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History of Early American Landscape Design

Difference between revisions of "Humphry Marshall"

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Humphry Marshall (October 10, 1722-1801) was the author of the first American botanical imprint, ''Arbustum Americanum'', and established the second botanic garden in America, located at his home in Chester County, Pennsylvania.  
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Humphry Marshall (October 10, 1722-1801), an American botanist and plant dealer, was the author of an early American botanical imprint, ''Arbustum Americanum'', and established an important botanic garden at his home in Chester County, Pennsylvania.  
  
 
==History==
 
==History==

Revision as of 16:21, November 9, 2015

Humphry Marshall (October 10, 1722-1801), an American botanist and plant dealer, was the author of an early American botanical imprint, Arbustum Americanum, and established an important botanic garden at his home in Chester County, Pennsylvania.

History

Marshall was born in Pennsylvania to English immigrants who were Quakers. He had a rudimentary education that ended at the age of twelve when he worked as a farm laborer and then apprenticed to a stone mason, a trade he followed for several years. [1] He built a stone house, Marshallton, as his residence in 1773.

Texts

  • Darlington, William, 1849, describing Marshallton, estate of Humphry Marshall, West Chester, Pa. (1849: 487-88)[2]
"In 1764, it became expedient to enlarge the dwelling in which he resided with his parents. This addition was built of brick; and the entire work of digging and tempering the clay, making and burning the bricks, and building the walls, was performed by Humphry himself. He also erected a green-house, adjoining the dwelling; which was, doubtless, the first conservatory of the kind ever seen, or thought of, in the county of Chester.

"The Botanic Garden, at Marshallton, was planned and commenced in the year 1773, and soon became the recipient of the most interesting trees and shrubs of our country, together with many curious exotics; and also of a numerous collection of our native herbaceous plants. A large portion of these yet survive, although the garden, from neglect, has become a mere wilderness; while a number of our noble forest trees, such as Oaks, Pines, and Magnolias(especially the Magnolia acuminata), all planted by the hands of the venerable founder, have now attained to a majestic altitude."

"For several years prior to the establishment of the Marshallton Garden, Humphry had been much engaged in collecting native plants and seeds, and shipping them to Europe ; but after that event, being aided by his nephew, Dr. Moses Marshall, he greatly extended his operations, and directed his attention with enhanced zeal and energy to the business of exploring, and making known abroad, the vegetable treasures of these United States. The present generation of botanists have but an imperfect idea of the services rendered to the science, by the skill and laborious industry of those faithful pioneers ; but the letters here given, will show that they contributed largely to the knowledge of American plants."


  • Resolution of the Town Council of the Borough of West Chester, Pennsylvania, March 13, 1848 (Darlington, 1849: 492-93)[3]
"Whereas it has been deemed expedient and proper to improve the public Square, on which the upper reservoir connected with the Water-works of the borough is situated, by laying out the same in suitable walks, and introducing various ornamental trees and shrubbery: And whereas it will be convenient and necessary to designate the said Square by some appropriate name; And whereas the late Humphry Marshall of Chester County was one of the earliest and most distinguished horticulturists and botanists of our country, having established the second botanic garden in this republic; and also prepared and published the first treatise on the forest trees and shrubs of the United States, and diffused a taste for botanical science which entitles his memory to the lasting respect of his countrymen:

"Therefore resolved, by the Burgesses and Assistant Burgesses of the Borough of West Chester, in Council assembled, That the public Square, aforesaid, shall for ever hereafter be designated and known by the name of 'The Marshall Square,' in commemoration of the exemplary character, and scientific labours, of our distinguished fellow-citizen, the late Humphry Marshall, of West Bradford Township, Chester County."

Images

References

American Philosophical Society web exhibit on Arbustrum Americanum

Humphry and Moses Marshall Papers, 1721-1863, University of Michigan

Notes

  1. Darlington, 486
  2. Darlington
  3. Darlington,

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History of Early American Landscape Design contributors, "Humphry Marshall," History of Early American Landscape Design, , https://heald.nga.gov/mediawiki/index.php?title=Humphry_Marshall&oldid=15111 (accessed September 22, 2021).

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