A Project of the Center for Advanced Study in the Visual Arts, National Gallery of Art
History of Early American Landscape Design

Difference between revisions of "Landscape gardening"

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==History==
 
==History==
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The phrase landscape gardening referred either specifically to the irregular mode of laying out gardens that originated in England in the early 18th century or, more generally, to the art of designing ornamental grounds. The phrase came into currency at the same time that the theoretical basis of the art of landscape and garden design was being examined and that the [[Modern_style|modern]], or [[natural style|natural]], style was on the rise. Therefore, the style and the art were often conflated so that it was not unusual for the phrase “the [[modern style]] of landscape gardening” to be used. This [[modern style|modern]] (or [[natural style|natural]]) style was often contrasted with the “[[Geometric_style|geometric]] or [[ancient style]] of gardening,” which was characterized by some critics as the primitive style that predated the theorization of garden design as a fine art.<ref>A vast amount of literature exists, of both primary and secondary references, regarding landscape gardening. See John Dixon Hunt and Peter Willis, eds., ''The Genius of Place: The English Landscape Garden 1620–1820'' (London: Paul Elek, 1975), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/GNHUBW3X view on Zotero], for more about the movement in the 18th century. Also see Mark Laird, ''The Flowering of the Landscape Garden: English Pleasure Grounds, 1720–1800'' (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1999), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/VHZIWTH3 view on Zotero].</ref> The practice of landscape gardening in this sense resulted in the landscape garden that, according to John J. Thomas (1848), was “composed of trees, [[lawn]]s, and sheets of water.” In general, it was an approach intended for extensive grounds that incorporated a [[park]] into the scheme.
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[[File:0353.jpg|thumb|left|Fig. 1, Anonymous, “Example of the beautiful in Landscape Gardening,” in [[A. J. Downing]], ''A Treatise on the Theory and Practice of Landscape Gardening'', 4th ed. (1849), pl. opp. 273, fig. 15.]]
  
The phrase landscape gardening referred either specifically to the irregular mode of laying out gardens that originated in England in the early eighteenth century or, more generally, to the art of designing ornamental grounds. The phrase came into currency at the same time that the theoretical basis of the art of landscape and garden design was being examined and that the modern, or natural, style was on the rise. Therefore, the style and the art were often conflated so that it was not unusual for the phrase “the modern style of landscape gardening” to be used. This modern (or natural) style was often contrasted with the “geometric or ancient style of gardening,” which was characterized by some critics as the primitive style that predated the theorization of garden design as a fine art (see Ancient style, Geometric style, and Modern style). <ref>A vast amount of literature exists, of both primary and secondary references, regarding landscape gardening. See John Dixon Hunt and Peter Willis, eds., ''The Genius of Place: The English Landscape Garden 1620–1820'' (London: Paul Elek, 1975), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/GNHUBW3X view on Zotero], for more about the movement in the eighteenth century. Also see Mark Laird, ''The Flowering of the Landscape Garden: English Pleasure Grounds, 1720–1800'' (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1999), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/VHZIWTH3 view on Zotero].</ref> The practice of landscape gardening in this sense resulted in the landscape garden that, according to John J. Thomas (1848), was “composed of trees, lawns, and sheets of water.” In general, it was an approach intended for extensive grounds that incorporated a park into the scheme (see Park).  
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[[Benjamin Henry Latrobe|Benjamin Henry Latrobe's]] 1798 statement that landscape gardening is what “the art of decorating Grounds is called in England” is somewhat ambiguous. It remains unclear as to whether he meant to define landscape gardening as the [[English style]] specifically or as the concept of designing ornamental grounds generally. The second, more inclusive sense of landscape gardening was formulated by practitioners like [[J. C. Loudon]] and [[A. J. Downing]], who promoted it as a liberal art akin to painting or music. In ''An Encyclopaedia of Gardening'' (1826), [[J. C. Loudon|Loudon]] explained that landscape gardening was a practice with a theoretical framework that had been developing since the early 18th century: “[T]he art of arranging the different parts which compose the external scenery of a country-residence, so as to produce the different beauties and conveniences of which that scene of domestic life is susceptible.” This included both the [[Geometric_style|geometric]] and [[natural style]]s. [[A. J. Downing|Downing]], in his ''Treatise on the Theory and Practice of Landscape Gardening'' (1849), presented landscape gardening as a fine art, and as an ideal that resulted in “beautiful” and “[[picturesque]]” effects [Figs. 1 and 2].
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[[File:0354.jpg|thumb|right|Fig. 2, Anonymous, “Example of the [[Picturesque]] in Landscape Gardening,in [[A. J. Downing]], ''A Treatise on the Theory and Practice of Landscape Gardening'', 4th ed. (1849), pl. opp. 273, fig. 16.]]
  
Benjamin Henry Latrobe’s 1798 statement that landscape gardening is what “the art of decorating Grounds is called in England” is somewhat ambiguous. It remains unclear as to whether he meant to define landscape gardening as the English style specifically or as the concept of designing ornamental grounds generally (see English style). The second, more inclusive sense of landscape gardening was formulated by practitioners like J. C. Loudon and A. J. Downing, who promoted it as a liberal art akin to painting or music. In ''An Encyclopaedia of Gardening'' (1826), Loudon explained that landscape gardening was a practice with a theoretical framework that had been developing since the early eighteenth century: “[T]he art of arranging the different parts which compose the external scenery of a country-residence, so as to produce the different beauties and conveniences of which that scene of domestic life is susceptible.” This included both the geometric and natural styles. Downing, in his ''Treatise on the Theory and Practice of Landscape Gardening'' (1849), presented landscape gardening as a fine art, and as an ideal that resulted in “beautiful” and “picturesque” effects [Figs. 1 and 2].  
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[[J. C. Loudon|Loudon]] and [[A. J. Downing|Downing]] argued that landscape gardening, whether in the [[Geometric_style|geometric]] or [[modern style]], was an art of imitation built on principles and not an art of facsimile, that is, the pure replication of natural scenery. [[A. J. Downing|Downing]] attributed the phrase “landscape gardening” to William Shenstone but added that it could be applied retroactively to the classical or [[Ancient_style|ancient garden style]]. Even these theorists periodically slipped into the more exclusive usage at times, considering only the irregular modes, or rather, the [[modern style]] garden as landscape gardening (see [[Picturesque]]).  
  
Loudon and Downing argued that landscape gardening, whether in the geometric or modern style, was an art of imitation built on principles and not an art of facsimile, that is, the pure replication of natural scenery. Downing attributed the phrase “landscape gardening” to William Shenstone but added that it could be applied retroactively to the classical or ancient garden style. Even these theorists periodically slipped into the more exclusive usage at times, considering only the irregular modes, or rather, the modern style garden as landscape gardening (see Picturesque).  
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The stricter definitions of landscape gardening stipulated that this fine art depended solely on the “[[modern style|modern]],or [[natural style]]. George Watterston, for example, in 1844 wrote pointedly, “Landscape Gardening, is a modern art. Previous to the last century, it may be said scarcely to have existed.” John J. Thomas (1848) contrasted the larger landscape garden made up of trees, [[lawn]]s, and sheets of water with the style of the [[flower garden]] laid out in geometrical lines. A specific meaning of landscape gardening as a particular style and not a more general discipline was clear in several citations where an author wrote “landscape or [[picturesque]] gardening.” That “landscape garden” as a garden type and “landscape gardening” as the professional practice that produced it were being used synonymously is clear.  
  
The stricter definitions of landscape gardening stipulated that this fine art depended solely on the “modern,” or natural style. George Watterston, for example, in 1844 wrote pointedly, “Landscape Gardening, is a modern art. Previous to the last century, it may be said scarcely to have existed.” John J. Thomas (1848) contrasted the larger landscape garden made up of trees, lawns, and sheets of water with the style of the flower garden laid out in geometrical lines. A specific meaning of landscape gardening as a particular style and not a more general discipline was clear in several citations where an author wrote “landscape or picturesque gardening.” That “landscape garden” as a garden type and “landscape gardening” as the professional practice that produced it were being used synonymously is clear.  
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[[Thomas Jefferson]] was intrigued both theoretically and experimentally by the landscape gardening movement. In this period Thomas Whately's ''Observations on Modern Gardening'' (1770) was considered the most mature writing about landscape gardening, and it was with this book in hand that [[Thomas Jefferson|Jefferson]] toured English gardens with John Adams in 1786. Whately's comments on color, meaning, association, and function in the landscape garden are reflected in [[Thomas Jefferson|Jefferson's]] notes made during the latter’s visits to several of the most famous English gardens. A comparison of these notes to his instructions for [[Monticello]] gives evidence of the profound impact of that trip on his sense of landscape aesthetics. [[Thomas Jefferson|Jefferson]] was particularly interested in flowers and [[shrub]]s that brought a great deal of color and variety to his garden. Although he used the phrase “the art of gardening” or simply “gardening” when discussing the subject, [[Thomas Jefferson|Jefferson]] was clearly considering the recent version of the art form “in the perfection to which it [had] been lately brought in England.” [[Thomas Jefferson|Jefferson]] also referred to landscape gardening as “the style of the English garden.”<ref>Frederick Doveton Nichols and Ralph E. Griswold, ''Thomas Jefferson, Landscape Architect'' (Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1978), 83–86, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/RUZC4Q3D view on Zotero].</ref>
  
Thomas Jefferson was intrigued both theoretically and experimentally by the landscape gardening movement. In this period Thomas Whately’s ''Observations on Modern Gardening'' (1770) was considered the most mature writing about landscape gardening, and it was with this book in hand that Jefferson toured English gardens with John Adams in 1786. Whately’s comments on color, meaning, association, and function in the landscape garden are reflected in Jefferson’s notes made during the latter’s visits to several of the most famous English gardens. A comparison of these notes to his instructions for Monticello gives evidence of the profound impact of that trip on his sense of landscape aesthetics. Jefferson was particularly interested in flowers and shrubs that brought a great deal of color and variety to his garden. Although he used the phrase “the art of gardening” or simply “gardening” when discussing the subject, Jefferson was
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The broader meanings of the phrase “landscape gardening” as a fine art continued to be used into the 19th century. Edgar Allen Poe described two types of landscape gardening, the [[natural style|natural]] and the artificial in his short story, “The Landscape Garden” (1842). For William H. Ranlett (1849), landscape gardening was formerly practiced in the [[ancient style|ancient]] or [[geometric style]] but succeeded in recent times by the [[modern style|modern]] or [[natural style]].  
clearly considering the recent version of the art form “in the perfection to which it [had] been lately brought in England.” Jefferson also referred to landscape gardening as “the style of the English garden.” <ref>Frederick Doveton Nichols and Ralph E. Griswold, ''Thomas Jefferson, Landscape Architect'' (Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1978), 83–86, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/RUZC4Q3D view on Zotero].</ref>
 
  
The broader meanings of the phrase “landscape gardening” as a fine art continued to be used into the nineteenth century. Edgar Allen Poe described two types of landscape gardening, the natural and the artificial in his short story, “The Landscape Garden” (1842). For William H. Ranlett (1849), landscape gardening was formerly practiced in the ancient or geometric style but succeeded in recent times by the modern or natural style.
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—''Therese O’Malley''
  
-- ''Therese O'Malley''
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<hr>
  
 
==Texts==
 
==Texts==
 
 
===Usage===
 
===Usage===
 
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*[[Benjamin Henry Latrobe|Latrobe, Benjamin Henry]], 1798–99, “An Essay on Landscape” (1977: 469–70)<ref>Benjamin Henry Latrobe, ''The Virginia Journals of Benjamin Henry Latrobe, 1795–1798'', ed. Edward C. Carter II, 2 vols. (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1977), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/SZEEBG9K view on Zotero].</ref>
* Latrobe, Benjamin Henry, 1798–99, “An Essay on Landscape” (1977: 469–70)  
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:“Mr. Knight in his elegant, but illnatured poem, on '''Landscape gardening''' (as the art of decorating Grounds is called in England) has lines, which have the following sentiment, although I am uncertain about Versification:  
 
 
: “Mr. Knight in his elegant, but illnatured poem, on Landscape gardening (as the art of decorating Grounds is called in England) has lines, which have the following sentiment, although I am uncertain about Versification:  
 
 
 
 
::‘Search, as you will, the whole creation round  
 
::‘Search, as you will, the whole creation round  
 
::’Tis after all but Water, Trees, and Ground:  
 
::’Tis after all but Water, Trees, and Ground:  
Line 30: Line 28:
  
  
* Birch, William Russell, n.d. [c. 1800], describing his garden at Springland, estate of William Russell Birch, near Bristol, Pa. (quoted in Cooperman 1999: 170–71)  
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[[File:0326.jpg|thumb|Fig. 3, William Russell Birch, “The [[View]] from Springland,” in William Russell Birch, ''The Country [[Seat]]s of the United States'' (1808), pl. 2.]]
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*Birch, William Russell, n.d. [c. 1800], describing his garden at Springland, estate of William Russell Birch, near Bristol, PA (quoted in Cooperman 1999: 170–71)<ref>Emily Tyson Cooperman, “William Russell Birch (1755–1834) and the Beginnings of the American Picturesque” (PhD diss., University of Pennsylvania, 1999), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/VSCXM9WR view on Zotero].</ref>
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:“Some directions for its improvement as a lesson on '''Landscape gardening'''. . . invite the warbling songsters to your shades, let nature be your god, she has charms with all her faults that art can never give, with cautious steps and anxious care preserve her sweets, mark you [a] rich spot of sandy soil, from which dranes moisture all the year alike, wet or dry, its watery [[bed]]s are one, flat lays its surface, high and secure its station, on the bank, there chuse your botany to place, with ornaments of taste. . .
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:“Trim not your bows away with wanton hand, let cautious taste reserve them for effect, spoil not your broken ground with too haste leveling, study well what new charms by addition may be made, so parly with your fancy till you find it’s in your way, sport well your conceptions, seek not to undo what nature well intends, advantage take from the roughest rudeness chance has given, so let the refinement of your taste work its way; thus with wholesome caution was this place improved, track to verigate the seens laid out for [[walk]]s, [[shrub]]s to hid what suted not with taste were placed, [[bed]]s for flowers, where most were wished, nor was [[lawn]] neglected whereare the space allow’d[;] the [[pond]]s with fish were stock’d[,] a green Lodge for shelter was prepared[,] till the labours of delight were done.” [Fig. 3]
  
: “Some directions for its improvement as a lesson on Landscape gardening . . . invite the warbling songsters to your shades, let nature be your god, she has charms with all her faults that art can never give, with cautious steps and anxious care preserve her sweets, mark you [a] rich spot of sandy soil, from which dranes moisture all the year alike, wet or dry, its watery beds are one, flat lays its surface, high and secure its station, on the bank, there chuse your botany to place, with ornaments of taste. . . .
 
: “Trim not your bows away with wanton hand, let cautious taste reserve them for effect, spoil not your broken ground with too haste leveling, study well what new charms by addition may be made, so parly with your fancy till you find it’s in your way, sport well your conceptions, seek not to undo what nature well intends, advantage take from the roughest rudeness chance has given, so let the refinement of your taste work its way; thus with wholesome caution was this place improved, track to verigate the seens laid out for walks, shrubs to hid what suted not with taste were placed, beds for flowers, where most were wished, nor was lawn neglected whereare the space allow’d[;] the ponds with fish were stock’d[,] a green Lodge for shelter was prepared[,] till the labours of delight were done.” [Fig. 3]
 
  
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[[File:0064.jpg|thumb|Fig. 4, Anonymous, ''Map of [[Parmentier’s Horticultural and Botanical Garden|Mr. Andrew Parmentier’s Horticultural & Botanic Garden]], at Brooklyn, Long Island, Two Miles From the City of New York'', c. 1828.]]
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*S., J. W., February 1832, describing [[André Parmentier|André Parmentier’s]] [[Parmentier’s Horticultural and Botanical Garden|Horticultural and Botanical Garden]], Brooklyn, NY (''Gardener’s Magazine'' 8: 72)<ref>J. W. S., “Foreign Notices: North America,” ''Gardener’s Magazine and Register of Rural & Domestic Improvement'' 8, no. 36 (February 1832): 70–77, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/69KZ93MG view on Zotero].</ref>
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:“In short, this establishment is well worthy of notice as one of the few examples in the neighbourhood of New York, of the art of laying out a garden so as to combine the principles of '''landscape-gardening''' with the conveniences of the [[nursery]] or [[orchard]].” [Fig. 4]
  
* S., J. W., September 1829, describing André Parmentier’s horticultural and botanical garden, Brooklyn, N.Y. (Gardeners’ Magazine 8: 72)
 
  
: “In short, this establishment is well worthy of notice as one of the few examples in the neighbourhood of New York, of the art of laying out a garden so as to combine the principles of landscape-gardening with the conveniences of the nursery or orchard.” [Fig. 4]
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*Dearborn, H. A. S., 1832, describing [[Mount Auburn Cemetery]], Cambridge, MA (quoted in Harris 1832: 64–65)<ref>Thaddeus William Harris, ''A Discourse Delivered before the Massachusetts Horticultural Society on the Celebration of Its Fourth Anniversary, October 3, 1832'' (Cambridge, MA: E. W. Metcalf, 1832), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/3A3UDHF3 view on Zotero].</ref>
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:“it is proposed, that a tract of land called ‘Sweet Auburn,’ situated in Cambridge, should be purchased. As a large portion of the ground is now covered with trees, [[shrub]]s, and wild flowering plants, [[avenue]]s and [[walk]]s may be made through them, in such a manner as to render the whole establishment interesting and beautiful, at a small expense, and within a few years; and ultimately offer an example of '''landscape''' or [[picturesque]] '''gardening''', in conformity to the [[modern style]] of laying out grounds, which will be highly creditable to the Society.”
  
  
* Dearborn, H.A.S., 1832, describing Mount Auburn Cemetery, Cambridge, Mass. (quoted in Harris 1832: 64–65)  
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[[File:1100.jpg|thumb|Fig. 5, Robert Walter Weir, “Lunatic Asylum, New York,” Bloomingdale Asylum for the Insane, in ''New York Mirror'' (February 1, 1834), opp. 241.]]
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*MacDonald, James, October 1839, describing the Bloomingdale Asylum for the Insane, New York, NY (quoted in Hawkins 1991: 86)<ref>Kenneth Hawkins, “The Therapeutic Landscape: Nature, Architecture, and Mind in Nineteenth-Century America” (PhD diss., University of Rochester, 1991), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/UVDGPDHG/ view on Zotero].</ref>
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:“The approach to the Asylum from the southern entrance, by the stranger who associates the most sombre scenes with a lunatic hospital, is highly pleasing. The sudden opening of the [[view]], the extent of the grounds, the various [[avenue]]s gracefully winding through so large a [[lawn]]; the cedar [[hedge]]s, the fir, and other ornamental trees, tastefully distributed or grouped, the variety of [[shrubbery]] and flowers; in fine, the assemblage of so many objects to please the eye, and relieve the melancholy mind from its sad musings, strike him as one of the most successful and useful instances of '''landscape gardening'''.” [Fig. 5]
  
: “it is proposed, that a tract of land called ‘Sweet Auburn,’ situated in Cambridge, should be purchased. As a large portion of the ground is now covered with trees, shrubs, and wild flowering plants, avenues and walks may be made through them, in such a manner as to render the whole establishment interesting and beautiful, at a small expense, and within a few years; and ultimately offer an example of landscape or picturesque gardening, in conformity to the modern style of laying out grounds, which will be highly creditable to the Society.”
 
  
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[[File:0117.jpg|thumb|right|Fig. 6, Thomas Chambers, ''[[Mount Auburn Cemetery]]'', mid-19th century.]]
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*Cleaveland, Nehemiah, 1847, describing [[Mount Auburn Cemetery]], Cambridge, MA (1847: 14)<ref>Nehemiah Cleaveland, ''Green-Wood Illustrated'' (New York: R. Martin, 1847), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/JXFI68UM view on Zotero].</ref>
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:“[[Mount Auburn Cemetery|Mount Auburn]] appears to be ‘the first example in modern times of so large a tract of ground being selected for its natural beauties, and submitted to the processes of '''landscape gardening''', to prepare it for the reception of the dead.’” [Fig. 6]
  
* MacDonald, James, October 1839, describing the Bloomingdale Asylum for the Insane, New York, N.Y. (quoted in Hawkins 1991: 86)
 
  
: “The approach to the Asylum from the southern entrance, by the stranger who associates the most sombre scenes with a lunatic hospital, is highly pleasing. The sudden opening of the view, the extent of the grounds, the various avenues gracefully winding through so large a lawn; the cedar hedges, the fir, and other ornamental trees, tastefully distributed or grouped, the variety of shrubbery and flowers; in fine, the assemblage of so many objects to please the eye, and relieve the melancholy mind from its sad musings, strike him as one of the most successful and useful instances of landscape gardening.” [Fig. 5]  
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*[[Andrew Jackson Downing|Downing, Andrew Jackson]], 1849, “Essay on Landscape Gardening” (1849; repr., 1991: 40–41, 44–47, 52–53)<ref>A. J. [Andrew Jackson] Downing, ''A Treatise on the Theory and Practice of Landscape Gardening, Adapted to North America'', 4th ed. (1849; repr., Washington, DC: Dumbarton Oaks Research Library and Collection, 1991), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/K7BRCDC5 view on Zotero].</ref>
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:“The only practitioner of the art [of '''Landscape gardening'''], of any note, was the late [[André Parmentier|M. Parmentier]] of Brooklyn, Long Island. . .
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:“During [[André Parmentier|M. Parmentier's]] residence on Long Island, he was almost constantly applied to for plans for laying out the grounds of country [[seat|seats]], by persons in various parts of the Union, as well as in the immediate proximity of New York. In many cases he not only surveyed the demesne to be improved, but furnished the plants and trees necessary to carry out his designs. Several plans were prepared by him for residences of note in the Southern States; and two or three places in Upper Canada, especially near Montreal, were, we believe, laid out by his own hands and stocked from his [[nursery]] grounds. In his periodical catalogue, he arranged the hardy trees and [[shrub|shrubs]] that flourish in this latitude in classes, according to their height, etc., and published a short treatise on the superior claims of the [[natural style|natural]], over the formal or [[geometric style]] of laying out grounds. In short, we consider [[André Parmentier|M. Parmentier's]] labors and examples as having effected, directly, far more for '''landscape gardening''' in America, than those of any other individual whatever. . .
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:“There is no part of the Union where the taste in '''Landscape Gardening''' is so far advanced, as on the middle portion of the Hudson. The natural scenery is of the finest character, and places but a mile or two apart often possess, from the constantly varying forms of the water, shores, and distant hills, widely different kinds of home landscape and distant view. Standing in the grounds of some of the finest of these [[seat]]s, the eye beholds only the soft foreground of smooth [[lawn]], the rich groups of trees shutting out all neighboring tracts, the [[lake]]-like expanse of water, and, closing the distance, a fine range of wooded mountain. A residence here of but a hundred acres, so fortunately are these disposed by nature, seems to appropriate the whole scenery round, and to be a thousand in extent.
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[[File:0355.jpg|thumb|Fig. 7, Anonymous, “[[View]] in the Grounds at [[Hyde Park (on the Hudson River, NY)|Hyde Park]],” in [[A. J. Downing]], ''A Treatise on the Theory and Practice of Landscape Gardening'', 4th ed. (1849), 45, fig. 1.]]
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:“At the present time, our handsome villa residences are becoming every day more numerous, and it would require much more space than our present limits, to enumerate all the tasteful rural country places within our knowledge, many of which have been newly laid out, or greatly improved within a few years. But we consider it so important and instructive to the novice in the art of '''Landscape Gardening''' to examine, personally, country [[seat]]s of a highly tasteful character, that we shall venture to refer the reader to a few of those which have now a reputation among us as elegant country residences.
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:“''[[Hyde Park]]'', on the Hudson. . . has been justly celebrated as one of the finest specimens of the [[modern style]] of '''Landscape Gardening''' in America. Nature has, indeed, done much for this place, as the grounds are finely varied, beautifully watered by a lively stream, and the [[view]]s are inexpressibly striking from the neighborhood of the house itself, including, as they do, the noble Hudson for sixty miles in its course, through rich valleys and bold mountains. . . But the efforts of art are not unworthy so rare a locality; and while the native [[wood]]s, and beautifully undulating surface, are preserved in their original state, the [[pleasure-ground]]s, roads, [[walk]]s, drives, and new [[plantation]]s, have been laid out in such a judicious manner as to heighten the charm of nature. . . plans for laying out the grounds were furnished by [[André Parmentier|Parmentier]].” [Fig. 7]
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[[File:0350.jpg|thumb|Fig. 8, [[Alexander Jackson Davis]], “[[View]] in the Grounds at [[Blithewood]],” in [[A. J. Downing]], ''A Treatise on the Theory and Practice of Landscape Gardening'', 4th ed. (1849), frontispiece.]]
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:“''[[Blithewood]]'', the seat of R. Donaldson, Esq., near Barrytown on the Hudson, is one of the most charming villa residences in the Union. The natural scenery here, is nowhere surpassed in its enchanting union of softness and dignity—the river being four miles wide, its placid bosom broken only by islands and gleaming sails, and the horizon grandly closing in with the tall blue summits of the distant Kaatskills. The smiling, gently varied [[lawn]] is studded with groups and masses of fine forest and ornamental trees, beneath which are [[walk]]s leading in easy curves to [[Rustic_style|rustic]] [[seat]]s, and [[summer house]]s placed in secluded spots, or to openings affording most lovely [[prospect]]s. (See frontispiece.) In various situations near the house and upon the [[lawn]], sculptured [[vase]]s of Maltese stone are also disposed in such a manner as to give a refined and classic air to the grounds. [Fig. 8]
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[[File:0363.jpg|thumb|Fig. 9, Anonymous, “[[View]] in the Meadow [[Park]] at Geneseo,” in [[A. J. Downing]], ed., ''Horticulturist'' 3, no. 4 (October 1848): pl. opp. 153.]]
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:“The [[seat]] of the Wadsworth family, at Geneseo, is the finest in the interior of the state of New York. Nothing, indeed, can well be more magnificent than the ''meadow park'' at Geneseo. It is more than a thousand acres in extent, lying on each side of the Genesee river, and is filled with thousands of the noblest oaks and elms, many of which, but more especially the oaks, are such trees as we see in the pictures of Claude, or our own Durand; richly developed, their trunks and branches grand and majestic, their heads full of breadth and grandeur of outline. . . ” [Fig. 9]
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:“These oaks, distributed over a nearly level surface, with the trees disposed either singly or in the finest groups, as if most tastefully planted centuries ago, are solely the work of nature; and yet so entirely is the whole like the grandest planted [[park]], that it is difficult to believe that all is not the work of some master of art, and intended for the accomplishment of a magnificent residence. Some of the trees are five or six hundred years old.”
  
  
* Cleaveland, Nehemiah, 1847, describing Mount Auburn Cemetery, Cambridge, Mass. (p. 14)  
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*[[Andrew Jackson Downing|Downing, Andrew Jackson]], September 1851, “Study of Park Trees” (''Horticulturist'' 6: 427)<ref>A. J. Downing, “Study of Park Trees,” ''Horticulturist and Journal of Rural Art and Rural Taste'' 6, no. 9 (September 1851): 427, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/keywords_in_early_american_landscape_design/items/itemKey/NIE2MS4I/q/study%20of%20park%20trees view on Zotero].</ref>
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:“in the ''natural parks'' of America—the oak openings of the West—where, over a gently rolling surface of thousands of acres, you see grouped, precisely as in an English [[Park]], but sometimes on a still grander scale, the noblest trees—now singly, and now three or four, or half a dozen together,—trees, each one of which would have been chosen by CLAUDE as a study for the foreground of his wonderful landscapes—which are the master-pieces of slyvan [''sic''] beauty. Nearer home, such a growth may be seen in the [[meadow]] [[park]] at Geneseo,—the WADSWORTH estate, previously described by us—where are as fine oaks, by hundreds, as are to be found in any park in England.
 +
[[File:0947.jpg|thumb|Fig. 10, Anonymous, “Study of Trees in [[Park]] Scenery,” Geneseo, in [[A. J. Downing]], ed., ''Horticulturist'' 6, no. 9 (September 1851): pl. opp. 394. ]]
 +
:“It is remarkable, that these grand [[park]]s of American, and the best specimens of English taste in '''Landscape Gardening''', should be such close counterparts of one another. And though a man may have room to plant only a half a dozen trees, yet he should study such examples as a sculptor would study the APOLLO or the VENUS—to make himself familiar with that high-water level of the beautiful in form, where both art and nature meet and become identical.” [Fig. 10]
  
: “Mount Auburn appears to be ‘the first example in modern times of so large a tract of ground being selected for its natural beauties, and submitted to the processes of landscape gardening, to prepare it for the reception of the dead.’” [Fig. 6]
 
  
 +
*[[Andrew Jackson Downing|Downing, Andrew Jackson]], December 1851, “State and Prosperity of Horticulture” (''Horticulturist'' 6: 540–41)<ref>Andrew Jackson Downing, “The State and Prospects of Horticulture,” ''Horticulturist and Journal of Rural Art and Rural Taste'' 6, no. 12 (December 1851): 537–41, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/XR68IJEG view on Zotero].</ref>
 +
:“The plan [for a [[public ground]] in Washington] embraces four or five miles of carriage-[[drive]]—[[walk]]s for pedestrians—[[pond]]s of water, [[fountain]]s and [[statue]]s—[[picturesque]] groupings of trees and [[shrub]]s, and a complete collection of all the trees that belong to North America. It will, if carried out as it has been undertaken, undoubtedly give a great impetus to the popular taste in '''landscape-gardening''' and the culture of ornamental trees; and as the climate of Washington is one peculiarly adapted to this purpose—this national [[park]] may be made a sylvan museum such as it would be difficult to equal in beauty and variety in any part of the world.”
  
* Downing, A. J., 1849, “Essay on Landscape Gardening” ([1849] 1991: 40–41, 44–47, 52–53)
 
 
: “The only practitioner of the art [of Landscape gardening], of any note, was the late M. Parmentier of Brooklyn, Long Island. . . .
 
: “During M. Parmentier’s residence on Long Island, he was almost constantly applied to for plans for laying out the grounds of country seats, by persons in various parts of the Union, as well as in the immediate proximity of New York. In many cases he not only surveyed the demesne to be improved, but furnished the plants and trees necessary to carry out his designs. Several plans were prepared by him for residences of note in the Southern States; and two or three places in Upper Canada, especially near Montreal, were, we believe, laid out by his own hands and stocked from his nursery grounds. In his periodical catalogue, he arranged the hardy trees and shrubs that flourish in this latitude in classes, according to their height, etc., and published a short treatise on the superior claims of the natural, over the formal or geometric style of laying out grounds. In short, we consider M. Parmentier’s labors and examples as having effected, directly, far more for landscape gardening in America, than those of any other individual whatever. . . .
 
: “There is no part of the Union where the taste in Landscape Gardening is so far advanced, as on the middle portion of the Hudson. The natural scenery is of the finest character, and places but a mile or two apart often possess, from the constantly varying forms of the water, shores, and distant hills, widely different kinds of home landscape and distant view. Standing in the grounds of some of the finest of these seats, the eye beholds only the soft foreground of smooth lawn, the rich groups of trees shutting out all neighboring tracts, the lake-like expanse of water, and, closing the distance, a fine range of wooded mountain. A residence here of but a hundred acres, so fortunately are these disposed by nature, seems to appropriate the whole scenery round, and to be a thousand in extent.
 
: “At the present time, our handsome villa residences are becoming every day more numerous, and it would require much more space than our present limits, to enumerate all the tasteful rural country places within our knowledge, many of which have been newly laid out, or greatly improved within a few years. But we consider it so important and instructive to the novice in the art of Landscape Gardening to examine, personally, country seats of a highly tasteful character, that we shall venture to refer the reader to a few of those which have now a reputation among us as elegant country residences.
 
: “Hyde Park, on the Hudson . . . has been justly celebrated as one of the finest specimens of the modern style of Landscape Gardening in America. Nature has, indeed, done much for this place, as the grounds are finely varied, beautifully watered by a lively stream, and the views are inexpressibly striking from the neighborhood of the house itself, including, as they do, the noble Hudson for sixty miles in its course, through rich valleys and bold mountains. . . . But the efforts of art are not unworthy so rare a locality; and while the native woods, and beautifully undulating surface, are preserved in their original state, the pleasure-grounds, roads, walks, drives, and new plantations, have been laid out in such a judicious manner as to heighten the charm of nature. . . . plans for laying out the grounds were furnished by Parmentier.” [Fig. 7]
 
: “Blithewood, the seat of R. Donaldson, Esq., near Barrytown on the Hudson, is one of the most charming villa residences in the Union. The natural scenery here, is nowhere surpassed in its enchanting union of softness and dignity—the river being four miles wide, its placid bosom broken only by islands and gleaming sails, and the horizon grandly closing in with the tall blue summits of the distant Kaatskills. The smiling, gently varied lawn is studded with groups and masses of fine forest and ornamental trees, beneath which are walks leading in easy curves to rustic seats, and summer houses placed in secluded spots, or to openings affording most lovely prospects. (See frontispiece.) In various situations near the house and upon the lawn, sculptured vases of Maltese stone are also disposed in such a manner as to give a refined and classic air to the grounds. [Fig. 8]
 
: “The seat of the Wadsworth family, at Geneseo, is the finest in the interior of the state of New York. Nothing, indeed, can well be more magnificent than the meadow park at Geneseo. It is more than a thousand acres in extent, lying on each side of the Genesee river, and is filled with thousands of the noblest oaks and elms, many of which, but more especially the oaks, are such trees as we see in the pictures of Claude, or our own Durand; richly developed, their trunks and branches grand and majestic, their heads full of breadth and grandeur of outline. . . . ” [Fig. 9]
 
: “These oaks, distributed over a nearly level surface, with the trees disposed either singly or in the finest groups, as if most tastefully planted centuries ago, are solely the work of nature; and yet so entirely is the whole like the grandest planted park, that it is difficult to believe that all is not the work of some master of art, and intended for the accomplishment of a magnificent residence. Some of the trees are five or six hundred years old.”
 
 
* Downing, A. J., 1 September 1851, “Study of Park Trees” (Horticulturist 6: 427)
 
 
: “in the natural parks of America—the oak openings of the West—where, over a gently rolling surface of thousands of acres, you see grouped, precisely as in an English Park, but sometimes on a still grander scale, the noblest trees—now singly, and now three or four, or half a dozen together,—trees, each one of which would have been chosen by CLAUDE as a study for the foreground of his wonderful landscapes—which are the master-pieces of slyvan [sic] beauty. Nearer home, such a growth may be seen in the meadow park at Geneseo,—the WADSWORTH estate, previously described by us—where are as fine oaks, by hundreds, as are to be found in any park in England.
 
: “It is remarkable, that these grand parks of American, and the best specimens of English taste in Landscape Gardening, should be such close counterparts of one another. And though a man may have room to plant only a half a dozen trees, yet he should study such examples as a sculptor would study the APOLLO or the VENUS—to make himself familiar with that high-water level of the beautiful in form, where both art and nature meet and become identical.” [Fig. 10]
 
 
 
* Downing, A. J., December 1851, “State and Prosperity of Horticulture” (Horticulturist 6: 540–41)
 
 
: “The plan [for a public ground in Washington] embraces four or five miles of carriage-drive—walks for pedestrians—ponds of water, fountains and statues—picturesque groupings of trees and shrubs, and a complete collection of all the trees that belong to North America. It will, if carried out as it has been undertaken, undoubtedly give a great impetus to the popular taste in landscape-gardening and the culture of ornamental trees; and as the climate of Washington is one peculiarly adapted to this purpose—this national park may be made a sylvan museum such s it would be difficult to equal in beauty and variety in any part of the world.”
 
  
 
===Citations===
 
===Citations===
 +
*Whately, Thomas, 1770, ''Observations on Modern Gardening'' (1770; repr., 1982: 1–2)<ref>Thomas Whately, ''Observations on Modern Gardening'', 3rd ed. (1770; repr., London: Garland, 1982), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/QKRK8DCD view on Zotero].</ref>
 +
:“'''Gardening''', in the perfection to which it has been lately brought in England, is entitled to a place of considerable rank among the liberal arts. It is as superior to landskip painting, as a reality to a representation: it is an exertion of fancy, as subject for taste; and being released now from the restraint of regularity, and enlarged beyond the purposes of domestic convenience, the most beautiful, the most simple, the most noble scenes of nature are all within its province: for it is no longer confined to the spots from which it borrows its name, but regulates also the disposition and embellishments of a [[park]], a farm, or a riding; the business of a gardener is to select and to apply whatever is great, elegant, or characteristic in any of them; to discover and to show all the advantages of the place upon which he is employed; to supply its defects, to correct its faults, and to improve the beauties.
 +
:“Nature, always simple, employs but four materials in the composition of her scenes, ''ground'', ''wood'', ''water'', and ''rocks''. The cultivation of nature had introduced a fifth species, the buildings requisite for the accommodation of men. Each of these again admit of varieties in their figure, dimensions, color, and situation. Every landskip is composed of these parts only; every beauty in a landskip depends on the applications of their several varieties.”
  
Whately, Thomas, 1770, Observations on Modern
 
Gardening (1982: 1–2)
 
  
“Gardening, in the perfection to which it has
+
*[[G. Gregory|Gregory, G.]], 1816, ''A New and Complete Dictionary of Arts and Sciences'' (1816: 2:n.p.)<ref>George Gregory, ''A New and Complete Dictionary of Arts and Sciences'', 1st American ed., 3 vols. (Philadelphia: Isaac Peirce, 1816), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/2H8KAZ5E view on Zotero].</ref>
been lately brought in England, is entitled to a
+
:“GARDENING. This art, so natural to man, so improving to health, so conducive to the comforts and the best luxuries of life, may properly be divided into two branches; practical, and [[picturesque]] or '''landscape gardening'''.
place of considerable rank among the liberal arts.  
+
:“The former is what every person, except the inhabitants of populous cities, has more or less occassion to practise; the latter is a privilege which only the very opulent can enjoy, and which must consequently be the elegant amusement of a chosen few.
It is as superior to landskip painting, as a reality to  
+
:“[[Picturesque]] or '''landscape gardening''' should certainly never be attempted on a small scale. Indeed we are not certain that we may not be incurring a solecism in applying the term gardening to this department of agriculture. It is properly the art of laying out grounds; and the [[park]] or the farm, not the garden, is its object. It never can be attempted with success on a smaller scale than 20 acres; but 50 or 100, or even more, are better adapted to the design. . .
a representation: it is an exertion of fancy, as subject
+
:“'''''Landscape''''' or ''[[picturesque]] '''gardening''''', is so much the work of fancy, and so much depends upon the situation, or what the celebrated Mr. Brown used to call the capability of the place, that no precise rules can be laid down concerning it. All, therefore, that can be expected, is a few lose [''sic''] hints, on which the man of taste may improve according to circumstances.
for taste; and being released now from the
 
restraint of regularity, and enlarged beyond the  
 
purposes of domestic convenience, the most beautiful,
 
the most simple, the most noble scenes of  
 
nature are all within its province: for it is no
 
longer confined to the spots from which it borrows
 
its name, but regulates also the disposition
 
and embellishments of a park, a farm, or a riding;
 
the business of a gardener is to select and to apply
 
whatever is great, elegant, or characteristic in any
 
of them; to discover and to show all the advantages
 
of the place upon which he is employed; to
 
supply its defects, to correct its faults, and to
 
improve the beauties.  
 
  
“Nature, always simple, employs but four
 
materials in the composition of her scenes,
 
ground, wood, water, and rocks. The cultivation of
 
nature had introduced a fifth species, the buildings
 
requisite for the accommodation of men. Each of
 
these again admit of varieties in their figure,
 
dimensions, color, and situation. Every landskip is
 
composed of these parts only; every beauty in a
 
landskip depends on the applications of their several
 
varieties.”
 
  
Gregory, G., 1816, A New and Complete Dictionary
+
*[[David Hosack|Hosack, David]], 1824, ''An Inaugural Discourse, Delivered Before the New-York Horticultural Society'' (1824: 10, 12–13, 24–25)<ref>David Hosack, ''An Inaugural Discourse, Delivered before the New-York Horticultural Society at Their Anniversary Meeting, on the 31st of August, 1824'' (New York: J. Seymour, 1824), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/G3P4N49T view on Zotero].</ref>
of Arts and Sciences (2:n.p.)
+
:“Horticulture embraces three objects. 1st. The cultivation of the plants of the table, including culinary vegetables and fruits. 2d. Those plants which are considered as ornamental. And 3d. '''Landscape gardening'''; or, the art of laying out grounds in such manner as may render them most conducive to utility and beauty. . .
 +
:“I pass on to remark, that very little has been effected in the science of gardening, until the last fifty years. Within that period, a number of individuals, distinguished for their taste and education, have given their attention to the study of this interesting subject, and especially in France and in Great Britain, have produced important changes in every department of horticulture, including that branch of it more especially, denominated '''landscape gardening'''. In this list, the names of Miller, Marshall,  Abercrombie, Brown, Nicol, Repton, Knight, and [[J. C. Loudon|Loudon]],*as well as others, whose taste and opportunities led them to the cultivation of this art, hold a distinguished place. . .
 +
:“8th. Another advantage which such an establishment should possess, is that of exemplifying the principles of ''Ornamental Planting'', or '''''Landscape Gardening'''''. The ground should be selected of such form and variety as will admit of such decoration. And in the cultivation of the various plants of the collection, their distribution may ever be rendered subservient to this great object, and thereby become the means of spreading extensively among our citizens a taste for one of the highest recreations that the human heart can receive, and one which will go far in the improvement of the moral principle, and in diverting the mind from pursuits of a less worthy nature; for the mind that is not actively engaged in virtuous pursuits will most probably be occupied with those of a contrary character.
  
“GARDENING. This art, so natural to man, so
 
improving to health, so conducive to the comforts and the best luxuries of life, may properly be
 
divided into two branches; practical, and picturesque
 
or landscape gardening.
 
  
“The former is what every person, except the  
+
*[[J. C. Loudon|Loudon, J. C. (John Claudius)]], 1826, ''An Encyclopaedia of Gardening'' (1826: 994–96)<ref>J. C. (John Claudius) Loudon, ''An Encyclopaedia of Gardening; Comprising the Theory and Practice of Horticulture, Floriculture, Arboriculture, and Landscape-Gardening'', 4th ed. (London: Longman et al., 1826), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/KNKTCA4W view on Zotero].</ref>
inhabitants of populous cities, has more or less
+
:“7156. In '''''landscape gardening''''', the art of the gardener is directed to different objects, and some of them of a higher kind than any belonging to gardening as an art of culture. In the three branches [of gardening] hitherto considered, art is chiefly employed in the cultivation of plants, with a [[view]] of obtaining their products; but in the branch now under consideration, art is exercised in disposing of ground, buildings, and water, as well as the vegetating materials which enter into the composition of verdant landscape. This is, in a strict sense, what is called '''landscape-gardening''', or the art of creating or improving landscapes; but as landscapes are seldom required to be created for their own sakes, '''landscape-gardening''', as actually practised, may be defined, ‘the art of arranging the different parts which compose the external scenery of a country-residence, so as to produce the different beauties and conveniences of which that scene of domestic life is susceptible.’ . . .
occassion to practise; the latter is a privilege which  
+
:“7161. ''With respect to the [[modern style]]''. . . there appear to be two principles which enter into its composition; those which regard it as a mixed art, or an art of design, and which are called the principles of relative beauty; and those which regard it as an imitative art, and are called the principles of natural or universal beauty. The [[ancient style|ancient]] or [[Geometric_style|geometric]] gardening is guided wholly by the former principles; '''landscape-gardening''', as an imitative art, wholly by the latter; but as the art of forming a country-residence, its arrangements are influenced by both principles. In conformity with these ideas, and with our plan of treating both styles, we shall first consider its principles as an inventive or mixed, and secondly as an imitative art.
only the very opulent can enjoy, and which must
 
consequently be the elegant amusement of a chosen
 
few.  
 
  
“Picturesque or landscape gardening should
 
certainly never be attempted on a small scale.
 
Indeed we are not certain that we may not be
 
incurring a solecism in applying the term gardening
 
to this department of agriculture. It is properly
 
the art of laying out grounds; and the park or the
 
farm, not the garden, is its object. It never can be
 
attempted with success on a smaller scale than 20
 
acres; but 50 or 100, or even more, are better
 
adapted to the design. . . .
 
  
“Landscape or picturesque gardening, is so
+
*Dearborn, H. A. S., September 19, 1829, ''An Address, Delivered Before the Massachusetts Horticultural Society'' (1833: 16)<ref>H. A. S. (Henry Alexander Scammell) Dearborn, ''An Address Delivered before the Massachusetts Horticultural Society'' (Boston: J.T. Buckingham, 1833), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/KTVETNFP view on Zotero].</ref>
much the work of fancy, and so much depends
+
:“The natural divisions of Horticulture are the [[Kitchen Garden]], Seminary, [[Nursery]], Fruit Trees and Vines, Flowers and [[Green House]]s, the [[botanic garden|Botanical]] and Medical Garden, and '''Landscape''', or [[Picturesque]] '''Gardening'''.”
upon the situation, or what the celebrated Mr.  
 
Brown used to call the capability of the place, that
 
no precise rules can be laid down concerning it.
 
All, therefore, that can be expected, is a few lose
 
[sic] hints, on which the man of taste may
 
improve according to circumstances.”  
 
  
Hosack, David, 1824, An Inaugural Discourse,
 
Delivered Before the New-York Horticultural Society
 
  
(pp. 10, 12–13, 24–25)  
+
*[[J. C. (John Claudius) Loudon|Loudon, J. C. (John Claudius)]], December 1832, Review of W. Gilpin, Esq., ''Practical Hints on Landscape Gardening'' (''Gardener’s Magazine'' 8: 701–2)<ref>J. C. Loudon, “Review of Practical Hints on Landscape Gardening,” ''Gardener’s Magazine and Register of Rural & Domestic Improvement'' 8, no. 41 (December 1832): 700–2, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/2PJICQB6 view on Zotero].</ref>
 +
:“'''Landscape-gardening''', it will be allowed is, to a certain extent, an art of imitation. Now, an imitative art is not one which produces fac similes of the things to be imitated; but one which produces imitations, or resemblances, according to the manner of that art. Thus, sculpture does not attempt colour, not painting to raise surfaces in relief; and neither attempt to deceive. In the like manner, the imitator, in a [[park]] or [[pleasure-ground]], of a landscape composed of ground, [[wood]], and water, does not produce fac similes of the ground, [[wood]], and water, which he sees around him on every side; but of ground, [[wood]] and water, arranged in imitation of nature, according to the principles of his particular art. The character of this art has varied from the earliest times to the present day; but, profoundly examined, the principle which guided the artist remains the same; and the successive fashions that have prevailed will be found to confirm our view of the subject, viz., that all imitations of nature worthy of being characterised as belonging to the fine arts are not fac-simile imitations, but imitations of manner. To apply this principle to the planting of trees in [[park]] or [[pleasure-ground]] scenery; nature, in any given locality, makes use of a certain number of trees found indigenous there; but the garden imitator of natural [[wood]]s introduces either other forms and dispositions of the same kinds of trees, as in the [[geometric style]]; or the same dispositions of other species of trees, as in the most improved practice of the [[modern style]]. In neither case does the artist produce a correct fac simile of nature; for, if he did, however beautiful the scene copied, the beauty produced would be merely that of repetition. But we have neither room nor time at present fully to illustrate this theory. Let it suffice for us to state, for the consideration of those of our readers who have reflected on the subject, that there is as certainly, in gardening, as an art of imitation, the [[gardenesque]], as there is, in painting and sculpture, the [[picturesque]] and sculpturesque.”
  
“Horticulture embraces three objects. 1st. The
 
cultivation of the plants of the table, including
 
culinary vegetables and fruits. 2d. Those plants
 
which are considered as ornamental. And 3d.
 
Landscape gardening; or, the art of laying out
 
grounds in such manner as may render them most
 
conducive to utility and beauty. . . .
 
  
“I pass on to remark, that very little has been
+
*[[J. C. (John Claudius) Loudon|Loudon, J. C. (John Claudius)]], 1834, ''An Encyclopaedia of Gardening'' (1834: 1163–64, 1167–68)<ref>J. C. (John Claudius) Loudon, ''An Encyclopaedia of Gardening; Comprising the Theory and Practice of Horticulture, Floriculture, Arboriculture, and Landscape-Gardening'', new ed., improved and enlarged (London: Longman et al., 1834), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/TGQ5WTNR view on Zotero].</ref>
effected in the science of gardening, until the last
+
:“BOOK IV. '''LANDSCAPE-GARDENING'''. . .
fifty years. Within that period, a number of individuals,  
+
:“CHAP. I. ''Principles of '''Landscape-Gardening'''''.
distinguished for their taste and education,  
+
:“6691. ''The principles of '''landscape-gardening''''', like those of every other art, are founded on the end in [[view]]. ‘Gardens and buildings,’ Lord Kaimes observes, ‘may be destined solely for use, or solely for beauty or for both. Such variety of destination bestows upon these arts a great command of beauties, complex not less than various. Hence the difficulty of forming an accurate taste in gardening and architecture; and hence, the difference or wavering of taste in these arts, is greater than in any art that has but a single destination.’ (''Elements of Criticism'', 4th edit. vol. ii. p. 431) Not to consider '''landscape-gardening''' with a view to these different beauties, but to treat it merely as ‘the art of creating landscape,’ would embrace only a small part of the art of laying out grounds, and leave incomplete a subject which contributes to the immediate comfort and happiness of a great body of the enlightened and opulent in this and in every country;—an art, as the poet Mason observes,
have given their attention to the study of this
+
::“_____ ‘which teaches wealth and pride
interesting subject, and especially in France and in  
+
::“‘How to obtain their wish—the world’s applause.’
Great Britain, have produced important changes
+
:“6693. . . . The [[Ancient_style|ancient]] or [[Geometric_style|geometric]] gardening is guided wholly by the former principles; and '''landscape-gardening''', as an imitative art, wholly by the latter; but when '''landscape-gardening''' is considered as the art of forming a country residence, its arrangements are influenced by both principles. In conformity with these ideas, and with our plan of treating of both styles, we shall first consider its principles as an inventive or mixed, and secondly as an imitative art. . .
in every department of horticulture, including
+
:“Sec. II. ''Beauties of '''Landscape-Gardening''', considered as an imitative Art, and Principles of their Production''.
that branch of it more especially, denominated
+
:“6708. ''The chief object of all the imitative arts is the production of natural or universal beauty''. Music, poetry, and painting, are the principal imitative arts; to these has been lately added '''landscape-gardening''', an art which has for its object the production of landscape by combinations of the actual materials of nature, as landscape-painting has for its object their imitation by combinations of colours. '''Landscape-gardening''' has been said ‘to realize whatever the fancy of the painter has imagined’ (''Girardin''); and, ‘to create a scenery more pure, more harmonious, and more expressive, than any that is to be found in nature herself.’ (''Alison''.) . . . A more correct idea of its capacities, in our opinion, is suggested by the remark of Horace Walpole, when he represents it as ‘proud of no other art than that of softening nature’s harshness, and copying her graceful touch.’ . . .
landscape gardening. In this list, the names of  
+
:“6709. ''To what kind or degree of beauty, then, can '''landscape-gardening''' aspire?'' To this we answer, that, abstracted from all relations of utility and design, it can seldom succeed in producing any thing higher than [[picturesque]] beauty; what we shall call [[gardenesque]] beauty, or such a harmonious mixture of forms, colours, lights, and shades, as will be grateful to the sight of men in general; and more particularly to such as have made this beauty in some degree their study. . . .
Miller, Marshall, Abercrombie, Brown, Nicol,
+
:“6712. ''The principles of imitative '''landscape-gardening''''', in that view of this term which limits it to ‘the art of creating landscape of [[picturesque]] beauty,’ we consider, with Girardin, Price, Knight, and other authors, to be those of painting; and in viewing it as adding to [[picturesque]] beauty some other natural expression, as of grandeur, decay, melancholy &c., we consider it, with Pope, Warton, Gray, and Eustace, as requiring; both in the designer and observer, the aid of a poetic mind; that is, of a mind conversant with all those different emotions or pleasures of imagination, which are called up by certain signs of affecting or interesting qualities, furnished by sounds, motion, buildings, and other objects.
Repton, Knight, and Loudon,* as well as others,  
 
whose taste and opportunities led them to the cultivation
 
of this art, hold a distinguished place. . . .  
 
  
“8th. Another advantage which such an establishment
 
should possess, is that of exemplifying
 
the principles of Ornamental Planting, or Landscape
 
Gardening. The ground should be selected
 
of such form and variety as will admit of such decoration.
 
And in the cultivation of the various
 
plants of the collection, their distribution may
 
ever be rendered subservient to this great object,
 
and thereby become the means of spreading
 
extensively among our citizens a taste for one of
 
the highest recreations that the human heart can
 
receive, and one which will go far in the improvement
 
of the moral principle, and in diverting the
 
  
mind from pursuits of a less worthy nature; for
+
*Anonymous, April 1, 1837, “Landscape Gardening” (''Horticultural Register'' 3: 121–24, 131)<ref>Anonymous, “Landscape Gardening,” ''Horticultural Register, and Gardener’s Magazine'' 3 (April 1, 1837): 121–31, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/TBFISAR7 view on Zotero].</ref>
the mind that is not actively engaged in virtuous
+
:“A remarkable characteristic of the people of our nation, is a fondness for change. This is beneficial to a certain limit, as it impels to industry, to enterprise and improvement. But it is often carried to such an extent as to become a positive evil. It results in a restlessness of habit which approaches that of some of the wandering nations of Asia. We are dissatisfied with the present good. . . And how is this to be prevented, how is this evil to be overcome? A powerful means would certainly be to induce a taste for moral improvement, and for embellishing the scenery about our homes, which would greatly contribute to the increase of our attachment to them, and to make us satisfied and contented. A love of nature, it is said, is a love of our country; not less so, then, is nature when improved by art, and applied by our own hands to increasing the attractions of our native land. . .
pursuits will most probably be occupied with
+
:“In urging the importance of a greater attention to '''landscape gardening''', we are far from desiring an extravagant outlay of expense. . . Now, instead of expending so much in erecting large and showy buildings, let at least a small sum be reserved for improvements in planting trees and [[shrubbery]]. Half an acre of ground about a house, and fifty dollars appropriated to planting it, would contribute far more to its appearance, than two thousand dollars expended in additional embellishments of the house alone. . .
those of a contrary character.  
+
:“Confining ourselves to the modern or [[natural style]], we shall proceed to offer some remarks on its characteristics. Landscape gardens in this style generally present either [[picturesque]], or what is termed [[gardenesque]] scenery. . .
“* Observations on Modern Gardening.”  
+
:“Although we have but few instances of fine '''landscape gardening''' in this country, yet an inexhaustible store of ideas may be derived from the beautiful and ever varying natural scenery which our country so richly affords.”  
  
Loudon, J. C., 1826, An Encyclopaedia of Gardening
 
(pp. 994–96)
 
  
“7156. In landscape gardening, the art of the  
+
*Anonymous, July 1841, book review of [[A. J. Downing]], ''A Treatise on the Theory and Practice of Landscape Gardening'' (''Magazine of Horticulture'' 7: 265–66)<ref>Anonymous, Review of A. J. Downing, ''A Treatise on the Theory and Practice of Landscape Gardening'', ''The Magazine of Horticulture, Botany, and All Useful Discoveries and Improvements in Rural Affairs'' 7, no. 7 (July 1841): 265–69, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/keywords_in_early_american_landscape_design/items/itemKey/AM5ZW382 view on Zotero].</ref>
gardener is directed to different objects, and some
+
:“The historical sketches are interesting, and include brief notices of the progress of '''landscape gardening''' throughout the country. The next chapter, on the Beauties of '''Landscape Gardening''', is one of the most valuable; the hints relative to what '''landscape gardening''' consists of, are well drawn, and must be read with great profit by every individual who wishes to improve an old place, or lay out a new one. As an imitative art, its nature and principles are fully explained. With a study of this portion of [[Andrew Jackson Downing|Mr. Downing's]] book, we are persuaded every planter will be able to effect great improvements in his grounds. Beautifying a residence does not consist in merely setting out trees, but rather in planting them in such situations as will give the greatest ''expression'' to the scene. . .
of them of a higher kind than any belonging to
+
:“In conclusion, we must not omit to remark, that [[Andrew Jackson Downing|Mr. Downing]] has given us an excellent volume, and, we might add, for a pioneer in the great art of '''landscape gardening''', in this country, one which will be the means of placing the art at once upon a sure footing. Every country gentleman, or possessor of a cottage or villa residence, should read it, if he has the least taste or desire to embellish his grounds.
gardening as an art of culture. In the three
 
branches [of gardening] hitherto considered, art is
 
chiefly employed in the cultivation of plants, with
 
a view of obtaining their products; but in the  
 
branch now under consideration, art is exercised
 
in disposing of ground, buildings, and water, as
 
well as the vegetating materials which enter into
 
the composition of verdant landscape. This is, in a  
 
strict sense, what is called landscape-gardening,  
 
or the art of creating or improving landscapes; but  
 
as landscapes are seldom required to be created
 
for their own sakes, landscape-gardening, as
 
actually practised, may be defined, ‘the art of  
 
arranging the different parts which compose the  
 
external scenery of a country-residence, so as to  
 
produce the different beauties and conveniences
 
of which that scene of domestic life is
 
susceptible.’ . . .  
 
  
“7161. With respect to the modern style . . . there
 
appear to be two principles which enter into its
 
composition; those which regard it as a mixed art,
 
or an art of design, and which are called the principles
 
of relative beauty; and those which regard it
 
as an imitative art, and are called the principles of
 
natural or universal beauty. The ancient or geometric
 
gardening is guided wholly by the former
 
principles; landscape-gardening, as an imitative
 
art, wholly by the latter; but as the art of forming a
 
country-residence, its arrangements are influenced
 
by both principles. In conformity with these
 
ideas, and with our plan of treating both styles, we
 
shall first consider its principles as an inventive or
 
mixed, and secondly as an imitative art.”
 
  
Dearborn, H.A.S., 19 September 1829, An
+
*Poe, Edgar Allan, 1842, “The Landscape Garden” (''Ladies’ Companion'' 17: 325, 326)<ref>Edgar Allan Poe, “The Landscape-Garden.” ''Ladies’ Companion'' 17 (1842): 324–27, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/EUS7UDCQ/ view on Zotero].</ref>
Address, Delivered Before the Massachusetts Horticultural
+
:“. . . yet my friend could not fail to perceive that the creation of the Landscape-Gardner offered to the true Muse the most magnificent of opportunities. Here was, indeed, the fairest field for the display of invention, or imagination, in the endless combining of forms of novel Beauty; the elements which should enter into combination being, at all times, and by a vast superiority, the most glorious which the earth could afford. In the multiform of the tree, and in the multicolor of the flower, he recognized the most direct and the most energetic effort of Nature at physical Beauty. . .
Society (1833: 16)
+
:“There are, properly,’ he writes, ‘but two styles of '''landscape-gardening''', the [[natural style|natural]] and the artificial. One seeks to recall the original beauty of the country, by adapting its means to the surrounding scenery; cultivating trees in harmony with the hills or plain of the neighboring land; detecting and bringing into practice those nice relations of size, proportion and color which, hid from the common observer, are revealed every where to the experienced student of nature. The result of the [[natural style]] of gardening, is seen rather in the absence of all defects and incongruities—in the prevalence of a beautiful harmony and order, than in the creation of any special wonders or miracles. The artificial style has as many varieties as there are different tastes to gratify. It has a certain general relation to the various styles of building. There are the stately [[avenue]]s and retirements of Versailles; Italian [[terrace]]s; and a various mixed old [[English style]], which bears some relation to the domestic Gothic or English Elizabethan architecture. Whatever may be said against the abuses of the artificial '''landscape-gardening''', a mixture of pure art in a garden scene, adds to it a great beauty. This is partly pleasing to the eye, by the show of order and design, and partly moral. A [[terrace]], with an old moss-covered balustrade, calls up, at once, to the eye, the fair forms that have passed there in other days. The slightest exhibition of art is an evidence of care and human interest.”
  
“The natural divisions of Horticulture are the
 
Kitchen Garden, Seminary, Nursery, Fruit Trees
 
and Vines, Flowers and Green Houses, the Botanical
 
and Medical Garden, and Landscape, or Picturesque
 
Gardening.”
 
  
Loudon, J. C., 1832, Review of W. Gilpin, Esq.,  
+
*Watterston, George, May 1844, “Landscape Gardening” (''Southern Literary Messenger'' 10: 306, 310–12)<ref>George Watterston, “Landscape Gardening,” ''Southern Literary Messenger'' 10 (May 1844): 306–15, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/3F6PUXVE view on Zotero].</ref>
“Practical Hints on Landscape Gardening”
+
:“'''Landscape Gardening''' is a modern art. Previous to the last century, it may be said scarcely to have existed. . .
(Gardeners’ Magazine 8: 701–2)
+
:“'''Landscape Gardening''' is not an imitative or imaginative art. It is not a copy of nature, but nature itself. All the materials are prepared and even shaped by her, and the arrangement and disposition of them in such a manner as to render them beautiful and [[picturesque]] depend upon the skill and taste of the improver. He executes, with the materials with which nature furnishes him, the landscape he has previously formed in his mind and which he must adapt to the peculiar locality of the grounds he may be called upon to improve. . . It is true, that '''Landscape Gardening''' is freed from one essential portion of art and which is its principal charm in painting. We mean execution, which in gardening is left to nature. But this does not lesson the skill and talent requisite for such a purpose, ‘since,’ says the writer above quoted, ‘besides the painter’s eye and sensibility, a master in '''Landscape Gardening''' must also possess a high degree of prescient vision, so as to be able to foresee results that will not develope and manifest themselves till long afterwards.’ . . .
 +
:“In a painting, the eye is confined to a single point of [[view]]—but in '''Landscape Gardening''', which is a copy of natural scenery, the foreground is constantly changing and becomes middle ground or distance as the spectator advances. In coloring too, they may differ, for the coloring which a painter would employ to give truth to a view in America, would not be such as would be proper to paint one in Italy, or France, where the masters in landscape have studied. . . But whatever may be the difference which exists between these two arts [painting and landscape gardening], '''Landscape Gardening''' may be considered as claiming the superiority both in beauty and utility, and is, in the language of a French author, ‘''à la poesie et a la peinture ce que realité est a la description et l’original a la copie.''’. . .
 +
:“The Landscape Gardener who possesses taste, will of course avoid both extremes and follow nature in her simplicity, symmetry, variety and beauty. He will avoid, on the one hand, the absurdity of clipping trees into formal figures, and cutting [[hedge]]s so as to resemble [[wall]]s, and disposing gardens in the shape of the human body, as has been done; and, on the other, the equally censurable extreme of giving every thing the form of a curve, which, though the imaginary line of beauty, becomes tame and monotonous when carried to an extreme. By the improver of taste, a union of the old and [[modern style]] may be made to produce a harmonious and happy effect. . . .
 +
:“The '''Landscape Gardener''' is always the most successful when he makes his work appear to be the exclusive work of nature. It is that which constitutes his excellence and the beauty of his work. . . The principal aim of the '''Landscape Gardener''' is to create the [[picturesque]] and beautiful and but rarely the sublime—unless the genius loci will admit of it. But the wild and romantic are seldom within the range of human habitations. . . This is just a designation of the business of a '''Landscape Gardener''', whose aim, moreover, should be the attainment of the highest degree of beauty which his own imagination can suggest, or the genius of the place and the circumstances of the proprietor will admit of.”
  
“Landscape-gardening, it will be allowed is, to
 
a certain extent, an art of imitation. Now, an imitative
 
art is not one which produces fac similes of
 
the things to be imitated; but one which produces
 
imitations, or resemblances, according to the
 
manner of that art. Thus, sculpture does not
 
attempt colour, not painting to raise surfaces in
 
relief; and neither attempt to deceive. In the like
 
  
manner, the imitator, in a park or pleasure-
+
*Johnson, George William, 1847, ''A Dictionary of Modern Gardening'' (1847: 339–40)<ref>George William Johnson, ''A Dictionary of Modern Gardening'', ed. David Landreth (Philadelphia: Lea and Blanchard, 1847), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/D6PQSNAN view on Zotero].</ref>
ground, of a landscape composed of ground,  
+
:“A taste for '''landscape-gardening''', like that for the higher order of painting, sculpture and other fine arts, is the slow product of wealth and easy leisure, and is distinct from a love of flowers evinced alike by the young and the aged, the intellectual and the illiterate. In the United States, as might be expected in a new country, the mass are too busily engaged in the every day cares of life to devote attention to such objects—but few comparatively, ‘the architects of their own fortunes,’ have acquired the means to indulge in luxurious expenditures. We are, however, acquiring taste on this and kindred subjects, and with the increasing wealth, the general education and superior intelligence which characterize the American people, there can be no doubt that long before we can be called an old nation, our tastes will have been refined, and our capacity to appreciate the beautiful largely developed. Already we have evidence of ‘the march of improvement,as exhibited in the pretty cottages, with their decorated grounds, around our towns and cities; an onward step towards that which in portions of Europe, especially in England, gives such charm to the country, and to country life.  
wood, and water, does not produce fac similes of
+
:“Those who wish to consult works on '''Landscape Gardening''' and Rural Architecture, almost indivisible, are referred to [[J. C. (John Claudius) Loudon|Loudon's]] ‘Encyclopedia of Cottage, Farm and Villa Architecture,’ [[J. C. (John Claudius) Loudon|Loudon's]] ‘Suburban Gardener,’ [[A. J. Downing|Downing's]] ‘Landscape Gardening,’ [[A. J. Downing|Downing's]] ‘Cottage Residences,’ &c.”
the ground, wood, and water, which he sees
 
around him on every side; but of ground, wood
 
and water, arranged in imitation of nature,  
 
according to the principles of his particular art.
 
The character of this art has varied from the earliest
 
times to the present day; but, profoundly
 
examined, the principle which guided the artist
 
remains the same; and the successive fashions that  
 
have prevailed will be found to confirm our view
 
of the subject, viz., that all imitations of nature
 
worthy of being characterised as belonging to the  
 
fine arts are not fac-simile imitations, but imitations
 
of manner. To apply this principle to the
 
planting of trees in park or pleasure-ground
 
scenery; nature, in any given locality, makes use of
 
a certain number of trees found indigenous there;
 
but the garden imitator of natural woods introduces
 
either other forms and dispositions of the
 
same kinds of trees, as in the geometric style; or
 
the same dispositions of other species of trees, as
 
in the most improved practice of the modern
 
style. In neither case does the artist produce a correct
 
fac simile of nature; for, if he did, however
 
beautiful the scene copied, the beauty produced
 
would be merely that of repetition. But we have
 
neither room nor time at present fully to illustrate
 
this theory. Let it suffice for us to state, for the
 
consideration of those of our readers who have
 
reflected on the subject, that there is as certainly,  
 
in gardening, as an art of imitation, the gardenesque,  
 
as there is, in painting and sculpture, the
 
picturesque and sculpturesque.”  
 
  
Loudon, J. C., 1834, An Encyclopaedia of Garden
 
  
 +
*Thomas, John J., April 1848, “The Shrubbery and Flower Garden” (''Cultivator'' 5: 114)<ref>John J. Thomas, “The Shrubbery and Flower Garden,” ''Cultivator, a Monthly Publication, Devoted to Agriculture'' 5, no. 4 (April 1848): 114–16, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/CRVBXUHR view on Zotero].</ref>
 +
:“Nearly all the [[flower garden]]s of the country are laid out in geometrical lines; a style, it is true much better adapted to the small piece of ground allotted to flowers, than to the larger '''landscape garden''' composed of trees, [[lawn]]s, and sheets of water. With a wish however, to encourage a more graceful, pleasing, and [[picturesque]] mode of laying out even the small [[flower garden]] in connexion with the [[shrubbery]], we have given the above plan, which nearly explains itself.”
  
ing (pp. 1163–64, 1167–68)
 
  
“BOOK IV. LANDSCAPE-GARDENING....  
+
*[[Andrew Jackson Downing|Downing, Andrew Jackson]], 1849, ''A Treatise on the Theory and Practice of Landscape Gardening'' (1849; repr., 1991: 17–21, 38, 40, 66–67, 93–94, 525)<ref>A. J. [Andrew Jackson] Downing, ''A Treatise on the Theory and Practice of Landscape Gardening, Adapted to North America'', 4th ed. (1849; repr., Washington, DC: Dumbarton Oaks Research Library and Collection, 1991), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/K7BRCDC5 view on Zotero].</ref>
 +
:“‘Our first, most endearing, and most sacred associations,’ says the amiable Mrs. Hofland, ‘are connected with gardens; our most simple and most refined perceptions of beauty are combined with them.’ And we may add to this, that '''Landscape Gardening''', which is an artistical combination of the beautiful in nature and art—an union of natural expression and harmonious cultivation—is capable of affording us the highest and most intellectual enjoyment to be found in any cares or pleasures belonging to the soil.
 +
:“The development of the Beautiful is the end and aim of '''Landscape Gardening''', as it is of all other fine arts. The ancients sought to attain this by a studied and elegant regularity of design in their gardens; the moderns, by the creation or improvement of grounds which, though of limited extent, exhibit a highly graceful or [[picturesque]] epitome of natural beauty. '''Landscape Gardening''' differs from gardening in its common sense, in embracing the whole scene immediately about a country house, which it softens and refines, or renders more spirited and striking by the aid of art. In it we seek to embody our ideal of a rural home; not through plots of fruit trees, and [[bed]]s of choice flowers, though these have their place, but by collecting and combining beautiful forms in trees, surfaces of ground, buildings, and [[walk]]s, in the landscape surrounding us. It is, in short, the Beautiful, embroided in a home scene. . .
 +
:“This embellishment of nature, which we call '''Landscape Gardening''', springs naturally from a love of country life, an attachment to a certain spot, and a desire to render that place attractive— a feeling which seems more or less strongly fixed in the minds of all men. But we should convey a false impression, were we to state that it may be applied with equal success to residences of every class and size, in the country. [[Lawn]] and trees, being its two essential elements, some of the beauties of '''Landscape Gardening''' may, indeed, be shown wherever a rood of grass surface, and half a dozen trees are within our reach; we may, even with such scanty space, have tasteful grouping, varied surface and agreeably curved [[walk]]s; but our art, to appear to advantage, requires some extent of surface—is lines should lose themselves indefinitely, and unite agreeably and gradually with those of the surrounding country.
 +
:“In the case of large landed estates, its capabilities may be displayed to their full extent, as from fifty to five hundred acres may be devoted to a [[park]] or [[pleasure ground]]s. Most of its beauty, and all its charms, may, however, be enjoyed in ten or twenty acres, fortunately situated, and well treated; and '''Landscape Gardening''', in America, combined and working in harmony as it is with our fine scenery, is already beginning to give us results scarcely less beautiful than those produced by its finest efforts abroad. The lovely villa residences of our noble river and [[lake]] margins, when well treated—even in a few acres of tasteful foreground,—seem so entirely to appropriate the whole adjacent landscape, and to mingle so sweetly in their outlines with the [[wood]]s, the valleys, and shores around them, that the effects are often truly enchanting.
 +
:“But if '''Landscape Gardening''', in its proper sense, cannot be applied to the embellishment of the smallest cottage residences in the country, its principles may be studied with advantage, even by him who has only three trees to plant for ornament; and we hope no one will think his grounds too small, to feel willing to add something to the general amount of beauty in the country. . .
 +
:“'''Landscape Gardening''' is, indeed, only a modern word, first coined, we believe, by Shenstone, since the art has been based on natural beauty; but as an extensively embellished scene, filled with rare trees, [[fountain]]s, and [[statue]]s, may, however artificial, be termed a '''landscape garden''', the classical gardens are fairly included in a retrospective view. . .
 +
:“On the continent of Europe, though there are a multitude of examples of the modern style of '''landscape gardening''', which is there called the ''English'' or ''[[natural style]]'', yet in the neighborhood of many of the capitals, especially those of the south of Europe, the taste for the [[Geometric_style|geometric]] or [[ancient style]] of gardening still prevails to a considerable extent. . .
 +
:“With regard to the literature and practice of '''Landscape Gardening''' as an art, in North America, almost everything is yet before us, comparatively little having yet been done. Almost all the improvements of the grounds of our finest country residences, have been carried on under the direction of the proprietors themselves, suggested by their own good taste, in many instances improved by the study of European authors, or by a personal inspection of the finest places abroad. The only American work previously published which treats directly of '''Landscape Gardening''', is the ''American Gardener’s Calendar'', by [[Bernard M'Mahon|Bernard McMahon]] of Philadelphia. . .
 +
:“The early writers on the modern style were content with trees allowed to grow in their natural forms, and with an easy assemblage of sylvan scenery in the [[pleasure-ground]]s, which resembled the usual woodland features of nature. The effect of this method will always be interesting, and an agreeable effect will always be the result of following the simplest hints derived from the free and luxuriant forms of nature. No residence in the country can fail to be pleasing, whose features are natural groups of forest trees, smooth [[lawn]], and hard gravel [[walk]]s.
 +
:“But this is scarcely '''Landscape Gardening''' in the true sense of the word, although apparently so understood by many writers. By '''Landscape Gardening''', we understand not only an imitation, in the grounds of a country residence, of the agreeable forms of nature, but ''an expressive, harmonious, and refined imitation''. In '''Landscape Gardening''', we should aim to separate the accidental and extraneous in nature, and to preserve only the spirit, or essence. This subtle essence lies, we believe, in the expression more or less pervading every attractive portion of nature. And it is by eliciting, preserving, or heightening this expression, that we may give our landscape gardens a higher charm, than even the polish of art can bestow.
 +
:“Now, the two most forcible and complete expressions to be found in that kind of natural scenery which may be reproduced in '''Landscape Gardening''', are the BEAUTIFUL and the [[PICTURESQUE]]. . .
 +
:“In the majority of instances in the United States, [[modern style]] of '''Landscape Gardening''', wherever it is appreciated, will, in practice, consist in arranging a demesne of from five to some hundred acres,—or rather that portion of it, say one half, one third, etc., devoted to [[lawn]] and [[pleasure-ground]], pasture, etc.—so as to exhibit groups of forest and ornamental trees and [[shrub]]s, surrounding the dwelling of the proprietor, an extending for a greater or less distance, especially towards the place of entrance from the public highway. Near the house, good taste will dictate the assemblage of groups and masses of the rarer or more beautiful trees and [[shrub]]s; commoner native forest trees occupying the more distant portions of the grounds.
  
“CHAP. I. Principles of Landscape-Gardening.
 
  
“6691. The principles of landscape-gardening,  
+
*Ranlett, William H., 1849, ''The Architect'' (1849; repr., 1976: 1:3–4)<ref name="Ranlett">William H. Ranlett, ''The Architect'', 2 vols. (1849–51; repr., New York: Da Capo, 1976), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/QGQPCB5J view on Zotero].</ref>
like those of every other art, are founded on the
+
:“While the products of Painting and Sculpture are necessarily limited and selfish in their effects— being shut in from public gaze, and designed to gratify only the proprietor and his chosen friends and guests—'''Landscape Gardening''' is claimed as producing a far greater amount of public good, by spreading its beauties before the public eye— allowing the rich and the poor alike to look upon them and be delighted. . .
end in view. ‘Gardens and buildings,’ Lord Kaimes
+
:“'''Landscape Gardening''' was, formerly, the imitation of geometric figures; hence the [[ancient style|ancient]] mode of it is called the [[geometric style]] of gardening.”
observes, ‘may be destined solely for use, or solely
 
for beauty or for both. Such variety of destination
 
bestows upon these arts a great command of beauties,
 
complex not less than various. Hence the difficulty
 
of forming an accurate taste in gardening
 
and architecture; and hence, the difference or
 
wavering of taste in these arts, is greater than in
 
any art that has but a single destination.’ (Elements
 
of Criticism, 4th edit. vol. ii. p. 431) Not to consider
 
landscape-gardening with a view to these
 
different beauties, but to treat it merely as ‘the art
 
of creating landscape,’ would embrace only a
 
small part of the art of laying out grounds, and
 
leave incomplete a subject which contributes to
 
the immediate comfort and happiness of a great
 
body of the enlightened and opulent in this and in
 
every country;—an art, as the poet Mason
 
observes,
 
  
“_____ ‘which teaches wealth and pride
 
  
“‘How to obtain their wish—the world’s
+
*[[J. C. (John Claudius) Loudon|Loudon, J. C. (John Claudius)]], 1850, ''An Encyclopaedia of Gardening'' (1850: 329)<ref>J. C. (John Claudius) Loudon, ''An Encyclopaedia of Gardening; Comprising the Theory and Practice of Horticulture, Floriculture, Arboriculture, and Landscape-Gardening'', new ed., corrected and improved (London: Longman et al., 1850), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/W8EQFZUG view on Zotero].</ref>
applause.
+
:“841. '''''Landscape-Gardening''''' is practised in the United States on a comparatively limited scale; because, in a country where all men have equal rights, and where every man, however humble, has a house and garden of his own, it is not likely that there should be many large [[park]]s.
  
“6693. . . . The ancient or geometric gardening
 
is guided wholly by the former principles; and
 
landscape-gardening, as an imitative art, wholly
 
by the latter; but when landscape-gardening is
 
considered as the art of forming a country residence,
 
its arrangements are influenced by both
 
principles. In conformity with these ideas, and
 
with our plan of treating of both styles, we shall
 
first consider its principles as an inventive or
 
mixed, and secondly as an imitative art. . . .
 
  
“Sec. II. Beauties of Landscape-Gardening,  
+
*Ranlett, William H., 1851, ''The Architect'' (1851; repr., 1976: 2:38–40)<ref name="Ranlett"></ref>
considered as an imitative Art, and Principles of  
+
:“The art of '''landscape gardening''' is an essential part of the accomplishments of an architect, for the main beauty of a rural dwelling is its harmonizing with the scene of which it forms a part. The same house that looked [[picturesque]] and beautiful on the top of a hill would look extravagant and whimsical on a plain; a country house with a southern front should have a projecting roof and a [[piazza]]; but one fronting the north would look more cold and cheerless by the addition of an overhanging roof or a [[veranda]]. Yet nothing is more common than to see houses in the country with gloomy-looking [[piazza]]s on the north side which is always in shadow, while the back part is left to scorch in the sun without even the protection of a hooded window to cast a shadow. . .
their Production.  
+
:“A good many of the cottages and villas in the suburbs of our large towns appear to have been transferred from old landscapes and picture-books, and it is not unlikely that their proprietors understood ‘'''landscape gardening'''’ to mean the imitation of landscape paintings. . . As copies of Claude’s landscapes are rather more frequently brought over here than those of Gaspar Poussin, we hope that those who prefer going to a painted landscape for a design of a country house to employing an intelligent architect to furnish one, will give the preference to Claude, as his architectural embellishments are infinitely more beautiful than the gloomy looking villas and castles in the landscapes of Poussin. But the better way will be to avoid both, and call in the aid of a professed architect.
  
“6708. The chief object of all the imitative arts is
 
the production of natural or universal beauty.
 
Music, poetry, and painting, are the principal imitative
 
arts; to these has been lately added landscape-
 
gardening, an art which has for its object the
 
production of landscape by combinations of the
 
actual materials of nature, as landscape-painting
 
has for its object their imitation by combinations
 
of colours. Landscape-gardening has been said ‘to
 
realize whatever the fancy of the painter has imagined’
 
(Girardin); and, ‘to create a scenery more
 
pure, more harmonious, and more expressive,
 
than any that is to be found in nature herself.’
 
(Alison.) . . . A more correct idea of its capacities,
 
in our opinion, is suggested by the remark of
 
Horace Walpole, when he represents it as ‘proud
 
of no other art than that of softening nature’s
 
harshness, and copying her graceful touch.’ . . .
 
  
“6709. To what kind or degree of beauty, then,  
+
*Meehan, Thomas, February 1852, “Notes on Landscape Gardening” (''Horticulturist'' 7: 92)<ref>Thomas Meehan, “Notes on Landscape Gardening,” ''The Horticulturist and Journal of Rural Art and Rural Taste''7, no. 2 (February 1852): 92–94, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/keywords_in_early_american_landscape_design/items/itemKey/HHX9HK7N view on Zotero].</ref>
can landscape-gardening aspire? To this we
+
:“'''Landscape gardening''', to be pleasing, must be accommodating. Nature herself, is so. In the plains she will give the Oak, the Beech, the Birch, a giant height and strength; on the hill sides and elevations she checks their luxuriance—while on the mountain summits she reduces them to the rank of mere bushes. They, therefore, who follow the ‘[[natural style]],’ may learn from this, that its results depend on their ''application'' of natural laws, rather than on any abstract formulas of ''lines'' or ''circles''. Mankind generally run into extremes. '''Landscape gardening''' confirms this truth. The old system of squaring all [[walk]]s, carrying them at right lines and angles, shearing and clipping every tree, and making everything so exactly correspondent, was so very absurd.
answer, that, abstracted from all relations of utility
 
and design, it can seldom succeed in producing
 
any thing higher than picturesque beauty; what we
 
shall call gardenesque beauty, or such a harmonious
 
mixture of forms, colours, lights, and
 
shades, as will be grateful to the sight of men in
 
general; and more particularly to such as have
 
made this beauty in some degree their study. . . .  
 
  
“6712. The principles of imitative landscape-
 
gardening, in that view of this term which limits it
 
to ‘the art of creating landscape of picturesque
 
beauty,’ we consider, with Girardin, Price, Knight,
 
and other authors, to be those of painting; and in
 
viewing it as adding to picturesque beauty some
 
other natural expression, as of grandeur, decay,
 
melancholy &c., we consider it, with Pope,
 
Warton, Gray, and Eustace, as requiring; both in
 
the designer and observer, the aid of a poetic
 
mind; that is, of a mind conversant with all those
 
different emotions or pleasures of imagination,
 
which are called up by certain signs of affecting or
 
interesting qualities, furnished by sounds, motion,
 
buildings, and other objects.”
 
  
Anonymous, 1 April 1837, “Landscape Gardening”
+
<hr>
(Horticultural Register 3: 121–24, 131)
 
  
“A remarkable characteristic of the people of
+
==Images==
our nation, is a fondness for change. This is bene
+
===Inscribed===
 
+
<gallery widths="170px" heights="170px" perrow="7">
 
 
ficial to a certain limit, as it impels to industry, to
 
enterprise and improvement. But it is often carried
 
to such an extent as to become a positive evil.
 
It results in a restlessness of habit which
 
approaches that of some of the wandering nations
 
of Asia. We are dissatisfied with the present
 
good. . . . And how is this to be prevented, how is
 
this evil to be overcome? A powerful means would
 
certainly be to induce a taste for moral improvement,
 
and for embellishing the scenery about our
 
homes, which would greatly contribute to the
 
increase of our attachment to them, and to make
 
us satisfied and contented. A love of nature, it is
 
said, is a love of our country; not less so, then, is
 
nature when improved by art, and applied by our
 
own hands to increasing the attractions of our
 
native land. . . .
 
 
 
“In urging the importance of a greater attention
 
to landscape gardening, we are far from
 
desiring an extravagant outlay of expense. . . .
 
Now, instead of expending so much in erecting
 
large and showy buildings, let at least a small sum
 
be reserved for improvements in planting trees
 
and shrubbery. Half an acre of ground about a
 
house, and fifty dollars appropriated to planting it,
 
would contribute far more to its appearance, than
 
two thousand dollars expended in additional
 
embellishments of the house alone. . . .
 
 
 
“Confining ourselves to the modern or natural
 
style, we shall proceed to offer some remarks on
 
its characteristics. Landscape gardens in this style
 
generally present either picturesque, or what is
 
termed gardenesque scenery. . . .
 
 
 
“Although we have but few instances of fine
 
landscape gardening in this country, yet an inexhaustible
 
store of ideas may be derived from the
 
beautiful and ever varying natural scenery which
 
our country so richly affords.”
 
 
 
Anonymous, July 1841, book review of A. J.
 
Downing, A Treatise on the Theory and Practice of
 
Landscape Gardening (Magazine of Horticulture 7:
 
265–66)
 
 
 
“The historical sketches are interesting, and
 
include brief notices of the progress of landscape
 
gardening throughout the country. The next
 
chapter, on the Beauties of Landscape Gardening,
 
is one of the most valuable; the hints relative to
 
what landscape gardening consists of, are well
 
drawn, and must be read with great profit by every
 
individual who wishes to improve an old place, or
 
lay out a new one. As an imitative art, its nature
 
and principles are fully explained. With a study of
 
this portion of Mr. Downing’s book, we are persuaded
 
every planter will be able to effect great
 
improvements in his grounds. Beautifying a residence
 
does not consist in merely setting out trees,
 
but rather in planting them in such situations as
 
will give the greatest expression to the scene. . . .
 
 
 
“In conclusion, we must not omit to remark,
 
that Mr. Downing has given us an excellent volume,
 
and, we might add, for a pioneer in the great
 
art of landscape gardening, in this country, one
 
which will be the means of placing the art at once
 
 
 
upon a sure footing. Every country gentleman, or
 
possessor of a cottage or villa residence, should
 
read it, if he has the least taste or desire to embellish
 
his grounds.”
 
 
 
Poe, Edgar Allan, 1842, “The Landscape-
 
Garden” (pp. 325, 326)
 
 
 
“yet my friend could not fail to perceive that
 
the creation of the Landscape-Gardner offered to
 
the true Muse the most magnificent of opportunities.
 
Here was, indeed, the fairest field for the display
 
of invention, or imagination, in the endless
 
combining of forms of novel Beauty; the elements
 
which should enter into combination being, at all
 
times, and by a vast superiority, the most glorious
 
which the earth could afford. In the multiform of
 
the tree, and in the multicolor of the flower, he
 
recognized the most direct and the most energetic
 
effort of Nature at physical Beauty. . . .
 
 
 
“‘There are, properly,’ he writes, ‘but two
 
styles of landscape-gardening, the natural and the
 
artificial. One seeks to recall the original beauty of
 
the country, by adapting its means to the surrounding
 
scenery; cultivating trees in harmony
 
with the hills or plain of the neighboring land;
 
detecting and bringing into practice those nice
 
relations of size, proportion and color which, hid
 
from the common observer, are revealed every
 
where to the experienced student of nature. The
 
result of the natural style of gardening, is seen
 
rather in the absence of all defects and incongruities—
 
in the prevalence of a beautiful harmony
 
and order, than in the creation of any special wonders
 
or miracles. The artificial style has as many
 
varieties as there are different tastes to gratify. It
 
has a certain general relation to the various styles
 
of building. There are the stately avenues and
 
retirements of Versailles; Italian terraces; and a
 
various mixed old English style, which bears some
 
relation to the domestic Gothic or English Elizabethan
 
architecture. Whatever may be said against
 
the abuses of the artificial landscape-gardening,a
 
mixture of pure art in a garden scene, adds to it a
 
great beauty. This is partly pleasing to the eye, by
 
the show of order and design, and partly moral. A
 
terrace, with an old moss-covered balustrade, calls
 
up, at once, to the eye, the fair forms that have
 
passed there in other days. The slightest exhibition
 
of art is an evidence of care and human interest.’”
 
 
 
Watterston, George, May 1844, “Landscape
 
Gardening” (pp. 306, 310–12)
 
 
 
“Landscape Gardening is a modern art. Previous
 
to the last century, it may be said scarcely to
 
have existed. . . .
 
  
“Landscape Gardening is not an imitative or
+
File:1366.jpg|'''Landscape gardening''' for a residence in the [[Ancient style|ancient style]], in ''An Encyclopaedia of Gardening'', 4th ed. (1826), 1007, fig. 690.
imaginative art. It is not a copy of nature, but
 
nature itself. All the materials are prepared and
 
even shaped by her, and the arrangement and disposition
 
of them in such a manner as to render
 
them beautiful and picturesque depend upon the
 
skill and taste of the improver. He executes, with the materials with which nature furnishes him, the
 
landscape he has previously formed in his mind
 
and which he must adapt to the peculiar locality
 
of the grounds he may be called upon to
 
improve. . . . It is true, that Landscape Gardening  
 
is freed from one essential portion of art and
 
which is its principal charm in painting. We mean
 
execution, which in gardening is left to nature.  
 
But this does not lesson the skill and talent requisite
 
for such a purpose, ‘since,’ says the writer
 
above quoted, ‘besides the painter’s eye and sensibility,
 
a master in Landscape Gardening must also
 
possess a high degree of prescient vision, so as to
 
be able to foresee results that will not develope
 
and manifest themselves till long afterwards.’ . . .  
 
  
“In a painting, the eye is confined to a single
+
File:0353.jpg|Anonymous, “Example of the beautiful in '''Landscape Gardening''',in [[A. J. Downing]], ''A Treatise on the Theory and Practice of '''Landscape Gardening''''', 4th ed. (1849), pl. opp. 273, fig. 15.
point of view—but in Landscape Gardening,  
 
which is a copy of natural scenery, the foreground
 
is constantly changing and becomes middle
 
ground or distance as the spectator advances. In
 
coloring too, they may differ, for the coloring
 
which a painter would employ to give truth to a
 
view in America, would not be such as would be
 
proper to paint one in Italy, or France, where the
 
masters in landscape have studied. . . . But whatever
 
may be the difference which exists between
 
these two arts [painting and landscape gardening],
 
Landscape Gardening may be considered as
 
claiming the superiority both in beauty and utility,  
 
and is, in the language of a French author, ‘à la
 
poesie et a la peinture ce que realité est a la description
 
et l’original a la copie....  
 
  
“The Landscape Gardener who possesses taste,  
+
File:0354.jpg|Anonymous, “Example of the [[Picturesque]] in '''Landscape Gardening''',” in [[A. J. Downing]], ''A Treatise on the Theory and Practice of '''Landscape Gardening''''', 4th ed. (1849), pl. opp. 273, fig. 16.
will of course avoid both extremes and follow
+
</gallery>
nature in her simplicity, symmetry, variety and
 
beauty. He will avoid, on the one hand, the
 
absurdity of clipping trees into formal figures, and  
 
cutting hedges so as to resemble walls, and disposing
 
gardens in the shape of the human body, as
 
has been done; and, on the other, the equally censurable
 
extreme of giving every thing the form of a
 
curve, which, though the imaginary line of beauty,
 
becomes tame and monotonous when carried to
 
an extreme. By the improver of taste, a union of
 
the old and modern style may be made to produce
 
a harmonious and happy effect. . . .  
 
  
“The Landscape Gardener is always the most
+
===Associated===
successful when he makes his work appear to be
+
<gallery widths="170px" heights="170px" perrow="7">
the exclusive work of nature. It is that which constitutes
 
his excellence and the beauty of his
 
work. . . . The principal aim of the Landscape
 
Gardener is to create the picturesque and beautiful
 
and but rarely the sublime—unless the genius
 
loci will admit of it. But the wild and romantic are
 
seldom within the range of human habitations. . . .
 
This is just a designation of the business of a
 
Landscape Gardener, whose aim, moreover,
 
should be the attainment of the highest degree of
 
beauty which his own imagination can suggest, or
 
the genius of the place and the circumstances of
 
the proprietor will admit of.”
 
  
Johnson, George William, 1847, A Dictionary of  
+
File:0326.jpg|William Russell Birch, “The [[View]] from Springland,” in William Russell Birch ''The Country [[Seat]]s of the United States'' (1808), pl. 2.
Modern Gardening (pp. 339–40)
 
  
“A taste for landscape-gardening, like that for
+
File:0064.jpg|Anonymous, ''Map of [[Parmentier’s Horticultural and Botanical Garden|Mr. Andrew Parmentier’s Horticultural & Botanic Garden]], at Brooklyn, Long Island, Two Miles From the City of New York'', c. 1828.
the higher order of painting, sculpture and other
 
fine arts, is the slow product of wealth and easy
 
leisure, and is distinct from a love of flowers
 
evinced alike by the young and the aged, the intellectual
 
and the illiterate. In the United States, as
 
might be expected in a new country, the mass are
 
too busily engaged in the every day cares of life to
 
devote attention to such objects—but few comparatively,
 
‘the architects of their own fortunes,’
 
have acquired the means to indulge in luxurious
 
expenditures. We are, however, acquiring taste on
 
this and kindred subjects, and with the increasing
 
wealth, the general education and superior intelligence
 
which characterize the American people,
 
there can be no doubt that long before we can be
 
called an old nation, our tastes will have been
 
refined, and our capacity to appreciate the beautiful
 
largely developed. Already we have evidence of
 
‘the march of improvement,’ as exhibited in the
 
pretty cottages, with their decorated grounds,
 
around our towns and cities; an onward step
 
towards that which in portions of Europe, especially
 
in England, gives such charm to the country,
 
and to country life.  
 
  
“Those who wish to consult works on Landscape
+
File:1100.jpg|Robert Walter Weir, “Lunatic Asylum, New York,” Bloomingdale Asylum for the Insane, in ''New York Mirror'' (February 1, 1834): opp. 241.
Gardening and Rural Architecture, almost
 
indivisible, are referred to Loudon’s ‘Encyclopedia
 
of Cottage, Farm and Villa Architecture,’ Loudon’s
 
‘Suburban Gardener,’ Downing’s ‘Landscape Gardening,’
 
Downing’s ‘Cottage Residences,’ &c.
 
  
Thomas, John J., April 1848, “The Shrubbery
+
File:1101.jpg|Anonymous, “Bloomingdale Asylum for the Insane,” ''American Magazine for Useful and Entertaining Knowledge'' 1, no. 1 (September 1834): 6.
and Flower Garden” (The Cultivator 5: 114)
 
  
“Nearly all the flower gardens of the country
+
File:0960.jpg|John J. Thomas, “Plan of a Garden,” ''Cultivator'' 9, no. 1 (January 1842): 22, fig. 8.
are laid out in geometrical lines; a style, it is true
 
much better adapted to the small piece of ground
 
allotted to flowers, than to the larger landscape
 
garden composed of trees, lawns, and sheets of
 
water. With a wish however, to encourage a more
 
graceful, pleasing, and picturesque mode of laying
 
out even the small flower garden in connexion
 
with the shrubbery, we have given the above plan,
 
which nearly explains itself.
 
  
Downing, A. J., 1849, A Treatise on the Theory and
+
File:1976.jpg|James Smillie (artist), John A. Rolph (etcher), “[[View]] of the Forest [[Pond]], [[Mount Auburn Cemetery]],” in Cornelia W. Walter, ''Mount Auburn Illustrated'' (1847; repr., 1850), opp. 94.
Practice of Landscape Gardening (pp. 17–21, 38, 40,  
 
66–67, 93–94, 525)
 
  
“‘Our first, most endearing, and most sacred
+
File:0363.jpg|Anonymous, “[[View]] in the Meadow [[Park]] at Geneseo,” in [[A. J. Downing]], ed., ''Horticulturist'' 3, no. 4 (October 1848): pl. opp. 153.
associations,’ says the amiable Mrs. Hofland, ‘are
 
connected with gardens; our most simple and
 
most refined perceptions of beauty are combined
 
with them.’ And we may add to this, that Landscape
 
Gardening, which is an artistical combination
 
of the beautiful in nature and art—an union
 
of natural expression and harmonious cultivation—
 
is capable of affording us the highest and
 
most intellectual enjoyment to be found in any
 
cares or pleasures belonging to the soil.  
 
  
“The development of the Beautiful is the end
+
File:0350.jpg|Andrew Jackson Davis, “[[View]] in the Grounds at [[Blithewood]],” in [[A. J. Downing]], ''A Treatise on the Theory and Practice of '''Landscape Gardening''''', 4th ed. (1849), frontispiece.
and aim of Landscape Gardening, as it is of all
 
other fine arts. The ancients sought to attain this
 
by a studied and elegant regularity of design in
 
  
their gardens; the moderns, by the creation or
+
File:0355.jpg|Anonymous, “[[View]] in the Grounds at [[Hyde Park (on the Hudson River, NY)|Hyde Park]],” in [[A. J. Downing]], ''A Treatise on the Theory and Practice of '''Landscape Gardening''''', 4th ed. (1849), 45, fig. 1.  
improvement of grounds which, though of limited
 
extent, exhibit a highly graceful or picturesque
 
epitome of natural beauty. Landscape Gardening
 
differs from gardening in its common sense, in  
 
embracing the whole scene immediately about a
 
country house, which it softens and refines, or
 
renders more spirited and striking by the aid of
 
art. In it we seek to embody our ideal of a rural
 
home; not through plots of fruit trees, and beds of  
 
choice flowers, though these have their place, but
 
by collecting and combining beautiful forms in
 
trees, surfaces of ground, buildings, and walks, in
 
the landscape surrounding us. It is, in short, the
 
Beautiful, embroided in a home scene. . . .  
 
  
“This embellishment of nature, which we call
+
File:0117.jpg|Thomas Chambers, ''[[Mount Auburn Cemetery]]'', mid-19th century.
Landscape Gardening, springs naturally from a
 
love of country life, an attachment to a certain
 
spot, and a desire to render that place attractive—
 
a feeling which seems more or less strongly fixed
 
in the minds of all men. But we should convey a
 
false impression, were we to state that it may be
 
applied with equal success to residences of every
 
class and size, in the country. Lawn and trees,
 
being its two essential elements, some of the beauties
 
of Landscape Gardening may, indeed, be
 
shown wherever a rood of grass surface, and half a
 
dozen trees are within our reach; we may, even
 
with such scanty space, have tasteful grouping,
 
varied surface and agreeably curved walks; but our
 
art, to appear to advantage, requires some extent
 
of surface—is lines should lose themselves indefinitely,  
 
and unite agreeably and gradually with
 
those of the surrounding country.  
 
  
“In the case of large landed estates, its capabilities
+
File:1967.jpg|[[A. J. Downing]], ''Plan Showing Proposed Method of Laying Out the [[Public garden/Public ground|Public Grounds]] at Washington'', 1851. See copy.
may be displayed to their full extent, as from
 
fifty to five hundred acres may be devoted to a
 
park or pleasure grounds. Most of its beauty, and
 
all its charms, may, however, be enjoyed in ten or
 
twenty acres, fortunately situated, and well
 
treated; and Landscape Gardening, in America,
 
combined and working in harmony as it is with
 
our fine scenery, is already beginning to give us
 
results scarcely less beautiful than those produced
 
by its finest efforts abroad. The lovely villa residences
 
of our noble river and lake margins, when
 
well treated—even in a few acres of tasteful foreground,—
 
seem so entirely to appropriate the  
 
whole adjacent landscape, and to mingle so
 
sweetly in their outlines with the woods, the valleys,
 
and shores around them, that the effects are
 
often truly enchanting.  
 
  
“But if Landscape Gardening, in its proper
+
File:0023.jpg|[[A. J. Downing]], ''Plan Showing Proposed Method of Laying Out the [[Public garden/Public ground|Public Grounds]] at Washington'', 1851. Manuscript copy by Nathaniel Michler, 1867.
sense, cannot be applied to the embellishment of  
 
the smallest cottage residences in the country, its
 
principles may be studied with advantage, even by  
 
him who has only three trees to plant for ornament;
 
and we hope no one will think his grounds
 
too small, to feel willing to add something to the
 
general amount of beauty in the country. . . .  
 
  
“Landscape Gardening is, indeed, only a modern
+
File:0947.jpg|Anonymous, “Study of Trees in [[Park]] Scenery,” Geneseo, in [[A. J. Downing]], ed., ''Horticulturist'' 6, no. 9 (September 1851): pl. opp. 394.
word, first coined, we believe, by Shenstone,
+
</gallery>
since the art has been based on natural beauty; but
 
as an extensively embellished scene, filled with
 
rare trees, fountains, and statues, may, however
 
artificial, be termed a landscape garden, the classical
 
gardens are fairly included in a retrospective
 
view. . . .  
 
  
“On the continent of Europe, though there are
+
===Attributed===
a multitude of examples of the modern style of
+
<gallery widths="170px" heights="170px" perrow="7">
landscape gardening, which is there called the
 
English or natural style, yet in the neighborhood of
 
many of the capitals, especially those of the south
 
of Europe, the taste for the geometric or ancient
 
style of gardening still prevails to a considerable
 
extent. . . .
 
  
“With regard to the literature and practice of
+
File:2250_detail2.jpg|Unknown, [[Kitchen garden|Kitchen Garden]] [detail], Elias Hasket Derby House, c. 1795-99.
Landscape Gardening as an art, in North America,
+
</gallery>
almost everything is yet before us, comparatively
 
little having yet been done. Almost all the
 
improvements of the grounds of our finest country
 
residences, have been carried on under the
 
direction of the proprietors themselves, suggested
 
by their own good taste, in many instances
 
improved by the study of European authors, or by
 
a personal inspection of the finest places abroad.
 
The only American work previously published
 
which treats directly of Landscape Gardening, is
 
the American Gardener’s Calendar, by Bernard
 
McMahon of Philadelphia. . . .
 
 
 
“The early writers on the modern style were
 
content with trees allowed to grow in their natural
 
forms, and with an easy assemblage of sylvan
 
scenery in the pleasure-grounds, which resembled
 
the usual woodland features of nature. The effect
 
of this method will always be interesting, and an
 
agreeable effect will always be the result of following
 
the simplest hints derived from the free and
 
luxuriant forms of nature. No residence in the
 
country can fail to be pleasing, whose features are
 
natural groups of forest trees, smooth lawn, and
 
hard gravel walks.
 
 
 
“But this is scarcely Landscape Gardening in
 
the true sense of the word, although apparently so
 
understood by many writers. By Landscape Gardening,
 
we understand not only an imitation, in
 
the grounds of a country residence, of the agreeable
 
forms of nature, but an expressive, harmonious,
 
and refined imitation. In Landscape
 
Gardening, we should aim to separate the accidental
 
and extraneous in nature, and to preserve
 
only the spirit, or essence. This subtle essence lies,
 
we believe, in the expression more or less pervading
 
every attractive portion of nature. And it is by
 
eliciting, preserving, or heightening this expression,
 
that we may give our landscape gardens a
 
higher charm, than even the polish of art can
 
bestow.
 
 
 
“Now, the two most forcible and complete
 
expressions to be found in that kind of natural
 
scenery which may be reproduced in Landscape
 
Gardening, are the BEAUTIFUL and the PICTURESQUE.
 
. . .
 
 
 
“In the majority of instances in the United
 
States, modern style of Landscape Gardening,
 
wherever it is appreciated, will, in practice, consist
 
in arranging a demesne of from five to some hundred
 
acres,—or rather that portion of it, say one
 
half, one third, etc., devoted to lawn and pleasure-
 
ground, pasture, etc.—so as to exhibit groups of
 
forest and ornamental trees and shrubs, surrounding
 
the dwelling of the proprietor, an extending
 
for a greater or less distance, especially towards
 
the place of entrance from the public highway.
 
Near the house, good taste will dictate the assemblage
 
of groups and masses of the rarer or more
 
beautiful trees and shrubs; commoner native forest
 
trees occupying the more distant portions of
 
the grounds.”
 
 
 
Ranlett, William H., 1849, The Architect ([1849]  
 
1976: 1:3–4)
 
 
 
“While the products of Painting and Sculpture
 
are necessarily limited and selfish in their effects—
 
being shut in from public gaze, and designed to
 
gratify only the proprietor and his chosen friends
 
and guests—Landscape Gardening is claimed as
 
producing a far greater amount of public good, by
 
spreading its beauties before the public eye—
 
allowing the rich and the poor alike to look upon
 
them and be delighted. . . .
 
 
 
“Landscape Gardening was, formerly, the imitation
 
of geometric figures; hence the ancient mode of
 
it is called the geometric style of gardening.”
 
 
 
Loudon, J. C., 1850, An Encyclopaedia of Gardening
 
(p. 329)
 
 
 
“841. Landscape-Gardening is practised in the
 
United States on a comparatively limited scale;
 
because, in a country where all men have equal
 
rights, and where every man, however humble,
 
has a house and garden of his own, it is not likely
 
that there should be many large parks.”
 
 
 
Ranlett, William H., 1851, The Architect ([1851]  
 
1976: 2:38–40)
 
 
 
“The art of landscape gardening is an essential
 
part of the accomplishments of an architect, for
 
the main beauty of a rural dwelling is its harmonizing
 
with the scene of which it forms a part. The
 
same house that looked picturesque and beautiful
 
on the top of a hill would look extravagant and
 
whimsical on a plain; a countryhouse with a
 
southern front should have a projecting roof and a
 
piazza; but one fronting the north would look
 
more cold and cheerless by the addition of an
 
overhanging roof or a veranda. Yet nothing is
 
 
 
more common than to see houses in the country
 
with gloomy-looking piazzas on the north side
 
which is always in shadow, while the back part is
 
left to scorch in the sun without even the protection
 
of a hooded window to cast a shadow. . . .
 
 
 
“A good many of the cottages and villas in the
 
suburbs of our large towns appear to have been
 
transferred from old landscapes and picture-
 
books, and it is not unlikely that their proprietors
 
understood ‘landscape gardening’ to mean the
 
imitation of landscape paintings. . . . As copies of
 
Claude’s landscapes are rather more frequently
 
brought over here than those of Gaspar Poussin,
 
we hope that those who prefer going to a painted
 
landscape for a design of a country house to
 
employing an intelligent architect to furnish one,
 
will give the preference to Claude, as his architectural
 
embellishments are infinitely more beautiful
 
than the gloomy looking villas and castles in the
 
landscapes of Poussin. But the better way will be
 
to avoid both, and call in the aid of a professed
 
architect.”
 
 
 
Meehan, Thomas, February 1852, “Notes on
 
Landscape Gardening” (Horticulturist 7: 92)
 
 
 
“Landscape gardening, to be pleasing, must be
 
accommodating. Nature herself, is so. In the
 
plains she will give the Oak, the Beech, the Birch, a
 
giant height and strength; on the hill sides and elevations
 
she checks their luxuriance—while on the
 
mountain summits she reduces them to the rank
 
of mere bushes. They, therefore, who follow the
 
‘natural style,’ may learn from this, that its results
 
depend on their application of natural laws, rather
 
than on any abstract formulas of lines or circles.
 
Mankind generally run into extremes. Landscape
 
gardening confirms this truth. The old system of
 
squaring all walks, carrying them at right lines and
 
angles, shearing and clipping every tree, and making
 
everything so exactly correspondent, was so
 
very absurd.”
 
 
 
==Images==
 
  
<gallery></gallery>
+
<hr>
  
 
==Notes==
 
==Notes==
Line 916: Line 245:
  
 
[[Category: Keywords]]
 
[[Category: Keywords]]
 +
[[Category: Garden Types]]
 +
[[Category: Garden Styles]]

Latest revision as of 12:44, February 18, 2021

History

The phrase landscape gardening referred either specifically to the irregular mode of laying out gardens that originated in England in the early 18th century or, more generally, to the art of designing ornamental grounds. The phrase came into currency at the same time that the theoretical basis of the art of landscape and garden design was being examined and that the modern, or natural, style was on the rise. Therefore, the style and the art were often conflated so that it was not unusual for the phrase “the modern style of landscape gardening” to be used. This modern (or natural) style was often contrasted with the “geometric or ancient style of gardening,” which was characterized by some critics as the primitive style that predated the theorization of garden design as a fine art.[1] The practice of landscape gardening in this sense resulted in the landscape garden that, according to John J. Thomas (1848), was “composed of trees, lawns, and sheets of water.” In general, it was an approach intended for extensive grounds that incorporated a park into the scheme.

Fig. 1, Anonymous, “Example of the beautiful in Landscape Gardening,” in A. J. Downing, A Treatise on the Theory and Practice of Landscape Gardening, 4th ed. (1849), pl. opp. 273, fig. 15.

Benjamin Henry Latrobe's 1798 statement that landscape gardening is what “the art of decorating Grounds is called in England” is somewhat ambiguous. It remains unclear as to whether he meant to define landscape gardening as the English style specifically or as the concept of designing ornamental grounds generally. The second, more inclusive sense of landscape gardening was formulated by practitioners like J. C. Loudon and A. J. Downing, who promoted it as a liberal art akin to painting or music. In An Encyclopaedia of Gardening (1826), Loudon explained that landscape gardening was a practice with a theoretical framework that had been developing since the early 18th century: “[T]he art of arranging the different parts which compose the external scenery of a country-residence, so as to produce the different beauties and conveniences of which that scene of domestic life is susceptible.” This included both the geometric and natural styles. Downing, in his Treatise on the Theory and Practice of Landscape Gardening (1849), presented landscape gardening as a fine art, and as an ideal that resulted in “beautiful” and “picturesque” effects [Figs. 1 and 2].

Fig. 2, Anonymous, “Example of the Picturesque in Landscape Gardening,” in A. J. Downing, A Treatise on the Theory and Practice of Landscape Gardening, 4th ed. (1849), pl. opp. 273, fig. 16.

Loudon and Downing argued that landscape gardening, whether in the geometric or modern style, was an art of imitation built on principles and not an art of facsimile, that is, the pure replication of natural scenery. Downing attributed the phrase “landscape gardening” to William Shenstone but added that it could be applied retroactively to the classical or ancient garden style. Even these theorists periodically slipped into the more exclusive usage at times, considering only the irregular modes, or rather, the modern style garden as landscape gardening (see Picturesque).

The stricter definitions of landscape gardening stipulated that this fine art depended solely on the “modern,” or natural style. George Watterston, for example, in 1844 wrote pointedly, “Landscape Gardening, is a modern art. Previous to the last century, it may be said scarcely to have existed.” John J. Thomas (1848) contrasted the larger landscape garden made up of trees, lawns, and sheets of water with the style of the flower garden laid out in geometrical lines. A specific meaning of landscape gardening as a particular style and not a more general discipline was clear in several citations where an author wrote “landscape or picturesque gardening.” That “landscape garden” as a garden type and “landscape gardening” as the professional practice that produced it were being used synonymously is clear.

Thomas Jefferson was intrigued both theoretically and experimentally by the landscape gardening movement. In this period Thomas Whately's Observations on Modern Gardening (1770) was considered the most mature writing about landscape gardening, and it was with this book in hand that Jefferson toured English gardens with John Adams in 1786. Whately's comments on color, meaning, association, and function in the landscape garden are reflected in Jefferson's notes made during the latter’s visits to several of the most famous English gardens. A comparison of these notes to his instructions for Monticello gives evidence of the profound impact of that trip on his sense of landscape aesthetics. Jefferson was particularly interested in flowers and shrubs that brought a great deal of color and variety to his garden. Although he used the phrase “the art of gardening” or simply “gardening” when discussing the subject, Jefferson was clearly considering the recent version of the art form “in the perfection to which it [had] been lately brought in England.” Jefferson also referred to landscape gardening as “the style of the English garden.”[2]

The broader meanings of the phrase “landscape gardening” as a fine art continued to be used into the 19th century. Edgar Allen Poe described two types of landscape gardening, the natural and the artificial in his short story, “The Landscape Garden” (1842). For William H. Ranlett (1849), landscape gardening was formerly practiced in the ancient or geometric style but succeeded in recent times by the modern or natural style.

Therese O’Malley


Texts

Usage

“Mr. Knight in his elegant, but illnatured poem, on Landscape gardening (as the art of decorating Grounds is called in England) has lines, which have the following sentiment, although I am uncertain about Versification:
‘Search, as you will, the whole creation round
’Tis after all but Water, Trees, and Ground:
Vary your spot,—seek something new to please;
What see you? Water,—ground,—and trees!’”


Fig. 3, William Russell Birch, “The View from Springland,” in William Russell Birch, The Country Seats of the United States (1808), pl. 2.
  • Birch, William Russell, n.d. [c. 1800], describing his garden at Springland, estate of William Russell Birch, near Bristol, PA (quoted in Cooperman 1999: 170–71)[4]
“Some directions for its improvement as a lesson on Landscape gardening. . . invite the warbling songsters to your shades, let nature be your god, she has charms with all her faults that art can never give, with cautious steps and anxious care preserve her sweets, mark you [a] rich spot of sandy soil, from which dranes moisture all the year alike, wet or dry, its watery beds are one, flat lays its surface, high and secure its station, on the bank, there chuse your botany to place, with ornaments of taste. . .
“Trim not your bows away with wanton hand, let cautious taste reserve them for effect, spoil not your broken ground with too haste leveling, study well what new charms by addition may be made, so parly with your fancy till you find it’s in your way, sport well your conceptions, seek not to undo what nature well intends, advantage take from the roughest rudeness chance has given, so let the refinement of your taste work its way; thus with wholesome caution was this place improved, track to verigate the seens laid out for walks, shrubs to hid what suted not with taste were placed, beds for flowers, where most were wished, nor was lawn neglected whereare the space allow’d[;] the ponds with fish were stock’d[,] a green Lodge for shelter was prepared[,] till the labours of delight were done.” [Fig. 3]


Fig. 4, Anonymous, Map of Mr. Andrew Parmentier’s Horticultural & Botanic Garden, at Brooklyn, Long Island, Two Miles From the City of New York, c. 1828.
“In short, this establishment is well worthy of notice as one of the few examples in the neighbourhood of New York, of the art of laying out a garden so as to combine the principles of landscape-gardening with the conveniences of the nursery or orchard.” [Fig. 4]


“it is proposed, that a tract of land called ‘Sweet Auburn,’ situated in Cambridge, should be purchased. As a large portion of the ground is now covered with trees, shrubs, and wild flowering plants, avenues and walks may be made through them, in such a manner as to render the whole establishment interesting and beautiful, at a small expense, and within a few years; and ultimately offer an example of landscape or picturesque gardening, in conformity to the modern style of laying out grounds, which will be highly creditable to the Society.”


Fig. 5, Robert Walter Weir, “Lunatic Asylum, New York,” Bloomingdale Asylum for the Insane, in New York Mirror (February 1, 1834), opp. 241.
  • MacDonald, James, October 1839, describing the Bloomingdale Asylum for the Insane, New York, NY (quoted in Hawkins 1991: 86)[7]
“The approach to the Asylum from the southern entrance, by the stranger who associates the most sombre scenes with a lunatic hospital, is highly pleasing. The sudden opening of the view, the extent of the grounds, the various avenues gracefully winding through so large a lawn; the cedar hedges, the fir, and other ornamental trees, tastefully distributed or grouped, the variety of shrubbery and flowers; in fine, the assemblage of so many objects to please the eye, and relieve the melancholy mind from its sad musings, strike him as one of the most successful and useful instances of landscape gardening.” [Fig. 5]


Fig. 6, Thomas Chambers, Mount Auburn Cemetery, mid-19th century.
Mount Auburn appears to be ‘the first example in modern times of so large a tract of ground being selected for its natural beauties, and submitted to the processes of landscape gardening, to prepare it for the reception of the dead.’” [Fig. 6]


“The only practitioner of the art [of Landscape gardening], of any note, was the late M. Parmentier of Brooklyn, Long Island. . .
“During M. Parmentier's residence on Long Island, he was almost constantly applied to for plans for laying out the grounds of country seats, by persons in various parts of the Union, as well as in the immediate proximity of New York. In many cases he not only surveyed the demesne to be improved, but furnished the plants and trees necessary to carry out his designs. Several plans were prepared by him for residences of note in the Southern States; and two or three places in Upper Canada, especially near Montreal, were, we believe, laid out by his own hands and stocked from his nursery grounds. In his periodical catalogue, he arranged the hardy trees and shrubs that flourish in this latitude in classes, according to their height, etc., and published a short treatise on the superior claims of the natural, over the formal or geometric style of laying out grounds. In short, we consider M. Parmentier's labors and examples as having effected, directly, far more for landscape gardening in America, than those of any other individual whatever. . .
“There is no part of the Union where the taste in Landscape Gardening is so far advanced, as on the middle portion of the Hudson. The natural scenery is of the finest character, and places but a mile or two apart often possess, from the constantly varying forms of the water, shores, and distant hills, widely different kinds of home landscape and distant view. Standing in the grounds of some of the finest of these seats, the eye beholds only the soft foreground of smooth lawn, the rich groups of trees shutting out all neighboring tracts, the lake-like expanse of water, and, closing the distance, a fine range of wooded mountain. A residence here of but a hundred acres, so fortunately are these disposed by nature, seems to appropriate the whole scenery round, and to be a thousand in extent.
Fig. 7, Anonymous, “View in the Grounds at Hyde Park,” in A. J. Downing, A Treatise on the Theory and Practice of Landscape Gardening, 4th ed. (1849), 45, fig. 1.
“At the present time, our handsome villa residences are becoming every day more numerous, and it would require much more space than our present limits, to enumerate all the tasteful rural country places within our knowledge, many of which have been newly laid out, or greatly improved within a few years. But we consider it so important and instructive to the novice in the art of Landscape Gardening to examine, personally, country seats of a highly tasteful character, that we shall venture to refer the reader to a few of those which have now a reputation among us as elegant country residences.
Hyde Park, on the Hudson. . . has been justly celebrated as one of the finest specimens of the modern style of Landscape Gardening in America. Nature has, indeed, done much for this place, as the grounds are finely varied, beautifully watered by a lively stream, and the views are inexpressibly striking from the neighborhood of the house itself, including, as they do, the noble Hudson for sixty miles in its course, through rich valleys and bold mountains. . . But the efforts of art are not unworthy so rare a locality; and while the native woods, and beautifully undulating surface, are preserved in their original state, the pleasure-grounds, roads, walks, drives, and new plantations, have been laid out in such a judicious manner as to heighten the charm of nature. . . plans for laying out the grounds were furnished by Parmentier.” [Fig. 7]
Fig. 8, Alexander Jackson Davis, “View in the Grounds at Blithewood,” in A. J. Downing, A Treatise on the Theory and Practice of Landscape Gardening, 4th ed. (1849), frontispiece.
Blithewood, the seat of R. Donaldson, Esq., near Barrytown on the Hudson, is one of the most charming villa residences in the Union. The natural scenery here, is nowhere surpassed in its enchanting union of softness and dignity—the river being four miles wide, its placid bosom broken only by islands and gleaming sails, and the horizon grandly closing in with the tall blue summits of the distant Kaatskills. The smiling, gently varied lawn is studded with groups and masses of fine forest and ornamental trees, beneath which are walks leading in easy curves to rustic seats, and summer houses placed in secluded spots, or to openings affording most lovely prospects. (See frontispiece.) In various situations near the house and upon the lawn, sculptured vases of Maltese stone are also disposed in such a manner as to give a refined and classic air to the grounds. [Fig. 8]
Fig. 9, Anonymous, “View in the Meadow Park at Geneseo,” in A. J. Downing, ed., Horticulturist 3, no. 4 (October 1848): pl. opp. 153.
“The seat of the Wadsworth family, at Geneseo, is the finest in the interior of the state of New York. Nothing, indeed, can well be more magnificent than the meadow park at Geneseo. It is more than a thousand acres in extent, lying on each side of the Genesee river, and is filled with thousands of the noblest oaks and elms, many of which, but more especially the oaks, are such trees as we see in the pictures of Claude, or our own Durand; richly developed, their trunks and branches grand and majestic, their heads full of breadth and grandeur of outline. . . ” [Fig. 9]
“These oaks, distributed over a nearly level surface, with the trees disposed either singly or in the finest groups, as if most tastefully planted centuries ago, are solely the work of nature; and yet so entirely is the whole like the grandest planted park, that it is difficult to believe that all is not the work of some master of art, and intended for the accomplishment of a magnificent residence. Some of the trees are five or six hundred years old.”


“in the natural parks of America—the oak openings of the West—where, over a gently rolling surface of thousands of acres, you see grouped, precisely as in an English Park, but sometimes on a still grander scale, the noblest trees—now singly, and now three or four, or half a dozen together,—trees, each one of which would have been chosen by CLAUDE as a study for the foreground of his wonderful landscapes—which are the master-pieces of slyvan [sic] beauty. Nearer home, such a growth may be seen in the meadow park at Geneseo,—the WADSWORTH estate, previously described by us—where are as fine oaks, by hundreds, as are to be found in any park in England.
Fig. 10, Anonymous, “Study of Trees in Park Scenery,” Geneseo, in A. J. Downing, ed., Horticulturist 6, no. 9 (September 1851): pl. opp. 394.
“It is remarkable, that these grand parks of American, and the best specimens of English taste in Landscape Gardening, should be such close counterparts of one another. And though a man may have room to plant only a half a dozen trees, yet he should study such examples as a sculptor would study the APOLLO or the VENUS—to make himself familiar with that high-water level of the beautiful in form, where both art and nature meet and become identical.” [Fig. 10]


“The plan [for a public ground in Washington] embraces four or five miles of carriage-drivewalks for pedestrians—ponds of water, fountains and statuespicturesque groupings of trees and shrubs, and a complete collection of all the trees that belong to North America. It will, if carried out as it has been undertaken, undoubtedly give a great impetus to the popular taste in landscape-gardening and the culture of ornamental trees; and as the climate of Washington is one peculiarly adapted to this purpose—this national park may be made a sylvan museum such as it would be difficult to equal in beauty and variety in any part of the world.”


Citations

  • Whately, Thomas, 1770, Observations on Modern Gardening (1770; repr., 1982: 1–2)[12]
Gardening, in the perfection to which it has been lately brought in England, is entitled to a place of considerable rank among the liberal arts. It is as superior to landskip painting, as a reality to a representation: it is an exertion of fancy, as subject for taste; and being released now from the restraint of regularity, and enlarged beyond the purposes of domestic convenience, the most beautiful, the most simple, the most noble scenes of nature are all within its province: for it is no longer confined to the spots from which it borrows its name, but regulates also the disposition and embellishments of a park, a farm, or a riding; the business of a gardener is to select and to apply whatever is great, elegant, or characteristic in any of them; to discover and to show all the advantages of the place upon which he is employed; to supply its defects, to correct its faults, and to improve the beauties.
“Nature, always simple, employs but four materials in the composition of her scenes, ground, wood, water, and rocks. The cultivation of nature had introduced a fifth species, the buildings requisite for the accommodation of men. Each of these again admit of varieties in their figure, dimensions, color, and situation. Every landskip is composed of these parts only; every beauty in a landskip depends on the applications of their several varieties.”


  • Gregory, G., 1816, A New and Complete Dictionary of Arts and Sciences (1816: 2:n.p.)[13]
“GARDENING. This art, so natural to man, so improving to health, so conducive to the comforts and the best luxuries of life, may properly be divided into two branches; practical, and picturesque or landscape gardening.
“The former is what every person, except the inhabitants of populous cities, has more or less occassion to practise; the latter is a privilege which only the very opulent can enjoy, and which must consequently be the elegant amusement of a chosen few.
Picturesque or landscape gardening should certainly never be attempted on a small scale. Indeed we are not certain that we may not be incurring a solecism in applying the term gardening to this department of agriculture. It is properly the art of laying out grounds; and the park or the farm, not the garden, is its object. It never can be attempted with success on a smaller scale than 20 acres; but 50 or 100, or even more, are better adapted to the design. . .
Landscape or picturesque gardening, is so much the work of fancy, and so much depends upon the situation, or what the celebrated Mr. Brown used to call the capability of the place, that no precise rules can be laid down concerning it. All, therefore, that can be expected, is a few lose [sic] hints, on which the man of taste may improve according to circumstances.”


  • Hosack, David, 1824, An Inaugural Discourse, Delivered Before the New-York Horticultural Society (1824: 10, 12–13, 24–25)[14]
“Horticulture embraces three objects. 1st. The cultivation of the plants of the table, including culinary vegetables and fruits. 2d. Those plants which are considered as ornamental. And 3d. Landscape gardening; or, the art of laying out grounds in such manner as may render them most conducive to utility and beauty. . .
“I pass on to remark, that very little has been effected in the science of gardening, until the last fifty years. Within that period, a number of individuals, distinguished for their taste and education, have given their attention to the study of this interesting subject, and especially in France and in Great Britain, have produced important changes in every department of horticulture, including that branch of it more especially, denominated landscape gardening. In this list, the names of Miller, Marshall, Abercrombie, Brown, Nicol, Repton, Knight, and Loudon,*as well as others, whose taste and opportunities led them to the cultivation of this art, hold a distinguished place. . .
“8th. Another advantage which such an establishment should possess, is that of exemplifying the principles of Ornamental Planting, or Landscape Gardening. The ground should be selected of such form and variety as will admit of such decoration. And in the cultivation of the various plants of the collection, their distribution may ever be rendered subservient to this great object, and thereby become the means of spreading extensively among our citizens a taste for one of the highest recreations that the human heart can receive, and one which will go far in the improvement of the moral principle, and in diverting the mind from pursuits of a less worthy nature; for the mind that is not actively engaged in virtuous pursuits will most probably be occupied with those of a contrary character.


“7156. In landscape gardening, the art of the gardener is directed to different objects, and some of them of a higher kind than any belonging to gardening as an art of culture. In the three branches [of gardening] hitherto considered, art is chiefly employed in the cultivation of plants, with a view of obtaining their products; but in the branch now under consideration, art is exercised in disposing of ground, buildings, and water, as well as the vegetating materials which enter into the composition of verdant landscape. This is, in a strict sense, what is called landscape-gardening, or the art of creating or improving landscapes; but as landscapes are seldom required to be created for their own sakes, landscape-gardening, as actually practised, may be defined, ‘the art of arranging the different parts which compose the external scenery of a country-residence, so as to produce the different beauties and conveniences of which that scene of domestic life is susceptible.’ . . .
“7161. With respect to the modern style. . . there appear to be two principles which enter into its composition; those which regard it as a mixed art, or an art of design, and which are called the principles of relative beauty; and those which regard it as an imitative art, and are called the principles of natural or universal beauty. The ancient or geometric gardening is guided wholly by the former principles; landscape-gardening, as an imitative art, wholly by the latter; but as the art of forming a country-residence, its arrangements are influenced by both principles. In conformity with these ideas, and with our plan of treating both styles, we shall first consider its principles as an inventive or mixed, and secondly as an imitative art.”


  • Dearborn, H. A. S., September 19, 1829, An Address, Delivered Before the Massachusetts Horticultural Society (1833: 16)[16]
“The natural divisions of Horticulture are the Kitchen Garden, Seminary, Nursery, Fruit Trees and Vines, Flowers and Green Houses, the Botanical and Medical Garden, and Landscape, or Picturesque Gardening.”


Landscape-gardening, it will be allowed is, to a certain extent, an art of imitation. Now, an imitative art is not one which produces fac similes of the things to be imitated; but one which produces imitations, or resemblances, according to the manner of that art. Thus, sculpture does not attempt colour, not painting to raise surfaces in relief; and neither attempt to deceive. In the like manner, the imitator, in a park or pleasure-ground, of a landscape composed of ground, wood, and water, does not produce fac similes of the ground, wood, and water, which he sees around him on every side; but of ground, wood and water, arranged in imitation of nature, according to the principles of his particular art. The character of this art has varied from the earliest times to the present day; but, profoundly examined, the principle which guided the artist remains the same; and the successive fashions that have prevailed will be found to confirm our view of the subject, viz., that all imitations of nature worthy of being characterised as belonging to the fine arts are not fac-simile imitations, but imitations of manner. To apply this principle to the planting of trees in park or pleasure-ground scenery; nature, in any given locality, makes use of a certain number of trees found indigenous there; but the garden imitator of natural woods introduces either other forms and dispositions of the same kinds of trees, as in the geometric style; or the same dispositions of other species of trees, as in the most improved practice of the modern style. In neither case does the artist produce a correct fac simile of nature; for, if he did, however beautiful the scene copied, the beauty produced would be merely that of repetition. But we have neither room nor time at present fully to illustrate this theory. Let it suffice for us to state, for the consideration of those of our readers who have reflected on the subject, that there is as certainly, in gardening, as an art of imitation, the gardenesque, as there is, in painting and sculpture, the picturesque and sculpturesque.”


“BOOK IV. LANDSCAPE-GARDENING. . .
“CHAP. I. Principles of Landscape-Gardening.
“6691. The principles of landscape-gardening, like those of every other art, are founded on the end in view. ‘Gardens and buildings,’ Lord Kaimes observes, ‘may be destined solely for use, or solely for beauty or for both. Such variety of destination bestows upon these arts a great command of beauties, complex not less than various. Hence the difficulty of forming an accurate taste in gardening and architecture; and hence, the difference or wavering of taste in these arts, is greater than in any art that has but a single destination.’ (Elements of Criticism, 4th edit. vol. ii. p. 431) Not to consider landscape-gardening with a view to these different beauties, but to treat it merely as ‘the art of creating landscape,’ would embrace only a small part of the art of laying out grounds, and leave incomplete a subject which contributes to the immediate comfort and happiness of a great body of the enlightened and opulent in this and in every country;—an art, as the poet Mason observes,
“_____ ‘which teaches wealth and pride
“‘How to obtain their wish—the world’s applause.’
“6693. . . . The ancient or geometric gardening is guided wholly by the former principles; and landscape-gardening, as an imitative art, wholly by the latter; but when landscape-gardening is considered as the art of forming a country residence, its arrangements are influenced by both principles. In conformity with these ideas, and with our plan of treating of both styles, we shall first consider its principles as an inventive or mixed, and secondly as an imitative art. . .
“Sec. II. Beauties of Landscape-Gardening, considered as an imitative Art, and Principles of their Production.
“6708. The chief object of all the imitative arts is the production of natural or universal beauty. Music, poetry, and painting, are the principal imitative arts; to these has been lately added landscape-gardening, an art which has for its object the production of landscape by combinations of the actual materials of nature, as landscape-painting has for its object their imitation by combinations of colours. Landscape-gardening has been said ‘to realize whatever the fancy of the painter has imagined’ (Girardin); and, ‘to create a scenery more pure, more harmonious, and more expressive, than any that is to be found in nature herself.’ (Alison.) . . . A more correct idea of its capacities, in our opinion, is suggested by the remark of Horace Walpole, when he represents it as ‘proud of no other art than that of softening nature’s harshness, and copying her graceful touch.’ . . .
“6709. To what kind or degree of beauty, then, can landscape-gardening aspire? To this we answer, that, abstracted from all relations of utility and design, it can seldom succeed in producing any thing higher than picturesque beauty; what we shall call gardenesque beauty, or such a harmonious mixture of forms, colours, lights, and shades, as will be grateful to the sight of men in general; and more particularly to such as have made this beauty in some degree their study. . . .
“6712. The principles of imitative landscape-gardening, in that view of this term which limits it to ‘the art of creating landscape of picturesque beauty,’ we consider, with Girardin, Price, Knight, and other authors, to be those of painting; and in viewing it as adding to picturesque beauty some other natural expression, as of grandeur, decay, melancholy &c., we consider it, with Pope, Warton, Gray, and Eustace, as requiring; both in the designer and observer, the aid of a poetic mind; that is, of a mind conversant with all those different emotions or pleasures of imagination, which are called up by certain signs of affecting or interesting qualities, furnished by sounds, motion, buildings, and other objects.”


  • Anonymous, April 1, 1837, “Landscape Gardening” (Horticultural Register 3: 121–24, 131)[19]
“A remarkable characteristic of the people of our nation, is a fondness for change. This is beneficial to a certain limit, as it impels to industry, to enterprise and improvement. But it is often carried to such an extent as to become a positive evil. It results in a restlessness of habit which approaches that of some of the wandering nations of Asia. We are dissatisfied with the present good. . . And how is this to be prevented, how is this evil to be overcome? A powerful means would certainly be to induce a taste for moral improvement, and for embellishing the scenery about our homes, which would greatly contribute to the increase of our attachment to them, and to make us satisfied and contented. A love of nature, it is said, is a love of our country; not less so, then, is nature when improved by art, and applied by our own hands to increasing the attractions of our native land. . .
“In urging the importance of a greater attention to landscape gardening, we are far from desiring an extravagant outlay of expense. . . Now, instead of expending so much in erecting large and showy buildings, let at least a small sum be reserved for improvements in planting trees and shrubbery. Half an acre of ground about a house, and fifty dollars appropriated to planting it, would contribute far more to its appearance, than two thousand dollars expended in additional embellishments of the house alone. . .
“Confining ourselves to the modern or natural style, we shall proceed to offer some remarks on its characteristics. Landscape gardens in this style generally present either picturesque, or what is termed gardenesque scenery. . .
“Although we have but few instances of fine landscape gardening in this country, yet an inexhaustible store of ideas may be derived from the beautiful and ever varying natural scenery which our country so richly affords.”


  • Anonymous, July 1841, book review of A. J. Downing, A Treatise on the Theory and Practice of Landscape Gardening (Magazine of Horticulture 7: 265–66)[20]
“The historical sketches are interesting, and include brief notices of the progress of landscape gardening throughout the country. The next chapter, on the Beauties of Landscape Gardening, is one of the most valuable; the hints relative to what landscape gardening consists of, are well drawn, and must be read with great profit by every individual who wishes to improve an old place, or lay out a new one. As an imitative art, its nature and principles are fully explained. With a study of this portion of Mr. Downing's book, we are persuaded every planter will be able to effect great improvements in his grounds. Beautifying a residence does not consist in merely setting out trees, but rather in planting them in such situations as will give the greatest expression to the scene. . .
“In conclusion, we must not omit to remark, that Mr. Downing has given us an excellent volume, and, we might add, for a pioneer in the great art of landscape gardening, in this country, one which will be the means of placing the art at once upon a sure footing. Every country gentleman, or possessor of a cottage or villa residence, should read it, if he has the least taste or desire to embellish his grounds.”


  • Poe, Edgar Allan, 1842, “The Landscape Garden” (Ladies’ Companion 17: 325, 326)[21]
“. . . yet my friend could not fail to perceive that the creation of the Landscape-Gardner offered to the true Muse the most magnificent of opportunities. Here was, indeed, the fairest field for the display of invention, or imagination, in the endless combining of forms of novel Beauty; the elements which should enter into combination being, at all times, and by a vast superiority, the most glorious which the earth could afford. In the multiform of the tree, and in the multicolor of the flower, he recognized the most direct and the most energetic effort of Nature at physical Beauty. . .
“There are, properly,’ he writes, ‘but two styles of landscape-gardening, the natural and the artificial. One seeks to recall the original beauty of the country, by adapting its means to the surrounding scenery; cultivating trees in harmony with the hills or plain of the neighboring land; detecting and bringing into practice those nice relations of size, proportion and color which, hid from the common observer, are revealed every where to the experienced student of nature. The result of the natural style of gardening, is seen rather in the absence of all defects and incongruities—in the prevalence of a beautiful harmony and order, than in the creation of any special wonders or miracles. The artificial style has as many varieties as there are different tastes to gratify. It has a certain general relation to the various styles of building. There are the stately avenues and retirements of Versailles; Italian terraces; and a various mixed old English style, which bears some relation to the domestic Gothic or English Elizabethan architecture. Whatever may be said against the abuses of the artificial landscape-gardening, a mixture of pure art in a garden scene, adds to it a great beauty. This is partly pleasing to the eye, by the show of order and design, and partly moral. A terrace, with an old moss-covered balustrade, calls up, at once, to the eye, the fair forms that have passed there in other days. The slightest exhibition of art is an evidence of care and human interest.”


  • Watterston, George, May 1844, “Landscape Gardening” (Southern Literary Messenger 10: 306, 310–12)[22]
Landscape Gardening is a modern art. Previous to the last century, it may be said scarcely to have existed. . .
Landscape Gardening is not an imitative or imaginative art. It is not a copy of nature, but nature itself. All the materials are prepared and even shaped by her, and the arrangement and disposition of them in such a manner as to render them beautiful and picturesque depend upon the skill and taste of the improver. He executes, with the materials with which nature furnishes him, the landscape he has previously formed in his mind and which he must adapt to the peculiar locality of the grounds he may be called upon to improve. . . It is true, that Landscape Gardening is freed from one essential portion of art and which is its principal charm in painting. We mean execution, which in gardening is left to nature. But this does not lesson the skill and talent requisite for such a purpose, ‘since,’ says the writer above quoted, ‘besides the painter’s eye and sensibility, a master in Landscape Gardening must also possess a high degree of prescient vision, so as to be able to foresee results that will not develope and manifest themselves till long afterwards.’ . . .
“In a painting, the eye is confined to a single point of view—but in Landscape Gardening, which is a copy of natural scenery, the foreground is constantly changing and becomes middle ground or distance as the spectator advances. In coloring too, they may differ, for the coloring which a painter would employ to give truth to a view in America, would not be such as would be proper to paint one in Italy, or France, where the masters in landscape have studied. . . But whatever may be the difference which exists between these two arts [painting and landscape gardening], Landscape Gardening may be considered as claiming the superiority both in beauty and utility, and is, in the language of a French author, ‘à la poesie et a la peinture ce que realité est a la description et l’original a la copie.’. . .
“The Landscape Gardener who possesses taste, will of course avoid both extremes and follow nature in her simplicity, symmetry, variety and beauty. He will avoid, on the one hand, the absurdity of clipping trees into formal figures, and cutting hedges so as to resemble walls, and disposing gardens in the shape of the human body, as has been done; and, on the other, the equally censurable extreme of giving every thing the form of a curve, which, though the imaginary line of beauty, becomes tame and monotonous when carried to an extreme. By the improver of taste, a union of the old and modern style may be made to produce a harmonious and happy effect. . . .
“The Landscape Gardener is always the most successful when he makes his work appear to be the exclusive work of nature. It is that which constitutes his excellence and the beauty of his work. . . The principal aim of the Landscape Gardener is to create the picturesque and beautiful and but rarely the sublime—unless the genius loci will admit of it. But the wild and romantic are seldom within the range of human habitations. . . This is just a designation of the business of a Landscape Gardener, whose aim, moreover, should be the attainment of the highest degree of beauty which his own imagination can suggest, or the genius of the place and the circumstances of the proprietor will admit of.”


  • Johnson, George William, 1847, A Dictionary of Modern Gardening (1847: 339–40)[23]
“A taste for landscape-gardening, like that for the higher order of painting, sculpture and other fine arts, is the slow product of wealth and easy leisure, and is distinct from a love of flowers evinced alike by the young and the aged, the intellectual and the illiterate. In the United States, as might be expected in a new country, the mass are too busily engaged in the every day cares of life to devote attention to such objects—but few comparatively, ‘the architects of their own fortunes,’ have acquired the means to indulge in luxurious expenditures. We are, however, acquiring taste on this and kindred subjects, and with the increasing wealth, the general education and superior intelligence which characterize the American people, there can be no doubt that long before we can be called an old nation, our tastes will have been refined, and our capacity to appreciate the beautiful largely developed. Already we have evidence of ‘the march of improvement,’ as exhibited in the pretty cottages, with their decorated grounds, around our towns and cities; an onward step towards that which in portions of Europe, especially in England, gives such charm to the country, and to country life.
“Those who wish to consult works on Landscape Gardening and Rural Architecture, almost indivisible, are referred to Loudon's ‘Encyclopedia of Cottage, Farm and Villa Architecture,’ Loudon's ‘Suburban Gardener,’ Downing's ‘Landscape Gardening,’ Downing's ‘Cottage Residences,’ &c.”


  • Thomas, John J., April 1848, “The Shrubbery and Flower Garden” (Cultivator 5: 114)[24]
“Nearly all the flower gardens of the country are laid out in geometrical lines; a style, it is true much better adapted to the small piece of ground allotted to flowers, than to the larger landscape garden composed of trees, lawns, and sheets of water. With a wish however, to encourage a more graceful, pleasing, and picturesque mode of laying out even the small flower garden in connexion with the shrubbery, we have given the above plan, which nearly explains itself.”


  • Downing, Andrew Jackson, 1849, A Treatise on the Theory and Practice of Landscape Gardening (1849; repr., 1991: 17–21, 38, 40, 66–67, 93–94, 525)[25]
“‘Our first, most endearing, and most sacred associations,’ says the amiable Mrs. Hofland, ‘are connected with gardens; our most simple and most refined perceptions of beauty are combined with them.’ And we may add to this, that Landscape Gardening, which is an artistical combination of the beautiful in nature and art—an union of natural expression and harmonious cultivation—is capable of affording us the highest and most intellectual enjoyment to be found in any cares or pleasures belonging to the soil.
“The development of the Beautiful is the end and aim of Landscape Gardening, as it is of all other fine arts. The ancients sought to attain this by a studied and elegant regularity of design in their gardens; the moderns, by the creation or improvement of grounds which, though of limited extent, exhibit a highly graceful or picturesque epitome of natural beauty. Landscape Gardening differs from gardening in its common sense, in embracing the whole scene immediately about a country house, which it softens and refines, or renders more spirited and striking by the aid of art. In it we seek to embody our ideal of a rural home; not through plots of fruit trees, and beds of choice flowers, though these have their place, but by collecting and combining beautiful forms in trees, surfaces of ground, buildings, and walks, in the landscape surrounding us. It is, in short, the Beautiful, embroided in a home scene. . .
“This embellishment of nature, which we call Landscape Gardening, springs naturally from a love of country life, an attachment to a certain spot, and a desire to render that place attractive— a feeling which seems more or less strongly fixed in the minds of all men. But we should convey a false impression, were we to state that it may be applied with equal success to residences of every class and size, in the country. Lawn and trees, being its two essential elements, some of the beauties of Landscape Gardening may, indeed, be shown wherever a rood of grass surface, and half a dozen trees are within our reach; we may, even with such scanty space, have tasteful grouping, varied surface and agreeably curved walks; but our art, to appear to advantage, requires some extent of surface—is lines should lose themselves indefinitely, and unite agreeably and gradually with those of the surrounding country.
“In the case of large landed estates, its capabilities may be displayed to their full extent, as from fifty to five hundred acres may be devoted to a park or pleasure grounds. Most of its beauty, and all its charms, may, however, be enjoyed in ten or twenty acres, fortunately situated, and well treated; and Landscape Gardening, in America, combined and working in harmony as it is with our fine scenery, is already beginning to give us results scarcely less beautiful than those produced by its finest efforts abroad. The lovely villa residences of our noble river and lake margins, when well treated—even in a few acres of tasteful foreground,—seem so entirely to appropriate the whole adjacent landscape, and to mingle so sweetly in their outlines with the woods, the valleys, and shores around them, that the effects are often truly enchanting.
“But if Landscape Gardening, in its proper sense, cannot be applied to the embellishment of the smallest cottage residences in the country, its principles may be studied with advantage, even by him who has only three trees to plant for ornament; and we hope no one will think his grounds too small, to feel willing to add something to the general amount of beauty in the country. . .
Landscape Gardening is, indeed, only a modern word, first coined, we believe, by Shenstone, since the art has been based on natural beauty; but as an extensively embellished scene, filled with rare trees, fountains, and statues, may, however artificial, be termed a landscape garden, the classical gardens are fairly included in a retrospective view. . .
“On the continent of Europe, though there are a multitude of examples of the modern style of landscape gardening, which is there called the English or natural style, yet in the neighborhood of many of the capitals, especially those of the south of Europe, the taste for the geometric or ancient style of gardening still prevails to a considerable extent. . .
“With regard to the literature and practice of Landscape Gardening as an art, in North America, almost everything is yet before us, comparatively little having yet been done. Almost all the improvements of the grounds of our finest country residences, have been carried on under the direction of the proprietors themselves, suggested by their own good taste, in many instances improved by the study of European authors, or by a personal inspection of the finest places abroad. The only American work previously published which treats directly of Landscape Gardening, is the American Gardener’s Calendar, by Bernard McMahon of Philadelphia. . .
“The early writers on the modern style were content with trees allowed to grow in their natural forms, and with an easy assemblage of sylvan scenery in the pleasure-grounds, which resembled the usual woodland features of nature. The effect of this method will always be interesting, and an agreeable effect will always be the result of following the simplest hints derived from the free and luxuriant forms of nature. No residence in the country can fail to be pleasing, whose features are natural groups of forest trees, smooth lawn, and hard gravel walks.
“But this is scarcely Landscape Gardening in the true sense of the word, although apparently so understood by many writers. By Landscape Gardening, we understand not only an imitation, in the grounds of a country residence, of the agreeable forms of nature, but an expressive, harmonious, and refined imitation. In Landscape Gardening, we should aim to separate the accidental and extraneous in nature, and to preserve only the spirit, or essence. This subtle essence lies, we believe, in the expression more or less pervading every attractive portion of nature. And it is by eliciting, preserving, or heightening this expression, that we may give our landscape gardens a higher charm, than even the polish of art can bestow.
“Now, the two most forcible and complete expressions to be found in that kind of natural scenery which may be reproduced in Landscape Gardening, are the BEAUTIFUL and the PICTURESQUE. . .
“In the majority of instances in the United States, modern style of Landscape Gardening, wherever it is appreciated, will, in practice, consist in arranging a demesne of from five to some hundred acres,—or rather that portion of it, say one half, one third, etc., devoted to lawn and pleasure-ground, pasture, etc.—so as to exhibit groups of forest and ornamental trees and shrubs, surrounding the dwelling of the proprietor, an extending for a greater or less distance, especially towards the place of entrance from the public highway. Near the house, good taste will dictate the assemblage of groups and masses of the rarer or more beautiful trees and shrubs; commoner native forest trees occupying the more distant portions of the grounds.”


  • Ranlett, William H., 1849, The Architect (1849; repr., 1976: 1:3–4)[26]
“While the products of Painting and Sculpture are necessarily limited and selfish in their effects— being shut in from public gaze, and designed to gratify only the proprietor and his chosen friends and guests—Landscape Gardening is claimed as producing a far greater amount of public good, by spreading its beauties before the public eye— allowing the rich and the poor alike to look upon them and be delighted. . .
Landscape Gardening was, formerly, the imitation of geometric figures; hence the ancient mode of it is called the geometric style of gardening.”


“841. Landscape-Gardening is practised in the United States on a comparatively limited scale; because, in a country where all men have equal rights, and where every man, however humble, has a house and garden of his own, it is not likely that there should be many large parks.”


  • Ranlett, William H., 1851, The Architect (1851; repr., 1976: 2:38–40)[26]
“The art of landscape gardening is an essential part of the accomplishments of an architect, for the main beauty of a rural dwelling is its harmonizing with the scene of which it forms a part. The same house that looked picturesque and beautiful on the top of a hill would look extravagant and whimsical on a plain; a country house with a southern front should have a projecting roof and a piazza; but one fronting the north would look more cold and cheerless by the addition of an overhanging roof or a veranda. Yet nothing is more common than to see houses in the country with gloomy-looking piazzas on the north side which is always in shadow, while the back part is left to scorch in the sun without even the protection of a hooded window to cast a shadow. . .
“A good many of the cottages and villas in the suburbs of our large towns appear to have been transferred from old landscapes and picture-books, and it is not unlikely that their proprietors understood ‘landscape gardening’ to mean the imitation of landscape paintings. . . As copies of Claude’s landscapes are rather more frequently brought over here than those of Gaspar Poussin, we hope that those who prefer going to a painted landscape for a design of a country house to employing an intelligent architect to furnish one, will give the preference to Claude, as his architectural embellishments are infinitely more beautiful than the gloomy looking villas and castles in the landscapes of Poussin. But the better way will be to avoid both, and call in the aid of a professed architect.”


  • Meehan, Thomas, February 1852, “Notes on Landscape Gardening” (Horticulturist 7: 92)[28]
Landscape gardening, to be pleasing, must be accommodating. Nature herself, is so. In the plains she will give the Oak, the Beech, the Birch, a giant height and strength; on the hill sides and elevations she checks their luxuriance—while on the mountain summits she reduces them to the rank of mere bushes. They, therefore, who follow the ‘natural style,’ may learn from this, that its results depend on their application of natural laws, rather than on any abstract formulas of lines or circles. Mankind generally run into extremes. Landscape gardening confirms this truth. The old system of squaring all walks, carrying them at right lines and angles, shearing and clipping every tree, and making everything so exactly correspondent, was so very absurd.”



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Notes

  1. A vast amount of literature exists, of both primary and secondary references, regarding landscape gardening. See John Dixon Hunt and Peter Willis, eds., The Genius of Place: The English Landscape Garden 1620–1820 (London: Paul Elek, 1975), view on Zotero, for more about the movement in the 18th century. Also see Mark Laird, The Flowering of the Landscape Garden: English Pleasure Grounds, 1720–1800 (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1999), view on Zotero.
  2. Frederick Doveton Nichols and Ralph E. Griswold, Thomas Jefferson, Landscape Architect (Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1978), 83–86, view on Zotero.
  3. Benjamin Henry Latrobe, The Virginia Journals of Benjamin Henry Latrobe, 1795–1798, ed. Edward C. Carter II, 2 vols. (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1977), view on Zotero.
  4. Emily Tyson Cooperman, “William Russell Birch (1755–1834) and the Beginnings of the American Picturesque” (PhD diss., University of Pennsylvania, 1999), view on Zotero.
  5. J. W. S., “Foreign Notices: North America,” Gardener’s Magazine and Register of Rural & Domestic Improvement 8, no. 36 (February 1832): 70–77, view on Zotero.
  6. Thaddeus William Harris, A Discourse Delivered before the Massachusetts Horticultural Society on the Celebration of Its Fourth Anniversary, October 3, 1832 (Cambridge, MA: E. W. Metcalf, 1832), view on Zotero.
  7. Kenneth Hawkins, “The Therapeutic Landscape: Nature, Architecture, and Mind in Nineteenth-Century America” (PhD diss., University of Rochester, 1991), view on Zotero.
  8. Nehemiah Cleaveland, Green-Wood Illustrated (New York: R. Martin, 1847), view on Zotero.
  9. A. J. [Andrew Jackson] Downing, A Treatise on the Theory and Practice of Landscape Gardening, Adapted to North America, 4th ed. (1849; repr., Washington, DC: Dumbarton Oaks Research Library and Collection, 1991), view on Zotero.
  10. A. J. Downing, “Study of Park Trees,” Horticulturist and Journal of Rural Art and Rural Taste 6, no. 9 (September 1851): 427, view on Zotero.
  11. Andrew Jackson Downing, “The State and Prospects of Horticulture,” Horticulturist and Journal of Rural Art and Rural Taste 6, no. 12 (December 1851): 537–41, view on Zotero.
  12. Thomas Whately, Observations on Modern Gardening, 3rd ed. (1770; repr., London: Garland, 1982), view on Zotero.
  13. George Gregory, A New and Complete Dictionary of Arts and Sciences, 1st American ed., 3 vols. (Philadelphia: Isaac Peirce, 1816), view on Zotero.
  14. David Hosack, An Inaugural Discourse, Delivered before the New-York Horticultural Society at Their Anniversary Meeting, on the 31st of August, 1824 (New York: J. Seymour, 1824), view on Zotero.
  15. J. C. (John Claudius) Loudon, An Encyclopaedia of Gardening; Comprising the Theory and Practice of Horticulture, Floriculture, Arboriculture, and Landscape-Gardening, 4th ed. (London: Longman et al., 1826), view on Zotero.
  16. H. A. S. (Henry Alexander Scammell) Dearborn, An Address Delivered before the Massachusetts Horticultural Society (Boston: J.T. Buckingham, 1833), view on Zotero.
  17. J. C. Loudon, “Review of Practical Hints on Landscape Gardening,” Gardener’s Magazine and Register of Rural & Domestic Improvement 8, no. 41 (December 1832): 700–2, view on Zotero.
  18. J. C. (John Claudius) Loudon, An Encyclopaedia of Gardening; Comprising the Theory and Practice of Horticulture, Floriculture, Arboriculture, and Landscape-Gardening, new ed., improved and enlarged (London: Longman et al., 1834), view on Zotero.
  19. Anonymous, “Landscape Gardening,” Horticultural Register, and Gardener’s Magazine 3 (April 1, 1837): 121–31, view on Zotero.
  20. Anonymous, Review of A. J. Downing, A Treatise on the Theory and Practice of Landscape Gardening, The Magazine of Horticulture, Botany, and All Useful Discoveries and Improvements in Rural Affairs 7, no. 7 (July 1841): 265–69, view on Zotero.
  21. Edgar Allan Poe, “The Landscape-Garden.” Ladies’ Companion 17 (1842): 324–27, view on Zotero.
  22. George Watterston, “Landscape Gardening,” Southern Literary Messenger 10 (May 1844): 306–15, view on Zotero.
  23. George William Johnson, A Dictionary of Modern Gardening, ed. David Landreth (Philadelphia: Lea and Blanchard, 1847), view on Zotero.
  24. John J. Thomas, “The Shrubbery and Flower Garden,” Cultivator, a Monthly Publication, Devoted to Agriculture 5, no. 4 (April 1848): 114–16, view on Zotero.
  25. A. J. [Andrew Jackson] Downing, A Treatise on the Theory and Practice of Landscape Gardening, Adapted to North America, 4th ed. (1849; repr., Washington, DC: Dumbarton Oaks Research Library and Collection, 1991), view on Zotero.
  26. 26.0 26.1 William H. Ranlett, The Architect, 2 vols. (1849–51; repr., New York: Da Capo, 1976), view on Zotero.
  27. J. C. (John Claudius) Loudon, An Encyclopaedia of Gardening; Comprising the Theory and Practice of Horticulture, Floriculture, Arboriculture, and Landscape-Gardening, new ed., corrected and improved (London: Longman et al., 1850), view on Zotero.
  28. Thomas Meehan, “Notes on Landscape Gardening,” The Horticulturist and Journal of Rural Art and Rural Taste7, no. 2 (February 1852): 92–94, view on Zotero.

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