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History of Early American Landscape Design

Difference between revisions of "Pot"

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==History==
 
==History==
The plant or flower pot was a flat-bottomed,
 
tubular container that was usually conical in
 
profile, with little ornamentation [Fig. 1]. Pots
 
contrasted with larger and more decorative or
 
sculptural urns and vases also used to grow
 
garden plants (see Vase).1 Flower pots, however,
 
could be ornamented in subtle ways. For
 
example, recent archaeological evidence
 
reveals the use of “notched-rim” flower pots
 
and flower pots with “neoclassical rouletting”
 
at Monticello. At Williamsburg, Va., other
 
forms have been found. These include a pot
 
dated c. 1740 with a folded rim sloping downward,
 
a later pot with a “triangular-sectioned
 
rim and a cordon immediately below it,”
 
another ornamented with “a shield of arms
 
cast in relief and roughly similar to that of
 
Queen Anne,” and another with “several
 
winged cherubic faces.”2 Rembrandt Peale’s
 
1801 portrait of his brother, Rubens, depicts
 
an ornamented flower pot with a scored line
 
and a braid just below its lip [Fig. 2]. Such
 
attention to ornament sometimes extended to
 
saucers that accompanied pots to collect
 
  
water that drained from them.3 The size, type,  
+
The plant or flower pot was a flat-bottomed, tubular container that was usually conical in profile, with little ornamentation [Fig. 1]. Pots contrasted with larger and more decorative or sculptural urns and vases also used to grow garden plants (see Vase).1 Flower pots, however, could be ornamented in subtle ways. For example, recent archaeological evidence reveals the use of “notched-rim” flower pots and flower pots with “neoclassical rouletting” at Monticello. At Williamsburg, Va., other forms have been found. These include a pot dated c. 1740 with a folded rim sloping downward, a later pot with a “triangular-sectioned rim and a cordon immediately below it,” another ornamented with “a shield of arms cast in relief and roughly similar to that of Queen Anne,” and another with “several winged cherubic faces.”2 Rembrandt Peale’s 1801 portrait of his brother, Rubens, depicts an ornamented flower pot with a scored line and a braid just below its lip [Fig. 2]. Such attention to ornament sometimes extended to saucers that accompanied pots to collect water that drained from them.3 The size, type, and decoration of such containers depended upon function and plant type, and descriptions of them abound in nineteenth-century treatises. J. C. Loudon’s An Encyclopedia of Gardening (1826), for instance, included specifications for several types of pots, including those designed for the propagation of specialized plant types, such as aquatics.  
and decoration of such containers depended  
 
upon function and plant type, and descriptions  
 
of them abound in nineteenth-century  
 
treatises. J. C. Loudon’s An Encyclopedia of  
 
Gardening (1826), for instance, included specifications  
 
for several types of pots, including  
 
those designed for the propagation of specialized  
 
plant types, such as aquatics.  
 
  
Generally, pots were made of earthenware,  
+
Generally, pots were made of earthenware, clay-fired at low temperatures, and were covered with lead glaze or left unglazed. Occasionally, stoneware (coarse pottery made of clay that contained large amounts of silica, flint, and sand) and Chinese porcelain (translucent stoneware) were used. In eighteenth-century America, coarse earthenware (typically made from red clay) was chiefly produced in the Northeast. During the first half of the nineteenth century, the number of American manufacturers producing flower pots increased, as did the range of goods they produced. In the Northeast, potters were limited by coarser clays and continued working in the earthenware tradition. Further south, especially in places like New Jersey, Ohio, and Virginia, potters increasingly turned to stoneware in the production of flower pots, thus resulting in much regional variation.4
clay-fired at low temperatures, and  
 
were covered with lead glaze or left  
 
unglazed. Occasionally, stoneware (coarse  
 
pottery made of clay that contained large  
 
amounts of silica, flint, and sand) and Chinese  
 
porcelain (translucent stoneware) were  
 
used. In eighteenth-century America, coarse  
 
earthenware (typically made from red clay)  
 
was chiefly produced in the Northeast. During  
 
the first half of the nineteenth century,  
 
the number of American manufacturers producing  
 
flower pots increased, as did the  
 
range of goods they produced. In the Northeast,  
 
potters were limited by coarser clays  
 
and continued working in the earthenware  
 
tradition. Further south, especially in places  
 
  
like New Jersey, Ohio, and Virginia, potters
+
The use of glaze or paint was one point of disagreement. In 1834, seedsman Grant Thorburn, reflecting back upon his career, claimed that painting flower pots green attracted customers. British author George William Johnson underscored the usefulness of painting and glazing—both of which resulted in a glassy finish—because they helped seal in water and thus keep plant roots “more uniformly moist and warm.” On the other hand, English gardener Jane Loudon claimed that it was preferable to use porous material that allowed water to escape. Frequent treatise citations about glazed pots, however, suggest that glazed, painted, and other forms of decorated pots were quite important “embellishments,” to use A. J. Downing’s term, for the garden.  
increasingly turned to stoneware in the production
 
of flower pots, thus resulting in
 
much regional variation.4
 
  
The use of glaze or paint was one point of
+
Pots could be moved easily within a space or transferred from indoors to outdoors [Fig. 3]. William Hamilton, for example, occasionally rearranged his pots according to size in his green- or hothouse and, in good weather, moved them out to a nearby yard. In the painted views of Thomas Say’s garden in New Harmony, Ind. [Fig. 4], and of the Friends Almshouse in Philadelphia [Fig. 5], the artists depict potted plants scattered about the garden as decorative elements in the scene. In a letter to his son Rembrandt, Charles Willson Peale commended his botanist son Rubens for his display of pots around a basin and then painted them in his view of Belfield. At the Moreau House in Morrisville, Pa., as represented by Anne-Marguerite-Henriette Rouillé de Marigny Hyde de Neuville in 1809, potted plants were used to ornament the barrier demarcating the drive to the house [Fig. 6]. The frequent use of pots in portraits and house views suggests they were an essential part of gardening, becoming emblematic in places where horticulture was seriously pursued. In contrast, vases and urns in gardens and views of gardens were associated with classical culture.  
disagreement. In 1834, seedsman Grant
 
Thorburn, reflecting back upon his career,
 
claimed that painting flower pots green
 
attracted customers. British author George
 
William Johnson underscored the usefulness
 
of painting and glazing—both of which
 
resulted in a glassy finish—because they
 
helped seal in water and thus keep plant
 
roots “more uniformly moist and warm.” On
 
the other hand, English gardener Jane
 
Loudon claimed that it was preferable to use
 
porous material that allowed water to
 
escape. Frequent treatise citations about
 
glazed pots, however, suggest that glazed,
 
painted, and other forms of decorated pots
 
were quite important “embellishments,” to
 
use A. J. Downing’s term, for the garden.
 
Pots could be moved easily within a space  
 
or transferred from indoors to outdoors  
 
[Fig. 3]. William Hamilton, for example, occasionally  
 
rearranged his pots according to size in his green- or hothouse and, in good  
 
weather, moved them out to a nearby yard. In  
 
the painted views of Thomas Say’s garden in  
 
New Harmony, Ind. [Fig. 4], and of the  
 
Friends Almshouse in Philadelphia [Fig. 5],  
 
the artists depict potted plants scattered  
 
about the garden as decorative elements in  
 
the scene. In a letter to his son Rembrandt,  
 
Charles Willson Peale commended his botanist  
 
son Rubens for his display of pots around a  
 
basin and then painted them in his view of  
 
Belfield. At the Moreau House in Morrisville,  
 
Pa., as represented by Anne-Marguerite-
 
Henriette Rouillé de Marigny Hyde de  
 
Neuville in 1809, potted plants were used to  
 
ornament the barrier demarcating the drive  
 
to the house [Fig. 6]. The frequent use of pots  
 
in portraits and house views suggests they  
 
were an essential part of gardening, becoming emblematic in places where horticulture  
 
was seriously pursued. In contrast, vases and  
 
urns in gardens and views of gardens were  
 
associated with classical culture.  
 
  
Pots were closely related to boxes or  
+
Pots were closely related to boxes or cases. Square containers, often made of wood, were used to house small shrubs and trees, such as oranges, laurels, or myrtles. Boxes, as opposed to pots, could accommodate larger plants and many illustrations of American gardens portray trees in such containers placed in front of structures like piazzas (as at George Washington’s Mount Vernon) [Fig. 7] and in the garden itself as in the view of Springland, William Russell Birch’s estate near Bristol, Pa. [Fig. 8].  
cases. Square containers, often made of  
 
wood, were used to house small shrubs and  
 
trees, such as oranges, laurels, or myrtles.  
 
Boxes, as opposed to pots, could accommodate  
 
larger plants and many illustrations of  
 
American gardens portray trees in such containers  
 
placed in front of structures like  
 
piazzas (as at George Washington’s Mount  
 
Vernon) [Fig. 7] and in the garden itself as in  
 
the view of Springland, William Russell  
 
Birch’s estate near Bristol, Pa. [Fig. 8].  
 
  
ALH
+
-- ''Anne L. Helmreich''
  
 
==Texts==
 
==Texts==

Revision as of 18:23, February 2, 2016

History

The plant or flower pot was a flat-bottomed, tubular container that was usually conical in profile, with little ornamentation [Fig. 1]. Pots contrasted with larger and more decorative or sculptural urns and vases also used to grow garden plants (see Vase).1 Flower pots, however, could be ornamented in subtle ways. For example, recent archaeological evidence reveals the use of “notched-rim” flower pots and flower pots with “neoclassical rouletting” at Monticello. At Williamsburg, Va., other forms have been found. These include a pot dated c. 1740 with a folded rim sloping downward, a later pot with a “triangular-sectioned rim and a cordon immediately below it,” another ornamented with “a shield of arms cast in relief and roughly similar to that of Queen Anne,” and another with “several winged cherubic faces.”2 Rembrandt Peale’s 1801 portrait of his brother, Rubens, depicts an ornamented flower pot with a scored line and a braid just below its lip [Fig. 2]. Such attention to ornament sometimes extended to saucers that accompanied pots to collect water that drained from them.3 The size, type, and decoration of such containers depended upon function and plant type, and descriptions of them abound in nineteenth-century treatises. J. C. Loudon’s An Encyclopedia of Gardening (1826), for instance, included specifications for several types of pots, including those designed for the propagation of specialized plant types, such as aquatics.

Generally, pots were made of earthenware, clay-fired at low temperatures, and were covered with lead glaze or left unglazed. Occasionally, stoneware (coarse pottery made of clay that contained large amounts of silica, flint, and sand) and Chinese porcelain (translucent stoneware) were used. In eighteenth-century America, coarse earthenware (typically made from red clay) was chiefly produced in the Northeast. During the first half of the nineteenth century, the number of American manufacturers producing flower pots increased, as did the range of goods they produced. In the Northeast, potters were limited by coarser clays and continued working in the earthenware tradition. Further south, especially in places like New Jersey, Ohio, and Virginia, potters increasingly turned to stoneware in the production of flower pots, thus resulting in much regional variation.4

The use of glaze or paint was one point of disagreement. In 1834, seedsman Grant Thorburn, reflecting back upon his career, claimed that painting flower pots green attracted customers. British author George William Johnson underscored the usefulness of painting and glazing—both of which resulted in a glassy finish—because they helped seal in water and thus keep plant roots “more uniformly moist and warm.” On the other hand, English gardener Jane Loudon claimed that it was preferable to use porous material that allowed water to escape. Frequent treatise citations about glazed pots, however, suggest that glazed, painted, and other forms of decorated pots were quite important “embellishments,” to use A. J. Downing’s term, for the garden.

Pots could be moved easily within a space or transferred from indoors to outdoors [Fig. 3]. William Hamilton, for example, occasionally rearranged his pots according to size in his green- or hothouse and, in good weather, moved them out to a nearby yard. In the painted views of Thomas Say’s garden in New Harmony, Ind. [Fig. 4], and of the Friends Almshouse in Philadelphia [Fig. 5], the artists depict potted plants scattered about the garden as decorative elements in the scene. In a letter to his son Rembrandt, Charles Willson Peale commended his botanist son Rubens for his display of pots around a basin and then painted them in his view of Belfield. At the Moreau House in Morrisville, Pa., as represented by Anne-Marguerite-Henriette Rouillé de Marigny Hyde de Neuville in 1809, potted plants were used to ornament the barrier demarcating the drive to the house [Fig. 6]. The frequent use of pots in portraits and house views suggests they were an essential part of gardening, becoming emblematic in places where horticulture was seriously pursued. In contrast, vases and urns in gardens and views of gardens were associated with classical culture.

Pots were closely related to boxes or cases. Square containers, often made of wood, were used to house small shrubs and trees, such as oranges, laurels, or myrtles. Boxes, as opposed to pots, could accommodate larger plants and many illustrations of American gardens portray trees in such containers placed in front of structures like piazzas (as at George Washington’s Mount Vernon) [Fig. 7] and in the garden itself as in the view of Springland, William Russell Birch’s estate near Bristol, Pa. [Fig. 8].

-- Anne L. Helmreich

Texts

Usage

Citations

Images

Notes

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History of Early American Landscape Design contributors, "Pot," History of Early American Landscape Design, , https://heald.nga.gov/mediawiki/index.php?title=Pot&oldid=18156 (accessed November 29, 2021).

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