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History of Early American Landscape Design


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(Rock work, Rock-work)


Although not frequently mentioned in common usage, rockwork was much discussed in treatise literature, particularly in the nineteenth century when the feature became popular. The aesthetic and associative possibilities of rocks in landscape design had been recognized since at least the eighteenth century. Thomas Whately, in Observations on Modern Gardening (1770), included a chapter about rocks in which he insisted that they be regarded as part of an aesthetic ensemble. He wrote,

Rills, rivulets, and cascades abound among rocks; they are natural to the scene; and such scenes commonly require every accompaniment which can be procured for them: mere rocks, unless they are peculiarly adapted to certain impressions, may surprise, but can hardly please; they are too far removed from common life, too barren, and inhospitable, rather desolate than solitary, and more horrid than terrible. . . . In the choice and the application of these accompaniments, consists all our power over rocks; they are themselves too vast and too stubborn to submit to our control; but by the addition or removal of the appendages which we can command, parts may be shewn or concealed, and the characters with their impressions may be weakened or enforced: to adapt the accompaniments accordingly, is the utmost ambition of art when rocks are the subject.
Their most distinguished characters are, dignity, terror, and fancy: the expressions of all are constantly wild; and sometimes a rocky scene is only wild, without pretensions to any particular character. [1]

By the nineteenth century, artificially constructed mounted arrangements of rocks, known as rockwork (or rockery), had become a recognized garden feature. Edward Sayers (1837) considered a well-designed rockery to be the finishing touch to a designed landscape. In 1828, Noah Webster defined rockwork simply as “stones fixed in mortar” to imitate rocks. In 1848, however, he elaborated upon this definition, describing the term as an elevated construction composed of earth and other materials covered with rock, devoted to growing plants suited to this environment. Indeed, George William Johnson, in A Dictionary of Modern Gardening (1847), advised strongly that plants should be the focus of a rockwork.

Fig. 1, J. C. Loudon, "View of the rustic arch," in The Suburban Gardener (1838), p. 586, fig. 240.

The primary stimulus for the development of rockwork was the interest in and availability of specialized plants and shrubs that required special soil and climatic conditions. The shallow soil typical of the feature and the radiant heat of sun-warmed rocks permitted the growth of vegetation that often would not flourish in other areas of the garden. James E. Teschemacher, for example, recommended imported Alpine plants for rockworks; James Arnold planted his rockwork with verbena and petunias; and Sayers suggested rhododendrons and kalmias, shrubs that were prized by plant collectors. [2] A description by C. M. Hovey in 1846 of W. H. Corcoran’s rockwork suggests how the feature might have been watered through an elaborate irrigation system.

Treatise writers provided homeowners with considerable advice regarding the construction of rockworks. Most writers recommended employing natural rock, although it is clear from Johnson’s discussion that cement was used liberally in addition to other durable materials, such as bricks. Johnson even suggested using soil and rubbish to construct the core of the mound, which was then covered with rocks. As to the type of rock, British author J. C. Loudon and American author A. J. Downing advised using rocks from local geological formations. Jane Loudon (1845) argued that relying on “one kind of stone has always a better effect,” while American writer Robert Buist (1841) recommended the “greatest possible variety of character, size, and form.” Nonetheless, he insisted that rocks of the same kind and color should be placed near each other. In this vein, most treatise writers recommended constructing the rockwork so that the feature would appear natural. Apparently, this result was not easily achieved, as suggested by Downing’s comment in 1851 that rockworks were “dangerous features.” If the rockwork appeared artificial, he explained, it would be “offensive to good sense and good taste.”

Placement of the rockwork also greatly concerned treatise writers, who repeatedly advised that appropriate locations be selected. Authors disagreed, however, as to what made the best position. Jane Loudon, for example, recommended “an open airy situation,” while Joseph Breck (1851) insisted that it be concealed from the “general flower-garden” and shaded for the benefit of the plants. Rockworks were usually sited near the greenhouse (providing a mutually reinforcing display of plants and allowing ease in transplantation), in distant areas of the pleasure ground (along walks where gravel provided a visual connection to the rockwork), or near bodies of water. When constructed as part of a water feature, a rockwork could support aquatic plants [Fig. 1].

-- Anne L. Helmreich



  • Teschemacher, James E., 1 November 1835, describing the vicinity of Boston, Mass. (Horticultural Register 1: 411) [3]
“The vicinity of Boston abounds so much in every variety of beautiful landscape, that there is scarcely any place where art is less required in laying out pleasure grounds; walks now winding through the small adjacent copse . . . then leading into the cultivated flower garden, with its basins or ponds of water for aquatics, its rock work, the trellis covered with climbing roses leading to a rosarium.”

Fig. 2, J. C. Loudon, View of the rockwork, in The Suburban Gardener (1838), p. 584, fig. 237.
  • Loudon, J. C., 1838, describing the Lawrencian Villa, residence of Mrs. Lawrence, Drayton Green, near London, England (pp. 583–84) [4]
“Proceeding toward the house, a view of a handsome weeping ash (20) is obtained from the point 19: and, at the farther extremity of the walk, the vases placed at 1, 2, 3 on the plan have an excellent effect, backed by the marginal plantation of evergreens. Leaving the walk at 19, and passing the weeping ash at 20, if we advance on the lawn to 21, and look towards the south, we have the pol-lard vista . . . and, changing the position to 22, we have the view of the rockwork, statue of Fame, &c. [Fig. 2]
“On the right and left . . . are two groups of rockwork, with concealed springs, which drop from rock to rock, and from stone to stone, and form curious little moist places for aquatic plants.”

  • Hovey, C. M., September 1840, “Notes on Gardens and Gardening, in New Bedford, Mass,” describing the residence of James Arnold, New Bedford, Mass. (Magazine of Horticulture 6: 363) [5]
“A rock-work, in a small way, but erected mostly with pure specimens of quartz, &c., and covered with verbenas and petunias, is an interesting feature of this garden.”

  • Hovey, C. M., July 1846, “Notes of a Visit to several Gardens in the Vicinity of Washington, Baltimore, Philadelphia, and New York,” describing the garden of W. H. Corcoran, Washington, D.C. (Magazine of Horticulture 12: 245) [6]
“At one end of the garden, is a very neatly constructed rock work, with a basin in the centre, supplied with water from a cistern placed at some distance, but which is only a few feet higher than the water. Small tubes project through the rock work, and by turning a cock, the water is thrown up in several small jets and falls into the basin. Such fountains are constructed at very little expense, and in small gardens they afford much gratification.”


“1832. Drooping fountains . . . overflowing vases, shells (as the chama gigas), cisterns, sarcophagi, dripping rocks, and rockworks, are easily formed, requiring only the reservoir to be as high as the orifice whence the dip or descent proceeds. This description of fountains, with a surrounding basin, are peculiarly adapted for the growth of aquatic plants. . . .
“1838. Rockworks for effect or character require more consideration than most gardeners are aware of. The first thing is to study the character of the country, and of the strata of earthy materials, whether earth, gravel, sand, or rock, or a mere nucleus of either of these, such as they actually exist, so as to decide whether rocks may, with propriety, be introduced at all; or, if to be introduced, of what kind, and to what extent. The design being thus finally fixed on, the execution is more a matter of labor than of skill. . . .
Fig. 3, J. C. Loudon, Elevation of the rock-work, in An Encyclopaedia of Gardening (1826), p. 884, fig. 619.
“6525. The ground-plan and figure of the elevation of the rock-work must, as in the case of the aquarium, be made to harmonise with surrounding objects. Simple outlines and surfaces, not too much broken, show the plants to most advantage, and are not so liable to ridicule as imitations of hills or mountains, or high narrow cones, or peaks of scoriæ in the Chinese manner, which are to be seen in some places, A ground-plan, in the form of a crescent, or of any wavy figure widest towards the middle part of its length, and with the surface not steeper than forty-five degrees . . . will be found well suited to the less durable materials, such as bricks, pudding-stone, scoriæ, &c. which are found in flat countries. Sometimes one side of such rock-works may be nearly perpendicular, in which case, if facing the north, it affords an excellent situation for ferns and mosses.” [Fig. 3]

ROCK’-WORK, n. Stones fixed in mortar in imitation of the asperities of rocks, forming a wall.
“2. A natural wall of rock. Addison.”

  • Teschemacher, James E., 1 November 1835, “On Horticultural Architecture” (Horticultural Register 1: 410–11) [3]
“In all gardens a rock work is a device which, if well erected has a good effec; tsuch [sic] a receptacle for plants in this climate, where the purity and clearness of the atmosphere vies with that prevalent in Alpine regions, it appears to us would succeed admirably. The class of plant proper for the crevices in such an erection, are those whose small size yet elegance of foliage or floral form, have given them great interest with horticulturists, and whose habits of growth, particularly adapt them for covering and ornamenting the barren projections of rocks with their profuse blossoms.”

  • Sayers, Edward, 1 November 1837, “On Laying out Gardens and Ornamental Plantations” (Horticultural Register 3: 410) [9]
“In laying out grounds and ornamental gardens, many pleasing appendages may be very appropriately placed, to give a good effect, and appear to have a real meaning: as rustic arbors, ornamental seats, ornamental water, rockeries, and the like additional appendages, which, when properly placed and managed, give a finish to the grounds, and have the most pleasing effect, but when badly done, their absence is better than their presence; for, in such cases, they have the appearance of a feeble effort to accomplish the intended purpose of the design.”

  • Sayers, Edward, 1838, The American Flower Garden Companion (pp. 19, 131–32) [10]
“The Rockery, is perhaps one of the best features of the flower garden and is particularly adapted to this climate: its location depends on taste and circumstances. In most cases, it is placed in a very conspicuous situation, as the front of the Green-house, principal entrances, and such like. By general observation, I have found that a plant thrives best on the rockery, when placed in a situation where the principal part of it is partially shaded by shrubbery or trees.
“In extensive pleasure grounds the rockery has a good effect when placed distinct from the flower garden, and near a rustic arbor or ornamental bridge, or seat; and if placed by the side of a retired walk, near the lawn or grass plot, it has an easy effect. The form and dimensions, may be so as to accommodate the location it is placed in: a long oval line, or almost any form pleases.
“The materials should be rough stones, and good rich earth; the base to be laid with stones, and then a quantity of soil: this method may be pursued until the whole is completed. When finished, it should have as much as possible a natural appearance, and ridge-like shape. . ..
“On the margin of the grass plot, a serpentine or some well contrived walk, bordered with shrubbery, leading to a rockery, of a semicircular form on the north side, and almost straight on the south. A rockery so situated, might be planted with various perennial and annual plants, and dwarf shrubs, which would there find a natural aspect and location. On the circular side of the rockery, divided by a walk, a broad belt might be planted with different kinds of native shrubs, as Rhododendrons, Kalmias, Azelias, Andromedas, and Spireas.
“In some convenient place near the rockery, a rustic arbor may be very properly placed, and covered with native vines and creepers, for the accommodation of visiters [sic], and the junior members of the family who wish to study botany.”

  • Buist, Robert, 1841, The American Flower Garden Directory (p. 12) [11]
“In some secluded spot [of a flower garden] rock-work or a fountain, or both, may be erected; the foundation of the former should consist of mounds of earth, which will answer the purpose of more solid erections, and will make the stones go farther: rocks of the same kind and colour should be placed together, and the greatest possible variety of character, size and form, should be studied, the whole showing an evident and well defined connexion. These erections generally are stiff artificial disjointed masses, and often decorated with plants having no affinity to their arid location.”

ROCKWORK is a very common ornament in gardens; and, producing a striking effect, it is introduced more frequently than judiciously. Rockwork may be divided into two kinds: that which is intended to imitate natural rocks, and that which is intended merely as a nidus for rock-plants. Imitations of nature should always consist of large blocks of stone of the same kind, and should, for the most part, be disposed in imitation of some kind of stratification. At the same time, as in many parts of the country, large, round, or roundish, or angular blocks of stone are found distributed over the surface, it is not objectionable to collect these together in groups so as to form a feature in scenery, and to insert plants among them. Rockwork, as a mere nidus for plants, should never be attempted on a large scale without the introduction of large blocks of stone, and some kind of stratification being adopted; and in this case, as before mentioned, using one kind of stone will produce an effect in accordance with that of nature. On a small scale, however, different kinds of stone may be used, more especially when these are well covered with plants; but even on a small scale, one kind of stone has always a better effect, and will be felt more agreeable to the eye, than a mixture of bricks, flints, pieces of granite, freestones, and perhaps marble, shells, fragments of carved stone, and even roots, which are not unfrequently seen in even the best gardens. Rockwork should always be an independent feature. It rarely looks well when piled up against a wall, or around the roots of a tree, or in any situation where it is overshadowed by trees; in short, where it does not form the prominent feature in the scene. It looks well near water and merging into it, or in an open airy garden, where it is surrounded by a gravel walk; but it does not look so well when rising from turf, without an adjoining walk, or when large shrubs grow up among the stones. Where there are collections of such plants as Saxifrages or other alpines, or of Cistuses, Helianthemums, or other mountain shrubs, rockwork is very desirable; and in such cases it may be placed on a lawn, as a feature in a general collection of herbaceous plants or shrubs arranged according to the natural system; but rockwork as an ornamental object, or as a nidus for a miscellaneous collection of plants, should always be in an open airy situation, near a pond, or surrounded by a walk. In short, it may be laid down as a general principal that rockwork should either adjoin gravel or a piece of water; and that it should seldom or never adjoin trees or grass, or walls or buildings.
“One of the most common faults in rockwork is the indiscriminate mixture together of all sorts of stones, bricks, shells, fragments of statuary or sculpture, and even roots of trees; which latter object, though very suitable as receptacles for plants, should always be arranged in masses, apart from any intermixture of stones.—See ROOTWORK.”

  • Johnson, George William, 1847, A Dictionary of Modern Gardening (pp. 506–8) [13]
ROCK-WORK. ‘Mere rocks, unless they are peculiarly adapted to certain impressions, may surprise, but can hardly please; they are too far removed from common life, too barren and inhospitable. . . .
“‘If such a scene occurs within the precincts of a park or a garden, no expense should be spared to meliorate the soil, wherever any soil can be found. Without some vegetation among the rocks, they are only an object of curiosity or a subject of wonder; but verdure alone will give some relief to the dreariness of the scene, and shrubs or bushes, without trees, are a sufficiency of wood. The thickets may also be extended by the creeping plants—such as pyracantha, vines, and ivy—to wind up the sides, or cluster on the tops of the rocks. . . .
“‘If the body of the rock is intended to be raised much above the ground level, a quantity of soil and rubbish should be carried into the centre of the space. . . . Rough, bold, angular projections, and deeply-formed chasms, are the principal features in natural scenery which please us most. ...
“When, however, every stone has been arranged to suit the eye, the interstices between them are to be filled up with any kind of rough mortar. Of course fissures, and similar places intended for the plants which are to cover the rock, must be left open, so that the roots may penetrate to the soil beneath the stones. The next operation is to daub the whole mass over with Roman cement . . . and rock-work, thus constructed, is beyond all comparison far more natural than that made in the usual way. It has none of that disjointed appearance which usually accompanies rock-work made without cement. . . .’—Whately.
Plants suited for Rock-work are:—Rhododendron ferrugineum; R. hirsutum; Arctostaphylos Uva ursi; Chamoeledron procumbens; Sedum rupestre; S. Forsterianum; S. populifolium; S. villosum; S. hexangulare; Arbutus phillyreaefolia; A. pilosa; Mahonia aquifolium; Ramondia pyrenaica; Soldanella alpina; And rosace villosa; Crydalis noblis; Phlox ovata; P. subulata; P. nivalis; Vinca minor, florepleno; Campanula pumila; Gentiana verna; Dryas octopetala; Digitalis lutea; Sibthorpia europaea; Arabus ailpina; Draba azoides; Premanthes purpurea; P. Muralis; Antennaria plantaginea; Gnaphalium arenanum; Polypodium vulgare cambricum; P. dryopteris; Onoclea sensibilis; Asplenium adiantum nigrum; Pteris caudata; Adiantum Capillus veneris; Aspidium rigidum; A. Lonchitis.”

ROCK’-WORK, (-wurk,) n. 1. Stones fixed in mortar in imitation of the asperities of rocks, forming a wall.
“2. In gardening, a pile of stones or rocks, . . . for growing plants adapted for such a situation. P. Cyc.”

  • Downing, A. J., 1849, A Treatise on the Theory and Practice of Landscape Gardening (pp. 461–63) [15]
Rockwork is another kind of decoration sometimes introduced in particular portions of the scenery of a residence. . . . When well executed, that is, so as to have a natural and harmonious expression, the effect is highly pleasing. We have seen, however, in places where a high keeping and good taste otherwise prevailed, such a barbarous mélange, or confused pile of stones mingled with soil, and planted over with dwarfish plants dignified with the name of rockwork, that we have been led to believe that it is much better to attempt nothing of the kind, unless there is a suitable place for its display, and at the same time, the person attempting it is sufficiently an artist, imbued with the spirit of nature in her various compositions and combinations, to be able to produce something higher than a caricature of her works.
“The object of rockwork is to produce in scenery or portions of a scene, naturally in a great measure destitute of groups of rocks and their accompanying drapery of plants and foliage, something of the picturesque effect which such natural assemblages confer. To succeed in this, it is evident that we must not heap up little hillocks of mould and smooth stones, in the midst of an open lawn, or the centre of a flower-garden. But if we can make choice of a situation where a rocky bank or knoll already partially exists, or would be in keeping with the form of the ground and the character of the scene, then we may introduce such accompaniments with the best possible hope of success. . . .
Fig. 4, Anonymous, "Rockwork," in A. J. Downing, A Treatise on the Theory and Practice of Landscape Gardening (1849), p. 462, fig. 90.
“We will begin by collecting from some rocky hill or valley in the neighborhood of the estate, a sufficient quantity of rugged rocks, in size from a few pounds to half a ton or more, if necessary, preferring always such as are already coated with mosses and lichens. These we will assemble around the base of a large rock, in an irregular somewhat pyramidal group, bedding them sometimes partially, sometimes almost entirely in soil heaped in irregular piles around the rock. The rocks must be arranged in a natural manner, avoiding all regularity and appearance of formal art, but placing them sometimes in groups of half a dozen together, overhanging each other, and sometimes half bedded in the soil, and a little distance apart. There are no rules to be given for such operations, but the study of natural groups, of a character similar to that which we wish to produce.” [Fig. 4]

  • Breck, Joseph, 1851, The Flower-Garden (pp. 30–31) [16]
“As many of the plants succeed best in the shade, a portion of the rock-work should be partly surrounded with trees or shrubs, that they may derive that advantage. Trilliums, Orchis, Cyprepediums, and some few ferns, and a great variety of native plants which are found in our woods, with an appropriate soil, would flourish well in such a spot. The rockery should be partly, or wholly, concealed from the general flower-garden by shrubs or trees. It may be approached from the main walk under a rustic arch, mantled with climbers, or through a winding passage among evergreens. Rockeries should be formed as much as possible of natural materials; the stones, or fragments of rock of which it is composed, should not bear the marks of the quarry, or any art. For a small garden one collection of rocks or stones, with a walk round it, will be sufficient; but when a person has some fancy, a variety of beds or collections may be made with winding walks around them, which, if relieved with some dwarf evergreen shrubs, may be made to show off a great variety of dwarf plants to the very best advantage. Rockeries should be conspicuous for a natural character. No appearance of art, and no approach to the regularity or smoothness proper to works of art, will be at all in place here.”

  • L., R. B., June 1851, “On Artificial Rockeries” (Horticulturist 6: 278–79)
“Large rockeries, like large flower gardens, lose their interest with their limited space. . . . Indeed, a low confined dell, the channel of a ravine, or a quiet secluded hollow, retired from everything architectural or artificial, appears to be the most proper place for a rockery. The spectator should come upon it quite unexpectedly, but not by a sudden transition of the general scene, although circumstances may often occur to render sudden transitions unavoidable.
“One of the prettiest rockeries I ever beheld, was made in an old stone quarry, which in its original condition, was not only dangerous, but a serious disfiguration to the place. Trees were planted on the margin, and threw their dependent branches irregularly down the face of the rocks. Ferns and other plants, were planted in niches and clefts made in the rock in different places; paths were also cut for walking along the steep sides; groups were arranged in different forms and of different heights; jets were introduced in different places, in small basins, and formed the most enchanting spot imaginable. . . .
Rockwork may sometimes be placed in the proximity of glass structures, and even in flower gardens, with good effect, when these are of a gothic or rustic character, but here the rockwork must have none of the savage wildness of nature about it, and consequently nothing of the impressive picturesqueness of natural rocks. It should be rendered conformable to the objects around it, and appearing to be placed there for the purpose of cultivating those plants that succeed best among rocks; or for showing the natural habits of plants that grow naturally among rocks, or those that produce a better effect when planted on them. In these cases the rocks should be more artistically and tastefully arranged. It should be clearly shown by their arrangement and accompaniments, that no attempt is made to imitate nature, but rather a proper place for displaying and cultivating the plants that are grown upon them. . . .
“It may likewise be observed that rockeries should always be in detached groups, and whether large or small, should never present straight lines or flat surfaces. The more irregular the arrangement, the more striking the effect produced. It should also be so situated as to be partly shaded and overhung by pendulous trees, to screen it from the glare of sunshine; it should always be rather cool, and if possible, shut in by itself by shrubbery, and if possible, also, should be accompanied by a jet d’eau or basin of water, or both.”

  • Downing, A. J., June 1851, “On Artificial Rockeries” (Horticulturist 6: 279)
“Both rockwork and artificial ponds are, in our estimation, dangerous features in ornamental gardens, for any one to meddle with who has not a great deal of taste, or a lively feeling of natural beauty and fitness. We quite agree with our correspondent, that they should occupy secluded spots in the grounds, and that they are never so successful as when they may be wholly mistaken for nature’s own work. A little round pond, like a soup basin, set in an open, smooth lawn, and a pile of rocks heaped up upon a formal mound, as we have sometimes seen them, in the midst of high artificial flower garden scenery, are equally offensive to good sense and good taste. Nature puts her small pools of water, and her ledge of rocks filled with mosses and ferns, in the depths of some secluded dell, or under the shelter of some dark leafy bank of verdure.”





  1. Thomas Whately, Observations on Modern Gardening, reprint of 1770 ed. (London: Garland Press, 1982), view on Zotero. For more about the history of rockwork, see Dennis Lambin, “From Grottos to the Alps: A Contribution to a History of Rock and Alpine Gardens,” Journal of Garden History 14 (1994): 236–56, view on Zotero.
  2. The plant list provided by George William Johnson in 1847 in his definition of rockwork is a helpful guide to the range of plant material associated with rockworks. Since he was writing primarily for a British audience, however, this list must be treated with caution when considering the American context.
  3. 3.0 3.1 James E. Teschemacher, "On Horticultural Architecture", The Horticultural Register, and Gardener’s Magazine, 1 (1835), 409–12, view on Zotero.
  4. J. C. (John Claudius) Loudon, The Suburban Gardener, and Villa Companion (London: Longman et al, 1838), view on Zotero.
  5. Charles Mason Hovey, "Notes on Gardens and Gardening, in New Bedford, Mass.", The Magazine of Horticulture, Botany, and All Useful Discoveries and Improvements in Rural Affairs, 6 (1840), 361–66, view on Zotero.
  6. Charles Mason Hovey, "Notes of a Visit to Several Gardens in the Vicinity of Washington, Baltimore, Philadelphia, and New York, in October, 1845", The Magazine of Horticulture, Botany, and All Useful Discoveries and Improvements in Rural Affairs, 12 (1846), 241–48, view on Zotero.
  7. J. C. (John Claudius) Loudon, An Encyclopaedia of Gardening; Comprising the Theory and Practice of Horticulture, Floriculture, Arboriculture, and Landscape-Gardening, 4th edn (London: Longman et al, 1826), view on Zotero.
  8. Noah Webster, An American Dictionary of the English Language, 2 vols (New York: S. Converse, 1828), view on Zotero.
  9. Edward Sayers, "On Laying out Gardens and Ornamental Plantations", The Horticultural Register and Gardener’s Magazine, 3 (1837), 409–11, view on Zotero.
  10. Edward Sayers, The American Flower Garden Companion, Adapted to the Northern States (Boston: Joseph Breck and Company, 1838), view on Zotero.
  11. Robert Buist, The American Flower Garden Directory, 2nd edn (Philadelphia: Carey and Hart, 1841), view on Zotero.
  12. Jane Loudon, Gardening for Ladies; and Companion to the Flower-Garden, ed. by A. J. Downing (New York: Wiley & Putnam, 1845), view on Zotero.
  13. George William Johnson, A Dictionary of Modern Gardening, ed. by David Landreth (Philadelphia: Lea and Blanchard, 1847), view on Zotero.
  14. Noah Webster, An American Dictionary of the English Language... Revised and Enlarged by Chauncey A. Goodrich.... (Springfield, Mass.: George and Charles Merriam, 1848), view on Zotero.
  15. A. J. [Andrew Jackson] Downing, A Treatise on the Theory and Practice of Landscape Gardening, Adapted to North America, 4th edn (Washington, D.C.: Dumbarton Oaks Research Library and Collection, 1991), view on Zotero.
  16. Joseph Breck, The Flower-Garden, or Breck’s Book of Flowers (Boston: John P. Jewett, 1851), view on Zotero.

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