a pleasant resting-place. As to the manner of finishing a '''seat'''; where the house is in sight, a correct taste will expect the bench or [[alcove]] to correspond with the style of the house, so far at least as to be avowedly artificial, neat in the workmanship, and painted. In neglected or wild scenes, withdrawn from the polished [[lawn]], pleasing illusions may be induced by a rough block of timber, the arms of a fantastic root, or forest fagots romantically interwoven, offering a '''seat''' under the canopy of a tree, or within a cave or [[grotto]]. This is admissible on principle, in proportion as every thing surrounding is in character. Not that it can be denied, that whimsical '''seats''' at variance with the situation sometimes afford a degree of amusement, and may do no harm in little gardens, or in a scene too tame to be spoiled: but the effect terminates with the oddity; a place destitute of character can excite no romantic interest.”
  
  
[[File:1334.jpg|thumb|225px|Fig. 13, [[J. C. Loudon]], Covered seats of the rustic kind, in ''An Encyclopædia of Gardening'' (1826), p. 357, figs. 336-336.]]
+
[[File:1334.jpg|thumb|225px|Fig. 13, [[J. C. Loudon]], Covered seats of the [[Rustic_style|rustic]] kind, in ''An Encyclopædia of Gardening'', 4th ed. (1826), 357, fig. 336.]]  
[[File:1335.jpg|thumb|225px|Fig. 14, [[J. C. Loudon]], Elegant structures of the seat kind, in ''An Encyclopædia of Gardening'' (1826), p. 357, figs. 337 and 338.]]  
+
*[[J. C. (John Claudius) Loudon|Loudon, J. C. (John Claudius)]], 1826, ''An Encyclopaedia of Gardening'' (1826: 355, 357, 809)<ref>J. C. (John Claudius) Loudon, ''An Encyclopaedia of Gardening; Comprising the Theory and Practice of Horticulture, Floriculture, Arboriculture, and Landscape-Gardening'', 4th ed. (London: Longman et al., 1826),[https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/KNKTCA4W view on Zotero].</ref>
* [[J. C. Loudon|Loudon, J. C.]], 1826, ''An Encyclopaedia of Gardening'' (pp. 355, 357, 809) <ref>J. C. (John Claudius) Loudon, ''An Encyclopaedia of Gardening; Comprising the Theory and Practice of Horticulture, Floriculture, Arboriculture, and Landscape-Gardening'', 4th edn (London: Longman et al, 1826),[https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/KNKTCA4W view on Zotero].</ref>
+
:“1805. ''Of convenient decorations'' the variety is almost endless, from the prospect-tower to the rustic '''seat'''; besides aquatic decorations, agreeable to the eye and convenient for the purposes of recreations or culture. Their emplacement, as in the former section, belongs to gardening, and their construction to architecture and engineering. . .
 +
:“1816. ''Roofed '''seats''', boat-houses, moss houses, flint houses, bark huts'', and similar constructions, are different modes of forming resting-places containing '''seats''', and sometimes other furniture or conveniences in or near them. . . [Fig. 13]
 +
:“1817. ''Roofed '''seats''' of a more polished description'' are boarded structures generally semi-octagonal, and placed so as to be open to the south. Sometimes they are portable, moving on wheels, so as to be placed in different positions, according to the hour of the day, or season of the year, which, in confined spots, is a desirable circumstance. Sometimes they turn on rollers, or on a central pivot, for the same object, and this is very common in what are called barrel-'''seats'''. In general they are opaque, but occasionally their sides are glazed, to admit the sun to the interior in winter.
 +
[[File:1335.jpg|thumb|225px|Fig. 14, [[J. C. Loudon]], Elegant structures of the seat kind, in ''An Encyclopædia of Gardening'' 4th ed. (1826), 357, figs. 337 and 338.]]
 +
:“1818. ''Folding chairs''. A sort of medium '''seat''', between the roofed and the exposed, is formed by constructing the backs of chairs, benches, or sofas with hinges, so as they may fold down over the '''seat''', and so protect it from rain. . .
 +
:“1819. ''Elegant structures'' of the '''seat''' kind for summer use, may be constructed of iron rods and wires, and painted canvas; the iron forming the supporting skeleton, and the canvass the protecting tegument. . . [Fig. 14]
 +
:“1820. ''Exposed '''seats''''' include a great variety, rising in gradation from the turf bank to the carved couch. Intermediate forms are stone benches, root stools, sections of trunks of trees, wooden, stone, or cast-iron mushrooms painted or covered with moss, or mat, or heath; the Chinese barrel-'''seat''', the rustic stool, chair, tripod, sofa, the cast-iron couch or sofa, the wheeling-chair, and many subvarieties. . .
 +
:“6157. . . Light [[bower]]s formed of lattice-work, and covered with climbers, are in general most suitable to [[parterre]]s; plain covered '''seats''' suit the general [[walk]]s of the [[shrubbery]].”
  
:<p>“1805. ''Of convenient decorations'' the variety is almost endless, from the prospect-tower to the rustic '''seat'''; besides aquatic decorations, agreeable to the eye and convenient for the purposes of recreations or culture. Their emplacement, as in the former section, belongs to gardening, and their construction to architecture and engineering. . . .</p>
 
:<p>“1816. ''Roofed '''seats''', boat-houses, moss houses, flint houses, bark huts'', and similar constructions, are different modes of forming resting-places containing '''seats''', and sometimes other furniture or conveniences in or near them. . . .[Fig. 13]</p>
 
:<p>“1817. ''Roofed '''seats''' of a more polished description'' are boarded structures generally semi-octagonal, and placed so as to be open to the south. Sometimes they are portable, moving on wheels, so as to be placed in different positions, according to the hour of the day, or season of the year, which, in confined spots, is a desirable circumstance. Sometimes they turn on rollers, or on a central pivot, for the same object, and this is very common in what are called barrel-'''seats'''. In general they are opaque, but occasionally their sides are glazed, to admit the sun to the interior in winter.</p>
 
:<p>“1818. ''Folding chairs''. A sort of medium '''seat''', between the roofed and the exposed, is formed by constructing the backs of chairs, benches, or sofas with hinges, so as they may fold down over the '''seat''', and so protect it from rain. . . .</p>
 
:<p>“1819. ''Elegant structures'' of the '''seat''' kind for summer use, may be constructed of iron rods and wires, and painted canvas; the iron forming the supporting skeleton, and the canvass the protecting tegument. . . .[Fig. 14]</p>
 
:<p>“1820. ''Exposed '''seats''''' include a great variety, rising in gradation from the turf bank to the carved couch. Intermediate forms are stone benches, root stools, sections of trunks of trees, wooden, stone, or cast-iron mushrooms painted or covered with moss, or mat, or heath; the Chinese barrel-'''seat''', the rustic stool, chair, tripod, sofa, the cast-iron couch or sofa, the wheeling-chair, and many subvarieties. . . .</p>
 
:<p>“6157. . . Light [[bower]]s formed of lattice-work, and covered with climbers, are in general most suitable to [[parterre]]s; plain covered '''seats''' suit the general [[walk]]s of the [[shrubbery]].”</p>
 
 
 
* Anonymous, April 26, 1826, “On Landscapes and Picturesque Gardens” (''New England Farmer'' 4: 316)
 
  
 +
*Anonymous, April 26, 1826, “On Landscapes and Picturesque Gardens” (''New England Farmer'' 4: 316)<ref>Anonymous, “On Landscape and Picturesque Gardens,” ''New England Farmer'' 4, no. 40 (April 28, 1826): 316, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/keywords_in_early_american_landscape_design/items/itemKey/I3K5QGBZ? view on Zotero].</ref>
 
:“A few fabrics, rustic [[bridge]]s, [[hermitage]]s, a [[Temple]], or a Chinese Kiosk or Pagoda, not expensive in their execution, would advantageously complete the embellishment of a country '''seat'''.”
 
:“A few fabrics, rustic [[bridge]]s, [[hermitage]]s, a [[Temple]], or a Chinese Kiosk or Pagoda, not expensive in their execution, would advantageously complete the embellishment of a country '''seat'''.”
  
  
* [[Noah Webster|Webster, Noah]], 1828, ''An American Dictionary of the English Language'' (n.p.) <ref>Noah Webster, ''An American Dictionary of the English Language'', 2 vols. (New York: S. Converse, 1828), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/N7BSU467 view on Zotero].</ref>
+
*[[Noah Webster|Webster, Noah]], 1828, ''An American Dictionary of the English Language'' (1828: 2:n.p.)<ref>Noah Webster, ''An American Dictionary of the English Language'', 2 vols. (New York: S. Converse, 1828), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/N7BSU467 view on Zotero].</ref>
 
+
:“'''SEAT''', ''n.'' [It. ''sedia''; Sp. s''ede, sitio'', from L. ''sedes, situs''; Sw. ''sate''; Dan. ''soede''; G. ''sitz''; D. ''zetel'', ''zitplaats''; W. ''sez''; Ir. ''saidh''; W. with a prefix, ''gosod'', whence ''gosodi'', to ''set''. See ''Set'' and ''Sit''. . .]
:“'''SEAT''', ''n.'' [It. ''sedia''; Sp. s''ede, sitio'', from L. ''sedes, situs''; Sw. ''sate''; Dan. ''soede''; G. ''sitz''; D. ''zetel'', ''zitplaats''; W. ''sez''; Ir. ''saidh''; W. with a prefix, ''gosod'', whence ''gosodi'', to ''set''. See ''Set'' and ''Sit''. . . .]
+
:“1. That on which one sits. . .
:“1. That on which one sits. . . .
 
 
:“3. Mansion; residence; dwelling; abode; as Italy the '''''seat''''' of empire. The Greeks sent colonies to seek a new '''''seat''''' in Gaul.
 
:“3. Mansion; residence; dwelling; abode; as Italy the '''''seat''''' of empire. The Greeks sent colonies to seek a new '''''seat''''' in Gaul.
 
:“In Alba he shall fix his royal '''''seat'''''. Dryden.  
 
:“In Alba he shall fix his royal '''''seat'''''. Dryden.  
:“4. Site; situation. The '''''seat''''' of Eden has never been incontrovertibly ascertained. . . .
+
:“4. Site; situation. The '''''seat''''' of Eden has never been incontrovertibly ascertained. . .
 
:“8. The place where a thing is settled or established. London is the '''''seat''''' of business and opulence. So we say, the '''''seat''''' of the muses, the '''''seat''''' of arts, the '''''seat''''' of commerce.”
 
:“8. The place where a thing is settled or established. London is the '''''seat''''' of business and opulence. So we say, the '''''seat''''' of the muses, the '''''seat''''' of arts, the '''''seat''''' of commerce.”
  
  
* [[Thomas Bridgeman|Bridgeman, Thomas]], 1832, ''The Young Gardener’s Assistant'' (p. 111) <ref> Thomas Bridgeman, ''The Young Gardener’s Assistant'', 3rd edn (New York: Geo. Robertson, 1832), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/9FU4SNZK view on Zotero].</ref>
+
*Bridgeman, Thomas, 1832, ''The Young Gardener’s Assistant'' (1832: 111)<ref> Thomas Bridgeman, ''The Young Gardener’s Assistant'', 3rd ed. (New York: Geo. Robertson, 1832), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/9FU4SNZK view on Zotero].</ref>
 
 
 
:“In a retired part of the [flower] garden, a rustic '''seat''' may be formed, over and around which honey-suckles and other sweet and ornamental creepers and climbers may he [''sic''] trained on [[trellis]]es, so as to afford a pleasant retirement.”
 
:“In a retired part of the [flower] garden, a rustic '''seat''' may be formed, over and around which honey-suckles and other sweet and ornamental creepers and climbers may he [''sic''] trained on [[trellis]]es, so as to afford a pleasant retirement.”
  
  
* [[James E. Teschemacher|Teschemacher, James E.]], August 1, 1835, “Extracts from Foreign Publications” (''Horticultural Register'' 1: 308–9)
+
*Teschemacher, James E., August 1, 1835, “Extracts from Foreign Publications” (''Horticultural Register'' 1: 308–9)<ref>James E. Teschemacher, “Extracts from Foreign Publications,” ''Horticultural Register, and Gardener’s Magazine'' 1 (August 1, 1835): 304–9, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/keywords_in_early_american_landscape_design/items/itemKey/CNPGMS5X/q/extracts%20from%20foreign%20publications view on Zotero].</ref>
 
+
:“''From an article On the various form and character of [[Arbour]]s as objects of use or ornament either in gardens or wild scenery [from Paxton’s Horticultural Register''], we extract the following passages. . .
:<p>“''From an article On the various form and character of [[Arbour]]s as objects of use or ornament either in gardens or wild scenery [from Paxton’s Horticultural Register''], we extract the following passages. . . .</p>
+
:“‘The closely shaven turf comes about ten feet inside the [[arch]]es where its edge is cut, and between that and the [[basin]] is covered with a fine tawny sand, with an apparently confused but really symmetrical arrangement of marble pedestals, '''seats''' and [[vase]]s with flowering plants placed upon them. During summer a [[vase]] with a rare flowering plant is placed under each of the external [[arch]]es except four which serve as entrances. The entire effect is good, and his may be considered as one of the best specimens of the artificial [[bower]] of the present day.’”
:<p>“‘The closely shaven turf comes about ten feet inside the [[arch]]es where its edge is cut, and between that and the [[basin]] is covered with a fine tawny sand, with an apparently confused but really symmetrical arrangement of marble pedestals, '''seats''' and [[vase]]s with flowering plants placed upon them. During summer a [[vase]] with a rare flowering plant is placed under each of the external [[arch]]es except four which serve as entrances. The entire effect is good, and his may be considered as one of the best specimens of the artificial [[bower]] of the present day.’”</p>
 
 
 
 
 
* [[Edward Sayers|Sayers, Edward]], 1838, ''The American Flower Garden Companion'' (pp. 14, 19, 131) <ref>Edward Sayers, ''The American Flower Garden Companion, Adapted to the Northern States'' (Boston: Joseph Breck, 1838), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/GHTFN8B2 view on Zotero].</ref>
 
 
 
:<p>“At country residences, where a large extent is appropriated to this department [the [[flower garden]]], many  convenient and pleasing appendages can be judiciously introduced; as rustic [[arbor]]s, rustic '''seats''', and [[rockery]]; and if water can be connected, it always gives a good effect. All such appendages, I recommend to be constructed in as natural a manner as possible. . . .</p>
 
:<p>“In extensive [[pleasure ground]]s the [[rockery]] has a good effect when placed distinct from the [[flower garden]], and near a rustic [[arbor]] or ornamental [[bridge]], or '''seat'''; and if placed by the side of a retired [[walk]], near the [[lawn]] or grass [[plot]], it has an easy effect. . . .</p>
 
:<p>“the margin of the [[pond]] should be planted with drooping willows and trees of a pendulous habit for shade, under which rustic '''seat''' might be properly placed for the accommodation of those who desire to view the sporting fishes, and other interesting objects by which they are surrounded.”</p>
 
[[File:0936.jpg|thumb|225px|Fig. 15, [[Alexander Walsh]], Two seats surrounded by an arched arbor, in ''New England Farmer'' 19, no. 39 (Mar. 31, 1841): 309, fig. 4.]]
 
 
 
 
 
* [[Alexander Walsh|Walsh, Alexander]], March 31, 1841, “Remarks on Ornamental Gardening” (''New England Farmer'' 19: 308–9)
 
  
:“The garden and [[pleasure ground]] I would describe, is of an oblong form, 165 feet by 120 feet, with one end next the north side of the house. . . .
 
:“X X two '''seats''', each occupying 2 ft. . . . T T two '''seats''' . . . surrounded by an arched [[arbor]] 10 ft. high, thrown over the [[walk]], ornamented on one side with honeysuckle, on the other by climbing Boursaut rose.” [Fig. 15]
 
  
 +
*Sayers, Edward, 1838, ''The American Flower Garden Companion'' (1838: 14, 19, 131)<ref>Edward Sayers, ''The American Flower Garden Companion, Adapted to the Northern States'' (Boston: Joseph Breck, 1838), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/GHTFN8B2 view on Zotero].</ref>
 +
:“At country residences, where a large extent is appropriated to this department [the [[flower garden]]], many convenient and pleasing appendages can be judiciously introduced; as rustic [[arbor]]s, rustic '''seats''', and [[rockery]]; and if water can be connected, it always gives a good effect. All such appendages, I recommend to be constructed in as natural a manner as possible. . .
 +
:“In extensive [[pleasure ground]]s the [[rockery]] has a good effect when placed distinct from the [[flower garden]], and near a rustic [[arbor]] or ornamental [[bridge]], or '''seat'''; and if placed by the side of a retired [[walk]], near the [[lawn]] or grass [[plot]], it has an easy effect. . . .
 +
:“the margin of the [[pond]] should be planted with drooping willows and trees of a pendulous habit for shade, under which rustic '''seat''' might be properly placed for the accommodation of those who desire to view the sporting fishes, and other interesting objects by which they are surrounded.”
 +
[[File:0936.jpg|thumb|225px|Fig. 15, Alexander Walsh, Two seats surrounded by an arched [[arbor]], in ''New England Farmer'' 19, no. 39 (March 31, 1841): 309, fig. 4.]]
  
[[File:1824.jpg|thumb|225px|Fig. 16, Anonymous, “Moveable Garden Seat,” in [[Jane Loudon]], ''Gardening for Ladies; and Companion to the Flower-Garden'' (1845), p. 369, fig. 49.]] 
 
* [[Jane Loudon|Loudon, Jane]], 1845, ''Gardening for Ladies'' (pp. 369–70) <ref>Jane Loudon, ''Gardening for Ladies; and Companion to the Flower-Garden'', ed. by A. J. Downing (New York: Wiley & Putnam, 1845), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/3Q5GCH4I view on Zotero].</ref>
 
  
:<p>“'''SEATS''' for gardens are either open or covered; the latter being in the form of root-houses, huts, [[pavilion]]s, [[temple]]s, [[grotto]]es, &c., and the former being either fixed, temporary, or portable. Fixed '''seats''' are commonly of stone, either plain stone benches without backs, or stone supports to wooden benches. Sometimes, also, wooden '''seats''' are fixed, as when they are placed round a tree, or when boards are nailed to posts, or when '''seats''' are formed in imitation of mushrooms, as in the grounds at Redleaf.  Fixed '''seats''' are also sometimes formed of turf. Portable '''seats''' are formed of [[wood]], sometimes contrived to have the back of the '''seat''' folded down when the '''seat''' is not in use; so as to exclude the weather, and avoid the dirt of birds which are apt to perch on them. Another kind of portable '''seat''', which is frequently formed in iron, as shown in ''fig.'' 49, is readily wheeled from one part of the grounds to another; and the back of which also folds down to protect the '''seat''' from the weather. There is a kind of camp-stool which serves as a portable '''seat''', imported from Norway, and sold at the low price of 2''s''. 6''d''. or 3''s''.; and there are also straw '''seats''', like half [[beehive]]s, which are, however, only used in garden-huts, or in any situation under cover, because in the open air they would be liable to be soaked with rain. There are a great variety of rustic '''seats''' formed of roots and crooked branches of trees, used both for the open garden and under cover; and there are also '''seats''' of cast and wrought iron, of great variety of form. There should always be some kind of analogy between the '''seat''' and the scene of which it forms a part; and for this reason rustic '''seats''' should be confined to rustic scenery; and the '''seats''' for a [[lawn]] or highly kept pleasure-ground ought to be of comparatively simple and architectural forms, and either of [[wood]] or stone, those of [[wood]] being frequently painted of a stone colour, and sprinkled over with silver sand before the paint is dry, to give them the appearance of stone. Iron '''seats''', generally speaking, are not sufficiently massive for effect; and the metal conveys the idea of cold in winter and heat in summer. [Fig. 16]</p>
+
*Walsh, Alexander, March 31, 1841, “Remarks on Ornamental Gardening” (''New England Farmer'' 19: 308–9)<ref>Alexander Walsh, “Remarks on Ornamental Gardening, With a Plan of a Fruit, Flower and Vegetable Garden,''New England Farmer, and Horticultural Register'' 19, no. 39 (March 31, 1841): 308–9, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/HD2AV62D view on Zotero.]</ref>
:<p>“When '''seats''' are placed along a [[walk]], a gravelled recess ought to be formed to receive them; and there ought, generally, to be a footboard to keep the feet from the moist ground, whether the '''seat''' is on gravel or on al awn [''sic'']. In a garden where there are several '''seats''', some ought to be in positions exposed to the sun, and others placed in the shade, and none ought to be put down in a situation where the back of the '''seat''' is seen by a person approaching it before the front. Indeed the backs of all fixed '''seats''' ought to be concealed by shrubs, or by some other means, unless they are circular '''seats''' placed round a tree. '''Seats''' ought not to be put down where there will be any temptation to the persons sitting on them to strain their eyes to the right or left, nor where the boundary of the garden forms a conspicuous object in the [[view]]. In general, all '''seats''' should be of a stone colour, as harmonizing best with vegetation. Noting can be more unartistical than '''seats''' painted a pea-green, and placed among the green of living plants.”</p>
+
:“The garden and [[pleasure ground]] I would describe, is of an oblong form, 165 feet by 120 feet, with one end next the north side of the house. . .
 +
:“X X two '''seats''', each occupying 2 ft. . . T T two '''seats'''. . . surrounded by an arched [[arbor]] 10 ft. high, thrown over the [[walk]], ornamented on one side with honeysuckle, on the other by climbing Boursaut rose.” [Fig. 15]
  
  
[[File:0398.jpg|thumb|225px|Fig. 17,Anonymous, "Rustic Covered Seat," in [[A. J. Downing]], ''A Treatise on the Theory and Practice of Landscape Gardening'' (1849), p. 458, fig. 86.]]
+
[[File:1824.jpg|thumb|225px|Fig. 16, Anonymous, “Moveable Garden Seat,in Jane Loudon, ''Gardening for Ladies'' (1843), 283, fig. 49.]]  
* [[A. J. Downing|Downing, A. J.]], 1849, ''A Treatise on the Theory and Practice of Landscape Gardening'' (pp. 454–56, 473–74) <ref>A. J. [Andrew Jackson] Downing, ''A Treatise on the Theory and Practice of Landscape Gardening, Adapted to North America; with a View to the Improvement of Country Residences. Comprising Historical Notices and General Principles of the Art, Directions for Laying out Grounds and Arranging Plantations, the Description and Cultivation of Hardy Trees, Decorative Accompaniments to the House and Grounds, the Formation of Pieces of Artificial Water, Flower Gardens, Etc.: With Remarks on Rural Architecture'', 4th edn (New York: G. P. Putnam, 1849), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/5M4S2D64 view on Zotero].</ref>
+
*[[Jane Loudon|Loudon, Jane]], 1843, ''Gardening for Ladies'' (1843: 283–84)<ref>Jane Loudon, ''Gardening for Ladies; And Companion to the Flower-Garden,'' ed. A. J. Downing (New York: Wiley and Putnam, 1843), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/VJ3SM523 view on Zotero].</ref>
 +
:“'''SEATS''' for gardens are either open or covered; the latter being in the form of root-houses, huts, [[pavilion]]s, [[temple]]s, [[grotto]]es, &c., and the former being either fixed, temporary, or portable. Fixed '''seats''' are commonly of stone, either plain stone benches without backs, or stone supports to wooden benches. Sometimes, also, wooden '''seats''' are fixed, as when they are placed round a tree, or when boards are nailed to posts, or when '''seats''' are formed in imitation of mushrooms, as in the grounds at Redleaf. Fixed '''seats''' are also sometimes formed of turf. Portable '''seats''' are formed of [[wood]], sometimes contrived to have the back of the '''seat''' folded down when the '''seat''' is not in use; so as to exclude the weather, and avoid the dirt of birds which are apt to perch on them. Another kind of portable '''seat''', which is frequently formed in iron, as shown in ''fig.'' 49, is readily wheeled from one part of the grounds to another; and the back of which also folds down to protect the '''seat''' from the weather. There is a kind of camp-stool which serves as a portable '''seat''', imported from Norway, and sold at the low price of 2''s''. 6''d''. or 3''s''.; and there are also straw '''seats''', like half [[beehive]]s, which are, however, only used in garden-huts, or in any situation under cover, because in the open air they would be liable to be soaked with rain. There are a great variety of rustic '''seats''' formed of roots and crooked branches of trees, used both for the open garden and under cover; and there are also '''seats''' of cast and wrought iron, of great variety of form. There should always be some kind of analogy between the '''seat''' and the scene of which it forms a part; and for this reason rustic '''seats''' should be confined to rustic scenery; and the '''seats''' for a [[lawn]] or highly kept pleasure-ground ought to be of comparatively simple and architectural forms, and either of [[wood]] or stone, those of [[wood]] being frequently painted of a stone colour, and sprinkled over with silver sand before the paint is dry, to give them the appearance of stone. Iron '''seats''', generally speaking, are not sufficiently massive for effect; and the metal conveys the idea of cold in winter and heat in summer. [Fig. 16]
 +
:“When '''seats''' are placed along a [[walk]], a gravelled recess ought to be formed to receive them; and there ought, generally, to be a footboard to keep the feet from the moist ground, whether the '''seat''' is on gravel or on al awn [''sic'']. In a garden where there are several '''seats''', some ought to be in positions exposed to the sun, and others placed in the shade, and none ought to be put down in a situation where the back of the '''seat''' is seen by a person approaching it before the front. Indeed the backs of all fixed '''seats''' ought to be concealed by shrubs, or by some other means, unless they are circular '''seats''' placed round a tree. '''Seats''' ought not to be put down where there will be any temptation to the persons sitting on them to strain their eyes to the right or left, nor where the boundary of the garden forms a conspicuous object in the [[view]]. In general, all '''seats''' should be of a stone colour, as harmonizing best with vegetation. Noting can be more unartistical than '''seats''' painted a pea-green, and placed among the green of living plants.”
  
:<p>''“Open and covered '''seats''''', of various descriptions, are among the most convenient and useful decorations for the pleasure-grounds of a country residence. Situated in portions of the [[lawn]] or [[park]], somewhat distant from the house, they offer an agreeable place for rest or repose. If there are certain points from which are obtained agreeable [[prospect]]s or extensive [[view]]s of the surrounding country, a '''seat''', by designating those points, and by affording us a convenient mode of enjoying them, has a double recommendation to our minds.</p>
 
:<p>“Open and covered '''seats''' are of two distinct kinds; one ''architectural'', or formed after artist-like designs, of stone or [[wood]], in Grecian, Gothic, or other forms; which may, if they are intended to produce an elegant effect, have [[vase]]s on pedestals as accompaniments; the other, ''rustic'', as they are called, which are formed out of trucks and branches of trees, roots, etc., in their natural forms. . . .</p>
 
:<p>“We consider rustic '''seats''' and structures as likely to be much preferred in the villa and cottage residences of the country. They have the merit of being tasteful and [[picturesque]] in their appearance, and are easily constructed by the amateur, at comparatively little or no expense. There is scarcely a prettier or more pleasant object for the termination of a long [[walk]] in the [[pleasure-grounds]] or [[park]], than a neatly thatched structure of rustic work, with its '''seat''' for repose, and a [[view]] of the landscape beyond. . . . [Fig. 17]</p>
 
:<p>''“Unity of expression'' is the maxim and guide in this department of the art, as in every other. . . .</p>
 
:<p>“With regard to [[pavilion]]s, summer-houses, rustic '''seats''', and garden edifices of like character, they should, if possible, in all cases be introduced where they are manifestly appropriate or in harmony with the scene. Thus . . . a rustic covered '''seat''' may occupy a secluded, quiet portion of the grounds, where undisturbed meditation be enjoyed.”</p>
 
  
 +
[[File:0398.jpg|thumb|225px|Fig. 17, Anonymous, “[[Rustic_style|Rustic]] Covered Seat,” in [[A. J. Downing]], ''A Treatise on the Theory and Practice of Landscape Gardening'', 4th ed. (1849), 458, fig. 86.]]
 +
*[[Andrew Jackson Downing|Downing, Andrew Jackson]], 1849, ''A Treatise on the Theory and Practice of Landscape Gardening'' (1849: 454–56, 473–74)<ref>A. J. [Andrew Jackson] Downing, ''A Treatise on the Theory and Practice of Landscape Gardening, Adapted to North America. . . '', 4th ed. (New York: G. P. Putnam, 1849), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/5M4S2D64 view on Zotero].</ref>
 +
:''“Open and covered '''seats''''', of various descriptions, are among the most convenient and useful decorations for the pleasure-grounds of a country residence. Situated in portions of the [[lawn]] or [[park]], somewhat distant from the house, they offer an agreeable place for rest or repose. If there are certain points from which are obtained agreeable [[prospect]]s or extensive [[view]]s of the surrounding country, a '''seat''', by designating those points, and by affording us a convenient mode of enjoying them, has a double recommendation to our minds.
 +
:“Open and covered '''seats''' are of two distinct kinds; one ''architectural'', or formed after artist-like designs, of stone or [[wood]], in Grecian, Gothic, or other forms; which may, if they are intended to produce an elegant effect, have [[vase]]s on pedestals as accompaniments; the other, ''rustic'', as they are called, which are formed out of trucks and branches of trees, roots, etc., in their natural forms. . .
 +
:“We consider rustic '''seats''' and structures as likely to be much preferred in the villa and cottage residences of the country. They have the merit of being tasteful and [[picturesque]] in their appearance, and are easily constructed by the amateur, at comparatively little or no expense. There is scarcely a prettier or more pleasant object for the termination of a long [[walk]] in the [[Pleasure_ground|pleasure-grounds]] or [[park]], than a neatly thatched structure of rustic work, with its '''seat''' for repose, and a [[view]] of the landscape beyond. . . [Fig. 17]
 +
:''“Unity of expression'' is the maxim and guide in this department of the art, as in every other. . .
 +
:“With regard to [[pavilion]]s, summer-houses, rustic '''seats''', and garden edifices of like character, they should, if possible, in all cases be introduced where they are manifestly appropriate or in harmony with the scene. Thus. . . a rustic covered '''seat''' may occupy a secluded, quiet portion of the grounds, where undisturbed meditation be enjoyed.”
  
* [[William H. Ranlett|Ranlett, William H.]], 1849, ''The Architect'' ([1849] 1976: 1:19) <ref>William H. Ranlett, ''The Architect'', 2 vols. (New York: Da Capo, 1976), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/QGQPCB5J view on Zotero].</ref>
 
  
:“Probably no portion of the globe, offers a greater variety of beautiful country '''seats''' than the vicinity of New-York. No man who has any taste for the retired tranquillity of a suburban retreat, or the lovely beauty of a [[picturesque]] scene, or the romantic grandeur of an enchanting landscape of cities, towns and country; rivers, bays and ocean, could fail to be suited with some of the numerous situations on the undulated shores, gentle declivities or towering heights of Staten Island, Long Island or the banks of the noble Hudson.”
+
*Ranlett, William H., 1849, ''The Architect'' (1849; repr., 1976: 1:19)<ref>William H. Ranlett, ''The Architect'', 2 vols. (1849–51; repr., New York: Da Capo, 1976), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/QGQPCB5J view on Zotero].</ref>
 +
:“Probably no portion of the globe, offers a greater variety of beautiful country '''seats''' than the vicinity of New-York. No man who has any taste for the retired tranquillity of a suburban retreat, or the lovely beauty of a [[picturesque]] scene, or the romantic grandeur of an enchanting landscape of cities, towns and country; rivers, bays and ocean, could fail to be suited with some of the numerous situations on the undulated shores, gentle declivities or towering heights of Staten Island, Long Island or the banks of the noble Hudson.”
  
  
[[File:0920.jpg|thumb|225px|Fig. 18, Anonymous, "Small Bracketed Cottage," in [[A. J. Downing]], ''The Architecture of Country Houses'' (1850), pl. opp. p. 78, fig. 9.]]
+
[[File:0920.jpg|thumb|225px|Fig. 18, Anonymous, “Small Bracketed Cottage,in [[A. J. Downing]], ''The Architecture of Country Houses'' (1850), pl. opp. 78, fig. 9.]]
* [[A. J. Downing|Downing, A. J.]], 1850, ''The Architecture of Country Houses'' ([1850] 1968: 80–81) <ref>A. J. [Andrew Jackson] Downing, ''The Architecture of Country Houses; Including Designs for Cottages, Farm-Houses, and Villas'' (Originally published New York; Reprint, New York: D. Appleton; Da Capo, 1968), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/GRZPQXQI view on Zotero].</ref>
+
*[[Andrew Jackson Downing|Downing, Andrew Jackson]], 1850, ''The Architecture of Country Houses'' (1850; repr., 1968: 80–81)<ref>A. J. [Andrew Jackson] Downing, ''The Architecture of Country Houses; Including Designs for Cottages, Farm-Houses, and Villas'' (1850; repr., New York: D. Appleton; Da Capo, 1968), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/GRZPQXQI view on Zotero].</ref>
 
 
 
:“The little rustic [[arbor]]s or covered '''seats''' on the outside of the bay window may be supposed to answer in some measure in the place of a [[veranda]], and convey at the first glance, an impression of refinement and taste attained in that simple manner so appropriate to a small cottage.” [Fig. 18]
 
:“The little rustic [[arbor]]s or covered '''seats''' on the outside of the bay window may be supposed to answer in some measure in the place of a [[veranda]], and convey at the first glance, an impression of refinement and taste attained in that simple manner so appropriate to a small cottage.” [Fig. 18]
  
  
* [[A. J. Downing|Downing, A. J.]], June 1850, “Our Country Villages” (''Horticulturist'' 4: 540–41)
+
*[[Andrew Jackson Downing|Downing, Andrew Jackson]], June 1850, “Our Country Villages” (''Horticulturist'' 4: 540–41)<ref>A. J. Downing, “Our Country Villages,” ''Horticulturist and Journal of Rural Art and Rural Taste'' 4, no. 12 (June 1850): 537–41, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/keywords_in_early_american_landscape_design/items/itemKey/2DJ27X4W/q/our%20country%20villages view on Zotero].</ref>
 
 
 
:“The next step, after the possession of such public pleasure-grounds, would be the social and common enjoyment of them. Upon the well-mown glades of [[lawn]], and beneath the shade of the forest trees, would be formed rustic '''seats'''. Little [[arbor]]s would be placed near, where in midsummer evenings ices would be served to all who wished them.”
 
:“The next step, after the possession of such public pleasure-grounds, would be the social and common enjoyment of them. Upon the well-mown glades of [[lawn]], and beneath the shade of the forest trees, would be formed rustic '''seats'''. Little [[arbor]]s would be placed near, where in midsummer evenings ices would be served to all who wished them.”
  
  
* [[A. J. Downing|Downing]], A. J., March 1851, “The Management of Large Country Places” (''Horticulturist'' 6: 105–6)
+
*[[Andrew Jackson Downing|Downing, Andrew Jackson]], March 1851, “The Management of Large Country Places” (''Horticulturist'' 6: 105–6)<ref>A. J. Downing, “The Management of Large Country Places,” ''Horticulturist and Journal of Rural Art and Rural Taste'' 6, no. 3 (March 1851): 105–8, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/keywords_in_early_american_landscape_design/items/itemKey/HKQH76RW/q/management%20of%20large%20country%20places view on Zotero].</ref>
 +
:“All our country residences may readily be divided into two classes. The first and largest class, is the suburban place of from five to twenty or thirty acres; the second is the country-'''seat''', properly so called, which consists of from 30 to 500 or more acres. . .
 +
:“But in the larger country places, there are ten instances of failure for one of success. This is not owing to the want of natural beauty, for the sites are [[picturesque]], the surface varied, and the [[wood]]s and [[plantation]]s excellent. The failure consists, for the most part, in a certain incongruity and want of distinct character in the treatment of the place as a whole. They are too large to be kept in order as pleasure-grounds, while they are not laid out or treated as [[park]]s. The grass which stretches on all sides of the house, is partly mown for [[lawn]], and partly for hay; the lines of the farm and the ornamental portion of the grounds, meet in a confused and unsatisfactory manner, and the result is a residence pretending to be much superior to a common farm, and not yet rising to the dignity of a really tasteful country '''seat'''.”
  
:<p>“All our country residences may readily be divided into two classes. The first and largest class, is the suburban place of from five to twenty or thirty acres; the second is the country-'''seat''', properly so called, which consists of from 30 to 500 or more acres. . . .</p>
 
:<p>“But in the larger country places, there are ten instances of failure for one of success. This is not owing to the want of natural beauty, for the sites are [[picturesque]], the surface varied, and the [[wood]]s and [[plantation]]s excellent. The failure consists, for the most part, in a certain  incongruity and want of distinct character in the treatment of the place as a whole. They are too large to be kept in order as pleasure-grounds, while they are not laid out or treated as [[park]]s. The grass which stretches on all sides of the house, is partly mown for [[lawn]], and partly for hay; the lines of the farm and the ornamental portion of the grounds, meet in a confused and unsatisfactory manner, and the result is a residence pretending to be much superior to a common farm, and not yet rising to the dignity of a really tasteful country '''seat'''.”</p>
 
  
 +
*Jaques, George, January 1852, “Landscape Gardening in New-England” (''Horticulturist'' 7: 35)<ref> George Jacques, “Landscape Gardening in New-England,” ''Horticulturist and Journal of Rural Art and Rural Taste'' 7, no. 1 (January 1852): 33–36, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/keywords_in_early_american_landscape_design/items/itemKey/WMEDJ9XX/q/landscape%20gardening%20in%20new-england view on Zotero].</ref>
 +
:“Let woodbine, honey-suckle and climbing roses, here entwine themselves around a [[column]], and wreath themselves there over a window. Here place a rustic '''seat''', half hid among the [[shrubbery]]; there lead a short [[walk]], carelessly curving towards a little vine-clad [[arbor]].”
  
* Jaques, George, January 1852, “Landscape Gardening in New-England” (''Horticulturist'' 7: 35)
 
  
:“Let woodbine, honey-suckle and climbing roses, here entwine themselves around a [[column]], and wreath themselves there over a window. Here place a rustic '''seat''', half hid among the [[shrubbery]]; there lead a short [[walk]], carelessly curving towards a little vine-clad [[arbor]].”
+
<hr>
  
 
==Images==
 
==Images==
 
 
===Inscribed===
 
===Inscribed===
 
<span id="roundabout_img"></span>
 
<span id="roundabout_img"></span>
 
<gallery widths="170px" heights="170px" perrow="7">
 
<gallery widths="170px" heights="170px" perrow="7">
  
Image:1055.jpg|[[Michael van der Gucht]], “Four Designs for Cloisters,” in [[A.-J. Dézallier d’Argenville]], ''The Theory and Practice of Gardening'' (1712), pl. 9
+
Image:1722.jpg|[[James Gibbs]], “Two '''Seats''' for the ends of [[Walk]]s,” in ''A Book of Architecture'' (1728), pl. 82.
  
Image:1722.jpg|[[James Gibbs]], "Two Seats for the ends of Walks," in ''A Book of Architecture'' (1728), pl. 82.
+
Image:1723.jpg|[[James Gibbs]], “Two other '''Seats''' for the same purpose [for the ends of [[walk]]s],in ''A Book of Architecture'' (1728), pl. 83.
  
Image:1723.jpg|[[James Gibbs]], "Two other Seats for the same purpose [for the ends of walks]," in ''A Book of Architecture'' (1728), pl. 83.
+
Image:0925.jpg|William Burgis, ''A South East [[View]] of ye Great Town of Boston in New England in America'', 1743. “Capt. Cunningham’s '''Seat'''” is inscribed over a grand house with beds/parterres in front.
  
Image:0925.jpg|William Burgis, ''A South East View of ye Great Town of Boston in New England in America'', 1743.  
+
Image:1737.jpg|Batty and Thomas Langley, “An Umbrello, to a '''Seat''', for to Terminate a [[walk]], [[View]], &c. in a Garden,” in ''Gothic Architecture'' (1747), pl. 31.
  
Image:1737.jpg|Batty and Thomas Langley, "An Umbrello, to a Seat, for to Terminate a walk, View, &c. in a Garden," in ''Gothic Architecture'' (1747), pl. 31.
+
image:1688.jpg|William and John Halfpenny, “A [[Chinese_manner|Chinese]] [[Alcove]] '''Seat''' Fronting Four Ways,in ''Rural Architecture in the Chinese Taste'' (1755), pl. 8.
  
image:1688.jpg|William and John Halfpenny, "A Chinese Alcove Seat Fronting Four Ways," in ''Rural Architecture in the Chinese Taste'' (1755), pl. 8.
+
File:2262.jpg|Anonymous, ''The South West [[Prospect]] of the '''Seat''' of Colonel George Boyd of Portsmouth, New Hampshire, New England, 1774''.
  
 
Image:0587.jpg|Anonymous, Plan of the Harbour and City of Annapolis, 1781.  
 
Image:0587.jpg|Anonymous, Plan of the Harbour and City of Annapolis, 1781.  
  
Image:0461.jpg|[[Samuel Vaughan]], Plan of Bath (Berkeley Springs), Va., 1787, from the diary of Samuel Vaughan, June - September 1787.  
+
Image:0461.jpg|[[Samuel Vaughan]], Plan of Bath [[Berkeley Springs|[Berkeley Springs]]], VA, 1787, from the diary of [[Samuel Vaughan]], June–September 1787. Plan lists “bb” as “two [[Piazza]]s with '''seats'''.”
  
Image:0338.jpg|Anonymous, ''A View of Mount Vernon'', c. 1790.  
+
Image:0338.jpg|Anonymous, ''A [[View]] of [[Mount Vernon]]'', c. 1790.  
  
Image:0021.jpg|[[Cornelius Tiebout]], “A View of the present Seat of his Excel. the Vice President of the United States,1790.
+
Image:0021.jpg|Cornelius Tiebout, ''A [[View]] of the present '''Seat''' of his Excel. the Vice President of the United States'', 1790.
  
Image:1983.jpg|[[Jeremiah Paul]], "Robert Morris’ Seat on Schuylkill," July 20, 1794.
+
Image:1983.jpg|Jeremiah Paul, “[[Robert Morris]]’ '''Seat''' on [[Schuylkill_River|Schuylkill]],July 20, 1794.
  
Image:0939.jpg|[[Charles Fraser]], ''Rice Hope: The Seat of Dr. William Read, Taken from One of the Rice Fields'', c. 1800.
+
Image:1925.jpg|Alexander Robertson, Cleremont the '''seat''' R. R. Livingston, 1796.
  
Image:0345.jpg|Alexander Robertson (artist), Francis Jukes (engraver), "Mount Vernon in Virginia," 1800.
+
Image:0939.jpg|[[Charles Fraser]], ''Rice Hope: The '''Seat''' of Dr. William Read, Taken from One of the Rice Fields'', c. 1800.
  
Image:0601.jpg|Anonymous, A plan of the section of land on which the Believers live in the state of Ohio, Nov. 7, 1807.  
+
Image:0141.jpg|Thomas Coram, ''The [[Grove]], '''Seat''' of G.A. Hall, Esquire'', c. 1800.
  
Image:0317.jpg|[[William Russell Birch]], ''Montebello – The Seat of General Smith'', c. 1808.  
+
Image:0345.jpg|Alexander Robertson (artist), Francis Jukes (engraver), “[[Mount Vernon]] in Virginia,” 1800.
  
Image:0326.jpg|[[William Russell Birch]], "The View from Springland," 1808, in William Russell Birch and Emily Cooperman, ''The Country Seats of the United States'' (2009), p. 45, pl. 2.
+
Image:2259.jpg|Anonymous, Plan of the Harvard [[Botanic Garden]], c. 1807. “N. Green-'''seats''' or turf banks.
  
Image:0311.jpg|[[William Russell Birch]], "Hoboken in New Jersey, the Seat of Mr. John Stevens," 1808, in William Russell Birch and Emily Cooperman, ''The Country Seats of the United States'' (2009), p. 47, pl. 3.
+
Image:0601.jpg|Anonymous, A plan of the section of land on which the Believers live in the state of Ohio, November 7, 1807. "'''Seat'''" inscribed on top center left.
  
Image:0312.jpg|[[William Russell Birch]], "Hampton, the Seat of Genl. Chas. Ridgely, Maryland," 1808, in William Russell Birch and Emily Cooperman, ''The Country Seats of the United States'' (2009), p. 49, pl. 4.
+
Image:1924.jpg|P. Lodet, ''Clermont, '''Seat''' of the Chancellor Livingston - North River 1807'', 1807.
  
Image:0303.jpg|[[William Russell Birch]], "Landsdown, the Seat of the late Wm. Bingham Esq., Pennsylvania," 1808, in William Russell Birch and Emily Cooperman, ''The Country Seats of the United States'' (2009), p. 51, pl. 5.  
+
Image:0317.jpg|William Russell Birch, ''Montebello—The '''Seat''' of General Smith'', c. 1808.  
  
Image:0314.jpg|[[William Russell Birch]], "Mount Vernon, Virginia, the Seat of the late Genl. G. Washington," 1808, in William Russell Birch and Emily Cooperman, ''The Country Seats of the United States'' (2009), p. 55, pl. 7.  
+
Image:0326.jpg|William Russell Birch, “The [[View]] from Springland,in ''The Country '''Seats''' of the United States'' (1808), pl. 2.
  
Image:0302.jpg|[[William Russell Birch]], "Fountain Green, Pennsylv.a the Seat of Mr. S. Meeker," 1808, in William Russell Birch and Emily Cooperman, ''The Country Seats of the United States'' (2009), p. 57, pl. 8.
+
Image:0311.jpg|William Russell Birch, “Hoboken in New Jersey, the '''Seat''' of Mr. John Stevens,in ''The Country '''Seats''' of the United States'' (1808), pl. 3.
  
Image:0316.jpg|[[William Russell Birch]], "Devon in Pennsylv.a the Seat of Mr. Dallas," 1808, in William Russell Birch and Emily Cooperman, ''The Country Seats of the United States'' (2009), p. 61, pl. 10.
+
Image:0312.jpg|William Russell Birch, “Hampton, the '''Seat''' of Genl. Chas. Ridgely, Maryland,in ''The Country '''Seats''' of the United States'' (1808), pl. 4.
  
Image:0327.jpg|[[William Russell Birch]], "Mount Sidney, the Seat of Genl. John Baker, Pennsylv.a," 1808, in William Russell Birch and Emily Cooperman, ''The Country Seats of the United States'' (2009), p. 63, pl. 11.
+
Image:0303.jpg|William Russell Birch, “Landsdown, the '''Seat''' of the late Wm. Bingham Esq., Pennsylvania,in ''The Country '''Seats''' of the United States'' (1808), pl. 5.  
  
Image:0318.jpg|[[William Russell Birch]], "Montibello the seat of Genl. S. Smith Maryland," 1808, in William Russell Birch and Emily Cooperman, ''The Country Seats of the United States'' (2009), p. 67, pl. 13.
+
Image:0314.jpg|William Russell Birch, “[[Mount Vernon]], Virginia, the '''Seat''' of the late Genl. G. Washington,in ''The Country '''Seats''' of the United States'' (1808), pl. 7.  
  
Image:0304.jpg|[[William Russell Birch]], "Woodlands, the Seat of Mr. Wm. Hamilton, Pennsylva.," 1808, in William Russell Birch and Emily Cooperman, ''The Country Seats of the United States'' (2009), p. 69, pl. 14.  
+
Image:0302.jpg|William Russell Birch, “[[Fountain]] Green, Pennsylv.a the '''Seat''' of Mr. S. Meeker,in ''The Country '''Seats''' of the United States'' (1808), pl. 8.
  
Image:0319.jpg|[[William Russell Birch]], "Sedgley seat of Mr. Wm. Crammond Pennsylva," 1808, in William Russell Birch and Emily Cooperman, ''The Country Seats of the United States'' (2009), p. 71, pl. 15.
+
Image:0316.jpg|William Russell Birch, “Devon in Pennsylv.a the '''Seat''' of Mr. Dallas,in ''The Country '''Seats''' of the United States'' (1808), pl.10.
  
Image:0301.jpg|[[William Russell Birch]], "View from Belmont Pennsyla. the Seat of Judge Peters," 1808, in William Russell Birch and Emily Cooperman, ''The Country Seats of the United States'' (2009), p. 73, pl. 16.
+
Image:0327.jpg|William Russell Birch, “[[Mount]] Sidney, the '''Seat''' of Genl. John Baker, Pennsylv.a,in ''The Country '''Seats''' of the United States'' (1808), pl. 11. The inscription reads "[[Mount]] Sidney, the '''Seat''' of Gen.l John Baker, Pennsylv.a / Drawn, Engraved & Published by W. Birch Springland, near Bristol, Pennsylvania."
  
Image:0320.jpg|[[William Russell Birch]], "York-Island with a View of the Seats of Mr. A. Gracie, Mr. Church &c.," 1808, in William Russell Birch and Emily Cooperman, ''The Country Seats of the United States'' (2009), p. 75, pl. 17.
+
Image:0318.jpg|William Russell Birch, “Montibello the '''seat''' of Genl. S. Smith Maryland,in ''The Country Seats of the United States'' (1808), pl. 13.
  
Image:0322.jpg|[[William Russell Birch]], "China Retreat Pennsyla the Seat of Mr Manigault," 1808, in William Russell Birch and Emily Cooperman, ''The Country Seats of the United States'' (2009), p. 79, pl. 19.
+
Image:0304.jpg|William Russell Birch, “[[The Woodlands|Woodlands]], the '''Seat''' of Mr. Wm. Hamilton, Pennsylva.,in ''The Country '''Seats''' of the United States'' (1808), pl. 14.  
  
Image:0009.jpg|[[Charles Willson Peale]], Letter to Angelica Peale describing his garden at [[Belfield]], Nov. 22, 1815.  
+
Image:0319.jpg|William Russell Birch, “Sedgley '''seat''' of Mr. Wm. Crammond Pennsylva,” in ''The Country '''Seats''' of the United States'' (1808), pl. 15.
  
Image:0164.jpg|Joshua H. Hayward, "A View of the Seat of Theodore Lyman, Esqr., in Waltham, taken on the principles of perspective," Mathematical Thesis, 1818.
+
Image:0301.jpg|William Russell Birch, “[[View]] from [[Belmont_(Philadelphia,_PA)|Belmont]] Pennsyla. the '''Seat''' of Judge Peters,in ''The Country '''Seats''' of the United States'' (1808), pl.16.
  
Image:0082.jpg|Cornelia Jefferson Randolph, attr., “A Garden Seat by Mr. Jones, From Chamber’s Kew,” c. 1820.
+
Image:0320.jpg|William Russell Birch, “York-Island with a [[View]] of the '''Seats''' of Mr. A. Gracie, Mr. Church &c.,” in ''The Country '''Seats''' of the United States'' (1808), pl. 17.
  
Image:1334.jpg|[[J. C. Loudon]], Covered seats of the rustic kind, in ''An Encyclopædia of Gardening'' (1826), p. 357, figs. 336-336.  
+
Image:0322.jpg|William Russell Birch, “China Retreat Pennsyl.<sup>a</sup> the '''Seat''' of M.<sup>r</sup> Manigault,in ''The Country '''Seats''' of the United States'' (1808), pl. 19.
  
Image:1335.jpg|[[J. C. Loudon]], Elegant structures of the seat kind, in ''An Encyclopædia of Gardening'' (1826), p. 357, figs. 337 and 338.  
+
Image:0009.jpg|[[Charles Willson Peale]], Letter to Angelica Peale describing his garden at [[Belfield]], November 22, 1815.  
  
Image:1354.jpg|[[J. C. Loudon]], Rough bench in rustic hut decorated in shrubberies, in ''An Encyclopædia of Gardening'' (1826), p. 809, fig. 561.  
+
Image:0164.jpg|Joshua H. Hayward, “A [[View]] of the '''Seat''' of Theodore Lyman, Esqr., in Waltham, taken on the principles of perspective,” Mathematical Thesis, 1818.
  
Image:1707.jpg|[[J. C. Loudon]], "Seat formed of moss and hazel rods" and "Trellised arches for climbers," in ''An Encyclopædia of Gardening'' (1834), p. 1196, figs. 960-962.
+
Image:0082.jpg|Cornelia Jefferson Randolph, attr., “A Garden '''Seat''' by Mr. Jones, From Chamber’s Kew,” c. 1820.
  
Image:1764.jpg
+
Image:1176.jpg|Eliza Susan Quincy, ''View of the seat of Edmund Quincy Esqr.'', 1822. Inscribed on reverse: ''[[View]] / of the [[seat]] of Edmund Quincy Esqr.''
  
Image:0936.jpg|Alexander Walsh, Two seats surrounded by an arched arbor, in ''New England Farmer'' 19, no. 39 (Mar. 31, 1841): 309, fig. 4.
+
Image:1334.jpg|[[J. C. Loudon]], Covered '''seats''' of the [[Rustic_style|rustic]] kind, in ''An Encyclopædia of Gardening'', 4th ed/ (1826), 357, fig. 336.  
  
Image:1824.jpg|Anonymous, “Moveable Garden Seat,” in [[Jane Loudon]], ''Gardening for Ladies; and Companion to the Flower-Garden'' (1845), p. 369, fig. 49.
+
Image:1335.jpg|[[J. C. Loudon]], Elegant structures of the '''seat''' kind, in ''An Encyclopædia of Gardening'', 4th ed. (1826), 357, figs. 337 and 338.  
  
Image:0358.jpg|Anonymous, "Rustic Seat," Montgomery Place, in [[A. J. Downing]], ed., ''Horticulturist'' 2, no. 4 (October 1847): 157, fig. 26.
+
Image:1354.jpg|[[J. C. Loudon]], Rough bench in [[Rustic_style|rustic]] hut decorated in [[Shrubbery|shrubberies]], in ''An Encyclopædia of Gardening'', 4th ed. (1826), 809, fig. 561.  
  
Image:0361.jpg|Anonymous, "Beaverwyck, the Seat of Wm. P. Van Rensselaer, Esq.," in [[A. J. Downing]], ''A Treatise on the Theory and Practice of Landscape Gardening'' (1849), pl. opp. p. 51, fig. 7.
+
Image:1792.jpg|Thomas Cole, ''[[View]] of Monte Video, the '''Seat''' of Daniel Wadsworth, Esq.'', 1828.
  
Image:0368.jpg|Anonymous, "The Seat of George Sheaff, Esq.," in A. J. Downing, ''A Treatise on the Theory and Practice of Landscape Gardening'' (1849), pl. between pp. 58 and 59, fig. 12.
+
Image:1707.jpg|[[J. C. Loudon]], “'''Seat''' formed of moss and hazel rods" and "[[Trellis|Trellised]] [[arch]]es for climbers,in ''An Encyclopædia of Gardening'', new ed. (1834), 1196, figs. 960–62.
  
Image:0378.jpg|Anonymous, "Plan of a Suburban Villa Residence," in A. J. Downing, ''A Treatise on the Theory and Practice of Landscape Gardening'' (1849), p. 118, fig. 26.
+
Image:1764.jpg|[[J. C. Loudon]], A [[Rustic_style|rustic]] '''seat''', in ''The Suburban Gardener'' (1838), 467, fig. 173.
  
Image:0396.jpg|Anonymous, "A circular pavilion," in [[A. J. Downing]], ''A Treatise on the Theory and Practice of Landscape Gardening'' (1849), p. 456, fig. 81.
+
Image:0679.jpg|James W. Steel, Beech Hill, The Country '''Seat''' of R. Gilmor, Esq., in W. H. Carpenter and T. S. Arthur, eds., ''The Baltimore Book: A Christmas and New Year’s Present'' (1838), pl. opp. 184.
  
Image:0397.jpg|Anonymous, "Covered seat or rustic arbor," in [[A. J. Downing]], ''A Treatise on the Theory and Practice of Landscape Gardening'' (1849), p. 457, fig. 84.  
+
Image:1420.jpg|[[J. C. Loudon]], “Covered '''Seat''', of grotesque and [[Rustic_style|rustic]] Masonry,” Cheshunt Cottage, in ''The Gardener’s Magazine'' 15, no. 117 (December 1839): 656, fig. 168.
  
Image:0398.jpg|Anonymous, "Rustic Covered Seat," in [[A. J. Downing]], ''A Treatise on the Theory and Practice of Landscape Gardening'' (1849), p. 458, fig. 86.
+
Image:1904.jpg|[[J. C. Loudon]], Elevation of the Back Woodwork of a [[Rustic_style|Rustic]] Covered '''Seat''', Cheshunt Cottage, in ''The Gardener’s Magazine'' 15, no. 117 (December 1839): 660, fig. 168.
  
Image:1420.jpg|Anonymous, "Covered Seat, of grotesque and rustic Masonry," in [[A. J. Downing]], ''A Treatise on the Theory and Practice of Landscape Gardening'' (1849), p. 509, fig. 12.
+
Image:0936.jpg|Alexander Walsh, Two '''seats''' surrounded by an arched [[arbor]], in ''New England Farmer'' 19, no. 39 (March 31, 1841): 309, fig. 4.
  
Image:1891.jpg
+
Image:1824.jpg|Anonymous, “Moveable Garden '''Seat''',” in [[Jane Loudon]], ''Gardening for Ladies; and Companion to the Flower-Garden'' (1845), 369, fig. 49.
  
Image:1892.jpg
+
Image:0844.jpg|[[Alexander Jackson Davis]], ''[[Montgomery Place]]—Shore '''Seat''''', c. 1847.
  
Image:1893.jpg
+
Image:0358.jpg|Anonymous, “[[Rustic_style|Rustic]] '''Seat''',” [[Montgomery Place]], in [[A. J. Downing]], ed., ''Horticulturist'' 2, no. 4 (October 1847): 157, fig. 26.
  
Image:1001.jpg|Anonymous, "Mount Fordham—the Country Seat of Lewis G. Morris, Esq.," in [[A. J. Downing]], ed., ''Horticulturist'' 6, no. 8 (Aug. 1, 1851): pl. opp. p. 345.
+
Image:0361.jpg|Anonymous, “Beaverwyck, the '''Seat''' of Wm. P. Van Rensselaer, Esq.,in [[A. J. Downing]], ''A Treatise on the Theory and Practice of Landscape Gardening'', 4th ed. (1849), pl. opp. 51, fig. 7.
  
Image:0854.jpg|[[Alexander Jackson Davis]], Shore Seat for Montgomery Place, 1870-79.
+
Image:0368.jpg|Anonymous, “The '''Seat''' of George Sheaff, Esq.,” in [[A. J. Downing]], ''A Treatise on the Theory and Practice of Landscape Gardening'', 4th ed. (1849), pl. between 58 and 59, fig. 12.
  
 +
Image:1891.jpg|Anonymous, “Simple [[Rustic_style|rustic]] '''seat''',” in [[A. J. Downing]], ''A Treatise on the Theory and Practice of Landscape Gardening'', 4th ed. (1849), 456, fig. 82.
 +
 +
Image:1892.jpg|Anonymous, Simple [[Rustic_style|rustic]] '''seat''' made at the foot of a tree, in [[A. J. Downing]], ''A Treatise on the Theory and Practice of Landscape Gardening'', 4th ed. (1849), 456, fig. 83.
 +
 +
Image:0397.jpg|Anonymous, “Covered '''seat''' or [[Rustic_style|rustic]] [[arbor]],” in [[A. J. Downing]], ''A Treatise on the Theory and Practice of Landscape Gardening'', 4th ed. (1849), 457, fig. 84.
 +
 +
Image:1893.jpg|Anonymous, Covered '''Seat''' for a mineral, shell, or geological collection, in [[A. J. Downing]], ''A Treatise on the Theory and Practice of Landscape Gardening'', 4th ed. (1849), 457, fig. 85.
 +
 +
Image:0398.jpg|Anonymous, “[[Rustic_style|Rustic]] Covered '''Seat''',” in [[A. J. Downing]], ''A Treatise on the Theory and Practice of Landscape Gardening'', 4th ed. (1849), 458, fig. 86.
 +
 +
Image:1660.jpg|Robert B. Leuchars, Ground plan of [[conservatory]] designed for gentleman’s country '''seat''', in ''A Practical Treatise on the Construction, Heating, and Ventilation of Hothouses'' (1850), 95, fig. 32.
 +
 +
Image:0854.jpg|[[Alexander Jackson Davis]], Shore '''Seat''' for [[Montgomery Place]], Annandale-on-Hudson, New York (elevation and plan), 1870—79.
 
</gallery>
 
</gallery>
  
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<gallery widths="170px" heights="170px" perrow="7">
 
<gallery widths="170px" heights="170px" perrow="7">
  
Image:0036.jpg|Thomas Lee Shippen, Plan of Westover, 1783.
+
Image:1055.jpg|Michael van der Gucht, “Four Designs for Cloisters,” in A.-J. Dezallier d’Argenville, ''The Theory and Practice of Gardening'' (1712), pl. 9.
  
Image:1162.jpg|Anonymous, Plan of the Harvard Botanic Garden, early 19th century.
+
Image:0036.jpg|Thomas Lee Shippen, Plan of Westover, 1783. The '''seat''' can be seen at the top of the image, referencing the houses across the river from Westover.  
  
Image:0043.jpg|John Archibald Woodside, ''Lemon Hill'', 1807.
+
Image:0043_2.jpg|John Archibald Woodside, ''[[Lemon Hill]]'', 1807.
  
Image:0313.jpg|[[William Russell Birch]], "The Sun Reflecting on the Dew, a Garden scene, Echo, Pennsylv.a A Place Belonging to Mr. D. Bavarage," 1808, in William Russell Birch and Emily Cooperman, ''The Country Seats of the United States'' (2009), p. 53, pl. 6.  
+
Image:0313.jpg|William Russell Birch, “The Sun Reflecting on the Dew, a Garden scene, Echo, Pennsylv.a A Place Belonging to Mr. D. Bavarage,”  in ''The Country '''Seats''' of the United States'' (1808), pl. 6.  
  
Image:0315.jpg|[[William Russell Birch]], "Solitude in Pennsyla. belonging to Mr. Penn," 1808, in William Russell Birch and Emily Cooperman, ''The Country Seats of the United States'' (2009), p. 59, pl. 9.  
+
Image:0315.jpg|William Russell Birch, “Solitude in Pennsyla. belonging to Mr. Penn,in ''The Country '''Seats''' of the United States'' (1808), pl. 9.  
  
Image:0321.jpg|[[William Russell Birch]], "Mendenhall Ferry, Schuylkill, Pennsylvania," 1808, in William Russell Birch and Emily Cooperman, ''The Country Seats of the United States'' (2009), p. 77, pl. 18.
+
Image:0321.jpg|William Russell Birch, “Mendenhall Ferry, [[Schuylkill_River|Schuylkill]], Pennsylvania,''The Country '''Seats''' of the United States'' (1808), pl. 18.
  
Image:0323.jpg|[[William Russell Birch]], "View from the Elysian Bower, Springland, Pennsylv,a the residence of Mr W. Birch," 1808, in William Russell Birch and Emily Cooperman, ''The Country Seats of the United States'' (2009), p. 81, pl. 20.
+
Image:0323.jpg|William Russell Birch, “[[View]] from the Elysian Bower, Springland, Pennsylv,a the residence of Mr W. Birch,''The Country '''Seats''' of the United States'' (1808), pl. 20.
  
Image:0051.jpg|William Strickland, “The Woodlands,” 1809, in ''The Casket'' 5 (Oct. 1830): 432.  
+
Image:0051.jpg|William Strickland, “[[The Woodlands]],” 1809, in ''Casket'' 5, no. 10 (October 1830): pl. opp. 432.  
  
 
Image:0300.jpg|Thomas Birch, ''Fairmount Water Works'', 1821.  
 
Image:0300.jpg|Thomas Birch, ''Fairmount Water Works'', 1821.  
  
Image:1025.jpg|Anonymous, "Entrance to Mount Auburn," in ''American Magazine of Useful and Entertaining Knowledge'' 1, no. 1 (September 1834): p. 9.  
+
Image:0541.jpg|John T. Bowen, ''A [[View]] of Fairmount Water-Works with [[Schuylkill_River|Schuylkill]] in the distance, taken from the [[Mount]]'', 1838.
  
Image:0542.jpg|[[Nicolino Calyo]], ''The Philadelphia Water Works'', 1835–36.
+
Image:0843.jpg|[[Alexander Jackson Davis]], [[Montgomery Place]], 1844.
  
Image:0541.jpg|John T. Bowen, ''A View of Fairmount Water-Works with Schuylkill in the distance, taken from the Mount'', 1838.
+
Image:1049.jpg|N. Vautin, [[View]] of North Side (Rear) of Longfellow House, June 1845.  
  
Image:0843.jpg|[[Alexander Jackson Davis]], Montgomery Place, 1844.
+
Image:0357.jpg|[[Alexander Jackson Davis]], “[[Montgomery Place]],” in [[A. J. Downing]], ed., ''Horticulturist'' 2, no. 4 (October 1847): pl. opp. 153.
  
Image:1049.jpg|N. Vautin, View of North Side (Rear) of Longfellow House, June 1845.  
+
Image:0359.jpg|Anonymous, “The [[Lake]],” [[Montgomery Place]], in [[A. J. Downing]], ed., ''Horticulturist'' 2, no. 4 (October 1847): 158, fig. 27.
  
Image:0844.jpg|[[Alexander Jackson Davis]], Montgomery Place - Shore Seat, c. 1847.
+
Image:1097.jpg|Thomas S. Sinclair, “Plan of the [[Pleasure_ground|Pleasure Grounds]] and Farm of the [[Pennsylvania Hospital for the Insane]] at Philadelphia,” in Thomas S. Kirkbride, ''American Journal of Insanity'' 4, no. 4 (April 1848): pl. opp. 280.
  
Image:0357.jpg|[[Alexander Jackson Davis]], "Montgomery Place," in [[A. J. Downing]], ed., ''Horticulturist'' 2, no. 4 (Oct. 1847): pl. between pp. 152 and 153.
+
Image:0363.jpg|Anonymous, “[[View]] in the [[Meadow]] [[Park]] at Geneseo,in [[A. J. Downing]], ed., ''Horticulturist'' 3, no. 4 (October 1848): pl. opp. 153.
  
Image:0359.jpg|Anonymous, "The Lake," Montgomery Place, in [[A. J. Downing]], ed., ''Horticulturist'' 2, no. 4 (October 1847): 158, fig. 27.
+
Image:0350.jpg|[[Alexander Jackson Davis]], “View in the Grounds at Blithewood,in [[A. J. Downing]], ''A Treatise on the Theory and Practice of Landscape Gardening'', 4th ed. (1849), frontispiece.  
  
Image:1097.jpg|Thomas S. Sinclair, "Plan of the Pleasure Grounds and Farm of the Pennsylvania Hospital for the Insane at Philadelphia," in Thomas S. Kirkbride, ''American Journal of Insanity'' 4 (April 1848): n.p.
+
Image:0355.jpg|Anonymous, “[[View]] in the Grounds at Hyde Park,in [[A. J. Downing]], ''A Treatise on the Theory and Practice of Landscape Gardening'', 4th ed. (1849), pl. opp. 45, fig. 1.  
  
Image:0363.jpg|Anonymous, "View in the Meadow Park at Geneseo," in [[A. J. Downing]], ed., ''Horticulturist'' 3, no. 4 (October 1848): pl. opp. p. 153.
+
Image:0367.jpg|Anonymous, “[[View]] in the Grounds of James Arnold, Esp.,” in [[A. J. Downing]], ''A Treatise on the Theory and Practice of Landscape Gardening'', 4th ed. (1849), pl. opp. 57.
  
Image:0350.jpg|Alexander Jackson Davis, "View in the Grounds at Blithewood," in [[A. J. Downing]], ''A Treatise on the Theory and Practice of Landscape Gardening'' (1849), frontispiece.
+
Image:0378.jpg|Anonymous, “Plan of a Suburban Villa Residence,in [[A. J. Downing]], ''A Treatise on the Theory and Practice of Landscape Gardening'', 4th ed. (1849), 118, fig. 26.
 
 
Image:0355.jpg|Anonymous, "View in the Grounds at Hyde Park," in [[A. J. Downing]], ''A Treatise on the Theory and Practice of Landscape Gardening'' (1849), pl. opp. p. 45, fig. 1.
 
 
 
Image:0367.jpg|Anonymous, "View in the Grounds of James Arnold, Esp.," in [[A. J. Downing]], ''A Treatise on the Theory and Practice of Landscape Gardening'' (1849), pl. opp. p. 57.
 
 
 
Image:0920.jpg|Anonymous, "Small Bracketed Cottage," in [[A. J. Downing]], ''The Architecture of Country Houses'' (1850), pl. opp. p. 78, fig. 9.
 
  
 +
Image:0920.jpg|Anonymous, “Small Bracketed Cottage,” in [[A. J. Downing]], ''The Architecture of Country Houses'' (1850), pl. opp. 78, fig. 9.
 
</gallery>
 
</gallery>
  
Line 566: Line 515:
 
<gallery widths="170px" heights="170px" perrow="7">
 
<gallery widths="170px" heights="170px" perrow="7">
  
Image:0673.jpg|Anonymous, Cliveden, the Benjamin Chew house in Germantown, n.d.
+
Image:0673.jpg|Archibald L. Dick, ''The Battle Ground at Germantown, Cliveden or Chew’s House'', n.d.
  
Image:0679.jpg|n.d.
+
Image:1680.jpg|Anonymous, Garden '''seat''' from Somerset County, MD, 1780.  
  
Image:0330.jpg|[[Anne-Marguerite-Henriette Rouillé de Marigny Hyde de Neuville]], attr., ''Tomb du grande Washington au Mount Vernon'' [detail], n.d.
+
Image:0477.jpg|John Scoles, “Government House,” January 1795.
  
Image:1680.jpg|Anonymous, Garden seat from Somerset County, Md., 1780.  
+
Image:0324.jpg|William Russell Birch, “Back of the State House, Philadelphia,” 1800.
  
Image:0477.jpg|John Scoles, "Government House," January 1795.
+
Image:0509.jpg|[[Charles Fraser]], Rice Hope, c. 1803.
  
Image:0324.jpg|[[William Russell Birch]], “Back of the State House, Philadelphia,” 1799.
+
Image:0330.jpg|[[Anne-Marguerite-Henriette Rouillé de Marigny Hyde de Neuville]], attr., ''Tomb du grande Washington au [[Mount Vernon]]'', 1818.
  
Image:0509.jpg|[[Charles Fraser]], ''Rice Hope, Taken from One of the Rice Fields'', c. 1803.  
+
Image:0120.jpg|Anonymous, ''By the Sea'', c. 1820.
  
Image:0124.jpg|Jane Shearer, Brick House with Terraces, 1806, in Sotheby's New York, ''Important American Schoolgirl Embroideries: The Landmark Collection of Betty Ring'' (January 2012), p. 80.
+
Image:1949.jpg|Mary Ann Lucy Gries, Needlework sampler with garden bench, 1826.
  
Image:0120.jpg|Anonymous, By the Sea, c. 1820.
+
Image:0675.jpg|[[Alexander Jackson Davis]], “[[View]] of the Battery and Castle Garden,” 1826–28.
  
Image:1949.jpg|Mary Ann Lucy Gries, Needlework sampler with garden bench, 1826.
+
Image:1948.jpg|Mrs. G. W. Whitney, The Adams '''Seat''' in Quincy, 1828.
  
Image:0675.jpg|[[Alexander Jackson Davis]], "View of the Battery and Castle Garden," 1826-28.
+
Image:0811.jpg|[[Alexander Jackson Davis]], ''[[View]] of St. John’s Chapel, From the [[Park]]'', 1829.  
  
Image:0811.jpg|[[Alexander Jackson Davis]], "View of St. John's Chapel, from the park," 1829.  
+
Image:1043.jpg|Sidney Mason Stone, House for Roger Sherman Baldwin, New Haven, CT, c. 1830–40.
  
Image:1043.jpg|Sidney Mason Stone, House for Roger Sherman Baldwin, New Haven, Conn., c. 1830-40.
+
Image:0490.jpg|Archibald L. Dick, “Elysian Fields, Hoboken (New York in the distance),” in ''[[View]]s in New-York and its Environs'' (1831—34).
  
Image:0490.jpg|Archibald L. Dick, "Elysian Fields, Hoboken (New York in the distance)," 1831-34.
+
Image:1025.jpg|Anonymous, “Entrance to [[Mount Auburn Cemetery|Mount Auburn]],” in ''American Magazine of Useful and Entertaining Knowledge'' 1, no. 1 (September 1834):  9.  
  
Image:0486.jpg|[[James Smillie]], "Bay and Harbour of New York, From the Battery," 1831.  
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Image:0486.jpg|James Smillie, “Bay and Harbour of New York, From the Battery,1831.  
  
Image:0424.jpg|Alexander Jackson Davis, Ithiel Town, and James Dakin, ''New York University, Washington Square'', 1833.  
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Image:0424.jpg|[[Alexander Jackson Davis]], Ithiel Town, and James Dakin, ''New York University, Washington Square'', 1833.  
  
 
Image:0464.jpg|Nicolino Calyo, ''Harlem, the Country House of Dr. Edmondson'', 1834.  
 
Image:0464.jpg|Nicolino Calyo, ''Harlem, the Country House of Dr. Edmondson'', 1834.  
Line 602: Line 551:
 
Image:0252.jpg|Henry Walton, Three Sisters in a Landscape, 1838.  
 
Image:0252.jpg|Henry Walton, Three Sisters in a Landscape, 1838.  
  
Image:1033.jpg|Anonymous, "Forest Pond," in ''The Picturesque Pocket Companion, and Visitor’s Guide, through Mount Auburn'' (1839), p. 171.  
+
Image:1033.jpg|Anonymous, “Forest [[Pond]],in ''The [[Picturesque]] Pocket Companion, and Visitor’s Guide, through Mount Auburn'' (1839), 171.  
  
 
Image:1477.jpg|Anonymous, Honorary membership certificate for Nicholas Biddle in “The Horticultural Association of the Valley of the Hudson” [detail], June 1839.
 
Image:1477.jpg|Anonymous, Honorary membership certificate for Nicholas Biddle in “The Horticultural Association of the Valley of the Hudson” [detail], June 1839.
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image:0525.jpg|William E. Winner, ''Garden Scene Near Philadelphia'', c. 1840.
 
image:0525.jpg|William E. Winner, ''Garden Scene Near Philadelphia'', c. 1840.
  
Image:1103.jpg|W. Mason, "Pennsylvania Hospital for the Insane," c. 1841, in Thomas S. Kirkbride, ''Reports of the Pennsylvania Hospital for the Insane'' (1851), frontispiece.
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Image:1103.jpg|W. Mason, “[[Pennsylvania Hospital for the Insane]],c. 1841, in Thomas S. Kirkbride, ''Reports of the Pennsylvania Hospital for the Insane: for the Year 1841'' (1841), frontispiece.
 +
 
 +
Image:0895.jpg|Edwin Whitefield, Sketch of Pokahoe, 1841–44. A seat is located on the lawn, nestled in the trees, seen left of center of the view.
  
 
Image:0448.jpg|Anonymous, ''Brother and Sister'', c. 1845.  
 
Image:0448.jpg|Anonymous, ''Brother and Sister'', c. 1845.  
  
Image:0499.jpg|Anonymous (artist), Amos Eno (lithographer), "View of the Great Conflagration at New York," 1845.
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Image:2283.jpg|Anonymous (artist), Nathaniel Currier (lithographer), “[[View]] of the Great Conflagration at New York,1845. The seats are located around the fountain.
  
Image:1063.jpg|James Smillie, "Mount Auburn Cemetery," in Cornelia W. Walter, ''Mount Auburn Illustrated'' (1850 [1847]), frontispiece.  
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Image:1063.jpg|James Smillie, “[[Mount Auburn Cemetery]],in Cornelia W. Walter, ''Mount Auburn Illustrated'' (1847; repr., 1850), frontispiece.
  
Image:0110.jpg|Joseph Goldsborough Bruff (artist), Edward Weber & Co. (lithographer), "Elements of National Thrift and Empire," c. 1847.
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Image:0110.jpg|Joseph Goldsborough Bruff (artist), Edward Weber & Co. (lithographer), ''Elements of National Thrift and Empire'', c. 1847.
  
 
Image:0487.jpg|William Wade, ''Castle Garden: From the Battery'', 1848.  
 
Image:0487.jpg|William Wade, ''Castle Garden: From the Battery'', 1848.  
  
Image:0895.jpg|Edwin Whitefield, Pokahoe, 1848-50.
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Image:0384.jpg|Anonymous, “The Bracketed Mode,in [[A. J. Downing]], ''A Treatise on the Theory and Practice of Landscape Gardening'', 4th ed. (1849), 393, fig. 52.
 
 
Image:0384.jpg|Anonymous, "The Bracketed Mode," in [[A. J. Downing]], ''A Treatise on the Theory and Practice of Landscape Gardening'' (1849), p. 393, fig. 52.
 
  
 
Image:0547.jpg|Ernst Georg Fischer, ''Dr. Edmondson and Family'', c. 1850.
 
Image:0547.jpg|Ernst Georg Fischer, ''Dr. Edmondson and Family'', c. 1850.
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Image:0442.jpg|Anonymous, ''Memorial to Nicholas M.S. Catlin'', c. 1852.
 
Image:0442.jpg|Anonymous, ''Memorial to Nicholas M.S. Catlin'', c. 1852.
  
Image:0218.jpg|Augustus Weidenbach, ''Belvedere'', c. 1858.
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Image:0218.jpg|Augustus Weidenbach, ''[[Belvedere]]'', c. 1858.
  
 +
Image:0396.jpg|Anonymous, “A circular [[pavilion]],” in [[A. J. Downing]], ''A Treatise on the Theory and Practice of Landscape Gardening'', 4th ed. (1849), 456, fig. 81.
 +
 +
Image:1001.jpg|Anonymous, “Mount Fordham—the Country '''Seat''' of Lewis G. Morris, Esq.,” in [[A. J. Downing]], ed., ''Horticulturist'' 6, no. 8 (August 1851): pl. opp. 345.
 
</gallery>
 
</gallery>
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<hr>
  
 
==Notes==
 
==Notes==
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[[Category: Keywords]]
 
[[Category: Keywords]]
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[[Category: Garden Ornaments/Embellishments]]
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[[Category: Architecture]]

Latest revision as of 17:54, April 7, 2021

History

Fig. 1, William Russell Birch, “Hampton, the Seat of Genl. Chas. Ridgely, Maryland,” in The Country Seats of the United States (2009), (1808), pl. 4.

In the discourse of landscape design, seat possessed two distinct yet equally prevalent meanings, as indicated by Thomas Sheridan’s 1789 dictionary entry. One sense referred to seat as a large estate, usually marked by a country house or mansion, for example, William Hamilton’s The Woodlands, near Philadelphia; or General Charles Ridgely’s Hampton, in Baltimore County, Maryland. A seat was also a garden structure for sitting.

The meaning of seat as estate was exemplified in colonial America by William Byrd II’s Westover, on the James River, Virginia, and Henry Pratt’s Lemon Hill in Philadelphia. Such country houses were often featured in portraits that flattered the owner and signaled to the public that the colonies and new republic were home to a cultured elite rivaling that of Great Britain. These images typically located the house at the center of the property, with the landscape and various outbuildings extending beyond it. This placement, which communicated the importance of the house as the base of operations for the landowner, was a visual shorthand for the landowner’s affluence and power. Observers such as William Hugh Grove (1732) and Thomas Gwatkin (1770) often likened seats to small villages. By the mid 18th century, however, the community-like aspects of seats were downplayed in favor of their rural associations, which contrasted sharply with the increasingly crowded conditions of America’s cities. English emigré William Russell Birch, in his series The Country Seats of the United States of America (1808), depicted the homes of the mid-Atlantic elite situated in naturalistic landscapes in emulation of British tableaux [Fig. 1].[1]

Fig. 2, Anonymous, Garden seat from Somerset County, MD, 1780.
Fig. 3, Alexander Jackson Davis, Shore Seat for Montgomery Place, Annandale-on-Hudson, New York (elevation and plan), 1870—79.

As a category of garden furniture, seat could refer to either the object upon which one sat [Fig. 2] or the structure housing such objects [Fig. 3]. Accounts found in foreign treatises available in America (such as those by Antoine-Joseph Dezallier D’Argenville, Isaac Ware, William Marshall, Humphry Repton, and John Abercrombie) focused on seats as places of rest, terminations to walks, or vantage points from which to contemplate views. Like other garden structures, such as pavilions or summerhouses, seats influenced the viewer’s experience of the garden by providing points of rest that framed vistas in the garden and views beyond. The use of seats to direct one’s route through a garden was demonstrated by A. J. Downing in his 1847 description of Montgomery Place, Dutchess County, New York. Downing noted the placement of various seats and related views that he encountered on the course of his walk through the grounds. Many other garden observers, including Henry Wansey (1794), John Cosens Ogden (1800), and Eliza Caroline Burgwin Clitherall (active 1801), also commented upon the interrelationships between seats, walks, and views. Popular gardening journals likewise recommended placing seats along walks. For example, in 1841 Alexander Walsh proposed a number of seats in a garden design published in the New England Farmer. Two seats were situated at cross-walks and another two were ensconced in an arched arbor, placed alongside the main axial walk.

Fig. 4, James Gibbs, “Two other Seats for the same purpose [for the ends of walks],” in A Book of Architecture (1728), pl. 83.

Garden seats took on a variety of forms. In the 18th century, European and British pattern books and design manuals such as James Gibbs’s A Book of Architecture (1728) were an important source for American seat designs [Fig. 4]. Drawings by Thomas Jefferson and by his granddaughter, Cornelia Jefferson Randolph [Fig. 5], demonstrate the influence of William Kent’s designs on garden furniture, which appeared in William Chambers’s Plans, Elevations, Sections and Perspective Views of the Gardens and Buildings at Kew in Surrey (1763), a volume that Jefferson owned.[2]

Fig. 5, Cornelia Jefferson Randolph, attr., “A Garden Seat by Mr. Jones, From Chamber’s Kew,” c. 1820.
Fig. 6, Batty and Thomas Langley, “An Umbrello, to a Seat, for to Terminate a walk, View, &c. in a Garden,” in Gothic Architecture (1747), pl. 31.

Seat designs could be differentiated by national and historical styles, as well as by placement and function. Batty and Thomas Langley, for instance, proposed a seat in keeping with the Gothic style in their 1747 text about Gothic architecture [Fig. 6]. J. C. Loudon, in An Encyclopaedia of Gardening (1826), distinguished among seats found inside garden buildings, roofed seats that could be either fixed or portable, and those lacking any sort of roof. Loudon explained that in form, seats could be simple (like the trunk of a tree) or more complex (such as a cast-iron couch with decorative treatment). These distinctions were echoed by Jane Loudon in Gardening for Ladies (1845), a book that was co-edited by Downing in America.

In A Treatise on the Theory and Practice of Landscape Gardening (1849), Downing himself provided an extensive illustrated typology of seat styles, emphasizing the propriety of certain styles for different landscapes. For example, he believed that Grecian or Gothic seats were appropriate for elegant grounds, whereas rustic seats were more suited to the irregular aesthetic of the landscape garden. Such rustic seats were quite popular in the 19th century, as suggested by the discussion of them in horticultural journals, such as the Horticultural Register, and in descriptions by both treatise writers and observers of the American landscape. See, for example, Thomas Bridgeman (1832), Edward Sayers (1838), Anna Cora Ogden Mowatt Ritchie (1839), C. M. Hovey (1840), and Georges Jaques (1852).

Anne L. Helmreich


Texts

Usage

  • Anonymous, n.d., advertising design and construction services for parks and gardens (quoted in Chase 1973: 37–39)[3]
“Designs all sorts of Buildings, well suited to both town and country, Pavilions, Summer-Rooms, Seats for Gardens. . . also Water-houses for Parks. . . Eye Traps to represent a Building terminating a walk, or to hide some disagreeable Object, Rotundas, Colonades, Arcades, Studies in Parks or Gardens, Green Houses for the Preservation of Herbs.”


  • Strachey, William, 1612, describing the seats of Powhatan in Virginia (quoted in Wright and Freund 1967: 57)[4]
“He hath divers seates or howses, his Chief when we came into the Country was upon Pamunky-River, on the North side which we call Pembrook-side, called Werowocomaco, which by interpretacion signifyes Kings-howse.”


  • Byrd, William, II, c. June 25, 1729, describing Westover, seat of William Byrd II, on the James River, VA (quoted in Tinling 1977: 1:410)[5]
“My habitation has the na[me of] the prettyest seat in this country.”


  • Grove, William Hugh, 1732, describing Williamsburg, VA (quoted in Stiverson and Butler 1977: 26)[6]
“I went by ship up the [York] river, which has pleasant Seats on the Bank which Shew Like little villages, for having Kitchins, Dayry houses, Barns, Stables, Store houses, and some of them 2 or 3 Negro Quarters all Seperate from Each other but near the mansion houses make a shew to the river of 7 or 8 distinct Tenements, tho all belong to one family.”


  • Anonymous, August 17, 1747, describing property for sale in Somerset County, NJ (New York Gazette)
“TO BE SOLD, A pleasant Country Seat, fitting for a Gentleman or Store-keeper. . . a good Orchard, containing about 200 Apple Trees, and may be extended at Pleasure.”


  • Gwatkin, Prof. Thomas, 1770, describing the appearance of seats in Williamsburg, VA (Colonial Williamsburg Foundation)
“And the huts of the Negroes which are situated round about give the seat of a substantial planter something of the Air of a small village.”


Fig. 7, Thomas Lee Shippen, Plan of Westover, 1783.
  • Rush, Dr. Benjamin, July 15, 1782, describing the country seat of John Dickinsen, near Philadelphia, PA (quoted in Caemmerer 1950: 87)[7]
“The ground contiguous to this shed was cut into beautiful walks and divided with cedar and pine branches into artificial groves. The whole, both the buildings and walks, were accommodated with seats.”


  • Shippen, Thomas Lee, December 31, 1783, describing Westover, seat of William Byrd III, on the James River, VA (1952: n.p.)[8]
“I have markd some little crooked ugly figures for Gentlemen’s seats, which tho’ they do not beautify indeed the picture, add much to the prospect, about as many Seats are to be seen on the other side.” [Fig. 7]


Fig. 8, Jeremiah Paul, “Robert Morris’ Seat on Schuylkill,” July 20, 1794.
“We continued our route, in view of the Schuylkill, and up the river several miles, and took a view of a number of Country-seats, one belonging to Mr. R. Morris, the American financier, and who is said to be possessed of the greatest fortune in America. His country-seat is not yet completed, but it will be superb. It is planned on a large scale, the gardens and walks are extensive, and the villa, situated on an eminence, has a commanding prospect down the Schuylkill to the Delaware.” [Fig. 8]


“[The walks were] planted on each side with the most beautiful & curious flowers & shrubs. They are in some parts enclosed with the Lombardy poplar except here & there openings are left to give you a view of some fine trees or beautiful prospect beyond, & in others, shaded by arbours of the wild grape, or clumps of large trees under which are placed seats where you may rest yourself & enjoy the cool air.”


  • Constantia [Judith Sargent Murray], June 24, 1790, “Description of Gray’s Gardens, Pennsylvania” (Massachusetts Magazine 3: 415)[11]
“At every turn shaded seats are artfully contrived, and the ground abounds with arbours, alcoves, and summer houses, which are handsomely adorned with odoriferous flowers.”


“[March 11, in a letter to Thomas Jefferson]. . . The remainder part of that ground towards Georgetown is more broken. It may afford pleasant seats, but, although the bank of the river between the two creeks can command as grand a prospect as any of the other spots, it seems to be less commendable for the establishment of a city, not only because the level surface it presents is but small, but because the hights from beyond Georgetown absolutely command the whole. . .
“[June 22, in a report to George Washington]. . . I next made the distribution regular with streets at right angle north-south and east west but afterwards I opened others on various directions as avenues to and from every principal places, wishing by this not merely to contrast with the general regularity nor to afford a greater variety of pleasant seats and prospect as will be obtained from the advantageous ground over the which the avenues are mostly directed but principally to connect each part of the city with more efficacy.”


  • Wansey, Henry, 1794, describing Worcester, MA (1794; repr., 1970: 64)[12]
“Most of the houses have a large court before them, full of lilacs and other shrubs, with a seat under them, and a paved walk up the middle.”


  • Blandulus [pseud.], November 1794, describing Pleasant Hill, seat of Joseph Barrell, Charlestown, MA (quoted in Hammond 1982: 95)[13]
“Whereonce the breastwork mark’d the scenes of
blood,
While Freedom’s sons inclosed the haughty foe,
Rearing its head majestic from afar
The venerable seat of Barrell stands
Like some strong English Castle.”


“Immediately below the bridge [over Miller’s River] is a fall, furnishing excellent mill-seats, which are occupied by several mills. These are uniformly supplied with an abundance of water, and wear the aspect of great activity, and business, particularly in the sawing of timber.”


“the heights, and many of the lower grounds, contain a rich display of gentlemen’s country seats, connected with a great variety of handsome appendages.”


  • La Rochefoucauld Liancourt, François-Alexandre-Frédéric, duc de, 1799, describing a house in Charleston, SC (1800: 2:437–38)[15]
“Half a mile from Batavia. . . stands Middletonhouse, the property of Mrs. MIDDLETON, mother-in-law to young Mr. Isard, which is esteemed the most beautiful house in this part of the country. The out-buildings, such as kitchen, wash-house, and offices, are very capacious. The ensemble of these buildings calls to recollection the ancient English country-seats.”


Fig. 9, William Russell Birch, “Woodlands, the Seat of Mr. Wm. Hamilton, Pennsylva.,” in The Country Seats of the United States (1808), pl. 14.
  • La Rochefoucauld Liancourt, François-Alexandre-Frédéric, duc de, 1799, describing The Woodlands, seat of William Hamilton, near Philadelphia, PA (quoted in Madsen 1988: B3)[16]
“You pass the Schuylkill at Gray’s-Ferry, the road to which runs below Woodlands, the seat of Mr. William Hamilton: it stands high, and is seen upon an eminence from the opposite side of the river.” [Fig. 9]


  • Ogden, John Cosens, 1800, describing Bethlehem, PA (1800: 18, 27)[17]
Seats are placed for rest, and to enable the visitors to view the river at leisure. . .
“The island is not large, but affords fine walks and an area for exercise, as well as seats and shelters for visitors.”


  • Clitherall, Eliza Caroline Burgwin (Caroline Elizabeth Burgwin), active 1801, describing the Hermitage, seat of John Burgwin, Wilmington, NC (quoted in Flowers 1983: 126)[18]
“These [gardens] were extensive and beautifully laid out. There was [sic] alcoves and summer houses at the termination of each walk, seats under trees in the more shady recesses of the Big Garden, as it was called, in distinction from the flower garden in front of the house.”


Temples or seats at those spots on the walks most interesting either for prospect or the immediate scenery.”


  • Scott, Joseph, 1806, describing the Schuylkill River in Pennsylvania (1806: 53)[19]
“The banks of the river are, in many places, adorned with beautiful country seats, belonging to the wealthy citizens of Philadelphia. To these their families usually retire, in the summer months, from the bustle, and noise of the city, and to enjoy the salubrity of the country air.”


  • Martin, William Dickinson, 1809, describing the pleasure grounds at Salem Academy, Salem, NC (quoted in Bynum 1979: 29)[20]
“Next, I visited a flower garden belonging to the female department. . . But it is situated on a hill, the East end of which is high & abrupt; some distance down this, they had dug down right in the earth, & drawing the dirt forward threw it on rock, etc., thereby forming a horizontal plane of about thirty feet in circumference; & on the back, rose a perpendicular terrace of some height, which was entirely covered over with a grass peculiar to that vicinage. At the bottom of this terrace were arranged circular seats, which, from the height of the hill in the rear were protected from the sun in an early hour in the afternoon.”


  • Martin, William Dickinson, May 20, 1809, describing The Woodlands, seat of William Hamilton, near Philadelphia, PA (Colonial Williamsburg Foundation)
“Altho’ much has been done to beautify this delightful seat, much still remains to be done, for the perfecting it in all the capabilities which nature in her boundless profusion has bestowed.”


“Mr. J. explained to me all his plans for improvement, where the roads, the walks, the seats, the little temples were to be placed.”


“It is a very delightful ride of twenty-eight miles from Montpellier to the late President Mr. Jefferson’s seat at Monticello.”


  • Warden, David Bailie, 1816, describing Analostan Island, seat of Gen. John Mason, Washington, DC (quoted in Phillips 1917: 49)[23]
"ANNALOSTAN ISLAND
. . . Annalostan Island is evidently of modern formation. . . The highest eminence, on which the house stands, is fifty feet above the level of the river. The common tide rises to the height of three feet. I can never forget how de-lighted I was with my first visit to this island. The amiable ladies whom I had the pleasure to accompany, left their carriage at Georgetown, and we walked to the mansion-house under a delicious shade. The blossoms of the cherry, apple, and peach trees, of the hawthorn and aromatic shrubs, filled the air with their fragrance. . . The house, of a simple and neat form, is situated near that side of the island which commands a view of the Potomac, the President's House, Capitol, and other buildings. The garden, the sides of which are washed by the waters of the river, is ornamented with a variety of trees and shrubs, and, in the midst, there is a lawn covered with a beautiful verdure. The summer-house is shaded by oak and lin-den-trees, the coolness and tranquility of which invite to contemplation. The refresh-ing breezes of the Potomac, and the gentle murmuring of its waters against the rocks, the warbling of birds, and the mournful as-pect of the weeping-willows, inspire a thousand various sensations. What a delicious shade-
"Ducere sol[l]icitae jucunda oblivia vitae"
The view from this spot is delightful. It embraces the picturesque banks of the Po-tomac, a portion of the city, and an expanse of water, of which the bridge terminates the view. . . A few feet below the sum-mer-house the rocks afford the seats, where those who are fond of fishing may indulge in this amusement. From the portico on the oppo-site [139] side of the house, Georgetown, Calorama, the beautiful seat of Joel Barlow, Esq. and the adjacent finely-wooded hills, appear a vista."


  • Lambert, John, 1816, describing Boston, MA (1816: 2:328)[24]
“From an elevated part of the town the spectator enjoys a succession of the most beautiful views that imagination can conceive. Around him, as far as the eye can reach, are to be seen towns, villages, country seats, rich farms, and pleasure-grounds, seated upon the summits of small hills, hanging on the brows of gentle slopes, or reclining in the laps of spacious valleys, whose shores are watered by a beautiful river, across which are thrown several bridges and causeways.”


  • Randolph, John, 1820s, describing an estate in Roanoke, VA (quoted in Martin 1991: 223n. 46)[25]
“From my earliest childhood I have delighted in the groves and solitudes of poor old Matoax. I now recall several of my favorite seats where I used to ruminate, ‘chewing the cud of sweet and bitter fancies,’ all bitter now.”


“He wanted a place to keep the garden seeds & Tools, and in a part of the Garden where a seat in the shade was often wanted, he built a shed or small room, and to hide that Salt-like-box, and to try his art of Painting, he made the front like [a] Gate Way with a step to form a seat, and above, steps painted as representing a passage through an Arch beyond which was represented a western sky, and to ornament the upper part over the arch, he painted several figures on boards cut to the outlines of said figures as representing statues in sculpture.”


Fig. 10, Thomas Birch, Fairmount Water Works, 1821.
  • Sheldon, John P., December 10, 1825, describing Fairmount Waterworks, Philadelphia, PA (quoted in Gibson 1988: 5)[27]
“Delightful seats, surrounded by various kinds of trees and shrubbery, with gardens containing summer houses, vistas, embowered walks, &c meet your view in almost every direction, woods sloping gently to the river’s edge, by the side of smooth lawns, add to the pleasing variety of the scene; and the Schuylkill, with its noble dam and bridges serves as a most beautiful finish to the foreground.” [Fig. 10]


  • Connor, Juliana Margaret, 1827, describing the garden at the pottery (Lot 48) on Main Street, Salem, NC (quoted in Bynum 1979: 28)[20]
“Afterwards walked into the garden belonging to the establishment where we saw what I conceived to be a curiosity and in itself extremely beautiful. It was a large summer house formed of eight cedar trees planted in a circle, the tops whilst young were chained together in the center forming a cone. The immense branches were all cut, so that there was not a leaf, the outside is beautifully trimmed perfectly even and very thick within, were seats placed around and doors or openings were cut, through the branches, it had been planted 40 years.”


  • Bernhard, Duke of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach, 1828, describing the Bloomingdale Asylum for the Insane, New York, NY (quoted in Little 1972: 64)[28]
“The Lunatic Asylum is five miles from the city [New York] on a hill, in a very healthy situation, the road leads between country seats and handsome gardens and is one of the most pleasant I have seen in America.”


  • Wailes, Benjamin L. C., December 29, 1829, describing Lemon Hill, estate of Henry Pratt, Philadelphia, PA (quoted in Moore 1954: 359)[29]
“But the most enchanting prospect is towards the grand pleasure grove & green house of a Mr. Prat[t], a gentleman of fortune, and to this we next proceeded by a circutous [sic] rout, passing in view of the fish ponds, bowers, rustic retreats, summer houses, fountains, grotto, &c., &c. The grotto is dug in a bank [and] is of a circular form, the side built up of rock and arched over head, and a number of Shells [?]. A dog of natural size carved out of marble sits just within the entrance, the guardian of the place. A narrow aperture lined with a hedge of arbor vitae leads to it. Next is a round fish pond with a small fountain playing in the pond. An Oval & several oblong fish ponds of larger size follow, & between the two last is an artificial cascade. Several summer houses in rustic style are made by nailing bark on the outside & thaching the roof. There is also a rustic seat built in the branches of a tree, & to which a flight of steps ascend. In one of the summer houses is a Spring with seats arrond it. The houses are all embelished [sic] with marble busts of Venus, Appollo, Diana and a Bacanti. One sits on an Island on the fish pond. All the ponds filled with handsome coloured fish.”


  • Trollope, Frances Milton, 1830, describing Philadelphia, PA (1832: 2:48–49; 152)[30]
“Near this enclosure [at the State House] is another of much the same description, called Washington Square. Here there was an excellent crop of clover; but as the trees are numerous, and highly beautiful, and several commodious seats are placed beneath their shade, it is, spite of the long grass, a very agreeable retreat from heat and dust. It was rarely, however, that I saw any of these seats occupied; the Americans have either no leisure, or no inclination for those moments of delassement that all other people, I believe, indulge in. . . it is nevertheless the nearest approach to a London square that is to be found in Philadelphia. . . “The Delaware river, above Philadelphia, still flows through a landscape too level for beauty, but it is rendered interesting by a succession of gentlemen’s seats, which, if less elaborately finished in architecture, and garden grounds, than the lovely villas on the Thames, are still beautiful objects to gaze upon as you float rapidly past on the broad silvery stream that washes their lawns.”


“The most distinguished amateur and patron of gardening, in every sense of the word, in this state, was the late Dr. Hosack. Hyde Park, on the Hudson, the seat of this gentleman, has been probably the best specimen of a highly improved residence in the United States.”


  • Ritchie, Anna Cora Ogden Mowatt, 1839, describing Bonaparte’s Park at estate of Joseph Bonaparte (Count de Survilliers), Bordentown, NJ (quoted in Weber 1854: 186)[32]
“Equally rustic seats are scattered beneath the shade of the tall trees on its banks, and upon its clear surface a flock of snow-white swans were floating about.”


  • Hovey, C. M. (Charles Mason), September 1840, “Notes on Gardens and Gardening, in New Bedford, Mass.,” describing the estate of James Arnold, New Bedford, MA (Magazine of Horticulture 6: 364)[33]
“Continuing through the winding walks, shady bowers, and umbrageous retreats, through which rustic seats were placed, we arrived at the shell grotto.”


“One of the next improvements in the Common we suspect will be a suitable supply of proper seats in the mall. As a defence against our American propensity to whittle, the city government caused some of the wooden seats to be sheathed with sheet iron. Vain defence against the knife of an American whittler! . . . The city government thought that they would ‘try what virtue there is in stones.’ Blocks of granite have been deposited there for seats. . . The stone seats are smooth only on the upper side, and their rough look is not strictly in Boston taste, though it is excusable, considering the penitentiary object which led to their substitution for wooden seats. . . The idea of sitting on a natural, rough rock, to enjoy the beauties of nature, is poetical and in good keeping, but we have tried in vain to make those stone seats on the mall seem poetical.”


  • Buckingham, James Silk, 1842, describing Red Sulphur Springs, VA (Colonial Williamsburg Foundation)
“In the centre of the valley, is a triangular plot of grass, which has been enclosed with well-finished rails, painted white, and laid out in walks like a lawn, having also several large and fine trees, under which seats are placed for enjoying the shade.”


  • Anonymous, December 6, 1842, “Letter from Ministry at New Lebanon to Ministry at Graveland” (Western Reserve Historical Society Library, Shaker Manuscript Collection)
“And it is my will that your seats be prepared after the following order. Ye may take boards of sufficient width & thickness to form a seat. These may be planed. Place these upon square blocks of sufficient bigness to elevate the seat of a suitable height; and these are sufficient for seats, upon my holy ground. And if ye desire to build a shed, near by the meeting ground under which you can place these seats, at such parts of the year as they are not wanted, ye may freely do it; but if my feast ground is located near your dwellings, you had better carry them there to place under shelter.”


  • Longfellow, Henry Wadsworth, c. 1845, describing the Vassall-Craigie-Longfellow House, Cambridge, MA (quoted in Evans 1993: 41)[35]
“Made the flower garden; laying it out in the form of a Lyre. Built also the rustic seat in the Old Apple tree. Set out the roses under the Library windows.”


Fig. 11, Anonymous, “The Lake,” Montgomery Place, in A. J. Downing, ed., Horticulturist 2, no. 4 (October 1847): 158, fig. 27.
“I forgot to beg you before you leave Montgomery Place to sketch the view from the bold rustic seat with rustic balustrade in front*on the high west river walk. It seems to me one of the very finest things I have seen anywhere.
* that seat about half way between the steps & the south terminus. . .
“A path on the left of the broad lawn leads one to the fanciful rustic-gabled seat, among a growth of locusts at the bottom of the slope. . . Half-way along this morning ramble, a rustic seat, placed on a bold little plateau, at the base of a large tree, eighty feet above the water, and fenced about with a rustic barrier, invites you to linger and gaze at the fascinating river landscape here presented. . .
“A little farther on, we reach a flight of rocky steps, leading up to the border of the lawn. At the top of these is a rustic seat with a thatched canopy, curiously built round the trunk of an aged pine. . .
“This part of the grounds [the lake] is seen to the most advantage, either toward evening, or in moonlight. Then the effect of contrast in light and shadow is most striking, and the seclusion and beauty of the spot are more fully enjoyable than at any hour. Then you will most certainly be tempted to leave the curious rustic seat, with its roof wrapped round with a rude entablature like Pluto’s crown.” [Fig. 11]


Fig. 12, Thomas S. Sinclair, “Plan of the Pleasure Grounds and Farm of the Pennsylvania Hospital for the Insane at Philadelphia,” in Thomas S. Kirkbride, American Journal of Insanity 4 (April 1848): pl. opp. 280.
“The summer-houses, rustic-seats, exercising-swings &c., in this division are all in particularly pleasant positions. The cottage fronts the woods, and in every part this portion of the grounds is completely protected from intrusion and observation.” [Fig. 12]


“856. Public Gardens. . .
Promenade at Philadelphia. There is a very pretty enclosure before the walnut tree entrance to the state-house, with good well-kept gravel walks, and many beautiful flowering trees. It is laid down in grass, not in turf; which, indeed, Mrs. Trollope observes, ‘is a luxury she never saw in America. Near this enclosure is another of a similar description, called Washington Square, which has numerous trees, with commodious seats placed beneath their shade.’ (Ibid. [D. M. &c.] vol. ii. p. 48.) . . .
Waterworks at Fair Mount, near Philadelphia. ‘. . . On the farther side of the river is a gentleman’s seat, the beautiful lawn of which slopes down to the water’s edge; and groups of weeping willows and other trees throw their shadows on the stream.’ (Domestic Manners of the Americans, vol. ii. p. 44.)”

Citations

  • Dezallier d’Argenville, Antoine-Joseph, 1712, The Theory and Practice of Gardening (1712: 78)[38]
SEATS, or Benches, besides the Conveniency they constantly afford in great Gardens, where you can scarce ever have too many, there is such need of them in walking, look very well also in a Garden, when set in certain Places they are destin’d to, as in the Niches or Sinkings that face principal Walks and Vistas, and in the Halls and Galleries of Groves.”


  • Ware, Isaac, 1756, A Complete Body of Architecture (1756: 636, 641)[39]
“The first principle is here that there be space to walk, and seats to rest. These must be proportioned also to one another: it would be absurd to terminate a vast walk with a plain bench; nor less ridiculous to erect a pompous temple where there was not the extent of a hundred yards from the building. . .
“He who would know where to place his pavilion, seat, or temple, in a garden, must first understand what the purpose of it is, and what the true beauty and excellence of the garden itself.”


  • Sheridan, Thomas, 1789, A Complete Dictionary of the English Language (1789: n.p.)[40]
SEAT, se’t. s. A chair, bench, or any thing on which one may sit; chair of state; tribunal; mansion, abode; situation, site.”


  • Anonymous, 1798, Encyclopaedia (1798: 7:561)
“‘V. SEATS have a two-fold use; they are useful as places of rest and conversation, and as guides to the points of view in which the beauties of the surrounding scene are disclosed. Every point of view should be marked with a seat; and speaking generally, no seat ought to appear but in some favourable point of view. This rule may not be invariable, but it ought seldom to be deviated from.
“In the ruder scenes of neglected nature, the simple trunk, rough from the woodman’s hands, and the butts or stools of rooted trees, without any other marks of tools upon them than those of the saw which severed them from their stems, are seats in character; and in romantic or recluse situations, the cave or the grotto are admissible. But wherever human design has been executed upon the natural objects of the place, the seat and every other artificial accompaniment ought to be in unison; and whether the bench or the alcove be chosen, it ought to be formed and finished in such a manner as to unite with the wood, the lawn, and the walk, which lie around it.
“The colour of seats should likewise be suited to situations: where uncultivated nature prevails, the natural brown of the wood itself ought not to be altered; but where the rural art presides, white or stone colour has a much better effect.’ Practical Treatise on Planting and Gardening p. 593 &c.


  • Repton, Humphry, 1803, Observations on the Theory and Practice of Landscape Gardening (1803: 69, 153)[41]
“This would be a proper place for a covered seat, with a shed behind it for horses or open carriages; but it should be set so far back as to command the view under the branches of trees, which are very happily situated for the purpose. . .
“Yet the summit of a naked brow, commanding views in every direction, may require a covered seat or pavilion; for such a situation, where an architectural building is proper, a circular temple with a dome, such as the temple of the Sybils, or that of Tivoli, is best calculated.”


  • Abercrombie, John, with James Mean, 1817, Abercrombie’s Practical Gardener (1817: 465)[42]
“Fine points of view claim, in the first place, to be distinguished by seats. Seats merely serving as places of rest might announce an intrinsic object by some difference in their construction; and if there be no distant prospect to engage attention, greater elegance in the accompaniments may create a pleasant resting-place. As to the manner of finishing a seat; where the house is in sight, a correct taste will expect the bench or alcove to correspond with the style of the house, so far at least as to be avowedly artificial, neat in the workmanship, and painted. In neglected or wild scenes, withdrawn from the polished lawn, pleasing illusions may be induced by a rough block of timber, the arms of a fantastic root, or forest fagots romantically interwoven, offering a seat under the canopy of a tree, or within a cave or grotto. This is admissible on principle, in proportion as every thing surrounding is in character. Not that it can be denied, that whimsical seats at variance with the situation sometimes afford a degree of amusement, and may do no harm in little gardens, or in a scene too tame to be spoiled: but the effect terminates with the oddity; a place destitute of character can excite no romantic interest.”


Fig. 13, J. C. Loudon, Covered seats of the rustic kind, in An Encyclopædia of Gardening, 4th ed. (1826), 357, fig. 336.
“1805. Of convenient decorations the variety is almost endless, from the prospect-tower to the rustic seat; besides aquatic decorations, agreeable to the eye and convenient for the purposes of recreations or culture. Their emplacement, as in the former section, belongs to gardening, and their construction to architecture and engineering. . .
“1816. Roofed seats, boat-houses, moss houses, flint houses, bark huts, and similar constructions, are different modes of forming resting-places containing seats, and sometimes other furniture or conveniences in or near them. . . [Fig. 13]
“1817. Roofed seats of a more polished description are boarded structures generally semi-octagonal, and placed so as to be open to the south. Sometimes they are portable, moving on wheels, so as to be placed in different positions, according to the hour of the day, or season of the year, which, in confined spots, is a desirable circumstance. Sometimes they turn on rollers, or on a central pivot, for the same object, and this is very common in what are called barrel-seats. In general they are opaque, but occasionally their sides are glazed, to admit the sun to the interior in winter.
Fig. 14, J. C. Loudon, Elegant structures of the seat kind, in An Encyclopædia of Gardening 4th ed. (1826), 357, figs. 337 and 338.
“1818. Folding chairs. A sort of medium seat, between the roofed and the exposed, is formed by constructing the backs of chairs, benches, or sofas with hinges, so as they may fold down over the seat, and so protect it from rain. . .
“1819. Elegant structures of the seat kind for summer use, may be constructed of iron rods and wires, and painted canvas; the iron forming the supporting skeleton, and the canvass the protecting tegument. . . [Fig. 14]
“1820. Exposed seats include a great variety, rising in gradation from the turf bank to the carved couch. Intermediate forms are stone benches, root stools, sections of trunks of trees, wooden, stone, or cast-iron mushrooms painted or covered with moss, or mat, or heath; the Chinese barrel-seat, the rustic stool, chair, tripod, sofa, the cast-iron couch or sofa, the wheeling-chair, and many subvarieties. . .
“6157. . . Light bowers formed of lattice-work, and covered with climbers, are in general most suitable to parterres; plain covered seats suit the general walks of the shrubbery.”


  • Anonymous, April 26, 1826, “On Landscapes and Picturesque Gardens” (New England Farmer 4: 316)[44]
“A few fabrics, rustic bridges, hermitages, a Temple, or a Chinese Kiosk or Pagoda, not expensive in their execution, would advantageously complete the embellishment of a country seat.”


  • Webster, Noah, 1828, An American Dictionary of the English Language (1828: 2:n.p.)[45]
SEAT, n. [It. sedia; Sp. sede, sitio, from L. sedes, situs; Sw. sate; Dan. soede; G. sitz; D. zetel, zitplaats; W. sez; Ir. saidh; W. with a prefix, gosod, whence gosodi, to set. See Set and Sit. . .]
“1. That on which one sits. . .
“3. Mansion; residence; dwelling; abode; as Italy the seat of empire. The Greeks sent colonies to seek a new seat in Gaul.
“In Alba he shall fix his royal seat. Dryden.
“4. Site; situation. The seat of Eden has never been incontrovertibly ascertained. . .
“8. The place where a thing is settled or established. London is the seat of business and opulence. So we say, the seat of the muses, the seat of arts, the seat of commerce.”


  • Bridgeman, Thomas, 1832, The Young Gardener’s Assistant (1832: 111)[46]
“In a retired part of the [flower] garden, a rustic seat may be formed, over and around which honey-suckles and other sweet and ornamental creepers and climbers may he [sic] trained on trellises, so as to afford a pleasant retirement.”


  • Teschemacher, James E., August 1, 1835, “Extracts from Foreign Publications” (Horticultural Register 1: 308–9)[47]
From an article On the various form and character of Arbours as objects of use or ornament either in gardens or wild scenery [from Paxton’s Horticultural Register], we extract the following passages. . .
“‘The closely shaven turf comes about ten feet inside the arches where its edge is cut, and between that and the basin is covered with a fine tawny sand, with an apparently confused but really symmetrical arrangement of marble pedestals, seats and vases with flowering plants placed upon them. During summer a vase with a rare flowering plant is placed under each of the external arches except four which serve as entrances. The entire effect is good, and his may be considered as one of the best specimens of the artificial bower of the present day.’”


  • Sayers, Edward, 1838, The American Flower Garden Companion (1838: 14, 19, 131)[48]
“At country residences, where a large extent is appropriated to this department [the flower garden], many convenient and pleasing appendages can be judiciously introduced; as rustic arbors, rustic seats, and rockery; and if water can be connected, it always gives a good effect. All such appendages, I recommend to be constructed in as natural a manner as possible. . .
“In extensive pleasure grounds the rockery has a good effect when placed distinct from the flower garden, and near a rustic arbor or ornamental bridge, or seat; and if placed by the side of a retired walk, near the lawn or grass plot, it has an easy effect. . . .
“the margin of the pond should be planted with drooping willows and trees of a pendulous habit for shade, under which rustic seat might be properly placed for the accommodation of those who desire to view the sporting fishes, and other interesting objects by which they are surrounded.”
Fig. 15, Alexander Walsh, Two seats surrounded by an arched arbor, in New England Farmer 19, no. 39 (March 31, 1841): 309, fig. 4.


  • Walsh, Alexander, March 31, 1841, “Remarks on Ornamental Gardening” (New England Farmer 19: 308–9)[49]
“The garden and pleasure ground I would describe, is of an oblong form, 165 feet by 120 feet, with one end next the north side of the house. . .
“X X two seats, each occupying 2 ft. . . T T two seats. . . surrounded by an arched arbor 10 ft. high, thrown over the walk, ornamented on one side with honeysuckle, on the other by climbing Boursaut rose.” [Fig. 15]


Fig. 16, Anonymous, “Moveable Garden Seat,” in Jane Loudon, Gardening for Ladies (1843), 283, fig. 49.
SEATS for gardens are either open or covered; the latter being in the form of root-houses, huts, pavilions, temples, grottoes, &c., and the former being either fixed, temporary, or portable. Fixed seats are commonly of stone, either plain stone benches without backs, or stone supports to wooden benches. Sometimes, also, wooden seats are fixed, as when they are placed round a tree, or when boards are nailed to posts, or when seats are formed in imitation of mushrooms, as in the grounds at Redleaf. Fixed seats are also sometimes formed of turf. Portable seats are formed of wood, sometimes contrived to have the back of the seat folded down when the seat is not in use; so as to exclude the weather, and avoid the dirt of birds which are apt to perch on them. Another kind of portable seat, which is frequently formed in iron, as shown in fig. 49, is readily wheeled from one part of the grounds to another; and the back of which also folds down to protect the seat from the weather. There is a kind of camp-stool which serves as a portable seat, imported from Norway, and sold at the low price of 2s. 6d. or 3s.; and there are also straw seats, like half beehives, which are, however, only used in garden-huts, or in any situation under cover, because in the open air they would be liable to be soaked with rain. There are a great variety of rustic seats formed of roots and crooked branches of trees, used both for the open garden and under cover; and there are also seats of cast and wrought iron, of great variety of form. There should always be some kind of analogy between the seat and the scene of which it forms a part; and for this reason rustic seats should be confined to rustic scenery; and the seats for a lawn or highly kept pleasure-ground ought to be of comparatively simple and architectural forms, and either of wood or stone, those of wood being frequently painted of a stone colour, and sprinkled over with silver sand before the paint is dry, to give them the appearance of stone. Iron seats, generally speaking, are not sufficiently massive for effect; and the metal conveys the idea of cold in winter and heat in summer. [Fig. 16]
“When seats are placed along a walk, a gravelled recess ought to be formed to receive them; and there ought, generally, to be a footboard to keep the feet from the moist ground, whether the seat is on gravel or on al awn [sic]. In a garden where there are several seats, some ought to be in positions exposed to the sun, and others placed in the shade, and none ought to be put down in a situation where the back of the seat is seen by a person approaching it before the front. Indeed the backs of all fixed seats ought to be concealed by shrubs, or by some other means, unless they are circular seats placed round a tree. Seats ought not to be put down where there will be any temptation to the persons sitting on them to strain their eyes to the right or left, nor where the boundary of the garden forms a conspicuous object in the view. In general, all seats should be of a stone colour, as harmonizing best with vegetation. Noting can be more unartistical than seats painted a pea-green, and placed among the green of living plants.”


Fig. 17, Anonymous, “Rustic Covered Seat,” in A. J. Downing, A Treatise on the Theory and Practice of Landscape Gardening, 4th ed. (1849), 458, fig. 86.
“Open and covered seats, of various descriptions, are among the most convenient and useful decorations for the pleasure-grounds of a country residence. Situated in portions of the lawn or park, somewhat distant from the house, they offer an agreeable place for rest or repose. If there are certain points from which are obtained agreeable prospects or extensive views of the surrounding country, a seat, by designating those points, and by affording us a convenient mode of enjoying them, has a double recommendation to our minds.
“Open and covered seats are of two distinct kinds; one architectural, or formed after artist-like designs, of stone or wood, in Grecian, Gothic, or other forms; which may, if they are intended to produce an elegant effect, have vases on pedestals as accompaniments; the other, rustic, as they are called, which are formed out of trucks and branches of trees, roots, etc., in their natural forms. . .
“We consider rustic seats and structures as likely to be much preferred in the villa and cottage residences of the country. They have the merit of being tasteful and picturesque in their appearance, and are easily constructed by the amateur, at comparatively little or no expense. There is scarcely a prettier or more pleasant object for the termination of a long walk in the pleasure-grounds or park, than a neatly thatched structure of rustic work, with its seat for repose, and a view of the landscape beyond. . . [Fig. 17]
“Unity of expression is the maxim and guide in this department of the art, as in every other. . .
“With regard to pavilions, summer-houses, rustic seats, and garden edifices of like character, they should, if possible, in all cases be introduced where they are manifestly appropriate or in harmony with the scene. Thus. . . a rustic covered seat may occupy a secluded, quiet portion of the grounds, where undisturbed meditation be enjoyed.”


  • Ranlett, William H., 1849, The Architect (1849; repr., 1976: 1:19)[52]
“Probably no portion of the globe, offers a greater variety of beautiful country seats than the vicinity of New-York. No man who has any taste for the retired tranquillity of a suburban retreat, or the lovely beauty of a picturesque scene, or the romantic grandeur of an enchanting landscape of cities, towns and country; rivers, bays and ocean, could fail to be suited with some of the numerous situations on the undulated shores, gentle declivities or towering heights of Staten Island, Long Island or the banks of the noble Hudson.”


Fig. 18, Anonymous, “Small Bracketed Cottage,” in A. J. Downing, The Architecture of Country Houses (1850), pl. opp. 78, fig. 9.
“The little rustic arbors or covered seats on the outside of the bay window may be supposed to answer in some measure in the place of a veranda, and convey at the first glance, an impression of refinement and taste attained in that simple manner so appropriate to a small cottage.” [Fig. 18]


“The next step, after the possession of such public pleasure-grounds, would be the social and common enjoyment of them. Upon the well-mown glades of lawn, and beneath the shade of the forest trees, would be formed rustic seats. Little arbors would be placed near, where in midsummer evenings ices would be served to all who wished them.”


“All our country residences may readily be divided into two classes. The first and largest class, is the suburban place of from five to twenty or thirty acres; the second is the country-seat, properly so called, which consists of from 30 to 500 or more acres. . .
“But in the larger country places, there are ten instances of failure for one of success. This is not owing to the want of natural beauty, for the sites are picturesque, the surface varied, and the woods and plantations excellent. The failure consists, for the most part, in a certain incongruity and want of distinct character in the treatment of the place as a whole. They are too large to be kept in order as pleasure-grounds, while they are not laid out or treated as parks. The grass which stretches on all sides of the house, is partly mown for lawn, and partly for hay; the lines of the farm and the ornamental portion of the grounds, meet in a confused and unsatisfactory manner, and the result is a residence pretending to be much superior to a common farm, and not yet rising to the dignity of a really tasteful country seat.”


  • Jaques, George, January 1852, “Landscape Gardening in New-England” (Horticulturist 7: 35)[56]
“Let woodbine, honey-suckle and climbing roses, here entwine themselves around a column, and wreath themselves there over a window. Here place a rustic seat, half hid among the shrubbery; there lead a short walk, carelessly curving towards a little vine-clad arbor.”



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Notes

  1. Emily Tyson Cooperman, “William Russell Birch (1755–1834) and the Beginnings of the American Picturesque” (PhD diss., University of Pennsylvania, 1999), view on Zotero. See also Emily T. Cooperman, introduction to The Country Seats of the United States of North America, by William Russell Birch (1808; repr., Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania, 2009), view on Zotero.
  2. William Bainter O’Neal, Jefferson’s Fine Arts Library: His Selections for the University of Virginia Together with His Own Architectural Books (Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1976), 57, view on Zotero.
  3. David B. Chase, “The Beginnings of the Landscape Tradition in America,” Historic Preservation 25 (1973): 34–41, view on Zotero.
  4. Louis B. Wright and Virginia Freund, eds., The Historie of Travell into Virginia Britania (1612) (Nendeln and Liechtenstein: Kraus, 1967), view on Zotero.
  5. Marion Tinling, ed., The Correspondence of the Three William Byrds of Westover, Virginia, 1684–1776, 2 vols. (Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1977), view on Zotero.
  6. Gregory A. Stiverson and Patrick H. Butler III, eds., “Virginia in 1732: The Travel Journal of William Hugh Grove,” Virginia Magazine of History and Biography 85 (1977): 18–44, view on Zotero.
  7. 7.0 7.1 H. Paul Caemmerer, The Life of Pierre-Charles L’Enfant, Planner of the City Beautiful, The City of Washington (Washington, DC: National Republic Publishing Company, 1950), view on Zotero.
  8. Thomas Lee Shippen, Westover Described in 1783: A Letter and Drawing Sent by Thomas Lee Shippen, Student of Law in Williamsburg, to His Parents in Philadelphia (Richmond, VA: William Byrd Press, 1952), view on Zotero.
  9. William Parker Cutler, Life, Journals, and Correspondence of Rev. Manasseh Cutler, LL.D. (Athens: Ohio University Press, 1987), view on Zotero.
  10. Karen Madsen, “To Make His Country Smile: William Hamilton’s Woodlands,” Arnoldia 49 (1989): 14–23, view on Zotero.
  11. Constantia [Judith Sargent Murray], “Description of Gray’s Gardens, Pennsylvania,” Massachusetts Magazine, or, Monthly Museum of Knowledge and Rational Entertainment 7, no. 3 (July 1791): 413–17, view on Zotero.
  12. Henry Wansey, Henry Wansey and His American Journal, ed. David John Jeremy (1794; repr., Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society, 1970), view on Zotero.
  13. Charles Arthur Hammond, “‘Where the Arts and the Virtues Unite’: Country Life Near Boston, 1637–1864” ( PhD diss., Boston University, 1982), view on Zotero.
  14. 14.0 14.1 Timothy Dwight, Travels; in New-England and New-York, 4 vols. (New Haven: The Author, 1821–22), view on Zotero.
  15. François-Alexandre-Frédéric, duc de La Rochefoucauld Liancourt, Travels through the United States of North America, the Country of the Iroquois, and Upper Canada, in the Years 1795, 1796, and 1797, ed. Brisson Dupont and Charles Ponges, trans. H. Newman, 2nd ed., 4 vols. (London: R. Philips, 1800), view on Zotero.
  16. Karen Madsen, “William Hamilton’s Woodlands,” (paper presented for seminar in American Landscape, 1790–1900, instructed by E. McPeck, Radcliffe Institute for Advanced Study, Harvard University, 1988), view on Zotero.
  17. John C. Ogden, An Excursion into Bethlehem & Nazareth, in Pennsylvania, in the Year 1799 (Philadelphia: Charles Cist, 1800), view on Zotero.
  18. John Flowers, “People and Plants: North Carolina’s Garden History Revisited,” Eighteenth Century Life 8 (1983): 117–29, view on Zotero.
  19. Joseph Scott, A Geographical Description of Pennsylvania (Philadelphia: Printed by R. Cochran, 1806), view on Zotero.
  20. 20.0 20.1 Flora Ann L. Bynum, Old Salem Garden Guide (Winston-Salem, NC: Old Salem, 1979), view on Zotero.
  21. Margaret Bayard Smith, The First Forty Years of Washington Society, ed. Gaillard Hunt (New York: Charles Scribner’s, 1906), view on Zotero.
  22. Sir Augustus John Foster, Jeffersonian America: Notes on the United States of America Collected in the Years 1805–1806–1807 and 1811–1812, ed. Richard Beale Davis (San Marino, CA: Huntington Library, 1954), view on Zotero.
  23. Philip Lee Phillips, The Beginnings of Washington: As Described in Books, Maps, and Views (Washington, DC: The author, 1917), view on Zotero.
  24. John Lambert, Travels through Canada, and the United States of North America in the Years 1806, 1807, and 1808, 2 vols. (London: Baldwin, Cradock, and Joy, 1816), view on Zotero.
  25. Peter Martin, The Pleasure Gardens of Virginia: From Jamestown to Jefferson (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1991), view on Zotero.
  26. Lillian B. Miller and et al., eds., The Selected Papers of Charles Willson Peale and His Family, vol. 5, The Autobiography of Charles Willson Peale (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2000), view on Zotero.
  27. Jane Mork Gibson, “The Fairmount Waterworks,” Philadelphia Museum of Art Bulletin 84 (1988): 5–40, view on Zotero.
  28. Nina Fletcher Little, Early Years of the McLean Hospital, Recorded in the Journal of George William Folsom, Apothecary at the Asylum in Charlestown (Boston: Francis A. Countway Library of Medicine, 1972), view on Zotero.
  29. John Hebron Moore, “A View of Philadelphia in 1829: Selections from the Journal of B. L. C. Wailes of Natchez,” Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography 78 (July 1954): 353–60, view on Zotero.
  30. Frances Trollope, Domestic Manners of the Americans, 3rd ed., 2 vols. (London: Wittaker, Treacher, 1832), view on Zotero.
  31. A. J. Downing, “Notices on the State and Progress of Horticulture in the United States,” Magazine of Horticulture, Botany, and All Useful Discoveries and Improvements in Rural Affairs 3, no. 1 (January 1837): 1–10, view on Zotero.
  32. Constance Weber, “A Sketch of Joseph Bonaparte,” in Godey’s Lady’s Book (Philadelphia: L. A. Godey, 1854), view on Zotero.
  33. Charles Mason Hovey, “Notes on Gardens and Gardening, in New Bedford, Mass.,” Magazine of Horticulture, Botany, and All Useful Discoveries and Improvements in Rural Affairs 6, no. 9 (September 1840): 361–66, view on Zotero.
  34. Nehemiah Adams, Boston Common (Boston: William D. Ticknor and H. B. Williams, 1842), view on Zotero.
  35. Catherine Evans, Cultural Landscape Report for Longfellow National Historic Site, History and Existing Conditions (Boston: National Park Service, North Atlantic Region, 1993), view on Zotero.
  36. Jacquetta M. Haley, ed., Pleasure Grounds: Andrew Jackson Downing and Montgomery Place (Tarrytown, NY: Sleepy Hollow Press, 1988), view on Zotero.
  37. Thomas S. Kirkbride, “Description of the Pleasure Grounds and Farm of the Pennsylvania Hospital for the Insane, with Remarks,” American Journal of Insanity 4, no. 4 (April 1848): 347–54, view on Zotero.
  38. A.-J. (Antoine Joseph) Dézallier d’Argenville, The Theory and Practice of Gardening; Wherein Is Fully Handled All That Relates to Fine Gardens, . . . Containing Divers Plans, and General Dispositions of Gardens. . . , trans. John James (London: Geo. James, 1712), view on Zotero.
  39. Isaac Ware, A Complete Body of Architecture (London: T. Osborne and J. Shipton, 1756), view on Zotero.
  40. Thomas A. Sheridan, A Complete Dictionary of the English Language, Carefully Revised and Corrected by John Andrews. . . , 5th ed. (Philadelphia: William Young, 1789), view on Zotero.
  41. Humphry Repton, Observations on the Theory and Practice of Landscape Gardening (London: Printed by T. Bensley for J. Taylor, 1803), view on Zotero.
  42. John Abercrombie, Abercrombie’s Practical Gardener Or, Improved System of Modern Horticulture (London: T. Cadell and W. Davies, 1817), view on Zotero.
  43. J. C. (John Claudius) Loudon, An Encyclopaedia of Gardening; Comprising the Theory and Practice of Horticulture, Floriculture, Arboriculture, and Landscape-Gardening, 4th ed. (London: Longman et al., 1826),view on Zotero.
  44. Anonymous, “On Landscape and Picturesque Gardens,” New England Farmer 4, no. 40 (April 28, 1826): 316, view on Zotero.
  45. Noah Webster, An American Dictionary of the English Language, 2 vols. (New York: S. Converse, 1828), view on Zotero.
  46. Thomas Bridgeman, The Young Gardener’s Assistant, 3rd ed. (New York: Geo. Robertson, 1832), view on Zotero.
  47. James E. Teschemacher, “Extracts from Foreign Publications,” Horticultural Register, and Gardener’s Magazine 1 (August 1, 1835): 304–9, view on Zotero.
  48. Edward Sayers, The American Flower Garden Companion, Adapted to the Northern States (Boston: Joseph Breck, 1838), view on Zotero.
  49. Alexander Walsh, “Remarks on Ornamental Gardening, With a Plan of a Fruit, Flower and Vegetable Garden,” New England Farmer, and Horticultural Register 19, no. 39 (March 31, 1841): 308–9, view on Zotero.
  50. Jane Loudon, Gardening for Ladies; And Companion to the Flower-Garden, ed. A. J. Downing (New York: Wiley and Putnam, 1843), view on Zotero.
  51. A. J. [Andrew Jackson] Downing, A Treatise on the Theory and Practice of Landscape Gardening, Adapted to North America. . . , 4th ed. (New York: G. P. Putnam, 1849), view on Zotero.
  52. William H. Ranlett, The Architect, 2 vols. (1849–51; repr., New York: Da Capo, 1976), view on Zotero.
  53. A. J. [Andrew Jackson] Downing, The Architecture of Country Houses; Including Designs for Cottages, Farm-Houses, and Villas (1850; repr., New York: D. Appleton; Da Capo, 1968), view on Zotero.
  54. A. J. Downing, “Our Country Villages,” Horticulturist and Journal of Rural Art and Rural Taste 4, no. 12 (June 1850): 537–41, view on Zotero.
  55. A. J. Downing, “The Management of Large Country Places,” Horticulturist and Journal of Rural Art and Rural Taste 6, no. 3 (March 1851): 105–8, view on Zotero.
  56. George Jacques, “Landscape Gardening in New-England,” Horticulturist and Journal of Rural Art and Rural Taste 7, no. 1 (January 1852): 33–36, view on Zotero.

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History of Early American Landscape Design contributors, "Seat," History of Early American Landscape Design, , https://heald.nga.gov/mediawiki/index.php?title=Seat&oldid=40788 (accessed October 15, 2021).

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