Belmont (Baltimore, MD)
Belmont was a relatively modest country estate established around 1782 on the outskirts of Baltimore by Charles François Adrien le Paulmier, le Chevalier d’Annemours, Consul General of France for Virginia and Maryland from 1779 to 1793. In addition to building a house and laying out a garden, D'Annemours erected America’s first monument in honor of Christopher Columbus at Belmont.
Alternate Names: Barnum’s Hotel; Samuel Ready Orphan Asylum
Site Dates: 1778-1796
Site Owner(s): Charles François Adrien le Paulmier d’Annemours; Archibald Campbell; James Hindman; James Carere; Thomas Tenant; ...David Barnum; Samuel W. McClellan; Zenus Barnum; ... Samuel Ready Orphan Asylum Cite error: Closing
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<ref> tag The appearance of the house, now demolished, was documented in 1936 by photographs made by the Historic American Building Survey.  An impression of the surrounding landscape is provided by Charles Varlé’s Plan of the City of Baltimore [Fig. 1], drawn in 1797, a year after D’Annemours sold Belmont to Archibald Campbell. Varlé represented a garden laid out in the geometric style, with parterres in circular and triangular formations. An orderly row of fruit trees flank the garden on one side, complemented on the opposite side by a grove of more naturally dispersed trees.  Varlé also represented the memorial that D'Annemours erected in 1792 to commemorate the 300th anniversary of Christopher Columbus’s arrival in the New World. The monument took the form of a 44-and-a-half-foot high obelisk fashioned of brick covered with stucco bearing the inscription "Sacred/to the/Memory/of/Chris. Columbus/Octob. XII/MDCC VIIIC.” It originally stood on an artificial mound in a grove of cedar and ash trees about 100 yards from D’Annemours's house. 
After D’Annemours sold Belmont to Archibald Campbell, the estate passed through several owners and gradually fell into decay. A writer describing Belmont's condition in 1880 observed, “the grounds around the old mansion house, although sadly out of repair..., are still inviting and picturesque, with their box-wood walks, bordered roadways lined with rows of cedars, fine old fruit trees, and rosebush clusters here and there.”  Hidden by overgrown vegetation, the Columbus monument passed in and out of public awareness from the mid-19th century until 1963, when it was moved to its present location across the street from Herring Run Park on Harford Road in Baltimore. 
J.M. Dickey, Christopher Columbus and his Monument Columbia (1892), pp. 73-78. Memoirs by Charles François Adrien Le Paulmier le Chevalier D’Annemours
Monument City Blog: http://monumentcity.net/2009/04/12/columbus-obelisk-baltimore-md/
- James D. Kornwolf, ‘’Architecture and Town Planning in Colonial North America’’, 3 vols. (Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 2002), 2: 752, view on Zotero.
- Herbert Adams and Henry Wood, ‘’Columbus and His Discovery of America’’, Johns Hopkins University Studies in Historical and Political Science, Tenth Series, vols. 10 and 11 (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Press, 1892), 30, 70-71, view on Zotero.
- Article published in ’’The American’’ (Baltimore), November 19, 1880, quoted in Herbert Adams and Henry Wood, ‘’Columbus and His Discovery of America’’, Johns Hopkins University Studies in Historical and Political Science, Tenth Series, vols. 10 and 11(Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Press, 1892), 34, view on Zotero.
- Columbus Monument Papers (1898-1964), ms. 1241, Maryland Historical Society.