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History of Early American Landscape Design

David Hosack

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David Hosack (August 31, 1769-December 22, 1835) was a physician, botanist, educator, and cultural leader who developed the Elgin Garden in New York city and an ambitious private garden at his country house, Hyde Park.


Fig. X, John Trumbull, Niagara Falls, from Two Miles Below Chippawa, 1808, oil on canvas, New-York Historical Society, Gift of Alexander Eddy Hosack

The son of a successful New York City merchant who had immigrated to America from Scotland, Hosack was one of the best educated native-born Americans of his generation. While pursuing a classical education as an undergraduate at Columbia and Princeton, he studied medicine privately, attending lectures by Samuel Bard and other local physicians. In 1790 he entered the Medical School of the University of Pennsylvania, boarding in the home of one of his professors, Benjamin Rush, and forming a close friendship with Caspar Wistar. He received a medical degree in 1791.[1] Convinced that success as a doctor required the patina of sophistication conferred by overseas study, Hosack journeyed to Edinburgh in 1792 and spent nine months attending medical classes at the university.[2] In 1793 Hosack journeyed north to Elgin, his father's birthplace, where he spent time with some of his relatives, as well as the Duke and Duchess of Gordon, who were in the process of carrying out landscape improvements in the manner of Capability Brown at nearby Gordon Castle.[3] Embarrassed by his ignorance of the plants he encountered in the garden of one of his professors, Hosack resolved to improve his knowledge of botany [view text].[4] In London, where he continued his medical studies after leaving Scotland, he immersed himself in English flora and learned the Linnaean system of botanic classification under the tutelage of William Curtis (1746-1799), an apothecary who conducted lessons in the field and at his botanic garden at Brompton [view text]. Hosack was elected a Fellow of the Linnaean Society and began a lifelong association with the society's president, James Edward Smith.[5] When he returned to America in 1794, he brought with him a cabinet of minerals he had begun assembling in Edinburgh, as well as colored engravings of plants and duplicate specimens from the herbarium of Karl Linnaeus, a gift from James Edward Smith [view text].[6]

On resettling in New York, Hosack swiftly established himself as the personal physician of several politically prominent families. He was appointed professor of botany at Columbia College in 1795, adding the professorship of materia medica in 1797.[7] He was also elected to the New York Society for the Promotion of Agriculture, Arts and Manufactures, and in March 1795 wrote a letter to the group's president, Robert R. Livingston with a detailed proposal for members "to collect and prepare a Hortus Siccus, of all the different plants...which grow in their respective neighborhoods...for the purpose of forming a complete Flora of the State" of New York.[8] Hosack's plan failed to gain momentum, and without other resources to draw on, he fell back on his own collections in teaching his classes. In a letter of November 197, he alerted the trustees of Columbia College to the expense he had incurred in providing books, colored engravings, and an herbarium for his students, and requested that "the professorship of botany and materia medica be endowed with a certain annual salary to defray the necessary expenses of a small garden" to serve as a teaching aid.[view text] Failing to gain traction with the college, he took the matter up with the state legislature in 1800, and when that petition failed, too, Hosack used his own funds to purchase twenty acres of land on which to establish a botanic garden in 1801. Named for his father's birthplace in Scotland, the Elgin Botanic Garden was an ambitious undertaking and proved a steady drain on Hosack's finances. His continual efforts to

Several of Hosack's young protégés went on to become eminent botanists, among them John Torrey (1796-1873) and Alire Raffeneau-Delile (1778-1850).[9] Hosack entered into a professional partnership with his mentor Samuel Bard around 1795, assuming sole responsibility for the practice upon Bard's retirement in 1799. Having tended victims of yellow fever in 1795 and 1798, Hosack promoted new procedures for preventing and treating contagious diseases, including visionary city planning measures that included eliminating narrow streets and alleys and lining walks and cemeteries with specific types of trees to provide shade, purify the air, and beautify the city [view text].

Alexander Hamilon's friend and family physician Thomas Jefferson, corresponded about botany

Elgin Garden named for his father's birthplace [10]



  • Hosack, David, n.d., recalling travels in Scotland and England in 1793-94 [11]
"Having...upon one occasion— while walking in the garden of the Professor Hamilton, at Blandford [sic; possibly Blackford], in the neighborhood of Edinburgh,— been very much mortified by my ignorance of botany, with which his other guests were familiarly conversant, I had resolved at that time, whenever an opportunity might offer, to acquire a knowledge of that department of science. Such an opportunity was now presented, and I eagerly availed myself of it. The late Mr. William Curtis, author of the 'Flora Londinensis,' had at that time just completed his botanic garden at Brompton, which was arranged in such manner as to render it most instructive to those desirous of becoming acquainted with this ornamental and useful branch of a medical education. Although Mr. Curtis had for some time ceased to give lectures on botany, he very kindly undertook, at my solicitation, to instruct me in the elements of botanical science. For this purpose I visited the botanical garden daily throughout the summer, spending several hours in examining the various genera and species to be found in that establishment. I also had the benefit, once a week, of accompanying him in an excursion to the different parts of the country in the vicinity of London, Dr. William Babington, Dr. [Robert John] Thornton, Dr. now Sir Smith Gibbs, Dr. [John] Hunter of New York, the Hon. Mr. [Charles Francis] Greville, and myself, composed the class in these instructive botanical excursions, in the summer of 1793.

"By Mr. [James] Dickson, of Covent Garden, the celebrated cryptogamist,... I was also initiated into the secrets of the cryptogamic class of plants.

"In the spring of 1794, I also attended the public lectures of botany delivered by the president of the Linnaean Society, Dr., now Sir James Edward Smith ; and by the kindness of the same gentleman, I had access to the Linnaean Herbarium. I spent several hours daily for four months examining the various genera, and the most important species contained in that extensive collection. Notwithstanding my attention to botany, I was not unmindful of the other departments of medicine."

  • Hosack, David, September 8, 1794, letter to Benjamin Rush (quoted in Robbins, 1964: 29) [12]
"[I have] made many sacrifices for providing the necessary materials for promoting [natural history]: an extensive Library, chemical apparatus, an Herbarium and a collection of necessary objects of natural history as mineralogy."

  • Hosack, David, November 1797, memorial presented to the President and Members of the Board of Trustees of Columbia College (Statement, 1811: 7-8) [13]
“It has been to me a source of great regret that the want of a Botanical Garden, and an extensive Botanical Library, have prevented that advancement in the interests of the institution which might reasonably have been expected….

“To this end, I have purchased for the use of my pupils such of the most esteemed authors as are most essential in teaching the principles of Botany; and at a considerable expense I have been enabled to procure a large and very extensive collection of coloured engravings; but the difficulty of teaching any branch of natural philosophy, and of philosophy, and of rendering it interesting to the pupil, without a view and examination of the objects of which it treats, will readily be perceived: it will also occur to you that books, or engravings, however valuable and necessary, are of themselves insufficient for the purposes of regular instruction in medicine.

“The obvious and only effectual remedy would be the establishment of a Botanical Garden: this would invite a spirit of inquiry. The indigenous plants of our country would be investigated, and ultimately would promise important benefits, both to agriculture and medicine…. I beg leave to suggest…that the professorship of botany and material medica be endowed with a certain annual salary, sufficient to defray the necessary expenses of a small garden, in which the professor may cultivate, under his immediate notice, such plants as furnish the most valuable medicines, and are most necessary for medical instruction.”

"I beg you or Dr. Hosack will write to Mr. Prince at Flushing for twelve good roots of the sweet scented monthly Honeysuckle to be sent immediately to you at Doctor Hosack's so that you may send them by the first boat of which you shall have notice hence. Your letter is to be sent to the house formerly Gains book store Hanover Square [New York] where get for me one of Princes last catalogues & send to me with the plants— by no means neglect this immediately, we do not know how soon the river will open."

  • Hosack, David, 1820, recommendations for city planning as defense against contagious disease (1820: 42-43)[15]
"Enclosing such cemeteries by trees which vegetate early, and continue their foliage late in the autumn, will also greatly contribute to preserve the purity of the air, and afford to such enclosures all the advantages to be derived from public squares. Here, too, it may be remarked, that the practice of planting trees throughout the city, especially on the sidewalks of our widest streets, should be recommended, if not made the subject of an ordinance by our Corporation; for certainly there is no measure so directly conducive to the general purity of the atmosphere, at the same time that it furnishes a defence from the rays of the sun, as the foliage of our largest trees, particularly the plane-tree—the horse— chesnut— the elm— the lime, or linden— the black walnut, and the catalpa, which, while they promote the health of the inhabitants, constitute no inconsiderable addition to the beauty of the city."

  • Hosack, David, August 31, 1824, An inaugural discourse, delivered before the New-York Horticultural Society (1824: 11-26, (David Hosack, , An inaugural discourse, delivered before the New-York Horticultural Society at their anniversary meeting, on the 31st of August, 1824 (New York: J. Seymour, 1824), view on Zotero.</ref>
"The strong attachment, which from my youth I have cherished for botanical and horticultural pursuits, in connexion with an ardent desire to advance the interests of this excellent institution, will not permit me to decline the honour you have this day conferred upon me [by electing me president]…

"Horticulture embraces three objects. 1st. The cultivation of the plants of the table, including culinary vegetables and fruits. 2d. Those plants which are considered as ornamental. And 3d. Landscape gardening; or, the art of laying out grounds in such manner as may render them most conducive to utility and beauty.

"In as far therefore as horticulture is not only subservient to utility, but, like the art of painting, addresses itself to the taste and to the imagination, it has very properly been enumerated among the liberal or the fine arts; and accordingly ranks among the most delightful and important of human pursuits. By Cicero it is with great propriety enumerated among the most pleasing occupations of the mind, peculiarly so in advanced life; at the same time that it is beneficial to health, by the agreeable exercise it affords to the body and the mental faculties….
"Referring to Xenophon, to Justin, to Virgil, to Pausanias, to Pliny, and to the writers of later days, [Horace] Walpole [History of Modern Gardening, subjoined to his fourth volume of the Art of Painting], Sir William Temple, Wheatly [sic; Thomas Whately, Observations on Modern Gardening, and to Dr. [William] Falconer's Historical View of the Gardens of Antiquity, I pass on to remark, that very little has been effected in the science of gardening, until the last fifty years. Within that period, a number of individuals, distinguished for their taste and education, have given their attention to the study of this interesting subject, and especially in France and in Great Britain, have produced important changes in every department of horticulture, including that branch of it more especially, denominated landscape gardening. In this list, the names of [Phillip] Miller, [Humphry] Marshall, [John] Abercrombie, [Robert] Brown, Nicol, [Humphry] Repton, [Richard Payne] Knight, and [John Claudius] Loudon [Encyclopaedia of Gardening] as well as others, whose taste and opportunities led them to the cultivation of this art, hold a distinguished place.

"But passing over the long and justly celebrated national establishment of France, which, under the auspices of [Pierre-François Guyot] Desfontaines, [Antoine Laurent de] Jussieu, and [André] Thouin, embraces every thing directly and remotely connected with this department of knowledge, it is to be observed that it was not until 1804 that the first association of this nature was formed in Great Britain… the Horticultural Society of London…and in 1809… the Caledonian Horticultural Society was formed….

"But a very few years have elapsed since the Society now assembled, was first instituted. In September 1818, a small number of the more enterprising and intelligent of the practical gardeners and nurserymen in the vicinity of this city, convened for the purpose of introducing such improvements in the cultivation of our vegetable productions, as they conceived were called for, and which, by their education and abilities, they felt themselves competent to effect. This association was in the first instance entered into without the most distant view of attracting public notice. But as these improvements proceeded, they acquired notoriety, and the views of their authors expanded with their success. They consequently became desirous that the knowledge of the improvements they had effected might be preserved and extended for the good of the community. Many of the most respectable gentlemen of our city, who are in the habit of passing a portion of their time, during the warm season of the year, at their villas in the neighbouring country, and who are attached to horticulture, also joined in this association….

“Such, gentlemen, were the humble and unostentatious beginnings of the New-York Horticultural Society, which, within a very short space of time, has been the means of increasing the variety, and of improving the quality of the vegetables of our table; of totally changing the face of our markets; of introducing a great number of valuable fruits; of augmenting the number and variety of ornamental plants, both indigenous and exotic, and thereby of spreading a taste for this innocent, yet instructive and delightful source of enjoyment….

“While these measures were in progress, owing to a train of unpleasant circumstances, the recollection of which we hope may never be revived, a few gentlemen thought it expedient to form a new establishment, under the title of the New-York State Horticultural Society, and precisely, as they themselves set forth, for similar purposes in all respects with those of the original institution now in successful operation, and under which we are happily assembled. I well know that the greater number of those who entered into the new association were, at the time they expressed their willingness to concur in its establishment, altogether uninformed of the ulterior views and proceedings of the already existing society, and have since expressed their desire that the two associations may be consolidated and their entire willingness to lend their aid in effecting such union…

“As this Institution is altogether of a practical nature, and has for its objects practical improvements in the culture of plants, it is obvious that a garden should be established in the vicinity of this city, as a repository for the vegetable productions that maybe received by the Society, whether derived from foreign countries, or the growth of our own soil. As subservient to great purposes for which this Society has been instituted, and as already stated, these objects are numerous, a piece of ground should be selected, which, from its extent, variety, and situation, would be capable of affording all the advantages that can be contemplated in an establishment of this nature.

“1st. It should be sufficiently extensive to contain all the variety of fruit-trees and shrubs, not only that they may have all the advantages of space necessary to their growth, but that they may be exhibited to the visitor or cultivator under the most advantageous circumstances….

“2d. Compartments should be provided for all the esculent vegetables of the table, in whatever form they may exist, whether gramineous or herbaceous.

“3d. Provision should be made for the culture of those plants that are most useful in medicine, or are subservient to the arts, or are employed in manufactures.

“4th. To these should be added, for the purpose of diffusing a taste for the productions of nature, and of exciting the attention of our youth of both sexes to botanical inquiries, and of contributing to the beauty and elegance of the establishment, a collection of the most rare and ornamental plants that can be procured, both indigenous and exotic. While therefore we shall thus have it in our power to bring into one view, for the information of the stranger or for the purposes of exchange with foreign correspondents of the Institution, the native productions of our varied climate and country, we should also be provided with suitable conservatories for those plants which may be introduced from abroad. And I may add, that the buildings thus erected should be constructed agreeably to the most correct principles of architecture; for every such edifice, in a place of great public resort, will necessarily have its influence in forming and directing the general taste of the country.

“5th. The whole of this Institution should be surrounded with a belt of forest trees and shrubs, foreign and domestic.

“6th. Connected also with these means of instruction, a building should be set apart, appropriated as a Lecturing Room, and supplied with a Library, where access may be had to every work of importance, in any of the branches appertaining to the subjects of botany, horticulture, vegetable physiology, the philosophy of vegetation, or the principles of agriculture; and in forming such library, you will not omit to place upon its shelves the Memoirs and Transactions of the London and Edinburgh Horticultural Societies, as well as those of France and other establishments of the like nature on the continent of Europe; the transactions of the agricultural institutions of this country— of the states of Pennsylvania, New-York, Massachusetts; and the writings of [John Stuart] Skinner, Southwick, [James] Thacher, [William] Coxe, Dean [sic; Samuel Deane], [John] Taylor, [Stephen] Elliott, Nicholson, and others, should be included in such collection.

“7th. Attached to this library, should be a cabinet set apart for an Hortus Siccus, or Herbarium, and containing our most valuable plants, preserved, arranged, and designated, in the manner that has been adopted by professor Desfontaines, at the Jardin des Plantes at Paris.* The remark I have heard made by that distinguished practical botanist, the late Sir Joseph Banks, that even an imperfect dried specimen is preferable to the best painting, is a striking evidence of the importance of such collection. Nevertheless, the productions of the pencil, in delineating the most rare and valuable plants of the garden, should be also carefully collected, as preparatory to the publications which may hereafter issue from this establishment….

“8th. Another advantage which such an establishment should possess, is that of exemplifying the principles of Ornamental Planting, or Landscape Gardening. The ground should be selected of such form and variety as will admit of such decoration. And in the cultivation of the various plants of the collection, their distribution may ever be rendered subservient to this great object, and thereby become the means of spreading extensively among our citizens a taste for one of the highest recreations that the human heart can receive, and one which will go far in the improvement of the moral principle, and in diverting the mind from pursuits of a less worthy nature; for the mind that is not actively engaged in virtuous pursuits will most probably be occupied with those of a contrary character.

“9th. In this Institution, doubtless, attention will be given in forming a system of instruction necessary in the education of the complete gardener, in the manner that has been constantly practised in some of the institutions of Europe. For this purpose, apprentices should be received for a certain period of time, affording them the advantages not only of being instructed in the cultivation of all sorts of culinary and ornamental plants, but of being made practically acquainted with the different operations of pruning, training, budding, grafting, layering, and transplanting, as well as the general principles of ornamental gardening.

“A professor of drawing should be attached to the establishment, whose duties should be, not only to make delineations of any plants of great value or beauty that may be introduced into the collection, but who would also deliver a course of lectures upon his art, to the pupils who might resort to this establishment for instruction.

“Instead then of looking to Europe for gardeners, which has hitherto been the custom of our country, we should at such school educate a sufficient number of our own citizens to supply all the wants that may be created. Another advantage that must obviously flow from such an organization, is, that the natives of our soil, being necessarily better acquainted with the climate and the vicissitudes of our seasons, are consequently, with the same opportunities of education, better qualified for the duties of their occupation than the foreign gardener, who requires the residence of years to instruct him in this important part of his profession.”

"I have lately purchased a farm of 700 acres on the Hudson… where I propose to pass my summers— my winters will be spent in town and my time devoted to the college and to my practice as far as I can render it in consultation… agriculture and horticulture will now occupy the residue of my life in which I follow your example— I hope you will gratify me by a visit in the summer when we will attend to the georgics as well as to medicine."

Fig. X, Alexander Jackson Davis, "River Vista, Hyde Park," n.d.
  • Wilson, William, June 1829, description of Hyde Park (1829: 148-49)[17]
"In a late tour up the North River as far as Albany, I had the pleasure of spending one day, the 19th inst. in visiting several of the gardens in the vicinity of that city…. Their general appearance exhibits an interesting state of Horticultural improvement….

"At Hyde Park, a little more than half way between this city [New York] and Albany, I stopped to see the estate lately purchased there by Dr. Hosack. It contains six or seven hundred acres of ground, and extends on one side more than a mile in length, on the eastern shore of the North River. The natural scenery along the whole line, to the distance of about a quarter of a mile from the verge of the river, is highly picturesque; and in no direction can the eye be turned through this romantic situation, without the mind’s being impressed with the strongest emotions of reverence of the sublime power and wisdom of the great Creator. On the highest summit of the bank, terminating nearly a quarter of a mile from the water’s edge, to a height of several hundred feet above its level, is seen the celebrated belt of forest trees that extends along the whole line: between this belt and the river, the ground is broken with many knowls, open glades, and ravines, which are lined down to the water’s edge with trees. The more open compartments too, are enlivened by the interspersion of clumps and single trees. [Fig. X]

"About half a mile above Hyde Park landing, (which is upon the southern extremity of the Dr’s. estate,) stands the Mansion House, not far from the brink of the descending grounds towards the river. In every direction to the east, north and south of the mansion, the ground spreads out in one wide open highly elevated and extensive plain, which at a considerable distance easterly from the house, gently descends to a gentle hollow, through which a fine mill stream, skirted with trees winds its way gradually around towards the south westerly points of the estate, where it empties into the North River near the landing. The Doctor intends making a carriage road from the landing in a direction nearly parallel with the course of the stream, to a distance of about a quarter of a mile, where it will turn to the left and pass in an inclined direction through part of the Park and lawn towards the mansion, affording in its course a view of the pleasure ground, green house and hot houses & c. which are to be located to the south of the dwelling. The stables, and the office houses & c. are all on the north of the mansion. The main approach is to be brought from the public road that passes a little to the east of the mill-stream...which in its passage over the stream, will afford a fine opportunity for having exhibited an interesting display of architectural beauty, of which the Doctor will no doubt avail himself, as well as of every other ornamental improvement, of which this most interesting place is so extremely susceptible."

  • Anonymous, July 31, 1829, "A letter from a Tourist to the Editor of the American Farmer" (The American Farmer: 1829: 153)[18]
"With a view to examine some of the farms and country seats upon the banks of the Hudson, I spent a day at Hyde Park, and was delighted, not only with the charms of nature, but also with the refinements of society, and the spirit of hospitality, prevailing among the inhabitants of this rich and beautiful region. The scenery will sustain a comparison with the finest specimens of English landscape. I passed a bright afternoon in rambling over the grounds, which belonged to the late Doctor Bard, and have recently been purchased by Dr Hosack of New York. They comprise a tract of 700 acres, bounded on the west by "The noble North," and extending back a mile or more into the fertile county of Dutchess. From the beautiful lawn in front of the mansion and the neighboring cottage, the view reaches on one hand to the blue summits of the Catskills, and on the other to the Highlands, in the vicinity of West Point. The Hudson, with its green and rural shores, is visible for the distance of twenty miles. An almost endless variety of venerable forest trees give shade and beauty to the landscape, through which hurries a copious stream, headlong and noisy as the Arno itself, filling the hanging gardens and groves on its borders with murmurs. [Fig. X] On the sunny declivity, sloping to this rivulet, I saw ... carts of water-melons, some of them weighing forty pounds each. Fruits and flowers of all kinds are rich and abundant. The woods are vocal with the song of birds, and the squirrel frequently crossed my winding and tangled pathway. In many places, copious and pure fountains gush from the bank of the river, affording a plentiful supply of the best water. The present enterprising proprietor of this farm has but just commenced his system of improvements. With his wealth and taste, he will doubtless render it still more than it is now, a terrestrial paradise.

"Not far from the splendid grounds of Dr. Hosack, is the residence of Dr Allen [Benjamin Allen (1772-1836)], the celebrity of whose classical institution has spread throughout the country and attracted students from distant states. His stately mansion is situated in the midst of a lawn of eighty acres, intersected by avenues and winding walks bordered with ornamental trees. From the window of the library the eye ranges down the banks of the Hudson for a distance of twenty-five or thirty miles, and reposes upon the picturesque scenery on the opposite shore. Here are porches and halls of science, consecrated as the Paecile [river in Italy], and shades deep and classical as the groves of Academus, and waters brighter than Ilissus.... His hours of relaxation from study are frequently employed in walking through the fields with his pupils, conversing familiarly on what they have read, and at the same time enjoying the beauties of nature....

"The next morning we went to breakfast with one of the doctor's neighbors and friends, the wealthy proprietor of 300 acres, who contented with his success in trade, has had the wisdom to beat his anchors into plough shares, and to retire from the bustle of the city to a rural and romantic retreat at Hyde Park. He has embarked with enthusiasm in agricultural and horticultural pursuits, and his farm, his gardens, and his ornamental grounds are in excellent order, evincing skill and taste in his new profession. The whole atmosphere is charged with the fragrance of flowers, and the perfume of 'new-mown hay.' In rambling along winding pathways, by the side of gurgling brooks...I here forgot for a time the dejected spirit and morbid feelings of an invalid."

  • Thacher, James, November 26, 1830, "An excursion on the Hudson. Letter I" (1830: 148-49)[19]
"Hyde Park, is on the east side, six miles above Poughkeepsie, and divides the distance pretty equally from New York to Albany. This pleasant village received its name from Dr John Bard’s country residence, now in the possession of Dr David Hosack, and this is the extent of my present excursion. Landing at the dock on the premises, we were met by the Doctor’s carriage and conveyed up a circuitous road about half a mile to the mansion. The approach is truly enchanting, the house a palace, the landscape a rural paradise, the respectable occupants distinguished for the kindest hospitality. Hyde Park estate was the country residence of Dr John Bard, and it was the scene of his latter days. After him his son Dr Samuel Bard erected a splendid house and made considerable improvements, while his son in law, Rev. Mr McNickler [McVickar], erected a beautiful dwelling in the finest style of an English cottage.

"From both these elegant seats the eye sweeps over the noble Hudson, which is nearly a mile in width, speckled at all times with the white spreading canvas, or the more formidable Fulton steamers. A richer prospect is not to be found, a more varied and fascinating view of picturesque scenery is scarcely to be imagined. The present proprietor, Dr. David Hosack, has since the year 1794, been distinguished for assiduity and devotion to the practical duties of his profession, and fulfilling the office of teacher in various branches of medical science in the city of New York.... Dr Hosack sustained the office of president of the New York Historical Society for several years, and in May, 1824, was elected president of the New York Horticultural Society. He was the founder and proprietor of the Elgin Botanic Garden in 1801, the first and best in the United States, which has been purchased by the Legislature of that State for the purpose of completing a system of medical instruction. Although this eminent physician and philosopher has exchanged his professional labors during the summer months for the delightful scenes of rural and pastoral life, yet he retains a high sense of the importance of medical science, and the public is still to be benefited by his literary labors. He is well qualified as a practical agriculturist and horticulturist, having devoted much attention to the nature of soils and the principles of vegetable life when lecturing on botany and georgics. From the spirit displayed during the short period of 18 months in his system of improvements, it may be predicted that as an agriculturist, he will become no less eminent than in medical erudition."

"The mansion house at Hyde Park is elevated about 200 feet above the surface of the river. With its two wings it presents a noble front of 136 feet, and is two stories above the basement. The centre or principal building, has a piazza on both fronts: the west front is open to the Hudson, and the east looks over a spacious, beautiful lawn towards the turnpike from New York to Albany.... The south wing contains a rich and well selected library, consisting of 4 or 5000 vols. Purchased at the expense of $20,000. Here is to be found a collection of works in every branch of literature. In no private library is there a more complete collection of European and American periodical Journals; scarcely a production of merit of this description, but may be found in this collection, and the number is constantly increasing. The Dr has also in his hall and gallery, a valuable collection of paintings, by the first artists both ancient and modern. At a proper distance north from the house, is situated the coach house and stable, built of stone in a chaste style of Grecian simplicity, and is 61 feet in front by 40 deep. At an equal distance south, is to be seen the green house and hot house, a spacious edifice constructed with great architectural taste and elegance, and well calculated for the preservation of the most tender exotics that require protection in our climate. It is composed of a centre and two wings, extending 110 feet in front and front 17 to 20 feet deep. One apartment is appropriated to a large collection of pines. Among the rich display of rare shrubs and plants, are the magnolia grandiflora, the spendid strelitzia, the fragrant farnesiana, and a beautiful tree of the Ficus elastica or Indian rubber, about 8 feet high, 5 years old. Contiguous to the green house is an extensive ornamental garden, in which is arranged in fine style, a beautiful variety of trees, shrubs and flowers; among which stands that glory of the forest, the magnolia glauca, bearing large white flowers, perfuming the atmosphere with a delightful fragrance. The forest trees which surround the domicile are identically the natives which are found in our forest; some of the oaks are a century in age, and all are large and so grouped and intermingled over the lawn as to present at every step the most fantastic views that can attract the pencil of the artist. From the piazza, and from the bank on the west side of the house we have a charming view, extending to the opposite side of the river, of the blue summits of the Catskill mountains, and many gentlemen’s seats, and cultivated farms. Whether indeed we direct the eye across the river, or glance over its surface north or south, we have a variegated landscape embracing the borders of the noble Hudson, from 20 to 40 miles in extent... From the house, gravelled walks diverge and extend in opposite directions nearly half a mile, exhibiting a diversified scenery of hills and dales, now descending a sloping declivity on the verge of a precipice, again ascending to a commanding plain, opening a scene of unrivalled beauty. At the termination of these romantic walks fanciful pavilions are erected, where visitors may contemplate a captivating display of nature’s magnificence in these regions of wonder. From the turnpike road there are two gates of entrance into the premises, about half a mile from each other, and a porter’s lodge is connected with each gate. The north lodge is 19 by 31 feet, with a portico projecting over the north and south fronts, each supported by 4 Grecian Doric columns. Two wings project from the sides, which serve as lodging rooms. This little building has been much and deservedly admired for its architectural beauty. The entrance gate is finished in a very neat and imposing style of architecture. Mr Thompson of New York, is the skilful architect employed in the construction of these buildings. The south lodge, connected with a neat gateway, with the improvements of the surrounding grounds, present a very picturesque appearance. This is the most commanding point from which to view advantageously the mansion, green house, stable, and out houses, which appear at considerable distance from each other in the extensive lawn. This avenue to the mansion is over a stone bridge, crossing a rapid stream preciptated from the milldams above, and falls in a cascade below. The winding of the road, the varied surface of the ground, the bridge, and the falling of the water, continually vary the prospect and render it a never tiring scene.

Agriculture.— Hyde Park estate consists of a tract of about 800 acres of excellent land, bordering on the Hudson one mile and half, and extending one mile back from the river; the turnpike from New York to Albany passing through the premises. The farm comprises every variety of soil and aspect, and has not been exhausted by cultivation. It is well wooded and supplied with numerous unceasing springs of pure water. A creek also meanders through the farm, furnishing falls well calculated for manufactories and mill seats, and being dammed at proper places, forms excellent pickerel and trout ponds. The 500 acres under culture yield large crops of hay and grain, and the soil is adapted to the production of every article of luxury and convenience which man can desire. Dr Hosack commences his labors with characteristic ardor, and evinces a fine taste for agricultural pursuits. His improvements are not only in the buildings he has erected, and the establishments of the pleasure grounds, but in the more solid operations of the farm, as levelling hills and precipices, opening roads and avenues, erecting bridges and turning water courses. Many acres of rugged, hilly land hitherto deemed almost inaccessible to the plough or not worth the labor, have this season been subdued, the stones worked into wall and the soil sowed with rye.

Stock. — …In front of this house, on the lower bank of the river, he has a park stocked with deer....

Apiary.— During my visit at Hyde Park, by request of Dr H. I superintended the construction of an apiary upon my improved plan. The house is 30 feet long and two tiers in height and will contain nearly 40 hives, and this affords the greatest facility for taking the honey without destroying the bees. The close house secures the hives from the ravages of the Bee-moth and from the weather, and may be opened occasionally for ventilation…. Dr H. is now in possession of a family of bees without stings which were sent to Dr Mitchell from Mexico. He keeps them in his green house that they may enjoy an atmosphere similar in temperature to that in their native climate. There is on the stream belonging to Dr H. the workshop of Mr Hale, the ingenious inventor of the patent rotary pump…. Dr H. has two of them in operation, at his green house and bathing room.

"I met at Hyde Park, Mr. Bennet [William James Bennett (1787−1844)], an English gentleman, and an eminent landscape painter, who has been for some time engaged in taking landscape views of some interesting objects. Had Basil Hall been so fortunate as to have visited Hyde Park, the grand display and the generous hospitality which he would have experienced, could not fail of reminding him of some of the noble seats in his own country, and of correcting his unjust prejudice against ours.

"I was rejoiced while at Hyde Park to have an interview with an old friend and associate in the revolutionary army, General M. L.[Morgan Lewis (1754-1844)] …. General L[ewis]. is one of the very few survivors of his military brethren, who possesses the means of sumptuous living and domestic enjoyments. His magnificent mansion is located on the banks of the Hudson, 4 miles above Hyde Park. The front towards the river is ornamented with a colonnade, a spacious and lofty piazza walled on three sides with Venetian blinds. From this there is a fine view of the Catskill mountains, in all their variety and magnificence, and an extensive landscape of variegated scenery peculiar to these regions. Here resides, during the summer months, the venerable patriarch."

"About thirty miles further [from West Point] is Hyde Park, the magnificent seat of Dr. Hosack; here the misty summit of the distant Kaatskill begins to form the outline of the landscape; it is hardly possible to imagine any thing more beautiful than this place. We passed a day there with great enjoyment.

  • Gordon, Alexander, 1832, "Notices of Some of the Principal Nurseries and Private Gardens in the United States of America, Made during a Tour through the Country, in the Summer of 1831" (1832: 282)[22]
"There is an immense number of gentlemen’s seats situated on the banks of this beautiful river [the Hudson]; but, as it respects gardening, every thing about them is on a confined scale…; and although the remains of the possessions of the old aristocracy were visible, yet the ancient manor houses were falling to decay; the trees of the parks and pleasure grounds were all neglected; and rank grass and weeds covered the walks &c .
"Hyde Park, on the Hudson.— As exception to this forlorn state of former greatness, or rather former extent, I can, with the greatest propriety, mention the splendid mansion and seat of Dr. David Hosack, a gentleman well known in the literary and scientific world (the Sir Joseph Banks of America). The doctor has lately retired from business and the city, to this delightful spot, Hyde Park. Our Hyde Park, on this side the water, can bear no comparison with its namesake on the other side of the Atlantic; its natural capacity for improvement has been taken advantage of in a very judicious manner; every circumstance has been laid hold of, and acted upon, which could tend to beautify or adorn it. The park is extensive; the rides numerous; and the variety of delightful distant views, embracing every kind of scenery, surpasses any thing I have ever seen in that or in any other country. I had the pleasure of riding round the whole with its most amiable owner, than whom a more condescending and affable gentleman is not in existence. The pleasure grounds are laid out on just principles, and in a most judicious manner; there is an excellent range of hot-houses, with a collection of rare plants; remarkable for their variety, their cleanliness and their handsome growth. The whole of this department is under the care of Mr. Hobbs, an English gardener, who well understands his business; and it was most gratifying to me to find Dr. Hosack so justly appreciating his merits. The farm buildings have been recently erected; and their construction and arrangement deserve the strongest praise; but in fact, every thing connected with Hyde Park is performed in a manner unparalleled in America; at least, as far as my observations extended.

  • Pintard, John, April 14 and June 9, 1832, letters to his daughter, Eliza Noel Pintard Davidson (1940 4: 39, 63)[23]
"Philip [Hone] lives in the genteelest style of any man in our city, not excepting Dr. Hosack, who I believe latterly has restricted his hospitality to strangers very much. Before he married the rich widow [of] H.A. Coster, with whom he got $300,000, Hosack maintained a character for general hospitality to strangers, esp. literary, for wh. I have him great credit. I was then very intimate with him, but not since the decease of Govr. Clinton have I had the slightest intercourse, no longer being serviceable to him. So the world changes. So wealth shows the natural disposition. He cultivates at great expense with great taste a Ferme ornee at Hyde Park in Duchess Co. on the Hudson formerly Dr. Bards, of several hundred acres on wh. He has lavished great sums that can never be replaced to his Heirs....

"Dr. Hosack has gone for the summer to his Ferme ornée at Hyde park."

Fig. X, Thomas Kelah Wharton, "View of David Hosack Estate, Hyde Park, New York, from the East," ca. 1832.
Fig. X, Thomas Kelah Wharton, "View of the David Hosack Estate, Hyde Park, New York, from the South," ca. 1832.
"July 9th, 1832. The curtain [of mist and rain] lifted as we passed thro’ the Highlands.... The woods and grassy slopes, green lawns and bright yellow wheat fields on either hand warmed into a richer glow with the freshening moisture of the morning….At half past one P.M. I went on shore at Hyde Park Landing, found a baggage waggon to take up my trunk and cloak to Dr. Hosack’s, and then followed on foot thro’ the Park gate close by the Landing. The Mansion itself was half a mile further on the brow of a bold eminence full 100 feet above the river. The ascent is gradual by broad winding walks, shaded by the richest foliage with gleams of the Hudson sparkling among the leaves— and beautiful lawns, with trees grouped in fine taste— a range of green houses and exquisite flower beds crown the ascent and sweep around a general clump of forest trees leading quite up to the house which presents a noble front to the Park.... [Fig. X] After examining the Picture Gallery and the noble library occupying a whole story in one of the wings of the building, the Doctor took me over the grounds and pointed out their chief beauties. No expense has been spared in embellishing this splendid domain, which contains 800 acres of richly diversified surface— every feature of which has been made to contribute to the ornamental effect of the whole and to heighten the magnificence of the River scenery which it commands. The two facades of the building, one fronting the river, the other towards the Park shew a fine spread of enriched Italian, flanked by large well proportioned wings. The whole designed and executed by Martin E. Thompson in his best manner— another very tasteful edifice stands at the north end of the grounds called the “cottage” with its own separate gardens and ornamental improvements. [Fig. X] The north and south Lodges form elegant entrances to the estate. Pavilions occupy prominent knolls. The lawns, parterres, walks, and broad winding carriage drives are all kept in the highest order, and nothing can exceed the beauty of the forest groups and clumps of ornamental trees and shrubs which are disposed with the utmost skill over the whole place…. The afternoon having turned out wet and unpleasant the rest of the day was spent in examining several valuable works &c. &c. my drawings, too, were brought out and handed round, and the Doctor said he wished me to make him several sketches to be engraved on stone to illustrate a Quarto which he is engaged upon descriptive of his place….

Fig. X, Thomas Kelah Wharton, "Grove of Poplars with a Memorial Bust, David Hosack Estate, Hype Park, New York, ca. 1832.
[July 10] "Heavy rains, with a pleasant interval at noon which I spent in rambling over the grounds. In the afternoon the sun broke thro’ suddenly and the clouds rolled away from the distant Catskills, revealing to me for the first time their grand, shadowy outlines. Thin silvery mists still crept around their base giving additional majesty to the peaks above— the whole forming a background to the glorious scene of the Hudson from the north boundary of the estate. After sunset the deep groves of oak and chesnut between the front lawn and the river sparkled with fire flies innumerable. These woods extend from the bottom of the ridge to the water's edge. The intervening slope is abrupt but well grassed over and is used as an enclosure for deer. The front lawn occupies the whole level plateau on the top of the ridge, and splendid old trees are left standing at intervals with seats scattered here and there from which you can survey at leisure and in the shade, the exquisite beauty of the river scenery below. A little further on a handsome Grecian Pavilion, roofed with a dome, occupies a raised spot near the main walk, and just in advance of the ridge a grassy knoll covered with tall poplars offers a pretty contrast to the heavier foliage— it is ornamented with a bust on a suitable pedestal, and is called, (in imitation of Rousseau) L'Isle des Peupliers…. [Fig. X]

Fig. X, Thomas Kelah Wharton, "Bridge over Crumelbow Creek, David Hosack Estate, Hyde Park, New York," ca. 1832.
[July 11] "Spent the day chiefly amongst the Doctor’s books—it is a large and valuable collection….

[July 12] "The thick vapours have fled—a fine breeze cools the air—distant showers and great tracts of sunshine give the spectre forms of the Catskills a grand and diversified effect. In the morning I made a sketch of the Pavilion on a mass of rock which projects into the river at the far north end of the estate, and of the pretty ornamental bridge over Crumelbow Creek. [Fig. X] This stream skirts the eastern portion "the park and is made to heighten its beauty—in one place its clear waters are gathered into a natural basin and spanned by the bridge in question forming with the mossy bank, and patches of grey rock a very sweet composition. In the afternoon commenced a large view of the scene looking up the Hudson….

Fig. X, Thomas Kelah Wharton, "Greenhouse, David Hosack Estate, Hyde Park, New York," ca. 1832.
[July 14] "The Doctor drove with me over the whole estate, and showed me his farming operations which he is conducting in one part of it. Rest of the day drawing….

[July 15] "The Episcopal church is small but pretty— it stands at a short distance from the north Lodge, and the church yard is embowered with the foliage of tall locusts.... The gardener furnished dessert today with fine Citron melons, fully ripe, and the Doctor’s Pinery gives proof of the superior flavour of the Pine apple when taken ripe from the plant. The flower beds around the conservatories are perfectly splendid. There are some things I never saw before— the Mexican Tiger flower (Tigridia tygridifolia) and a fine specimen of the Indian rubber tree. Amongst the larger shrubbery the “Fringe Tree” is singularly luxuriant and monumental.

Fig. X,Thomas Kelah Wharton, "View of the David Hosack Estate at Hyde Park, New York, from Western Bank of the Hudson River," ca. 1832.
[July 16] "Finished tinting a drawing of the “greenhouses” [Fig. X] and commenced one of the East Front of the House.

[July 17] "After breakfast I crossed the Hudson at the horse boat Ferry, and made a sketch of the river Front and grounds from the high bank opposite.[Fig. X] I then rambled far away off into the country, and climbed some rough, woody precipices which gave me fine views over Dutchess County. I noticed among the shady walks today that beautiful little bird the Bohemian Waxwing (Bombycilla garrulus or Ampelis garrulus Linne) a well drawn figure of it is given in Charles Lucien Bonaparte’s elegant work on those specimens of American Ornithology not given by [Alexander] Wilson— both works are in the Library….

[July 19] "A little before sunset, as Emily Hosack and another lady & myself were standing on the walk overlooking the deer park, and admiring a pair of spotted fawns which the Doctor has lately received from Long Island, a sudden and heavy rain gathered among the mountains, and came rolling towards us so swiftly as to cut off our retreat to the house, so we took shelter in the Pavilion close by, but we were not detained there long, the sun broke out again in 20 minutes and painted upon the black, turbid vapors the most perfect and brilliant rainbow I ever beheld.

[July 20] "Sitting with the Doctor on the Piazza after twilight I had a long conversation with him on my prospects in New York in which he kindly interests himself, and suggests plans for my advantage.

[July 21] "Early in the morning these beautiful grounds seemed flushed with new charms as the mist rolled away from the Catskills and the sun lighted them with clear a[e]rial tints, like mother of pearl. The trees, lawns, and parterres borrowed additional brilliancy from the fresh dew, and the new mown grass smelt sweet and spicy in the still morning air. I have today completed the last of five Quarto sized drawings for the Doctor with which he is highly pleased— they are the best I can do and tinted with great care ….

[July 22] "The air is wonderfully pure, and the mountain peaks unusually clear and beautiful. The mountain house [Catskill Mountain House hotel] and its piazza is perfectly distinct thro’ an excellent telescope that stands in the Hall— it is 30 miles off and to the naked eye appears like a white spot near the summit of the most easterly mountain. Dr. Hosack will not allow a gun to be fired in or near his pleasure grounds and it is surprising what multitudes of beautiful birds, squirrels and other graceful little creatures glance about among the walks and trees— and so fearless, too, as if conscious of protection….

[July 24] "As I am spending the time until breakfast in the Library I will try to give a little idea of it. It occupies one story of the South wing— is 38 by 23 feet and lighted by 5 handsome windows. There are two elegant black veined marble mantles with grates for anthracite coal, and the carpet, rugs, sofa, chairs & c. are in accordance with the sumptuous style of the rest of the house. Four stands contain large Portfolios of Engravings, maps &c. and in the centre is a large mahogany reading Table, with 18 capacious drawers, and covered with useful articles for study & bronze ink stands & candlesticks of elegant patterns, large atlasses, and in the centre a convex Lens 7 ½ inches in diamter, on a neat mahogany stand, to aid in reading the finer types….. The Books are arranged in large Mahogany cases along the walls, handsomely bound, and consist of from 4 to 5000 volumes purchased at a cost of Twenty Thousand dollars. They have been collected with great care so that they comprise some of the most valuable works in every department of literature and science….. The collection of European and American “periodical literature” is, I am told, more complete than in any other private library in the country….

[July 25] "After a thunderstorm the morning became very fine and it occurred to me that I might not have a better opportunity to visit the residence of a gentleman with whom I became acquainted a few evenings ago— which is prettily situated near the river about a mile south of the village…. As Mr Allen was from home I merely stayed to make a rapid sketch of the Hudson looking South from the grounds— the Highlands in the distance and the buildings of Poughkeepsie peeping over the foliage in the middle of the view…. I commenced another drawing for the Doctor on the completion of which I propose taking leave of my kind and friendly entertainers at Hyde Park.

[July 26] "Today we have a sky without a cloud. I have now finished seven drawings for the Doctor and have just washed in the first tints of a large picture…. I may remark that the work in which he [David Hosack] is now engaged will be illustrated by the drawings I have made him, while the originals, he tells me, will be enclosed in a Portfolio and placed in the drawing room Centre Table for the frequent inspection of his family and guests.

[July 28] "[Dr. Hosack] commenced an examination of the picture, with which he and his brother (who just then stepped in) were delighted, and suggested that it would make a valuable addition to the “gallery” and that it would prove very attractive if engraved. It is 23 ½ inches x 16 in and embraces all that splendid range of scenery northward from this Estate to the Catskills. They think I Have been particularly successful with the sky which is nearly finished and is by far the boldest effort I have yet attempted…. I observe in the library several books of travels presented to the Doctor by Sir Joseph Banks, and many others by their respective authors, including names of great celebrity in England, among the rest “Roscoe” of Liverpool, whose “Discourses” are in the collection presented by himself….

[July 30] "I have been busy all day with my picture, partly in the open air with the actual scene before me, and partly in my large, well lighted apartment. It is now nearly finished, and I think looks very well. I intend to present it to the Doctor as I have at length made up my mind to leave in the “Champlain” tomorrow if the weather prove favorable.

[July 31] "The bright sun soon purged away the mists from the Catskills and while the grass was still wet I took a farewell stroll among the splendid embellishments of the gardens. Lemon Trees, loaded with fine fruit, the tall India Rubber, the althea frutex covered with flowers, and the glossy Magnolia exhaling the sweetest perfume. A thousand other beauties, too, belonging more strictly to this latitude. I sat down in a Pavilion and having Witherspoon in my hand, as I may not ever meet with the work again I extracted the following brief view of regeneration…. The gig drove up to the door, my baggage was brought down. The parting moment came, and very soon the delightful scenes of Hyde Park lay behind me.”

  • Hamilton, Thomas, 1833, describing a visit to Hyde Park in December 1830 (1833: 1: 73, 79-82)[25]
"I determined to give variety to the tisue of my life by accepting the very kind and pressing invitation of Dr Hosack, to visit him at his country-seat on the banks of the Hudson….

"Though the drive from the landing-place led through a prettily variegated country, I was not much in the humour to admire scenery, and looked, I fear, with more indifference on the improvements past and projected, to which the Doctor directed my attention, than would have been consistent with politeness in a warmer and more comfortable auditor....

"The following morning... I was glad to accept the invitation of my worthy host, to examine his demesne, which was really very beautiful and extensive. Nothing could be finer than the situation of the house. It stands upon a lofty terrace overhanging the Hudson, whose noble stream lends richness and grandeur to the whole extent of the foreground of the landscape. Above, its waters are seen to approach from a country finely variegated, but unmarked by any peculiar boldness of feature. Below, it is lost among a range of rocky and wooded eminences of highly picturesque outline. In one direction alone, however, is the prospect very extensive; and in that, (the north-west) the Catskill Mountains, sending their bald and rugged summits far up into the sky, form a glorious framework for the picture.

"We drove through a finely undulating country, in which the glories of the ancient forest have been replaced by bare fields, intersected by hideous zigzag fences. God meant it to be beautiful when he gave such noble varieties of hill and plain, wood and water; but man seemed determined it should be otherwise. No beauty which the axe could remove was suffered to remain....

"Such changes are not optional, but imperative. The progress of population necessarily involves them, and they must be regarded only as the process by which the wilderness is brought to minister to the wants and enjoyments of civilized man.... It is only the state of transition which is unpleasant to behold; the particular stage of advancement in which the wild grandeur of nature has disappeared, and the charm of cultivation has not yet replaced it."

  • Hamilton, Thomas, 1833, recalling a visit to Hyde Park in June 1831 (1833; 2: 289-90)[26]
"Having passed a pleasant day at West Point, I proceeded to Dr. Hosack's, about thirty miles distant. I had before visited Hyde Park in the depth of winter, I now beheld its fine scenery adorned by the richest luxuriance of verdure. Poet or painter could desire nothing more beautiful. There are several villas in the neighbourhood tenanted by very agreeable families, and had it been necessary to eat lotus in the United States, I should certainly have selected Hyde Park as the scene of my repast. But I had determined on returning to England in the course of the summer, and was therefore anxious to proceed on my journey. On the third day, I bade farewell to my kind friends— for so I trust they will permit me to call them— and again embarked on the Hudson."

  • Stuart, James, 1833, recalling trips up the Hudson River in August 1828 and September 1829 (1833 1: 37, 433, 469-70) [27]
[August 1828] "...the noble terrace of Hyde Park....

[September 1829] "I had been some time engaged in conversation with Dr Hosack, to whom my only introduction was in the steam-boat by Dr. Mitchell of New York, the well-known translator of Cuvier, to whom I had been presented five minutes previously….

"The drive from Poughkeepsie to Hyde Park and to Rhinebeck passes through a rich undulating country, the ground on the banks of the river commanding as pleasing views as can be imagined. There is a greater number of country seats than I have seen anywhere away from the great towns upon this line of country….

Dr. Hosack’s terrace is the finest that I have seen on the river, and possesses views, ending with the Catskill mountains in the distance, that can hardly be surpassed. A great number of workmen are at present employed by him in extensive improvements upon the grounds, and the enlargement of his mansion-house."

  • Stuart, James, 1833, describing a visit to Hyde Park in July 1830 (1833 2: 547-51)[28]
"I left Mr Anderson’s house for two or three days in the beginning of July to pay a visit, which I had long projected, to Dr Hosack, at his magnificent seat on the Hudson, where I was most kindly received by himself and his amiable family. He lives very much in the same style as an English country gentleman of it, can bestow. His mansion-house is large, elegant, and well-furnished; but it is not my object to describe a place laid out and embellished as a fine residence and fine grounds in England are, or to tell the readers of these pages of the size of Dr Hosack’s rooms, of his eating or drawing-rooms, his excellent library, his billiard room, or his conservatory, of his porter’s lodges, his temples, his bridges, his garden, and the other et ceteras of this truly delightful domain which he has adorned, and was, at the time when I was there, adorning with great taste and skill, and without much regard to cost. The splendid terrace over the most beautiful of all beautiful rivers, admired the more the oftener seen, renders Hyde Park, as I think, the most enviable of all the desirable situations on the river. Dr Hosack has now retired from practice as the first physician in New York. His activity is, however, unabated. He takes great delight in superintending his numerous workmen, and the management of his place and farm. He has 800 acres adjoining to his house, all, I believe, in his own occupation, and is taking great pains to obtain the finest breeds of cattle and sheep…. His park contains deer and a few Cachmere goats, which are particularly handsome. In short, this is quite a show place, in the English sense of the word, which every foreigner should see on its own account, — on account of the great beauty of the natural terrace above the river, and the charming and varied views from it, — as well as on account of the art with which the original features of the scene are advantageously displayed…

"I observed that Dr Hosack, in speaking to his workmen, never addressed them by their Christian name alone, but always in this way: ‘Mr Thomas, be so good as do this,’ or ‘Mr Charles, be so good as do that.’ It would not be easy for an Englishman of great fortune to form his mouth so as to give his orders to his servants in similar terms; but the more equal diffusion of wealth, and greater equality of condition, which prevail in this country, put the sort of submission of inferiors to superiors, to which we in Britain are accustomed, quite out of the question in the free part of the United States, and undoubtedly render the mass of the people far more comfortable, contented, and happy….

"Dr Hosack’s grounds are so very charming, and the views from them so picturesque and striking, that I cannot help wishing that Captain Hall had seen Hyde Park Terrace before he declared 'North America to be the most unpicturesque country to be found anywhere.'

"SUBJECT 1. Gardening in North America, as an Art of Design and Taste.

"1474. Hyde Park, on the Hudson, according to a recent writer in the Gardener’s Magazine, Mr. Gordon, is the first in point of landscape-gardening in America. Its proprietor, Dr. David Hosack, is a botanist, and a man of taste. The natural capacity of this seat for improvement has been taken advantage of in a very judicious manner; and every circumstance has been laid hold of, and acted upon, which could tend to beautify or adorn it. The mansion is splendid and convenient. The park extensive, the rides numerous and the variety of delightful distant views embrace every kind of scenery. The pleasure-grounds are laid out on just principles, and in a most judicious manner; and there is an excellent range of hot-houses, with a collection of rare plants, remarkable for their variety, cleanliness, and handsome growth.... Mrs. Trollope, speaking of this villa, says 'Hyde Park is the magnificent seat of Dr. Hosack: here the misty summit of the distant Kaatskill begins to form the outline of the landscape; and it is hardly possible to imagine a more beautiful place....' Mr. Stuart speaks in raptures of 'the view over the most beautiful of all beautiful rivers, from the magnificent terrace in the front of Dr. Hosack’s house, situated in the most enviable of the desirable situations on the river.' Hyde Park, he says, 'is quite a show place, in the English sense of the word.'"

  • Shirreff, Patrick, 1835, description of a visit to Hyde Park during the spring of 1833 (1835: 29-31) [30]
"Hyde Park, the seat of Doctor Hosack, is the most celebrated In America, and which Mr Stuart describes as being 'embellished as a fine residence and fine grounds in England.' The house is situated some hundreds of feet above the level of, and at a considerable distance from the Hudson, the intervening grounds being finely undulating. In front of the house there is a road, leading from the landing-place on the river, along a small stream, over which there is an elegant wooden bridge, and several artificial cascades have been formed in its channel. The house is composed of wood, as well as the offices and lodges, painted white, and are very neat of their kind. The conservatory had been dismantled a few days before our arrival, by placing the plants in the open air; the collection seemed extensive and well kept. The flower garden is small, the walks limited, and both destitute of beauty. I am aware that most of the evergreens which impart loveliness to the residences in Britain cannot withstand the rigours of an American winter, but this circumstance is no excuse for the nakedness of Hyde Park walks, the aid of many native plants having been disregarded. The matchless beauties of the situation have not only been frequently neglected; but destroyed by stiff, formal, naked walks, and the erection of temples resembling meat-safes, without a climbing plant, which the country produces in endless variety, to hide their deformity, and harmonize them with the surrounding scene. In short, while I greatly admired the situation of Hyde Park, I do not recollect having seen a celebrated place where nature had done so much, and man so little, to render beautiful. The embellishments at Hyde Park, contrasted with those met with every day in Britain, place American landscape-gardening immeasurably behind, if it can be said to exist.

“The progress of a people in refinement and taste, manifested in a combination of nature and art, is commonly the work of time, and the decoration of grounds an unproductive investment of capital. Thus the residences of England having descended for ages in the same line, without the power of possessors changing their destination, may be said to represent the accumulated savings, labours, and tastes of many generations. In America the country has not been long possessed by the present owners, and property does not necessarily descend in the same line; and if to these causes be added the high price of labour, and the scarcity of capital, the state of the residences will be sufficiently accounted for. Dr Hosack has great merit in what he has accomplished, but it is mockery to compare his grounds, in point of embellishments, with the fine places in Britain, which have originated from circumstances which America is not likely soon to experience….

"Hyde Park is also celebrated for its agriculture, which I found under the charge of a gentleman from Fifeshire, Scotland, a person on excellent terms with himself. The farm offices, which are extensive, would be considered good in most situations, and were the best I saw in America. There was a young hawthorn hedge, well kept, and in a thriving state."

  • Hunt, Freeman, 1836, Letters About the Hudson River (1836: 159-61) [31]
"The ride to Hyde Park, about six miles north of Poughkeepsie, is very pleasant. The elegant mansions, the extended plains, and the highly cultivated grounds you pass, render the route really delightful. The village or town of Hyde Park, derived its name from the place owned by the late Dr. Hosack. Dr. Bard, the original proprietor, gave it that name; and when the town of Clinton was divided into three separate villages, this town assumed the name of Hyde Park. The mansion and grounds of the late Dr. Hosack, occupy a space of about seven hundred acres. It is a princely place, extending a mile from the village north, and about the same distance from the river east. The mansion is built on an extensive plain, and surrounded by trees and shrubbery of every variety. The grounds along the Albany river road, on either side, are shaded with large locust trees. A retired spot of the grounds of this great estate is occupied with a neat little Episcopal chapel, and the mansion of the rector. This was given to the society by Dr. Bard. Its location is quite rural.... Judge Pendleton, Hamilton Wilkes, Thos. Williams, and E. Holbrook, Esqrs;, have all beautiful mansions, and highly cultivated grounds. Dr. Hosack's place is to be sold, and will probably be divided into lots, and furnish ample space for a dozen mansions as summer residences for our New York city gentry. The New York and Albany boats land at Hyde Park, about half a mile from the village..... In 1830, Dr. Hosack concluded to retire from practice, and with that view purchased the elegant estate of his patron, Dr. Bard, at Hyde Park, on the banks of the Hudson, where he resided from May to November, engaged in cultivating his farm, and improving and beautifying his pleasure grounds, and extensive botanical garden. His extensive and practical knowledge as a florist, connected with wealth and a refined taste, has rendered his garden second to none in the union."

  • Murray, Charles Augustus, 1836, describing his travels through New York (1830: 2: 346-47)[32]
"I soon came to the lodge of a country-seat, which has been celebrated by almost every British traveller in America, Hyde Park, the residence of the late venerable and hospitable Dr. Hosack. I had never found an opportunity of delivering my letters of introduction to him during my former stay in New York…. Of course his widow received no company, so I resolved to ride through the grounds and see the prospect from them, merely leaving my card, accompanied by an apology for the liberty I had taken.

"The ground between the road and the house is very bold and undulating, and affords the means of making a pretty small lake, round which the approach winds its course. The house is spacious and comfortable without any pretensions to architectural beauty…. She [the daughter-in-law- of Dr. Hosack] invited me into the house and very kindly offered to show me the 'lions': among the principal of which, indoors, was the library, a most comfortable apartment, containing some tolerable pictures of the Italian and Flemish schools. I soon followed my fair conductress to the other side of the house, where might be seen a picture more glorious than ever mortal pencil designed. Below us flowed the Hudson, studded with white-sailed sloops as far as the eye could reach…; the opposite bank, which slopes gently from the river, is variegated with farms, villages, and woods, appearing as though they had been grouped by the hand of taste rather than that of industry; while on the north-west side the prospect is bounded by the dark and lofty outline of the Catskill range."

"The most distinguished amateur and patron of gardening, in every sense of the word, in this state [New York], was the late Dr. Hosack. Hyde Park, on the Hudson, the seat of this gentleman, has been probably the best specimen of highly improved residence in the United States. Situated on the margin of the river, with one of the noblest of prospects, smooth gravelled drives and walks leading to every desirable point of sight, over an estate of eight hundred acres— the park large, well wooded, and instersected by a fine stream— a handsome and well filled range of hothouses, extensive shrubberies, and a separate and very complete kitchen garden, the whole in the highest order— all rendered it a first-rate residence. Dr. Hosack’s acquaintance abroad enabled him to introduce many new fruits and plants, and some of our most celebrated native fruits were placed in the hands of horticulturists in Europe through his means….

"The finest single example of landscape gardening, in the modern style, is at Dr. Hosack’s seat, Hyde Park, and the best specimens of the ancient or geometric style may probably be met with in the neighborhood of Philadelphia."

  • Downing, Andrew Jackson, March 1837, "Notes on Some of the Nurseries and Private Gardens in the Neighborhood of New York and Philadelphia" (June 1837: 211)[34]
“It is a melancholy scene to the American horticulturist to see the few beautiful private residences and nurseries of which our country can boast, one by one, purchased by individuals or companies, to be cut up into building lots, or otherwise destroyed, by rail roads running directly through them. Dr. Hosack’s, at Hyde Park, N.Y., the best specimens of gardening in this country, was the first; Mr. Pratt’s, Laurel [Lemon] Hill, but little inferior in its style, next; and now one of the oldest nurseries[Bartram Botanic Garden and Nursery], founded by one of the best naturalists this country ever produced, is to follow, though not the same, a similar fate.”

"The prettiest amateur farm I saw was that of the late Dr. Hosack, at Hyde Park, on the Hudson. Dr. Hosack had spared no pains to improve his stock, and his methods of farming, as well as the beauty of his pleasure-grounds.... As for his pleasure-grounds, little was left for the hand of art to do. The natural terrace above the river, green, sweeping, and undulating, is surpassingly beautiful. Dr. Hosack's good taste led him to leave it alone, and to spend his pains on the gardens and conservatory behind. Of all the beautiful country-seats on the Hudson, none can, I think, equal Hyde Park; though many bear a more imposing appearance from the river."

"The aspect of Hyde Park from the river had disappointed me, after all I had heard of it. It looks little more than a white house upon a ridge. I was therefore doubly delighted when I found what this ridge really was. It is a natural terrace, over-hanging one of the sweetest reaches of the river; and, though broad and straight at the top, not square and formal, like an artificial embankment, but undulating, sloping, and sweeping, between the ridge and the river, and dropped with trees; the whole carpeted with turf, tempting grown people, who happen to have the spirits of children, to run up and down the slopes, and play hide-and-seek in the hollows. [Fig. X] Whatever we might be talking of as we paced the terrace, I felt a perpetual inclination to start off for play. Yet, when the ladies and our selves actually did something like it, threading the little thickets, and rounding every promontory, even to the farthest, (which they call Cape Horn) I felt that the possession of such a place ought to make a man devout, if any of the gifts of Providence can do so. To hold in one's hand that which melts all strangers' hearts is to be a steward in a very serious sense of the term. Most liberally did Dr. Hosack dispense the means of enjoyment he possessed. Hospitality is inseparably connected with his name in the minds of all who ever heard it: and it was hospitality of the heartiest and most gladsome kind.

"Dr. Hosack had a good library,— I believe, one of the best private libraries in the country; some good pictures, and botanical and mineralogical cabinets of value. Among the ornaments of his house, I observed some biscuits and vases once belonging to Louis XVI., purchased by Dr. Hosack from a gentleman who had them committed to his keeping during the troubles of the first French Revolution.

"In the afternoon, Dr. Hosack drove me in his gig round his estate, which lies on both sides of the high road; the farm on one side, and the pleasure grounds on the other. The conservatory is remarkable for America; and the flower-garden all that it can be made under present circumstances, but the neighbouring country people have no idea of a gentleman's pleasure in his garden, and of respecting it. On occasions of wedding and other festivities, the villagers come up into the Hyde Park grounds to enjoy themselves; and persons, who would not dream of any other mode of theft, pull up rare plants, as they would wild flowers in the woods, and carry them away. Dr. Hosack would frequently see some flower that he had brought with much pains from Europe flourishing in some garden of the village below. As soon as he explained the nature of the case, the plant would be restored with all zeal and care: but the lessons were so frequent and provoking as greatly to moderate his horticultural enthusiasm. We passed through the poultry-yard, where the congregation of fowls exceeded in number and bustle any that I had ever seen. We drove round his kitchen-garden too, where he had taken pains to grow every kind of vegetable which will flourish in that climate. Then crossing the road, after paying our respects to his dairy of fine cows, we drove through the orchard, and round Cape Horn, and refreshed ourselves with the sweet river views on our way home. There we sat in the pavilion, and he told me much of De Witt Clinton, and showed me his own life of Clinton, a copy of which he said should await me on me return to New York."

  • Sayers, Edward, August 1, 1837, “Notes and Observations on Gardens and Nurseries" (September 1837: 327, 329)[37]
"It is much to be regretted that collections of medicinal plants, which can be easily obtained, are not more generally cultivated, particularly by the faculty. It is with pleasing recollections that I often bring to mind the oft repeated phrase of my late employer, Dr. Hosack, or Hyde Park, … ‘apply simples and herb tea, such as wormwood, horehound, &c.’ The doctor, a short time prior to his death, seemed very desirous to have a portion of ground at Hyde Park appropriated to medicinal plants, and would no doubt have excelled in the best collection, had he been spared to collect them….

[Editor’s note] “It is some years since he [Sayers] has been in the vicinity of Boston, at which time he had management of one of the finest situations that was to be found at that time. He was afterwards employed by the late Dr. Hosack, at Hyde Park, since which time he has been laying out gardens and pleasure grounds in the vicinity of New York and Newark, N.J.

  • Hovey, Charles Mason, February 1839, on the gardener at Hyde Park ("Notes on Gardens and Nurseries," 1839: 60) [38]
"Roswell L. Colt, Esq., is, we understand, fitting up a fine demesne at Patterson, N.J. The services of Mr. Hobbs, the intelligent and capable gardener of the late Dr. Hosack, have been secured by Mr. Colt, and we believe no pains will be spared to render the whole a very complete residence."

Fig. X, Thomas Kelah Wharton, "Euterpe Knoll Hyde Park N. York," 1839.
“This noble river view from the curving walk along the ridge on the grounds of the late Dr. D. H. Hosack— leading from the principal mansion to the ‘cottage’ at the north end of the estate— the spot chosen is just where the walk emerges from the shadow of lofty trees which border it for some distance from the house— here it winds over a high grassy hill— with a mate just opposite crowned with a tasteful ‘vase’ of colossal proportions [Fig. X]; and dedicated to the goddess of ‘Lyric Poesy’— another walk turns off to the left and steals down the hill by the woodside, then plunges into a deep shady dell, crosses a bridge and finally conducts you across a wide open glade to a ‘pavilion’ occupying a broad table of granite projected out into the river and tufted with cedars and rich lichens— far away to the north, soar the peaks of the Catskills…. The mountains are the engrossing features of this superb scene, only a section of which is embraced in the view.

“Crystal Cove…. A retired little nook at the southern extremity of Dr. Hosack’s estate… approached by thick shadowy woods all at once opened upon a pebbly curve of shore." [Fig. X]

Fig. X, Thomas Kelah Wharton, "Crystal Cove, Hyde Park. New York," 1839.
  • Anonymous, 1839, description of Hyde Park from the ferry (The North American Tourist 1839: 28-29)[40]
"There are several neat, tidy-looking villas or country seats adorning the river’s bank in the vicinity of the landing, and at intervals along for several miles, as we approach or recede from the landing; ….

"We are now passing the rough castellated front of Hyde Park.... The avenue leading past this strikingly beautiful series of farms, and the residences of the affluent and tasteful owners, is not in sight of the steamboat passengers only in part; but a more superb line of road, for the same distances, does not exist in this State, considering the auxiliaries that come into view before the travelers; the fine avenue and its ornamental forest trees of the maple, locust, & c. and the unrivalled back ground of the landscape, the elevated and cultivated and woody slopes of the west borders of the Hudson, that from their proximity and the easy angle of inclination, have a most graceful appearance in contrast with the more distant towering back ground of the blue range of the Catskills, in the north-west.

"Eighty miles from New York, at the mouth of Crum Elbow Creek, on the east shore, is the landing-place of Hyde Park, and a few rods north, we see the splendidly-arranged house and grounds of the late David Hosack, of New York, and purchased by him of Wm. Bard, Esq. the son of the late Dr. Samuel Bard, one of the founders of New-York Hospital— the extent of the land purchased by Dr. H. amounted in all to about eight hundred acres, and the original cost to him, including his subsequent improvements, was $100,000. He had the grounds laid out in the most tasteful, attractive style, with gravel walks following the windings and undulations along the verge of the natural terrace, overlooking the Hudson river directly beneath, and the deep, abrupt, grassy and wooded lawn for a mile or two, and ending in a small circular temple on the rocky margin of the Hudson. The waters of the Crum Elbow Creek run through the grounds, and are so disposed as to add to the beauty and value of the property. Since the death of the late proprietor Dr. H. the very extensive collection of hot-house plants has been disposed of at auction."

  • Anonymous, May 27, 1843, description of Hyde Park (1843: 91)[41]
"Hyde Park, the seat of the late Dr. Hosack, situated on the bank of the Hudson, is a splendid specimen of landscape gardening."

"Hyde Park, on the Hudson, the seat of the late Dr. Hosack, has been justly celebrated as one of the finest specimens of the modern style of Landscape Gardening in America. Nature has indeed, done much for this place, as the grounds are finely varied, beautifully watered by a lively stream, and the views from the neighbourhood of the house itself, including as they do the noble Hudson, and the superb wooded valley which stretches away until bounded at the horizon by the distant summits of the blue Cattskills, are unrivalled in picturesque beauty. But the efforts of art are not unworthy so rare a locality; and while the native woods, and beautifully undulating grounds are preserved in their original state, the pleasure-grounds, roads, walks, drives, and new plantations, have been laid out in so tasteful a manner as to heighten the charms of nature. Large and costly hot-houses were erected and elegant entrance lodges at two points on the estate, a fine bridge over the stream, and numerous pavilions and seats commanding extensive prospects; in short, nothing was spared to render this seat one of the finest in America. [Fig. X] The park, which at one time contained some fine deer, afforded a delightful drive within itself, as the whole estate numbered about seven hundred acres. The plans for laying out the grounds were furnished by Parmentier, and architects from New York were employed in designing and erecting the buildings. Since the death of Dr. Hosack, the place has lost something of the high keeping which it formerly evinced, but we still consider it one of the most instructive seats in this country.....

"Some noble specimens of the common Three-thorned Acacia, may be seen upon the lawn at Hyde Park, the fine seat of the late Dr. Hosack....

"There are two methods of grouping shrubs upon lawns which may separately be considered, in combination with 'beautiful' and with picturesque scenery.

Fig. X, Anonymous, “A Circular Pavilion,” from A. J. Downing, A Treatise on the Theory and Practice of Landscape Gardening (1841)
"In the first case, where the character of the scene, of the plantations of trees, etc., is that of polished beauty, the belts of shrubs may be arranged similar to herbaceous flowering plants, in arabesque beds, along the walks…. In this case, the shrubs alone, arranged with relation to their height, may occupy the beds, or if preferred, shrubs and flowers may be intermingled. Those who have seen the shrubbery at Hyde Park; the residence of the late Dr. Hosack, which borders the walk leading from the mansion, to the hot-houses, will be able to recall a fine example of this mode of mingling woody and herbacious plants. The belts or borders occupied by the shrubbery and flower-garden there, are perhaps from 25 to 35 feet in width, completely filled with a collection of shrubs and herbaceous plants; the smallest of the latter being quite near the walk; these succeeded by taller species receding from the front of the border, then follow shrubs of moderate size, advancing in height until the background of the whole is a rich mass of tall shrubs and trees of moderate size. The effect of this belt on so large a scale, in high keeping, is remarkably striking and elegant....

“The temple and the pavilion, are highly finished forms of covered seats, which are occasionally introduced in splendid places, where classic architecture prevails. There is a circular pavilion of this kind at the termination of one of the walks at Dr. Hosack’s residence, Hyde Park.” [Fig. X]




  1. Hosack, 1861, 290-93; Hosack, 1818, ; Robbins, 1964, 7-8, 18-22.
  2. Hosack, 1861, 293-94.
  3. Dingwall, 2012, unpag. (section 3.9); Hosack, 1861, 296; Robbins, 1964, 25
  4. Robbins, 1964, 24
  5. Robinson, 1964, 29
  6. Hosack, 1861, 323; Robbins, 1960, 293, 299-307
  7. Hosack, 1861, 299-301, 303-04, 307-08
  8. Robbins, 1964, 54-56,
  9. Robbins, November/December, 1968, 531; Hosack, 1861, 325-26
  10. Hosack, 1861, 315
  11. Hosack, 1861, 297-98
  12. Robbins, 1964
  13. David Hosack, A Statement of Facts Relative to the Establishment and Progress of the Elgin Botanic Garden: And the Subsequent Disposal of the Same to the State of New-York (New York: C.S. Van Winkle, 1811), view on Zotero
  14. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named Langstaff
  15. Hosack, 1820
  16. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named O’Donnell
  17. William Wilson, "Notice of the Gardens of Albany, and of Dr. Hosack’s Estate, Hyde Park," New-York Farmer and Horticultural Repository, 2 (June 1829), view on Zotero
  18. Anonymous, July 31, 1829, view on Zotero.
  19. Thacher, November 26, 1830, view on Zotero.
  20. Thacher, December 3, 1830, view on Zotero.
  21. Frances Milton TrollopeDomestic Manners of the Americans, 2nd ed., 2 vols. (London: Wittaker, Treacher & Co., 1932), view on Zotero.
  22. Gordon, June 1832, view on Zotero
  23. John Pintard, Letters from John Pintard to His Daughter Eliza Noel Pintard Davidson, 1816-1833, ed. Dorothy C Barck, Collections of the New-York Historical Society for the Year 1940, 4 vols. (New York: New-York Historical Society, 1940), view on Zotero.
  24. Wharton, MS. Diary, 1830–1834, ff. 137-52, view on Zotero.
  25. Hamilton, 1833, view on Zotero.
  26. Hamilton, 1833, view on Zotero.
  27. Stuart, James, Three Years in North America, 2 vols. (Edinburgh: Robert Cadell, 1833), view on Zotero.
  28. James Stuart, Three Years in North America, 2 vols. (Edinburgh: Robert Cadell, 1833), view on Zotero
  29. John Claudius Loudon, An Encyclopædia of Gardening: Comprising the Theory and Practice of Horticulture, Floriculture, Arboriculture, and Landscape Gardening; Including All the Latest Improvements; a General History of Gardening in All Countries; and a Statistical View of Its Present State; with Suggestions for Its Future Progress in the British Isles, new ed. (London: Longman, Rees, Orme, Brown, Green, and Longman, 1835), view on Zotero
  30. Shirreff, 1835, view on Zotero
  31. Freeman Hunt,Letters About the Hudson River: And Its Vicinity. Written In 1835 & 1836. By a Citizen of New York (New York: F. Hunt & Co., 1836), view on Zotero.
  32. Charles Augustus Murray, Travels in North America during the Years 1834, 1835, & 1836, 2 vols. (London: Richard Bentley, 1839), view on Zotero
  33. Andrew Jackson Downing, “Notices on the State and Progress of Horticulture in the United States,” Magazine of Horticulture 3, no. 1 (January 1837), view on Zotero.
  34. Andrew Jackson Downing, "Notes on Some of the Nurseries and Private Gardens in the Neighborhood of New York and Philadelphia, Visited in the Early Part of the Month of March, 1837," The Magazine of Horticulture, 3 (June 1837), view on Zotero.
  35. Harriet Martineau, Society in America, 2 vols. (London: Saunders and Otley, 1837), view on Zotero.
  36. Martineau, 1838, view on Zotero.
  37. Edward Sayers, “Notes and Observations on Gardens and Nurseries in the Vicinity of Newark, N.J., New York, Hartford, and Boston, made during a visit between the 5th and 20th of July, 1837;— with some Remarks on the state of Horticulture and Agriculture,” Magazine of Horticulture, 3, (September 1837), view on Zotero.
  38. Charles Mason Hovey, "Notes on Gardens and Nurseries," Magazine of Horticulture, Botany, and All Useful Discoveries and Improvements in Rural Affairs, 5 (February 1839), view on Zotero
  39. O'Donnell, Birnbaum, and Zaitzevsky, 1992,view on Zotero.
  40. Anonymous, The North American Tourist (New York: A. T. Goodrich, 1839), view on Zotero
  41. "The Architects and Architecture of New York," Brother Jonathan, 4 (1843), view on Zotero
  42. Andrew Jackson Downing, A Treatise on the Theory and Practice of Landscape Gardening, Adapted to North America; with a View to the Improvement of Country Residences... with Remarks on Rural Architecture (New York and London: Wiley & Putnam, 1841), view on Zotero.

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