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History of Early American Landscape Design

Samuel Vaughan

[http://www.nga.gov/content/ngaweb/research/casva/research-projects.html A Project of the National Gallery of Art, Center for Advanced Study in the Visual Arts ]
Portrait of Samuel Vaughan

Samuel Vaughan (1720 – 1803) created the first park in the U.S. Located at the State House in Philadelphia, the design celebrated native species and Federal Era values. An English merchant, Vaughan also completed one of the best-known historic plans of the garden at Mount Vernon (1787).

--Emily T. Cooperman
The Cultural Landscape Foundation


Alcove, Bath/Bathhouse, Kitchen garden, Mall, Wilderness, Wood/Woods


  • Vaughan, Samuel, 1787, describing Mount Vernon, plantation of George Washington, Fairfax County, Va. (quoted in Norton and Schrage-Norton 1985: 142)[1]
“Before the front of the house . . . there are lawns, surrounded with gravel walks 19 feet wide. with trees on each side the larger, for shade. outside the walks trees & shrubberies. Parralel [sic] to each exterior side a Kitchen Gardens. with a stately hot house on one side.” [Fig. 4]




The Cultural Landscape Foundation: http://tclf.org/pioneer/samuel-vaughan/biography-samuel-vaughan

The Massachusetts Historical Society: http://www.masshist.org/findingaids/doc.cfm?fa=fa0040


  1. Norton, John D., and Susanne A. Schrage-Norton. 1985. The Upper Garden at Mount Vernon Estate—Its Past, Present, and Future: A Reflection on 18th Century Gardening. Phase II: The Complete Report. Bound typescript. Mount Vernon Ladies’ Association Library. View on Zotero

Retrieved from "https://heald.nga.gov/mediawiki/index.php?title=Samuel_Vaughan&oldid=1937"

History of Early American Landscape Design contributors, "Samuel Vaughan," History of Early American Landscape Design, , https://heald.nga.gov/mediawiki/index.php?title=Samuel_Vaughan&oldid=1937 (accessed December 9, 2023).

A Project of the Center for Advanced Study in the Visual Arts

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