A Project of the Center for Advanced Study in the Visual Arts, National Gallery of Art
History of Early American Landscape Design


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Welcome to the History of Early American Landscape Design Database

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William Rush, North East or Franklin Public Square, Philadelphia, 1824.

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Anonymous, The Beehive, 1800–1820.

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W. R. Hamilton, Landscape View of a Garden and House [detail], 1836.

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Alexander Jackson Davis, Garden Arch at Montgomery Place, c. 1850.


The site provides information about the history of gardens in America, from the early colonial period to around 1850. The goal of this site is to provide a database of information about, for example, particular sites, images or people, but to provide a large corpus of textual and visual data that can be comparatively examined by scholars, enabling them to investigate landscapes in dynamic contexts and via materials which are rare and difficult to access. Because of the flexible nature of the online format, scholars will be able to consider landscapes as part of a larger set of processes—social, economic, political—rather than only as static sites. This site is a companion to the publication Keywords in American Landscape Design (Yale University Press, 2010)

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Alcove Alley Ancient style Arbor
Arboretum Arcade Arch Avenue
Aviary/Bird cage/Birdhouse Basin Bath/Bathhouse Bed
Beehive Belvedere/Prospect tower/Observatory Border Botanic garden
Bower Bowling green Bridge Canal
Cascade/Cataract/Waterfall Cemetery/Burying ground/Burial ground Chinese manner Clump
Column/Pillar Common Conservatory Copse
Deer park Dovecote/Pigeon house Drive Dutch style
Edging Eminence English style Espalier
Fall/Falling garden Fence Ferme ornée/Ornamental farm Flower garden
Fountain French style Gardenesque Gate/Gateway
Geometric style Green Greenhouse Grotto
Grove Ha-Ha/Sunk fence Hedge Hermitage
Hothouse Icehouse Jet Kitchen garden
Labyrinth Lake Landscape gardening Lawn
Mall Meadow Modern style/Natural style Mound Mount
Nursery Obelisk Orangery Orchard
Park Parterre Pavilion Piazza
Picturesque Plantation Pleasure ground/Pleasure garden Plot/Plat
Pond Porch Portico Pot Promenade
Prospect Public garden/Public ground Quarter Rockwork/Rockery
Rustic style Seat Shrubbery Square
Statue Summerhouse Sundial Temple
Terrace/Slope Thicket Trellis Vase/Urn
Veranda View/Vista Walk Wall
Wilderness Wood/Woods Yard

About this Site

Project Introduction

Statement on Authorities

Project Bibliography


Retrieved from "https://heald.nga.gov/mediawiki/index.php?title=Home&oldid=30957"

History of Early American Landscape Design contributors, "Home," History of Early American Landscape Design, , https://heald.nga.gov/mediawiki/index.php?title=Home&oldid=30957 (accessed August 16, 2022).

A Project of the Center for Advanced Study in the Visual Arts

National Gallery of Art, Washington