==History==
[[File:0312.jpg|thumb|252px|Fig. 1, William Russell Birch, “Hampton, the Seat of Genl. Chas. Ridgely, Maryland,” in ''The Country Seats of the United States'' (2009), (1808), pl. 4.]]
In the discourse of landscape design, seat possessed two distinct yet equally prevalent meanings, as indicated by Thomas Sheridan’s 1789 dictionary entry. One sense referred to seat as a large estate, usually marked by a country house or mansion, for example, [[William Hamilton|William Hamilton’s]] [[The Woodlands]], near Philadelphia; or General Charles Ridgely’s Hampton, in Baltimore County, Maryland. A seat was also a garden structure for sitting.
In the discourse The meaning of landscape design, seat possessed two distinct yet equally prevalent meanings, as indicated estate was exemplified in colonial America by Thomas Sheridan’s 1789 dictionary entryWilliam Byrd II’s Westover, on the James River, Virginia, and [[Henry Pratt|Henry Pratt’s]] [[Lemon Hill]] in Philadelphia. One sense referred Such country houses were often featured in portraits that flattered the owner and signaled to the public that the colonies and new republic were home to seat as a large estatecultured elite rivaling that of Great Britain. These images typically located the house at the center of the property, with the landscape and various outbuildings extending beyond it. This placement, usually marked by a country which communicated the importance of the house or mansionas the base of operations for the landowner, was a visual shorthand for examplethe landowner’s affluence and power. Observers such as William Hugh Grove (1732) and Thomas Gwatkin (1770) often likened seats to small villages. By the mid 18th century, however, the community-like aspects of seats were downplayed in favor of their rural associations, which contrasted sharply with the increasingly crowded conditions of America’s cities. English emigré William Hamilton’s WoodlandsRussell Birch, in his series ''The Country Seats of the United States of America'' (1808), depicted the homes of the mid-Atlantic elite situated in naturalistic landscapes in emulation of British tableaux [Fig. 1].<ref>Emily Tyson Cooperman, near Philadelphia“William Russell Birch (1755–1834) and the Beginnings of the American Picturesque” (PhD diss., University of Pennsylvania, 1999), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/VSCXM9WR view on Zotero]. See also Emily T. Cooperman, introduction to ''The Country Seats of the United States of North America'', by William Russell Birch (1808; or Genrepr. Charles Ridgely’s Hampton, in Baltimore CountyPhiladelphia: University of Pennsylvania, 2009), Md[https://www. A seat was also a garden structure for sittingzotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/TNTZAF2Q view on Zotero].</ref>
The meaning of [[File:1680.jpg|thumb|left|252px|Fig. 2, Anonymous, Garden seat as estate was exemplified in colonial America by William Byrd II’s Westoverfrom Somerset County, on the James RiverMD, Va1780.]] [[File:0854.jpg|thumb|Fig. 3, and Henry Pratt’s [[Lemon HillAlexander Jackson Davis]] in Philadelphia , Shore Seat for [[FigMontgomery Place]], Annandale-on-Hudson, New York (elevation and plan), 1870—79. 1]. Such country houses were often featured in portraits that flattered the owner and signaled to the public that the colonies and new republic were home to ]As a cultured elite rivaling that of Great Britain. These images typically located the house at the center category of the propertygarden furniture, with seat could refer to either thelandscape and various outbuildings extending beyond itobject upon which one sat [Fig. This placement, which communicated 2] or the importance of the house as the base of operations for the landowner, was a visual shorthand for the landowner’s affluence and powerstructure housing such objects [Fig. 3]. Observers Accounts found in foreign treatises available in America (such as those by Antoine-Joseph Dezallier D’Argenville, Isaac Ware, William Hugh Grove (1732) Marshall, Humphry Repton, and Thomas Gwatkin (1770John Abercrombie) often likened focused on seats as places of rest, terminations to [[walk]]s, or vantage points from which to small villagescontemplate [[view]]s. By the mid-eighteenth centuryLike other garden structures, howeversuch as [[pavilion]]s or [[summerhouse]]s, seats influenced the community-like aspects viewer’s experience of the garden by providing points of seats were downplayed rest that framed [[vista]]s in favor of their rural associations, which contrasted sharply with the increasingly crowded conditions garden and [[view]]s beyond. The use of America’s citiesseats to direct one’s route through a garden was demonstrated by [[A. J. English emigré William Russell Birch, Downing]] in his series ''The Country Seats 1847 description of the United States of America'' (1808)[[Montgomery Place]], Dutchess County, depicted New York. [[Andrew Jackson Downing|Downing]] noted the homes placement of various seats and related [[view]]s that he encountered on the mid- Atlantic elite situated in naturalistic landscapes in emulation course of British tableaux his [Fig. 2[walk]]through the grounds.<ref>Emily Tyson CoopermanMany other garden observers, including Henry Wansey (1794), “William Russell Birch John Cosens Ogden (1755–18341800) , and Eliza Caroline Burgwin Clitherall (active 1801), also commented upon the Beginnings of the American Picturesque” (Ph.D. diss.interrelationships between seats, University of Pennsylvania[[walk]]s, 1999)and [[view]]s. See also Emily TPopular gardening journals likewise recommended placing seats along [[walk]]s. CoopermanFor example, introduction to in 1841 Alexander Walsh proposed a number of seats in a garden design published in the ''The Country Seats of the United States of North AmericaNew England Farmer''. Two seats were situated at cross-walks and another two were ensconced in an arched [[arbor]], by William Russell Birch (1808; reprint, Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania, 2009)placed alongside the main axial [[walk]].</ref>
As a category of garden furniture, seat could refer to either the object upon which one sat [Fig[File:1723. 3] or the structure housing such objects [jpg|thumb|Fig. 4, [[James Gibbs]]. Accounts found in foreign treatises available in America (such as those by A.-J. Dézallier D’Argenville, Isaac Ware, William Marshall, Humphry Repton, and JohnAbercrombie) focused on seats as places “Two other Seats for the same purpose [for the ends of rest, terminations to [[walk]]s],” in ''A Book of Architecture'' (1728), or vantage points from which to contemplate [[viewpl. 83.]]sGarden seats took on a variety of forms. Like other garden structuresIn the 18th century, European and British pattern books and design manuals such as [[pavilionJames Gibbs|James Gibbs’s]]s or ''A Book of Architecture'' (1728) were an important source for American seat designs [[summerhouseFig. 4]]s, seats influenced the viewer’s experience of the garden . Drawings by providing points of rest that framed [[vistaThomas Jefferson]]s in the garden and [[view]]s beyond. The use of seats to direct one’s route through a garden was demonstrated by A. J. Downing in his 1847 description of Montgomery Placegranddaughter, Dutchess CountyCornelia Jefferson Randolph [Fig. 5], N.Y. Downing noted demonstrate the placement influence of various seats and related [[view]]s that he encountered William Kent’s designs on the course of his [[walk]] through the grounds. Many other garden observersfurniture, including Henry Wansey (1794)which appeared in William Chambers’s ''Plans, John Cosens Ogden (1800)Elevations, Sections and Eliza Caroline Burgwin Clitherall Perspective Views of the Gardens and Buildings at Kew in Surrey'' (active 18011763), also commented upon the interrelationships between seats, [[walk]]s, and a volume that [[viewsThomas Jefferson|Jefferson]]owned. Popular gardening journals likewise recommended placing seats along [[walk]]s. For example<ref> William Bainter O’Neal, in 1841 Alexander Walsh proposed a number of seats in a garden design published in ''The New England FarmerJefferson’s Fine Arts Library: His Selections for the University of Virginia Together with His Own Architectural Books''. Two seats were situated at cross-walks and another two were ensconced in an arched [[arbor]](Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1976), 57, placed alongside the main axial [[walk]https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/CUP9BNW2 view on Zotero].</ref>
[[File:0082.jpg|thumb|left|Fig. 5, Cornelia Jefferson Randolph, attr., “A Garden seats took on a variety of formsSeat by Mr. In the eighteenth centuryJones, From Chamber’s Kew, European and” c. 1820.]]British pattern books [[File:1737.jpg|thumb|Fig. 6, Batty and design manuals such as James Gibbs’s A Book of Thomas Langley, “An Umbrello, to a Seat, for to Terminate a [[walk]], [[View]], &c. in a Garden,” in ''Gothic Architecture '' (17281747) were an important source for American seat designs [Fig, pl. 31. 5]. Drawings ]Seat designs could be differentiated by Thomas Jefferson national and historical styles, as well as by his granddaughterplacement and function. Batty and Thomas Langley, Cornelia Jefferson Randolph for instance, proposed a seat in keeping with the Gothic style in their 1747 text about Gothic architecture [Fig. 6]. [[J. C. Loudon]], demonstrate the influence in ''An Encyclopaedia of William Kent’s designs on garden furniture, which appeared in William Chambers’s Gardening''Plans(1826), Elevationsdistinguished among seats found inside garden buildings, roofed seats that could be either fixed or portable, Sections and Perspective Views those lacking any sort of the Gardens and Buildings at Kew roof. [[J. C. Loudon|Loudon]] explained that in Surrey'' form, seats could be simple (1763like the trunk of a tree), or more complex (such as a volume that Jefferson ownedcast-iron couch with decorative treatment).<ref> William Bainter O’Neal, JThese distinctions were echoed by [[Jane Loudon]] in ''efferson’s Fine Arts Library: His Selections Gardening for the University of Virginia Together with His Own Architectural BooksLadies'' (Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 19761845), 57a book that was co-edited by [[Andrew Jackson Downing|Downing]] in America.</ref>
Seat designs could be differentiated by national In ''A Treatise on the Theory and historical Practice of Landscape Gardening'' (1849), [[Andrew Jackson Downing|Downing]] himself provided an extensive illustrated typology of seat styles, as well as by placement and functionemphasizing the propriety of certain styles for different landscapes. Batty and Thomas LangleyFor example, he believed that Grecian or Gothic seats were appropriate for instanceelegant grounds, proposed a seat in keeping with the Gothic whereas [[rustic style in their 1747 text about Gothic architecture [Fig. 7|rustic]]seats were more suited to the irregular aesthetic of the landscape garden. Such [[J. C. Loudonrustic style|rustic]]seats were quite popular in the 19th century, as suggested by the discussion of them in An Encyclopaedia of Gardening (1826)horticultural journals, distinguished among seats found inside garden buildings, roofed seats that could be either fixed or portablesuch as the ''Horticultural Register'', and those lacking any sort in descriptions by both treatise writers and observers of roofthe American landscape. Loudon explained that in formSee, for example, Thomas Bridgeman (1832), seats could be simple Edward Sayers (like the trunk of a tree1838) or more complex , Anna Cora Ogden Mowatt Ritchie (such as a cast-iron couch with decorative treatment1839), C. M. These distinctions were echoed by [[Jane Loudon]] in ''Gardening for Ladies'' Hovey (18451840), a book that was co-edited by Downing in Americaand Georges Jaques (1852).
In ''A Treatise on the Theory and Practice of Landscape Gardening'' (1849), Downing himself provided an extensive illustrated typology of seat styles, emphasizing the propriety of certain styles for different landscapesAnne L. For example, he believed that Grecian or Gothic seats were appropriate for elegant grounds, whereas rustic seats were more suited to the irregular aesthetic of the [[landscape garden]]. Such rustic seats were quite popular in the nineteenth century, as suggested by the discussion of them in horticultural journals, such as the Helmreich''Horticultural Register'', and in descriptions by both treatise writers and observers of the American landscape. See, for example, Thomas Bridgeman (1832), Edward Sayers (1838), Anna Cora Ogden Mowatt Ritchie (1839), C. M. Hovey (1840), and Georges Jaques (1852).
--- ''Anne L. Helmreich''<hr>
==Texts==
 
===Usage===
 *Anonymous, n.d., advertising design and construction services for parks and gardens (quoted in Chase 1973: 37–39): <ref>David B. Chase, ‘The “The Beginnings of the Landscape Tradition in America’America, ” ''Historic Preservation, '' 25 (1973), : 34–41, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/KJMNEZBX view on Zotero]. </ref> :“Designs all sorts of Buildings, well suited to both town and country, [[Pavilion]]s, Summer-Rooms, '''Seats''' for Gardens . . . also Water-houses for [[Park]]s . . . Eye Traps to represent a Building terminating a [[walk]], or to hide some disagreeable Object, Rotundas, Colonades, [[Arcade]]s, Studies in [[Park]]s or Gardens, [[greenhouse|Green House]]s for the Preservation of Herbs.”
* Strachey, William, 1612, describing the seats of Powhatan in Virginia (quoted in Wright and Freund 1967: 57) <ref> Louis B. Wright and Virginia Freund, eds., ''The Historie of Travell into Virginia Britania (1612)'' (Nendeln and Liechtenstein: Kraus, 1967), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/NUX26H7J view on Zotero].</ref> 
:“He hath divers '''seates''' or howses, his Chief when we came into the Country was upon ''Pamunky''-River, on the North side which we call Pembrook-side, called ''Werowocomaco'', which by interpretacion signifyes Kings-howse.”
*Byrd, William, II, c. June 25 June , 1729, describing Westover, seat of William Byrd II, on the James River, Va. VA (quoted in Tinling 1977: 1:410) <ref> Marion Tinling, ed., ''The Correspondence of the Three William Byrds of Westover, Virginia, 1684-17761684–1776'', 2 vols. (Charlottesville, Va.: University Press of Virginia, 1977), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/J5UXEFHR view on Zotero].</ref> 
:“My habitation has the na[me of] the prettyest '''seat''' in this country.”
* Grove, William Hugh, 1732, describing Williamsburg, Va. VA (quoted in Stiverson and Butler 1977: 26) <ref>Gregory A. Stiverson and Patrick H. Butler III, eds., ‘Virginia “Virginia in 1732: The Travel Journal of William Hugh Grove’Grove, ''Virginia Magazine of History and Biography'', 85 (1977), : 18–44, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/ACNK9DG9 view on Zotero].</ref> 
:“I went by ship up the [York] river, which has pleasant '''Seats''' on the Bank which Shew Like little villages, for having Kitchins, Dayry houses, Barns, Stables, Store houses, and some of them 2 or 3 Negro Quarters all Seperate from Each other but near the mansion houses make a shew to the river of 7 or 8 distinct Tenements, tho all belong to one family.”
* Anonymous, August 17 August , 1747, describing property for sale in Somerset County, N.J. NJ (''New York Gazette'') :“TO BE SOLD, A pleasant Country '''Seat''', fitting for a Gentleman or Store-keeper . . . a good [[Orchard]], containing about 200 Apple Trees, and may be extended at Pleasure.” 
* Gwatkin, Prof. Thomas, 1770, describing the appearance of seats in Williamsburg, Va. (Colonial Williamsburg Foundation; hereafter CWF)
*Gwatkin, Prof. Thomas, 1770, describing the appearance of seats in Williamsburg, VA (Colonial Williamsburg Foundation)
:“And the huts of the Negroes which are situated round about give the '''seat''' of a substantial planter something of the Air of a small village.”
[[File:0036.jpg|thumb|225px|Fig. 7, Thomas Lee Shippen, Plan of Westover, 1783.]]* Rush, Dr. Benjamin, July 15 July , 1782, describing the country seat of John Dickinsen, near Philadelphia, Pa. PA (quoted in Caemmerer 1950: 87) <ref name="Caemmerer 1950"> H. Paul Caemmerer, ''The Life of Pierre-Charles L’Enfant, Planner of the City Beautiful, The City of Washington'' (Washington, D.C.DC: National Republic Publishing Company, 1950), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/PHWTAERT view on Zotero].</ref> 
:“The ground contiguous to this shed was cut into beautiful [[walk]]s and divided with cedar and pine branches into artificial [[grove]]s. The whole, both the buildings and [[walk]]s, were accommodated with '''seats'''.”
* Shippen, Thomas Lee, December 31 December , 1783, describing Westover, seat of William Byrd III, on the James River, Va. VA (1952: n.p.) <ref>Thomas Lee Shippen, ''Westover Described in 1783: A Letter and Drawing Sent by Thomas Lee Shippen, Student of Law in Williamsburg, to His Parents in Philadelphia'' (Richmond, Va.VA: William Byrd Press, 1952), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/3IWWPMJ5 view on Zotero].</ref> :“I have markd some little crooked ugly figures for Gentlemen’s '''seats''', which tho’ they do not beautify indeed the picture, add much to the [[prospect]], about as many '''Seats''' are to be seen on the other side.” [Fig. 87]
[[File:1983.jpg|thumb|225px|Fig. 8, Jeremiah Paul, “Robert Morris’ Seat on [[Schuylkill_River|Schuylkill]],” July 20, 1794.]]* [[Manasseh Cutler|Cutler, Rev. Manasseh]], July 13 July , 1787, describing [[The Hills ]] (later [[Lemon Hill]]), estate of [[Robert Morris]], Philadelphia, Pa. PA (1987: 1:256–57) <ref> William Parker Cutler, ''Life, Journals, and Correspondence of Rev. Manasseh Cutler, LL. D.'' (Athens, Ohio: Ohio University Press, 1987), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/3PBNT7H9 view on Zotero].</ref>:“We continued our route, in [[view]] of the [[Schuylkill_River|Schuylkill]], and up the river several miles, and took a [[view]] of a number of Country-'''seats''', one belonging to [[Robert Morris|Mr. R. Morris]], the American financier, and who is said to be possessed of the greatest fortune in America. His country-'''seat''' is not yet completed, but it will be superb. It is planned on a large scale, the gardens and [[walk]]s are extensive, and the villa, situated on an [[eminence]], has a commanding [[prospect]] down the [[Schuylkill_River|Schuylkill]] to the Delaware.” [Fig. 8]
:“We continued our route, in [[view]] of the Schuylkill, and up the river several miles, and took a [[view]] of a number of Country-'''seats''', one belonging to Mr. R. Morris, the American financier, and who is said to be possessed of the greatest fortune in America. His country-'''seat''' is not yet completed, but it will be superb. It is planned on a large scale, the gardens and [[walk]]s are extensive, and the villa, situated on an [[eminence]], has a commanding [[prospect]] down the Schuylkill to the Delaware.”
 
 
* G., L., 15 June [1788?], describing the Woodlands, '''seat''' of William Hamilton near Philadelphia, Pa. (quoted in Madsen 1989: 19) <ref> Karen Madsen, ‘To Make His Country Smile: William Hamilton’s Woodlands’, ''Arnoldia'', 49 (1989), 14–23,
[https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/K567H4M4 view on Zotero].</ref>
*G., L., June 15, [1788?], describing [[The Woodlands]], seat of [[William Hamilton]] near Philadelphia, PA (quoted in Madsen 1989: 19)<ref> Karen Madsen, “To Make His Country Smile: William Hamilton’s Woodlands,” ''Arnoldia'' 49 (1989): 14–23, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/K567H4M4 view on Zotero].</ref>
:“[The [[walk]]s were] planted on each side with the most beautiful & curious flowers & shrubs. They are in some parts enclosed with the Lombardy poplar except here & there openings are left to give you a [[view]] of some fine trees or beautiful [[prospect]] beyond, & in others, shaded by [[arbour]]s of the wild grape, or [[clump]]s of large trees under which are placed '''seats''' where you may rest yourself & enjoy the cool air.”
* Constantia [pseud.Judith Sargent Murray], June 24 June , 1790, “Description of Gray’s Gardens, Pennsylvania” (''Massachusetts Magazine'' 3: 415)<ref>Constantia [Judith Sargent Murray], “Description of Gray’s Gardens, Pennsylvania,” ''Massachusetts Magazine, or, Monthly Museum of Knowledge and Rational Entertainment'' 7, no. 3 (July 1791): 413–17, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/keywords_in_early_american_landscape_design/items/itemKey/IAJKF9C4 view on Zotero].</ref>
:“At every turn shaded '''seats''' are artfully contrived, and the ground abounds with [[arbour]]s, [[alcove]]s, and summer houses, which are handsomely adorned with odoriferous flowers.”
* [[Pierre-Charles L'Enfant|L’Enfant, Pierre-Charles]], 1791, describing Washington, D.C. DC (quoted in Caemmerer 1950: 136, 151) <ref name="Caemmerer 1950"></ref>:“[March 11, in a letter to Thomas Jefferson]. . . The remainder part of that ground towards Georgetown is more broken. It may afford pleasant '''seats''', but, although the bank of the river between the two creeks can command as grand a [[prospect]] as any of the other spots, it seems to be less commendable for the establishment of a city, not only because the level surface it presents is but small, but because the hights from beyond Georgetown absolutely command the whole. . .:“[June 22, in a report to George Washington]. . . I next made the distribution regular with streets at right angle ''north-south'' and ''east west'' but afterwards I opened others on various directions as [[avenue]]s to and from every principal places, wishing by this not merely to contrast with the general regularity nor to afford a greater variety of pleasant '''seats''' and [[prospect]] as will be obtained from the advantageous ground over the which the [[avenue]]s are mostly directed but principally to connect each part of the city with more efficacy.”
:“[11 March, in a letter to Thomas Jefferson] . . . The remainder part of that ground towards Georgetown is more broken. It may afford pleasant '''seats''', but, although the bank of the river between the two creeks can command as grand a [[prospect]] as any of the other spots, it seems to be less commendable for the establishment of a city, not only because the level surface it presents is but small, but because the hights from beyond Georgetown absolutely command the whole. . . .
:“[22 June, in a report to George Washington] . . . I next made the distribution regular with streets at right angle ''north-south'' and ''east west'' but afterwards I opened others on various directions as [[avenue]]s to and from every principal places, wishing by this not merely to contrast with the general regularity nor to afford a greater variety of pleasant '''seats''' and [[prospect]] as will be obtained from the advantageous ground over the which the [[avenue]]s are mostly directed but principally to connect each part of the city with more efficacy.”
 
 
* Wansey, Henry, 1794, describing Worcester, Mass. ([1794] 1970: 64) <ref>Henry Wansey, ''Henry Wansey and His American Journal'', ed. by David John Jeremy (Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society, 1970), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/UQTHRX3W view on Zotero].</ref>
*Wansey, Henry, 1794, describing Worcester, MA (1794; repr., 1970: 64)<ref>Henry Wansey, ''Henry Wansey and His American Journal'', ed. David John Jeremy (1794; repr., Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society, 1970), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/UQTHRX3W view on Zotero].</ref>
:“Most of the houses have a large court before them, full of lilacs and other shrubs, with a '''seat''' under them, and a paved [[walk]] up the middle.”
* Blandulus [pseud.], November 1794, describing Pleasant Hill, '''seat''' of Joseph Barrell, Charlestown, Mass. MA (quoted in Hammond 1982: 95) <ref>Charles Arthur Hammond, ‘“Where “‘Where the Arts and the Virtues Unite”Unite’: Country Life Near Boston, 1637-1864’ 1637–1864” (unpublished Ph.D. PhD diss., Boston University, 1982), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/VVFZVIKT view on Zotero].</ref> 
:“Whereonce the breastwork mark’d the scenes of
::blood,
* [[Timothy Dwight|Dwight, Timothy]], 1796, describing mill seats in Massachusetts (1821: 2:352)<ref name="Dwight">Timothy Dwight, ''Travels; in New-England and New-York'', 4 vols. (New Haven: The Author, 1821-221821–22), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/VHBP7TH2 view on Zotero].</ref> :“Immediately below the [[bridge]] [over Miller’s River] is a [[Fall/Falling_garden|fall]], furnishing excellent mill-'''seats''', which are occupied by several mills. These are uniformly supplied with an abundance of water, and wear the aspect of great activity, and business, particularly in the sawing of timber.”
* [[Timothy Dwight|Dwight, Timothy]], 1799, describing New York, N.Y. NY (1822: 3:481–82) <ref name="Dwight"></ref> 
:“the heights, and many of the lower grounds, contain a rich display of gentlemen’s country '''seats''', connected with a great variety of handsome appendages.”
* La Rochefoucauld Liancourt, François-Alexandre-Frédéric, duc de, 1799, describing a house in Charleston, S.C. SC (1800: 2:437–38) <ref> François-Alexandre-Frédéric, duc de La Rochefoucauld Liancourt, ''Travels through the United States of North America, the Country of the Iroquois, and Upper Canada, in the Years 1795, 1796, and 1797'', ed. by Brisson Dupont and Charles Ponges, trans. by H. Newman, 2nd edned., 4 vols. (London: R. Philips, 1800), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/SRMDWJ2M view on Zotero].</ref>:“Half a mile from Batavia. . . stands Middletonhouse, the property of Mrs. MIDDLETON, mother-in-law to young Mr. Isard, which is esteemed the most beautiful house in this part of the country. The out-buildings, such as kitchen, wash-house, and offices, are very capacious. The ensemble of these buildings calls to recollection the ancient English country-'''seats'''.”
:“Half a mile from Batavia . . . stands Middletonhouse, the property of Mrs. MIDDLETON, mother-in-law to young Mr. Isard, which is esteemed the most beautiful house in this part of the country. The out-buildings, such as kitchen, wash-house, and offices, are very capacious. The ensemble of these buildings calls to recollection the ancient English country-'''seats'''.”
[[File:0304.jpg|thumb|225px|Fig. 9, William Russell Birch, “[[The Woodlands|Woodlands]], the Seat of Mr. Wm. Hamilton, Pennsylva.,” in ''The Country Seats of the United States'' (1808), pl. 14.]]
*La Rochefoucauld Liancourt, François-Alexandre-Frédéric, duc de, 1799, describing [[The Woodlands]], seat of [[William Hamilton]], near Philadelphia, PA (quoted in Madsen 1988: B3)<ref>Karen Madsen, “William Hamilton’s Woodlands,” (paper presented for seminar in American Landscape, 1790–1900, instructed by E. McPeck, Radcliffe Institute for Advanced Study, Harvard University, 1988), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/XN8NN9QN view on Zotero].</ref>
:“You pass the Schuylkill at [[Gray’s Garden|Gray’s-Ferry]], the road to which runs below [[The Woodlands|Woodlands]], the '''seat''' of Mr. William Hamilton: it stands high, and is seen upon an [[eminence]] from the opposite side of the river.” [Fig. 9]
*La Rochefoucauld Liancourt, François-Alexandre-Frédéric, duc de, 1799, describing the Woodlands, seat of William Hamilton, near Philadelphia, Pa. (quoted in Madsen 1988: B3) <ref>Karen Madsen, ‘William Hamilton’s Woodlands’, 1988, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/XN8NN9QN view on Zotero].</ref>
*Ogden, John Cosens, 1800, describing Bethlehem, PA (1800:“You pass 18, 27)<ref>John C. Ogden, ''An Excursion into Bethlehem & Nazareth, in Pennsylvania, in the Schuylkill at Gray’s-FerryYear 1799'' (Philadelphia: Charles Cist, the road to which runs below Woodlands1800), the [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/U5CTTBGB view on Zotero].</ref>:“'''seatSeats''' of Mr. William Hamilton: it stands highare placed for rest, and is seen upon an to enable the visitors to [[eminenceview]] from the opposite side of the riverat leisure. . .:“The island is not large, but affords fine [[walk]]s and an area for exercise, as well as '''seats''' and shelters for visitors.”
* OgdenClitherall, John CosensEliza Caroline Burgwin (Caroline Elizabeth Burgwin), 1800active 1801, describing Bethlehemthe Hermitage, Pa. seat of John Burgwin, Wilmington, NC (pp. 18, 27quoted in Flowers 1983: 126) <ref>John C. OgdenFlowers, “People and Plants: North Carolina’s Garden History Revisited, ''An Excursion into Bethlehem & Nazareth, in Pennsylvania, in the Year 1799Eighteenth Century Life''8 (Philadelphia1983): Charles Cist, 1800)117–29, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/U5CTTBGB FCVW8GHV view on Zotero].</ref>:“These [gardens] were extensive and beautifully laid out. There was [''sic''] [[alcove]]s and [[summerhouse|summer houses]] at the termination of each [[walk]], '''seats''' under trees in the more shady recesses of the Big Garden, as it was called, in distinction from the [[flower garden]] in front of the house.”
:“'''Seats''' are placed for rest, and to enable the visitors to [[view]] the river at leisure. . . .
:“The island is not large, but affords fine [[walk]]s and an area for exercise, as well as '''seats''' and shelters for visitors.”
*[[Thomas Jefferson|Jefferson, Thomas]], 1804, describing [[Monticello]], [[plantation]] of [[Thomas Jefferson]], Charlottesville, VA (Massachusetts Historical Society, Jefferson Papers)
:“[[Temple]]s or '''seats''' at those spots on the [[walk]]s most interesting either for [[prospect]] or the immediate scenery.”
* Clitherall, Eliza Caroline Burgwin (Caroline Elizabeth Burgwin), active 1801, describing the Hermitage, seat of John Burgwin, Wilmington, N.C. (quoted in Flowers 1983: 126) <ref>John Flowers, ‘People and Plants: North Carolina’s Garden History Revisited’, ''Eighteenth Century Life'', 8 (1983), 117–29, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/FCVW8GHV view on Zotero].</ref>
*Scott, Joseph, 1806, describing the Schuylkill River in Pennsylvania (1806:“These [gardens] were extensive and beautifully laid out. There was [53)<ref>Joseph Scott, ''sicA Geographical Description of Pennsylvania'''''Bold text'''] (Philadelphia: Printed by R. Cochran, 1806), [[alcovehttps://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/55XKIWPN/ view on Zotero]]s and summer houses at .</ref>:“The banks of the termination of each [[walk]]river are, in many places, adorned with beautiful country '''seats''' under trees , belonging to the wealthy citizens of Philadelphia. To these their families usually retire, in the more shady recesses summer months, from the bustle, and noise of the Big Gardencity, as it was called, in distinction from and to enjoy the [[flower garden]] in front salubrity of the housecountry air.”
*JeffersonMartin, ThomasWilliam Dickinson, 18041809, describing Monticellothe pleasure grounds at Salem Academy, plantation Salem, NC (quoted in Bynum 1979: 29)<ref name="Bynum 1979">Flora Ann L. Bynum, ''Old Salem Garden Guide'' (Winston-Salem, NC: Old Salem, 1979), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/TJB9XNMF view on Zotero].</ref>:“Next, I visited a [[flower garden]] belonging to the female department. . . But it is situated on a hill, the East end of Thomas Jeffersonwhich is high & abrupt; some distance down this, they had dug down right in the earth, Charlottesville& drawing the dirt forward threw it on rock, Vaetc. (Massachusetts Historical Society, Jefferson Papers)thereby forming a horizontal plane of about thirty feet in circumference; & on the back, rose a perpendicular [[Terrace/Slope|terrace]] of some height, which was entirely covered over with a grass peculiar to that vicinage. At the bottom of this [[Terrace/Slope|terrace]] were arranged circular '''seats''', which, from the height of the hill in the rear were protected from the sun in an early hour in the afternoon.”
:“[[Temple]]s or '''seats''' at those spots on the [[walk]]s most interesting either for [[prospect]] or the immediate scenery.”
*Martin, William Dickinson, May 20, 1809, describing [[The Woodlands]], seat of [[William Hamilton]], near Philadelphia, PA (Colonial Williamsburg Foundation)
:“Altho’ much has been done to beautify this delightful '''seat''', much still remains to be done, for the perfecting it in all the capabilities which nature in her boundless profusion has bestowed.”
* Scott, Joseph, 1806, describing the Schuylkill River in Pennsylvania (p. 53) <ref>Scott, Joseph, ''A Geographical Description of Pennsylvania'' (Philadelphia: Printed by R. Cochran, 1806). [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/55XKIWPN/]</ref>
:“The banks *Smith, Margaret Bayard, August 1, 1809, describing [[Monticello]], [[plantation]] of the river are[[Thomas Jefferson]], in many placesCharlottesville, VA (1906: 73)<ref>Margaret Bayard Smith, adorned with beautiful country '''seats'The First Forty Years of Washington Society'', belonging ed. Gaillard Hunt (New York: Charles Scribner’s, 1906), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/FTDFHRFH view on Zotero].</ref>:“Mr. J. explained to me all his plans for improvement, where the wealthy citizens of Philadelphia. To these their families usually retireroads, in the summer months[[walk]]s, from the bustle'''seats''', and noise of the city, and little [[temple]]s were to enjoy the salubrity of the country airbe placed.”
* MartinFoster, William DickinsonSir Augustus John, 18091812, describing the pleasure grounds at Salem Academy[[Monticello]], [[plantation]] of [[Thomas Jefferson]], SalemCharlottesville, N.C. VA (quoted in Bynum 19791954: 29143) <ref name="Bynum 1979">Flora Ann L. BynumSir Augustus John Foster, ''Old Salem Garden GuideJeffersonian America: Notes on the United States of America Collected in the Years 1805–1806–1807 and 1811–1812'' , ed. Richard Beale Davis (Winston-SalemSan Marino, N.C.CA: Old SalemHuntington Library, 19791954), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/TJB9XNMF 7FU8NDF4 view on Zotero].</ref>:“It is a very delightful ride of twenty-eight miles from Montpellier to the late President [[Thomas Jefferson|Mr. Jefferson’s]] '''seat''' at [[Monticello]].”
:“Next, I visited a [[flower garden]] belonging to the female department. . . . But it is situated on a hill, the East end of which is high & abrupt; some distance down this, they had dug down right in the earth, & drawing the dirt forward threw it on rock, etc., thereby forming a horizontal plane of about thirty feet in circumference; & on the back, rose a perpendicular [[terrace]] of some height, which was entirely covered over with a grass peculiar to that vicinage. At the bottom of this [[terrace]] were arranged circular '''seats''', which, from the height of the hill in the rear were protected from the sun in an early hour in the afternoon.”
*Warden, David Bailie, 1816, describing Analostan Island, seat of Gen. John Mason, Washington, DC (quoted in Phillips 1917: 49)<ref>Philip Lee Phillips, ''The Beginnings of Washington: As Described in Books, Maps, and Views'' (Washington, DC: The author, 1917), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/QXZXNN8N view on Zotero].</ref>
* Martin:"ANNALOSTAN ISLAND: . . . Annalostan Island is evidently of modern formation. . . The highest [[eminence]], on which the house stands, William Dickinsonis fifty feet above the level of the river. The common tide rises to the height of three feet. I can never forget how de-lighted I was with my first visit to this island. The amiable ladies whom I had the pleasure to accompany, 20 May 1809left their carriage at Georgetown, describing and we walked to the Woodlandsmansion-house under a delicious shade. The blossoms of the cherry, apple, and peach trees, seat of William Hamiltonthe hawthorn and aromatic [[shrub]]s, filled the air with their fragrance. . . The house, of a simple and neat form, is situated near Philadelphiathat side of the island which commands a [[view]] of the Potomac, the President's House, Capitol, and other buildings. The garden, the sides of which are washed by the waters of the river, is ornamented with a variety of trees and [[shrub]]s, and, in the midst, there is a [[lawn]] covered with a beautiful verdure. The [[Summerhouse|summer-house]] is shaded by oak and lin-den-trees, the coolness and tranquility of which invite to contemplation. The refresh-ing breezes of the Potomac, and the gentle murmuring of its waters against the rocks, the warbling of birds, and the mournful as-pect of the weeping-willows, Painspire a thousand various sensations. (CWF)What a delicious shade-
:“Altho’ much has been done to beautify this delightful '''seat''', much still remains to be done, for the perfecting it in all the capabilities which nature in her boundless profusion has bestowed.”"Ducere sol[l]icitae jucunda oblivia vitae"
:The [[view]] from this spot is delightful. It embraces the [[picturesque]] banks of the Po-tomac, a portion of the city, and an expanse of water, of which the bridge terminates the [[view]]. . . A few feet below the [[Summerhouse|sum-mer-house]] the rocks afford the '''seats''', where those who are fond of fishing may indulge in this amusement. From the [[portico]] on the oppo-site [139] side of the house, Georgetown, Calorama, the beautiful '''seat''' of Joel Barlow, Esq. and the adjacent finely-wooded hills, appear a [[vista]]."
* Smith, Margaret Bayard, 1 August 1809, describing Monticello, plantation of Thomas Jefferson, Charlottesville, Va. (1906: 73) <ref>Margaret Bayard Smith, ''The First Forty Years of Washington Society'', ed. by Gaillard Hunt (New York: Charles Scribner’s, 1906), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/FTDFHRFH view on Zotero].</ref>
*Lambert, John, 1816, describing Boston, MA (1816: 2:328)<ref>John Lambert, ''Travels through Canada, and the United States of North America in the Years 1806, 1807, and 1808'', 2 vols. (London: Baldwin, Cradock, and Joy, 1816), [https:“Mr//www. Jzotero. explained to me all his plans for improvement, where org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/T9KUEDWH view on Zotero].</ref>:“From an elevated part of the town the roads, spectator enjoys a succession of the most beautiful [[walkview]]sthat imagination can conceive. Around him, as far as the eye can reach, are to be seen towns, villages, country '''seats''', rich farms, and [[pleasure ground|pleasure-grounds]], seated upon the summits of small hills, hanging on the little brows of gentle [[templeTerrace/Slope|slopes]], or reclining in the laps of spacious valleys, whose shores are watered by a beautiful river, across which are thrown several [[bridge]]s were to be placedand causeways.”
* FosterRandolph, Sir Augustus John, 18121820s, describing Monticello, plantation of Thomas Jeffersonan estate in Roanoke, Charlottesville, Va. VA (1954quoted in Martin 1991: 143223n. 46) <ref>Sir Augustus John FosterPeter Martin, ''Jeffersonian AmericaThe Pleasure Gardens of Virginia: Notes on the United States of America Collected in the Years 1805-1806-1807 and 1811-1812From Jamestown to Jefferson'', ed. by Richard Beale Davis (San MarinoPrinceton, Calif.NJ: Huntington LibraryPrinceton University Press, 19541991), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/7FU8NDF4 6TAHS88N view on Zotero].</ref>:“From my earliest childhood I have delighted in the [[grove]]s and solitudes of poor old Matoax. I now recall several of my favorite '''seats''' where I used to ruminate, ‘chewing the cud of sweet and bitter fancies,’ all bitter now.”
:“It is a very delightful ride of twenty-eight miles from Montpellier to the late President Mr. Jefferson’s '''seat''' at Monticello.”
*[[Charles Willson Peale|Peale, Charles Willson]], c. 1825, describing [[Belfield]], estate of Charles Willson Peale, Germantown, PA (Miller et al., eds., 2000: 5:381)<ref>Lillian B. Miller and et al., eds., ''The Selected Papers of Charles Willson Peale and His Family'', vol. 5, ''The Autobiography of Charles Willson Peale'' (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2000), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/IZAKPCBG view on Zotero].</ref>
:“He wanted a place to keep the garden seeds & Tools, and in a part of the Garden where a '''seat''' in the shade was often wanted, he built a shed or small room, and to hide that Salt-like-box, and to try his art of Painting, he made the front like [a] [[gateway|Gate Way]] with a step to form a '''seat''', and above, steps painted as representing a passage through an [[Arch]] beyond which was represented a western sky, and to ornament the upper part over the [[arch]], he painted several figures on boards cut to the outlines of said figures as representing [[statue]]s in sculpture.”
* Lambert, John, 1816, describing Boston, Mass. (2:328) <ref>John Lambert, ''Travels through Canada, and the United States of North America in the Years 1806, 1807, and 1808'', 2 vols. (London: Baldwin, Cradock, and Joy, 1816), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/T9KUEDWH view on Zotero].</ref>
:“From an elevated part of the town the spectator enjoys a succession of the most beautiful [[viewFile:0300.jpg|thumb|225px|Fig. 10, Thomas Birch, ''Fairmount Water Works'', 1821.]]s that imagination can conceive*Sheldon, John P. Around him, as far as the eye can reachDecember 10, 1825, describing Fairmount Waterworks, Philadelphia, PA (quoted in Gibson 1988: 5)<ref>Jane Mork Gibson, are to be seen towns“The Fairmount Waterworks, villages” ''Philadelphia Museum of Art Bulletin'' 84 (1988): 5–40, country [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/RZEZDDEN view on Zotero].</ref>:“Delightful '''seats''', rich farmssurrounded by various kinds of trees and [[shrubbery]], with gardens containing [[summerhouse|summer houses]], [[vista]]s, and pleasure-groundsembowered [[walk]]s, &c meet your [[view]] in almost every direction, seated upon [[wood]]s sloping gently to the summits of small hillsriver’s edge, hanging on by the brows side of gentle smooth [[slopelawn]]s, or reclining in add to the laps pleasing variety of spacious valleysthe scene; and the Schuylkill, whose shores are watered by a beautiful river, across which are thrown several with its noble dam and [[bridge]]s and causewaysserves as a most beautiful finish to the foreground.”[Fig. 10]
* RandolphConnor, JohnJuliana Margaret, 1820s1827, describing an estate in Roanokethe garden at the pottery (Lot 48) on Main Street, Salem, Va. NC (quoted in Martin 1991Bynum 1979: 223n. 4628) <ref name="Bynum 1979"></ref>Peter Martin:“Afterwards walked into the garden belonging to the establishment where we saw what I conceived to be a curiosity and in itself extremely beautiful. It was a large [[summerhouse|summer house]] formed of eight cedar trees planted in a circle, the tops whilst young were chained together in the center forming a cone. The immense branches were all cut, so that there was not a leaf, the outside is beautifully trimmed perfectly even and very thick within, were '''seats'The Pleasure Gardens of Virginia: From Jamestown to Jefferson'' (Princetonplaced around and doors or openings were cut, N.J.: Princeton University Pressthrough the branches, 1991).[https://wwwit had been planted 40 years.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/6TAHS88N]</ref>
:“From my earliest childhood I have delighted in the [[grove]]s and solitudes of poor old Matoax. I now recall several of my favorite '''seats''' where I used to ruminate, ‘chewing the cud of sweet and bitter fancies,’ all bitter now.”
*Bernhard, Duke of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach, 1828, describing the Bloomingdale Asylum for the Insane, New York, NY (quoted in Little 1972: 64)<ref>Nina Fletcher Little, ''Early Years of the McLean Hospital, Recorded in the Journal of George William Folsom, Apothecary at the Asylum in Charlestown'' (Boston: Francis A. Countway Library of Medicine, 1972), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/Q8IX8NHN/ view on Zotero].</ref>
:“The Lunatic Asylum is five miles from the city [New York] on a hill, in a very healthy situation, the road leads between country '''seats''' and handsome gardens and is one of the most pleasant I have seen in America.”
* Peale, Charles Willson, c. 1825, describing Belfield, estate of Charles Willson Peale, Germantown, Pa. (Miller, Hart, and Ward, eds., 2000: 381) <ref>
Lillian B. Miller and et al, eds., ''The Selected Papers of Charles Willson Peale and His Family: The Autobiography of Charles Willson Peale. Vol. 5.'' (New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1983–2000), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/IZAKPCBG view on Zotero].</ref>
*Wailes, Benjamin L. C., December 29, 1829, describing [[Lemon Hill]], estate of [[Henry Pratt]], Philadelphia, PA (quoted in Moore 1954: 359)<ref>John Hebron Moore, “A View of Philadelphia in 1829: Selections from the Journal of B. L. C. Wailes of Natchez,” ''Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography'' 78 (July 1954): 353–60, [https:“He wanted a place to keep //www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/Z9IBV7A4 view on Zotero].</ref>:“But the most enchanting [[prospect]] is towards the garden seeds grand pleasure grove & Tools[[green house]] of a [[Henry Pratt|Mr. Prat[t]]], and in a part gentleman of the Garden where fortune, and to this we next proceeded by a circutous ['''seat'sic'' ] rout, passing in [[view]] of the shade was often wantedfish ponds, [[bower]]s, he built [[rustic style|rustic]] retreats, [[summerhouse|summer houses]], [[fountain]]s, [[grotto]], &c., &c. The [[grotto]] is dug in a bank [and] is of a shed or small roomcircular form, the side built up of rock and to hide that Salt-like-boxarched over head, and to try his art a number of Shells [?]. A dog of natural size carved out of Paintingmarble sits just within the entrance, he made the front like guardian of the place. A narrow aperture lined with a [[ahedge]] of [[Gatearbor]] Way vitae leads to it. Next is a round fish pond with a step to form small [[fountain]] playing in the [[pond]]. An Oval & several oblong fish ponds of larger size follow, & between the two last is an artificial [[cascade]]. Several summer houses in [[rustic style]] are made by nailing bark on the outside & thaching the roof. There is also a [[rustic style|rustic]] '''seat'''built in the branches of a tree, and above, & to which a flight of steps painted as representing a passage through an ascend. In one of the [[Archsummerhouse|summer houses]] beyond which was represented is a western sky, and to ornament the upper part over the Spring with '''seats''' arrond it. The houses are all embelished [[arch]''sic'']with marble busts of Venus, Appollo, he painted several figures Diana and a Bacanti. One sits on an Island on boards cut to the outlines of said figures as representing fish pond. All the [[statuepond]]s in sculpturefilled with handsome coloured fish.”
* SheldonTrollope, John P.Frances Milton, 10 December 18251830, describing Fairmount Waterworks, Philadelphia, Pa. PA (quoted in Gibson 19881832: 2: 548–49; 152) <ref>Jane Mork Gibson, ‘The Fairmount Waterworks’Frances Trollope, ''Bulletin, Philadelphia Museum Domestic Manners of Artthe Americans'', 84 3rd ed., 2 vols. (1988London: Wittaker, Treacher, 1832), 5–40, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/RZEZDDEN T5RXDF7G view on Zotero].</ref>:“Near this enclosure [at the State House] is another of much the same description, called [[Washington Square (Philadelphia)|Washington Square]]. Here there was an excellent crop of clover; but as the trees are numerous, and highly beautiful, and several commodious '''seats''' are placed beneath their shade, it is, spite of the long grass, a very agreeable retreat from heat and dust. It was rarely, however, that I saw any of these '''seats''' occupied; the Americans have either no leisure, or no inclination for those moments of ''delassement'' that all other people, I believe, indulge in. . . it is nevertheless the nearest approach to a London square that is to be found in Philadelphia. . . “The Delaware river, above Philadelphia, still flows through a landscape too level for beauty, but it is rendered interesting by a succession of gentlemen’s '''seats''', which, if less elaborately finished in architecture, and garden grounds, than the lovely villas on the Thames, are still beautiful objects to gaze upon as you float rapidly past on the broad silvery stream that washes their [[lawn]]s.”
:“Delightful '''seats''', surrounded by various kinds of trees and [[shrubbery]], with gardens containing summer houses, [[vista]]s, embowered [[walk]]s, &c meet your [[view]] in almost every direction, [[wood]]s sloping gently to the river’s edge, by the side of smooth [[lawn]]s, add to the pleasing variety of the scene; and the Schuylkill, with its noble dam and [[bridge]]s serves as a most beautiful finish to the foreground.”
*[[Andrew Jackson Downing|Downing, Andrew Jackson]], January 1837, “Notices on the State and Progress of Horticulture in the United States,” describing [[Hyde Park]], seat of [[David Hosack]], on the Hudson, NY (''Magazine of Horticulture'' 3: 5)<ref>A. J. Downing, “Notices on the State and Progress of Horticulture in the United States,” ''Magazine of Horticulture, Botany, and All Useful Discoveries and Improvements in Rural Affairs'' 3, no. 1 (January 1837): 1–10, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/keywords_in_early_american_landscape_design/items/itemKey/HPNHTESI/q/Notices%20on%20the%20State%20and%20Progress%20of%20Horticulture view on Zotero].</ref>
:“The most distinguished amateur and patron of gardening, in every sense of the word, in this state, was the late [[Dr. Hosack]]. [[Hyde Park]], on the Hudson, the '''seat''' of this gentleman, has been probably the best specimen of a highly improved residence in the United States.”
* Connor, Juliana Margaret, 1827, describing the garden at the pottery (Lot 48) on Main Street, Salem, N.C. (quoted in Bynum 1979: 28) <ref name="Bynum 1979"></ref>
*Ritchie, Anna Cora Ogden Mowatt, 1839, describing Bonaparte’s Park at estate of Joseph Bonaparte (Count de Survilliers), Bordentown, NJ (quoted in Weber 1854:“Afterwards walked into the garden belonging to the establishment where we saw what I conceived to be a curiosity and in itself extremely beautiful. It was a large summer house formed 186)<ref>Constance Weber, “A Sketch of eight cedar trees planted in a circleJoseph Bonaparte, the tops whilst young were chained together in the center forming a cone''Godey’s Lady’s Book'' (Philadelphia: L. A. The immense branches were all cutGodey, so that there was not a leaf1854), the outside is beautifully trimmed perfectly even and very thick within, were [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/NEDC6TSD/ view on Zotero].</ref>:“Equally rustic '''seats''' placed around are scattered beneath the shade of the tall trees on its banks, and doors or openings upon its clear surface a flock of snow-white swans were cut, through the branches, it had been planted 40 yearsfloating about.”
* BernhardHovey, Duke of Saxe-Weimar-EisenachC. M. (Charles Mason), September 1840, “Notes on Gardens and Gardening, in New Bedford, 1828Mass., describing the Bloomingdale Asylum for the Insaneestate of James Arnold, New YorkBedford, N.Y. MA (quoted in Little 1972''Magazine of Horticulture'' 6: 64364) <ref>Nina Fletcher LittleCharles Mason Hovey, “Notes on Gardens and Gardening, in New Bedford, Mass.,” ''Early Years Magazine of the McLean HospitalHorticulture, Recorded in the Journal of George William FolsomBotany, Apothecary at the Asylum and All Useful Discoveries and Improvements in CharlestownRural Affairs'' 6, no. 9 (BostonSeptember 1840): Francis A. Countway Library of Medicine, 1972)361–66, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/Q8IX8NHN/ QQC7WWZB view on Zotero].</ref>:“Continuing through the winding [[walk]]s, shady [[bower]]s, and umbrageous retreats, through which rustic '''seats''' were placed, we arrived at the shell [[grotto]].”
:“The Lunatic Asylum is five miles from the city [New York] on a hill, in a very healthy situation, the road leads between country '''seats''' and handsome gardens and is one of the most pleasant I have seen in America.”
*Adams, Nehemiah, 1842, describing [[Boston Common]], Boston, MA (1842: 54)<ref>Nehemiah Adams, ''Boston Common'' (Boston: William D. Ticknor and H. B. Williams, 1842), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/VXTWGJ58 view on Zotero].</ref>
:“One of the next improvements in the [[Boston Common|Common]] we suspect will be a suitable supply of proper '''seats''' in the [[mall]]. As a defence against our American propensity to whittle, the city government caused some of the wooden '''seats''' to be sheathed with sheet iron. Vain defence against the knife of an American whittler! . . . The city government thought that they would ‘try what virtue there is in stones.’ Blocks of granite have been deposited there for '''seats'''. . . The stone '''seats''' are smooth only on the upper side, and their rough look is not strictly in Boston taste, though it is excusable, considering the penitentiary object which led to their substitution for wooden '''seats'''. . . The idea of sitting on a natural, rough rock, to enjoy the beauties of nature, is poetical and in good keeping, but we have tried in vain to make those stone '''seats''' on the [[mall]] seem poetical.”
* Wailes, Benjamin L. C., 29 December 1829, describing Lemon Hill, estate of Henry Pratt, Philadelphia, Pa. (quoted in Moore 1954: 359) <ref>John Hebron Moore, ‘A View of Philadelphia in 1829: Selections from the Journal of B.L.C. Wailes of Natchez’, ''Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography'', 78 (July) (1954), 353–60, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/Z9IBV7A4 view on Zotero].</ref>
*Buckingham, James Silk, 1842, describing Red Sulphur Springs, VA (Colonial Williamsburg Foundation):“But “In the most enchanting [[prospect]] is towards centre of the grand pleasure grove & [[green house]] of a Mr. Prat[t]valley, is a gentleman of fortune, and to this we next proceeded by a circutous triangular [''sic''] rout, passing in [[viewplot]] of the fish pondsgrass, [[bower]]s, rustic retreats, summer houses, [[fountain]]swhich has been enclosed with well-finished rails, [[grotto]], &c.painted white, &c. The [[grotto]] is dug in a bank [and] is of a circular form, the side built up of rock and arched over head, and a number of Shells [?]. A dog of natural size carved laid out of marble sits just within the entrance, the guardian of the place. A narrow aperture lined with a in [[hedgewalk]] of [[arbor]] vitae leads to it. Next is a round fish pond with s like a small [[fountainlawn]] playing in the [[pond]]. An Oval & several oblong fish ponds of larger size follow, & between the two last is an artificial [[cascade]]. Several summer houses in [[rustic style]] are made by nailing bark on the outside & thaching the roof. There is having also a rustic '''seat''' built in the branches of a treeseveral large and fine trees, & to under which a flight of steps ascend. In one of the summer houses is a Spring with '''seats''' arrond it. The houses are all embelished [''sic''] with marble busts of Venus, Appollo, Diana and a Bacanti. One sits on an Island on placed for enjoying the fish pond. All the [[pond]]s filled with handsome coloured fishshade.” [See Fig. 1]
* TrollopeAnonymous, Frances MiltonDecember 6, 18301842, describing Philadelphia“Letter from Ministry at New Lebanon to Ministry at Graveland” (Western Reserve Historical Society Library, PaShaker Manuscript Collection):“And it is my will that your '''seats''' be prepared after the following order. (1832: 2:48–49; 152) <ref>Frances Trollope, Ye may take boards of sufficient width & thickness to form a '''seat'''Domestic Manners . These may be planed. Place these upon square blocks of sufficient bigness to elevate the Americans'''seat''' of a suitable height; and these are sufficient for '''seats''', 3rd ednupon my holy ground. And if ye desire to build a shed, 2 vols. (London: Wittakernear by the meeting ground under which you can place these '''seats''', Treacherat such parts of the year as they are not wanted, 1832)ye may freely do it; but if my feast ground is located near your dwellings, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/T5RXDF7G view on Zotero]you had better carry them there to place under shelter.</ref>
:“Near this enclosure [at the State House] is another of much the same description, called [[Washington Square]]. Here there was an excellent crop of clover; but as the trees are numerous, and highly beautiful, and several commodious '''seats''' are placed beneath their shade, it is, spite of the long grass, a very agreeable retreat from heat and dust. It was rarely, however, that I saw any of these '''seats''' occupied; the Americans have either no leisure, or no inclination for those moments of ''delassement'' that all other people, I believe, indulge in. . . . it is nevertheless the nearest approach to a London square that is to be found in Philadelphia. . . . “The Delaware river, above Philadelphia, still flows through a landscape too level for beauty, but it is rendered interesting by a succession of gentlemen’s '''seats''', which, if less elaborately finished in architecture, and garden grounds, than the lovely villas on the Thames, are still beautiful objects to gaze upon as you float rapidly past on the broad silvery stream that washes their [[lawn]]s.”
*Longfellow, Henry Wadsworth, c. 1845, describing the Vassall-Craigie-Longfellow House, Cambridge, MA (quoted in Evans 1993: 41)<ref>Catherine Evans, ''Cultural Landscape Report for Longfellow National Historic Site, History and Existing Conditions'' (Boston: National Park Service, North Atlantic Region, 1993), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/9TI9GUQN view on Zotero].</ref>
:“Made the [[flower garden]]; laying it out in the form of a Lyre. Built also the [[rustic style|rustic]] '''seat''' in the Old Apple tree. Set out the roses under the Library windows.”
* Downing, A. J., January 1837, “Notices on the State and Progress of Horticulture in the United States,” describing Hyde Park, seat of Dr. David Hosack, on the Hudson, N.Y. (''Magazine of Horticulture'' 3: 5)
[[Image:0359.jpg|thumb|225px|Fig. 11, Anonymous, “The most distinguished amateur [[Lake]],” [[Montgomery Place]], in [[A. J. Downing]], ed., ''Horticulturist'' 2, no. 4 (October 1847): 158, fig. 27.]]*[[Andrew Jackson Downing|Downing, Andrew Jackson]], 1847, describing [[Montgomery Place]], country home of Mrs. Edward (Louise) Livingston, Dutchess County, NY (quoted in Haley 1988: 20, 47, 50)<ref>Jacquetta M. Haley, ed., ''Pleasure Grounds: Andrew Jackson Downing and patron of gardeningMontgomery Place'' (Tarrytown, NY: Sleepy Hollow Press, 1988), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/SSZXJFSC/ view on Zotero].</ref>:“I forgot to beg you before you leave [[Montgomery Place]] to sketch the [[view]] from the bold rustic '''seat''' with rustic balustrade in every sense front*on the high west river [[walk]]. It seems to me one of the very finest things I have seen anywhere.:<nowiki>*</nowiki> that '''seat''' about half way between the steps & the south terminus. . .:“A path on the left of the wordbroad [[lawn]] leads one to the fanciful rustic-gabled '''seat''', in among a growth of locusts at the bottom of the [[Terrace/Slope|slope]]. . . Half-way along this statemorning ramble, a rustic '''seat''', placed on a bold little plateau, at the base of a large tree, eighty feet above the water, and fenced about with a rustic barrier, was invites you to linger and gaze at the late Drfascinating river landscape here presented. Hosack. Hyde Park.:“A little farther on, on we reach a flight of rocky steps, leading up to the [[border]] of the Hudson, [[lawn]]. At the top of these is a rustic '''seat''' with a thatched canopy, curiously built round the trunk of an aged pine. . .:“This part of this gentlemanthe grounds [the [[lake]]] is seen to the most advantage, either toward evening, has been probably or in moonlight. Then the best specimen effect of a highly improved residence contrast in light and shadow is most striking, and the United Statesseclusion and beauty of the spot are more fully enjoyable than at any hour. Then you will most certainly be tempted to leave the curious rustic '''seat''', with its roof wrapped round with a rude entablature like Pluto’s crown.”[Fig. 11]
* Ritchie[[File:1097.jpg|thumb|225px|Fig. 12, Thomas S. Sinclair, Anna Cora Ogden Mowatt“Plan of the [[Pleasure Ground]]s and Farm of the [[Pennsylvania Hospital for the Insane]] at Philadelphia, 1839” in Thomas S. Kirkbride, describing Bonaparte’s Park at estate ''American Journal of Joseph Bonaparte Insanity'' 4 (Count de SurvilliersApril 1848): pl. opp. 280.]]*Kirkbride, Thomas S., BordentownApril 1848, N.J. describing the [[pleasure ground|pleasure grounds]] and farm of the [[Pennsylvania Hospital for the Insane]], Philadelphia (quoted in Weber 1854''American Journal of Insanity'' 4: 186349) <ref>Constance WeberThomas S. Kirkbride, ‘A Sketch “Description of Joseph Bonaparte’the Pleasure Grounds and Farm of the Pennsylvania Hospital for the Insane, in with Remarks,” ''Godey’s Lady's BookAmerican Journal of Insanity'' 4, no. 4 (PhiladelphiaApril 1848): L. A. Godey, 1854)347–54, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/keywords_in_early_american_landscape_design/items/itemKey/NEDC6TSD9RWM2FH8/ q/kirkbride view on Zotero].</ref>:“The [[summerhouse|summer-houses]], [[rustic style|rustic]]-'''seats''', exercising-swings &c., in this division are all in particularly pleasant positions. The cottage fronts the [[wood]]s, and in every part this portion of the grounds is completely protected from intrusion and observation.” [Fig. 12]
:“Equally rustic '''seats''' are scattered beneath the shade of the tall trees on its banks, and upon its clear surface a flock of snow-white swans were floating about.”
*[[J. C. (John Claudius) Loudon|Loudon, J. C. (John Claudius)]], 1850, describing the public gardens in Philadelphia, PA (1850: 332–33)
:“856. ''[[public garden|Public Gardens]]''. . .
:“''[[Promenade]] at Philadelphia''. There is a very pretty enclosure before the walnut tree entrance to the state-house, with good well-kept gravel [[walk]]s, and many beautiful flowering trees. It is laid down in grass, not in turf; which, indeed, Mrs. Trollope observes, ‘is a luxury she never saw in America. Near this enclosure is another of a similar description, called [[Washington Square (Philadelphia)|Washington Square]], which has numerous trees, with commodious '''seats''' placed beneath their shade.’ (''Ibid''. [''D. M. &c''.] vol. ii. p. 48.) . . .
:“''Waterworks at Fair Mount, near Philadelphia''. ‘. . . On the farther side of the river is a gentleman’s '''seat''', the beautiful [[lawn]] of which slopes down to the water’s edge; and groups of weeping willows and other trees throw their shadows on the stream.’ (''Domestic Manners of the Americans'', vol. ii. p. 44.)”
===Citations===* HoveyDezallier d’Argenville, CAntoine-Joseph, 1712, ''The Theory and Practice of Gardening'' (1712: 78)<ref> A. M-J.(Antoine Joseph) Dézallier d’Argenville, September 1840, “Notes on Gardens ''The Theory and Practice of Gardening; Wherein Is Fully Handled All That Relates to Fine Gardens, in New Bedford. . . Containing Divers Plans, Massand General Dispositions of Gardens. . . '',” describing the estate of trans. John James (London: Geo. James Arnold, New Bedford1712), Mass[https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/RNT8ZVZ8 view on Zotero]. (</ref>:“'''SEATS'Magazine of Horticulture'' 6: 364), or Benches, besides the Conveniency they constantly afford in great Gardens, where you can scarce ever have too many, there is such need of them in walking, look very well also in a Garden, when set in certain Places they are destin’d to, as in the Niches or Sinkings that face principal [[Walk]]s and [[Vista]]s, and in the Halls and Galleries of [[Grove]]s.”
:“Continuing through the winding [[walk]]s, shady [[bower]]s, and umbrageous retreats, through which rustic '''seats''' were placed, we arrived at the shell [[grotto]].”
*Ware, Isaac, 1756, ''A Complete Body of Architecture'' (1756: 636, 641)<ref>Isaac Ware, ''A Complete Body of Architecture'' (London: T. Osborne and J. Shipton, 1756), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/2EK2USKV view on Zotero].</ref>
:“The first principle is here that there be space to [[walk]], and '''seats''' to rest. These must be proportioned also to one another: it would be absurd to terminate a vast [[walk]] with a plain bench; nor less ridiculous to erect a pompous [[temple]] where there was not the extent of a hundred yards from the building. . .
:“He who would know where to place his [[pavilion]], '''seat''', or [[temple]], in a garden, must first understand what the purpose of it is, and what the true beauty and excellence of the garden itself.”
* Adams, Rev. Nehemiah, 1842, describing Boston Common, Boston, Mass. ([Adams] 1842: 54) <ref>Nehemiah Adams, ''Boston Common'' (Boston: William D. Ticknor and H. B. Williams, 1842), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/VXTWGJ58 view on Zotero].</ref>
:“One *Sheridan, Thomas, 1789, ''A Complete Dictionary of the next improvements in the [[Common]] we suspect will be a suitable supply of proper English Language'''seats''' in the [[mall]](1789: n.p.)<ref>Thomas A. As a defence against our American propensity to whittleSheridan, the city government caused some of the wooden '''seats''' to be sheathed with sheet iron. Vain defence against A Complete Dictionary of the knife of an American whittler! . English Language, Carefully Revised and Corrected by John Andrews. . The city government thought that they would ‘try what virtue there is in stones.’ Blocks of granite have been deposited there for '''seats''', 5th ed. (Philadelphia: William Young, 1789), [https://www. zotero. org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/T5GU4CBQ view on Zotero]. The stone </ref>:“'''seatsSEAT''' are smooth only on the upper side, and their rough look is not strictly in Boston taste, though it is excusable, considering the penitentiary object which led to their substitution for wooden '''seats'''. . se’t. s. The idea of sitting on a naturalA chair, rough rockbench, to enjoy the beauties or any thing on which one may sit; chair of naturestate; tribunal; mansion, is poetical and in good keepingabode; situation, but we have tried in vain to make those stone '''seats''' on the [[mall]] seem poeticalsite.”
* BuckinghamAnonymous, James Silk1798, 1842''Encyclopaedia'' (1798: 7:561):“‘V. '''SEATS''' have a two-fold use; they are useful as places of rest and conversation, and as guides to the points of [[view]] in which the beauties of the surrounding scene are disclosed. Every point of [[view]] should be marked with a '''seat'''; and speaking generally, no '''seat''' ought to appear but in some favourable point of [[view]]. This rule may not be invariable, but it ought seldom to be deviated from.:“In the ruder scenes of neglected nature, the simple trunk, rough from the woodman’s hands, and the butts or stools of rooted trees, without any other marks of tools upon them than those of the saw which severed them from their stems, describing Red Sulphur Springsare '''seats''' in character; and in romantic or recluse situations, Vathe cave or the [[grotto]] are admissible. (CWF)But wherever human design has been executed upon the natural objects of the place, the '''seat''' and every other artificial accompaniment ought to be in unison; and whether the bench or the [[alcove]] be chosen, it ought to be formed and finished in such a manner as to unite with the [[wood]], the [[lawn]], and the [[walk]], which lie around it.:“The colour of '''seats''' should likewise be suited to situations: where uncultivated nature prevails, the natural brown of the [[wood]] itself ought not to be altered; but where the rural art presides, white or stone colour has a much better effect.’ ''Practical Treatise on Planting and Gardening p. 593 &c.''”
:“In the centre of the valley, is a triangular [[plot]] of grass, which has been enclosed with wellfinished rails, painted white, and laid out in [[walk]]s like a [[lawn]], having also several large and fine trees, under which '''seats''' are placed for enjoying the shade.”
*Repton, Humphry, 1803, ''Observations on the Theory and Practice of Landscape Gardening'' (1803: 69, 153)<ref>Humphry Repton, ''Observations on the Theory and Practice of Landscape Gardening'' (London: Printed by T. Bensley for J. Taylor, 1803), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/VVQPC3BI view on Zotero].</ref>
:“This would be a proper place for a covered '''seat''', with a shed behind it for horses or open carriages; but it should be set so far back as to command the [[view]] under the branches of trees, which are very happily situated for the purpose. . .
:“Yet the summit of a naked brow, commanding [[view]]s in every direction, may require a covered '''seat''' or [[pavilion]]; for such a situation, where an architectural building is proper, a circular [[temple]] with a dome, such as the [[temple]] of the Sybils, or that of Tivoli, is best calculated.”
* Anonymous, 6 December 1842, “Letter from Ministry at New Lebanon to Ministry at Graveland” (Western Reserve Historical Society Library, Shaker Manuscript Collection)
:“And it is my will that your *Abercrombie, John, with James Mean, 1817, ''Abercrombie’s Practical Gardener''(1817: 465)<ref>John Abercrombie, 'seats'Abercrombie’s Practical Gardener Or, Improved System of Modern Horticulture'' be prepared after the following order(London: T. Cadell and W. Davies, 1817), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/TH54TADZ/ view on Zotero]. Ye may take boards </ref>:“Fine points of sufficient width & thickness [[view]] claim, in the first place, to form a be distinguished by '''seatseats'''. These '''Seats''' merely serving as places of rest might announce an intrinsic object by some difference in their construction; and if there be no distant [[prospect]] to engage attention, greater elegance in the accompaniments may be planedcreate a pleasant resting-place. Place these upon square blocks of sufficient bigness As to elevate the manner of finishing a '''seat''' ; where the house is in sight, a correct taste will expect the bench or [[alcove]] to correspond with the style of the house, so far at least as to be avowedly artificial, neat in the workmanship, and painted. In neglected or wild scenes, withdrawn from the polished [[lawn]], pleasing illusions may be induced by a rough block of timber, the arms of a suitable height; and these are sufficient for fantastic root, or forest fagots romantically interwoven, offering a '''seatsseat'''under the canopy of a tree, upon my holy groundor within a cave or [[grotto]]. And if ye desire to build a shedThis is admissible on principle, near by the meeting ground under which you in proportion as every thing surrounding is in character. Not that it can place these be denied, that whimsical '''seats''', at such parts variance with the situation sometimes afford a degree of the year as they are not wantedamusement, ye and may freely do it; but if my feast ground is located near your dwellingsno harm in little gardens, you had better carry them there or in a scene too tame to be spoiled: but the effect terminates with the oddity; a place under shelterdestitute of character can excite no romantic interest.”
* Longfellow[[File:1334.jpg|thumb|225px|Fig. 13, [[J. C. Loudon]], Covered seats of the [[Rustic_style|rustic]] kind, Henry Wadsworthin ''An Encyclopædia of Gardening'', c4th ed. 1845(1826), describing the Vassall-Craigie-Longfellow House357, Cambridgefig. 336.]] *[[J. C. (John Claudius) Loudon|Loudon, MassJ. C. (quoted in Evans 1993John Claudius)]], 1826, ''An Encyclopaedia of Gardening'' (1826: 41355, 357, 809) <ref>Catherine EvansJ. C. (John Claudius) Loudon, ''Cultural Landscape Report for Longfellow National Historic SiteAn Encyclopaedia of Gardening; Comprising the Theory and Practice of Horticulture, Floriculture, Arboriculture, History and Existing ConditionsLandscape-Gardening'' , 4th ed. (BostonLondon: National Park Service, North Atlantic RegionLongman et al., 19931826), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/9TI9GUQN KNKTCA4W view on Zotero].</ref>:“1805. ''Of convenient decorations'' the variety is almost endless, from the prospect-tower to the rustic '''seat'''; besides aquatic decorations, agreeable to the eye and convenient for the purposes of recreations or culture. Their emplacement, as in the former section, belongs to gardening, and their construction to architecture and engineering. . .:“1816. ''Roofed '''seats''', boat-houses, moss houses, flint houses, bark huts'', and similar constructions, are different modes of forming resting-places containing '''seats''', and sometimes other furniture or conveniences in or near them. . . [Fig. 13]:“1817. ''Roofed '''seats''' of a more polished description'' are boarded structures generally semi-octagonal, and placed so as to be open to the south. Sometimes they are portable, moving on wheels, so as to be placed in different positions, according to the hour of the day, or season of the year, which, in confined spots, is a desirable circumstance. Sometimes they turn on rollers, or on a central pivot, for the same object, and this is very common in what are called barrel-'''seats'''. In general they are opaque, but occasionally their sides are glazed, to admit the sun to the interior in winter.[[File:1335.jpg|thumb|225px|Fig. 14, [[J. C. Loudon]], Elegant structures of the seat kind, in ''An Encyclopædia of Gardening'' 4th ed. (1826), 357, figs. 337 and 338.]] :“1818. ''Folding chairs''. A sort of medium '''seat''', between the roofed and the exposed, is formed by constructing the backs of chairs, benches, or sofas with hinges, so as they may fold down over the '''seat''', and so protect it from rain. . .:“1819. ''Elegant structures'' of the '''seat''' kind for summer use, may be constructed of iron rods and wires, and painted canvas; the iron forming the supporting skeleton, and the canvass the protecting tegument. . . [Fig. 14]:“1820. ''Exposed '''seats''''' include a great variety, rising in gradation from the turf bank to the carved couch. Intermediate forms are stone benches, root stools, sections of trunks of trees, wooden, stone, or cast-iron mushrooms painted or covered with moss, or mat, or heath; the Chinese barrel-'''seat''', the rustic stool, chair, tripod, sofa, the cast-iron couch or sofa, the wheeling-chair, and many subvarieties. . .:“6157. . . Light [[bower]]s formed of lattice-work, and covered with climbers, are in general most suitable to [[parterre]]s; plain covered '''seats''' suit the general [[walk]]s of the [[shrubbery]].”
:“Made the [[flower garden]]; laying it out in the form of a Lyre. Built also the rustic '''seat''' in the Old Apple tree. Set out the roses under the Library windows.”
*Anonymous, April 26, 1826, “On Landscapes and Picturesque Gardens” (''New England Farmer'' 4: 316)<ref>Anonymous, “On Landscape and Picturesque Gardens,” ''New England Farmer'' 4, no. 40 (April 28, 1826): 316, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/keywords_in_early_american_landscape_design/items/itemKey/I3K5QGBZ? view on Zotero].</ref>
:“A few fabrics, rustic [[bridge]]s, [[hermitage]]s, a [[Temple]], or a Chinese Kiosk or Pagoda, not expensive in their execution, would advantageously complete the embellishment of a country '''seat'''.”
* Downing, A. J., 26 July 1847, describing Montgomery Place, country home of Mrs. Edward (Louise) Livingston, Dutchess County, N.Y. (quoted in Haley 1988: 20, 47, 50) <ref>Jacquetta M. Haley, ed., ''Pleasure Grounds: Andrew Jackson Downing and Montgomery Place'' (Tarrytown, N.Y.: Sleepy Hollow Press, 1988), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/SSZXJFSC/ view on Zotero].</ref>
:“I forgot to beg you before you leave Montgomery Place to sketch the *[[viewNoah Webster|Webster, Noah]] from , 1828, ''An American Dictionary of the bold rustic English Language''(1828: 2:n.p.)<ref>Noah Webster, 'seat'An American Dictionary of the English Language'' with rustic balustrade in front* , 2 vols. (New York: S. Converse, 1828), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/N7BSU467 view on the high west river [[walkZotero]]. It seems to me one of the very finest things I have seen anywhere.:<nowiki>*</nowikiref> that :“'''seatSEAT''', '' about half way between the steps & the south terminusn. '' [It. ''sedia''; Sp. s''ede, sitio'', from L.:“A path on the left of the broad [[lawn]] leads one to the fanciful rustic-gabled ''sedes, situs''; Sw. 'seat'sate'', among a growth of locusts at the bottom of the [[slope]]; Dan. ''soede''; G. ''sitz''; D. Half-way along this morning ramble''zetel'', a rustic ''zitplaats''; W. ''sez''; Ir. 'seat'saidh'', placed on ; W. with a bold little plateauprefix, at the base of a large tree''gosod'', eighty feet above the waterwhence ''gosodi'', and fenced about with a rustic barrier, invites you to linger ''set''. See ''Set'' and gaze at the fascinating river landscape here presented''Sit''. . .]:“1. That on which one sits. . .:“A little farther on, we reach a flight of rocky steps, leading up to “3. Mansion; residence; dwelling; abode; as Italy the [[border]] '''''seat''''' of the [[lawn]]empire. At the top of these is The Greeks sent colonies to seek a rustic new '''''seat''''' in Gaul.:“In Alba he shall fix his royal '''''seat'''''. Dryden. :“4. Site; situation. The '''''seat''' with a thatched canopy, curiously built round the trunk '' of an aged pine. Eden has never been incontrovertibly ascertained. . .:“This part of the grounds [the [[lake]]] “8. The place where a thing is seen to the most advantage, either toward evening, settled or in moonlightestablished. Then London is the effect '''''seat''''' of contrast in light business and shadow is most strikingopulence. So we say, and the seclusion and beauty '''''seat''''' of the spot are more fully enjoyable than at any hour. Then you will most certainly be tempted to leave muses, the curious rustic '''''seat''''' of arts, with its roof wrapped round with a rude entablature like Pluto’s crownthe '''''seat''''' of commerce.”
* KirkbrideBridgeman, Thomas S, 1832, ''The Young Gardener’s Assistant'' (1832: 111)<ref> Thomas Bridgeman, ''The Young Gardener’s Assistant'', 3rd ed.(New York: Geo. Robertson, April 18481832), describing the pleasure grounds and farm [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/9FU4SNZK view on Zotero].</ref>:“In a retired part of the Pennsylvania Hospital for the Insane[flower] garden, Philadelphiaa rustic '''seat''' may be formed, Pa. (over and around which honey-suckles and other sweet and ornamental creepers and climbers may he [''American Journal of Insanitysic'' 4: 349)] trained on [[trellis]]es, so as to afford a pleasant retirement.”
:“The summer-houses, rustic-'''seats''', exercisingswings &c., in this division are all in particularly pleasant positions. The cottage fronts the [[wood]]s, and in every part this portion of the grounds is completely protected from intrusion and observation.”
*Teschemacher, James E., August 1, 1835, “Extracts from Foreign Publications” (''Horticultural Register'' 1: 308–9)<ref>James E. Teschemacher, “Extracts from Foreign Publications,” ''Horticultural Register, and Gardener’s Magazine'' 1 (August 1, 1835): 304–9, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/keywords_in_early_american_landscape_design/items/itemKey/CNPGMS5X/q/extracts%20from%20foreign%20publications view on Zotero].</ref>
:“''From an article On the various form and character of [[Arbour]]s as objects of use or ornament either in gardens or wild scenery [from Paxton’s Horticultural Register''], we extract the following passages. . .
:“‘The closely shaven turf comes about ten feet inside the [[arch]]es where its edge is cut, and between that and the [[basin]] is covered with a fine tawny sand, with an apparently confused but really symmetrical arrangement of marble pedestals, '''seats''' and [[vase]]s with flowering plants placed upon them. During summer a [[vase]] with a rare flowering plant is placed under each of the external [[arch]]es except four which serve as entrances. The entire effect is good, and his may be considered as one of the best specimens of the artificial [[bower]] of the present day.’”
* Loudon, J. C., 1850, describing the public gardens in Philadelphia, Pa. (pp. 332–33)
*Sayers, Edward, 1838, ''The American Flower Garden Companion'' (1838:“856. 14, 19, 131)<ref>Edward Sayers, ''[[Public Gardens]]The American Flower Garden Companion, Adapted to the Northern States''(Boston: Joseph Breck, 1838), [https://www. zotero. org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/GHTFN8B2 view on Zotero]. .</ref>:“''“At country residences, where a large extent is appropriated to this department [the [[Promenadeflower garden]]] at Philadelphia''. There is a very pretty enclosure before the walnut tree entrance to the state-house, with good well-kept gravel many convenient and pleasing appendages can be judiciously introduced; as rustic [[walkarbor]]s, rustic '''seats''', and many beautiful flowering trees. It is laid down in grass, not in turf[[rockery]]; whichand if water can be connected, indeed, Mrsit always gives a good effect. Trollope observesAll such appendages, ‘is I recommend to be constructed in as natural a luxury she never saw in Americamanner as possible. . . Near this enclosure is another of :“In extensive [[pleasure ground]]s the [[rockery]] has a similar descriptiongood effect when placed distinct from the [[flower garden]], called and near a rustic [[arbor]] or ornamental [[Washington Squarebridge]], which has numerous trees, with commodious or '''seatsseat''' ; and if placed beneath their shade.’ (''Ibid''. by the side of a retired [[walk]], near the [[lawn]] or grass [[''D. M. &c''.plot]] vol, it has an easy effect. ii. p. 48.) . . .:“''Waterworks at Fair Mount, near Philadelphia''. ‘. . . On “the margin of the farther side [[pond]] should be planted with drooping willows and trees of the river is a gentleman’s pendulous habit for shade, under which rustic '''seat''', might be properly placed for the beautiful [[lawn]] accommodation of which slopes down those who desire to view the water’s edge; and groups of weeping willows sporting fishes, and other trees throw their shadows on the streaminteresting objects by which they are surrounded.”[[File:0936.jpg|thumb|225px|Fig.’ (15, Alexander Walsh, Two seats surrounded by an arched [[arbor]], in ''Domestic Manners of the AmericansNew England Farmer''19, volno. ii39 (March 31, 1841): 309, fig. p4. 44.)”]]
===Citations===
* [Dézallier d’ArgenvilleWalsh, Alexander, A.-J.]March 31, 17121841, “Remarks on Ornamental Gardening” (''The Theory and Practice of GardeningNew England Farmer'' ([1712] 196919: 78308–9) <ref> A.-J. (Antoine Joseph) Dézallier d’ArgenvilleAlexander Walsh, “Remarks on Ornamental Gardening, With a Plan of a Fruit, Flower and Vegetable Garden, ''The Theory and Practice of Gardening; Wherein Is Fully Handled All That Relates to Fine Gardens, ... Containing Divers PlansNew England Farmer, and General Dispositions of Gardens; ...Horticultural Register''19, transno. by John James 39 (London: Geo. JamesMarch 31, 17121841): 308–9, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/RNT8ZVZ8 HD2AV62D view on Zotero.].</ref>:“The garden and [[pleasure ground]] I would describe, is of an oblong form, 165 feet by 120 feet, with one end next the north side of the house. . .:“X X two '''seats''', each occupying 2 ft. . . T T two '''seats'''. . . surrounded by an arched [[arbor]] 10 ft. high, thrown over the [[walk]], ornamented on one side with honeysuckle, on the other by climbing Boursaut rose.” [Fig. 15]
: “'''SEATS''', or Benches, besides the Conveniency they constantly afford in great Gardens, where you can scarce ever have too many, there is such need of them in walking, look very well also in a Garden, when set in certain Places they are destin’d to, as in the Niches or Sinkings that face principal [[Walk]]s and [[Vista]]s, and in the Halls and Galleries of [[Grove]]s.”
[[File:1824.jpg|thumb|225px|Fig. 16, Anonymous, “Moveable Garden Seat,” in Jane Loudon, ''Gardening for Ladies''(1843), 283, fig. 49.]] * Ware[[Jane Loudon|Loudon, IsaacJane]], 17561843, ''A Complete Body of ArchitectureGardening for Ladies'' (pp. 636, 6411843: 283–84) <ref>Isaac WareJane Loudon, ''A Complete Body of ArchitectureGardening for Ladies; And Companion to the Flower-Garden,'' ed. A. J. Downing (LondonNew York: T. Osborne Wiley and J. ShiptonPutnam, 17561843), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/2EK2USKV VJ3SM523 view on Zotero].</ref>:“'''SEATS''' for gardens are either open or covered; the latter being in the form of root-houses, huts, [[pavilion]]s, [[temple]]s, [[grotto]]es, &c., and the former being either fixed, temporary, or portable. Fixed '''seats''' are commonly of stone, either plain stone benches without backs, or stone supports to wooden benches. Sometimes, also, wooden '''seats''' are fixed, as when they are placed round a tree, or when boards are nailed to posts, or when '''seats''' are formed in imitation of mushrooms, as in the grounds at Redleaf. Fixed '''seats''' are also sometimes formed of turf. Portable '''seats''' are formed of [[wood]], sometimes contrived to have the back of the '''seat''' folded down when the '''seat''' is not in use; so as to exclude the weather, and avoid the dirt of birds which are apt to perch on them. Another kind of portable '''seat''', which is frequently formed in iron, as shown in ''fig.'' 49, is readily wheeled from one part of the grounds to another; and the back of which also folds down to protect the '''seat''' from the weather. There is a kind of camp-stool which serves as a portable '''seat''', imported from Norway, and sold at the low price of 2''s''. 6''d''. or 3''s''.; and there are also straw '''seats''', like half [[beehive]]s, which are, however, only used in garden-huts, or in any situation under cover, because in the open air they would be liable to be soaked with rain. There are a great variety of rustic '''seats''' formed of roots and crooked branches of trees, used both for the open garden and under cover; and there are also '''seats''' of cast and wrought iron, of great variety of form. There should always be some kind of analogy between the '''seat''' and the scene of which it forms a part; and for this reason rustic '''seats''' should be confined to rustic scenery; and the '''seats''' for a [[lawn]] or highly kept pleasure-ground ought to be of comparatively simple and architectural forms, and either of [[wood]] or stone, those of [[wood]] being frequently painted of a stone colour, and sprinkled over with silver sand before the paint is dry, to give them the appearance of stone. Iron '''seats''', generally speaking, are not sufficiently massive for effect; and the metal conveys the idea of cold in winter and heat in summer. [Fig. 16]:“When '''seats''' are placed along a [[walk]], a gravelled recess ought to be formed to receive them; and there ought, generally, to be a footboard to keep the feet from the moist ground, whether the '''seat''' is on gravel or on al awn [''sic'']. In a garden where there are several '''seats''', some ought to be in positions exposed to the sun, and others placed in the shade, and none ought to be put down in a situation where the back of the '''seat''' is seen by a person approaching it before the front. Indeed the backs of all fixed '''seats''' ought to be concealed by shrubs, or by some other means, unless they are circular '''seats''' placed round a tree. '''Seats''' ought not to be put down where there will be any temptation to the persons sitting on them to strain their eyes to the right or left, nor where the boundary of the garden forms a conspicuous object in the [[view]]. In general, all '''seats''' should be of a stone colour, as harmonizing best with vegetation. Noting can be more unartistical than '''seats''' painted a pea-green, and placed among the green of living plants.”
:“The first principle is here that there be space to [[walk]], and '''seats''' to rest. These must be proportioned also to one another: it would be absurd to terminate a vast [[walk]] with a plain bench; nor less ridiculous to erect a pompous [[temple]] where there was not the extent of a hundred yards from the building. . . .
:“He who would know where to place his [[pavilion]], '''seat''', or [[temple]], in a garden, must first understand what the purpose of it is, and what the true beauty and excellence of the garden itself.”
[[File:0398.jpg|thumb|225px|Fig. 17, Anonymous, “[[Rustic_style|Rustic]] Covered Seat,” in [[A. J. Downing]], ''A Treatise on the Theory and Practice of Landscape Gardening'', 4th ed. (1849), 458, fig. 86.]]
*[[Andrew Jackson Downing|Downing, Andrew Jackson]], 1849, ''A Treatise on the Theory and Practice of Landscape Gardening'' (1849: 454–56, 473–74)<ref>A. J. [Andrew Jackson] Downing, ''A Treatise on the Theory and Practice of Landscape Gardening, Adapted to North America. . . '', 4th ed. (New York: G. P. Putnam, 1849), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/5M4S2D64 view on Zotero].</ref>
:''“Open and covered '''seats''''', of various descriptions, are among the most convenient and useful decorations for the pleasure-grounds of a country residence. Situated in portions of the [[lawn]] or [[park]], somewhat distant from the house, they offer an agreeable place for rest or repose. If there are certain points from which are obtained agreeable [[prospect]]s or extensive [[view]]s of the surrounding country, a '''seat''', by designating those points, and by affording us a convenient mode of enjoying them, has a double recommendation to our minds.
:“Open and covered '''seats''' are of two distinct kinds; one ''architectural'', or formed after artist-like designs, of stone or [[wood]], in Grecian, Gothic, or other forms; which may, if they are intended to produce an elegant effect, have [[vase]]s on pedestals as accompaniments; the other, ''rustic'', as they are called, which are formed out of trucks and branches of trees, roots, etc., in their natural forms. . .
:“We consider rustic '''seats''' and structures as likely to be much preferred in the villa and cottage residences of the country. They have the merit of being tasteful and [[picturesque]] in their appearance, and are easily constructed by the amateur, at comparatively little or no expense. There is scarcely a prettier or more pleasant object for the termination of a long [[walk]] in the [[Pleasure_ground|pleasure-grounds]] or [[park]], than a neatly thatched structure of rustic work, with its '''seat''' for repose, and a [[view]] of the landscape beyond. . . [Fig. 17]
:''“Unity of expression'' is the maxim and guide in this department of the art, as in every other. . .
:“With regard to [[pavilion]]s, summer-houses, rustic '''seats''', and garden edifices of like character, they should, if possible, in all cases be introduced where they are manifestly appropriate or in harmony with the scene. Thus. . . a rustic covered '''seat''' may occupy a secluded, quiet portion of the grounds, where undisturbed meditation be enjoyed.”
* Sheridan, Thomas, 1789, ''A Complete Dictionary of the English Language'' (n.p.) <ref>Thomas A. Sheridan, ''A Complete Dictionary of the English Language, Carefully Revised and Corrected by John Andrews....'', 5th edn (Philadelphia: William Young, 1789), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/T5GU4CBQ view on Zotero].</ref>
:“*Ranlett, William H., 1849, ''The Architect''(1849; repr., 1976: 1:19)<ref>William H. Ranlett, 'SEAT'The Architect'', se’t2 vols. s(1849–51; repr. A chair, benchNew York: Da Capo, 1976), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/QGQPCB5J view on Zotero].</ref>:“Probably no portion of the globe, offers a greater variety of beautiful country '''seats''' than the vicinity of New-York. No man who has any taste for the retired tranquillity of a suburban retreat, or any thing on which one may sitthe lovely beauty of a [[picturesque]] scene, or the romantic grandeur of an enchanting landscape of cities, towns and country; chair rivers, bays and ocean, could fail to be suited with some of state; tribunal; mansionthe numerous situations on the undulated shores, abode; situationgentle declivities or towering heights of Staten Island, siteLong Island or the banks of the noble Hudson.”
[[File:0920.jpg|thumb|225px|Fig. 18, Anonymous, “Small Bracketed Cottage,” in [[A. J. Downing]], ''The Architecture of Country Houses'' (1850), pl. opp. 78, fig. 9.]]* Anonymous[[Andrew Jackson Downing|Downing, Andrew Jackson]], 1850, ''The Architecture of Country Houses'' (1850; repr., 17981968: 80–81)<ref>A. J. [Andrew Jackson] Downing, ''EncyclopaediaThe Architecture of Country Houses; Including Designs for Cottages, Farm-Houses, and Villas'' (71850; repr., New York:561D. Appleton; Da Capo, 1968), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/GRZPQXQI view on Zotero].</ref>:“The little rustic [[arbor]]s or covered '''seats''' on the outside of the bay window may be supposed to answer in some measure in the place of a [[veranda]], and convey at the first glance, an impression of refinement and taste attained in that simple manner so appropriate to a small cottage.” [Fig. 18]
:“‘V. '''SEATS''' have a two-fold use; they are useful as places of rest and conversation, and as guides to the points of [[view]] in which the beauties of the surrounding scene are disclosed. Every point of [[view]] should be marked with a '''seat'''; and speaking generally, no '''seat''' ought to appear but in some favourable point of [[view]]. This rule may not be invariable, but it ought seldom to be deviated from.
:“In the ruder scenes of neglected nature, the simple trunk, rough from the woodman’s hands, and the butts or stools of rooted trees, without any other marks of tools upon them than those of the saw which severed them from their stems, are '''seats''' in character; and in romantic or recluse situations, the cave or the [[grotto]] are admissible. But wherever human design has been executed upon the natural objects of the place, the '''seat''' and every other artificial accompaniment ought to be in unison; and whether the bench or the [[alcove]] be chosen, it ought to be formed and finished in such a manner as to unite with the [[wood]], the [[lawn]], and the [[walk]], which lie around it.
:“The colour of '''seats''' should likewise be suited to situations: where uncultivated nature prevails, the natural brown of the [[wood]] itself ought not to be altered; but where the rural art presides, white or stone colour has a much better effect.’ ''Practical Treatise on Planting and Gardening p. 593 &c.''”
*[[Andrew Jackson Downing|Downing, Andrew Jackson]], June 1850, “Our Country Villages” (''Horticulturist'' 4: 540–41)<ref>A. J. Downing, “Our Country Villages,” ''Horticulturist and Journal of Rural Art and Rural Taste'' 4, no. 12 (June 1850): 537–41, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/keywords_in_early_american_landscape_design/items/itemKey/2DJ27X4W/q/our%20country%20villages view on Zotero].</ref>
:“The next step, after the possession of such public pleasure-grounds, would be the social and common enjoyment of them. Upon the well-mown glades of [[lawn]], and beneath the shade of the forest trees, would be formed rustic '''seats'''. Little [[arbor]]s would be placed near, where in midsummer evenings ices would be served to all who wished them.”
* Repton, Humphry, 1803, ''Observations on the Theory and Practice of Landscape Gardening'' (pp. 69, 153) <ref>Humphry Repton, ''Observations on the Theory and Practice of Landscape Gardening'' (London: Printed by T. Bensley for J. Taylor, 1803), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/VVQPC3BI view on Zotero].</ref>
*[[Andrew Jackson Downing|Downing, Andrew Jackson]], March 1851, “The Management of Large Country Places” (''Horticulturist'' 6:“This would 105–6)<ref>A. J. Downing, “The Management of Large Country Places,” ''Horticulturist and Journal of Rural Art and Rural Taste'' 6, no. 3 (March 1851): 105–8, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/keywords_in_early_american_landscape_design/items/itemKey/HKQH76RW/q/management%20of%20large%20country%20places view on Zotero].</ref>:“All our country residences may readily be a proper divided into two classes. The first and largest class, is the suburban place for a covered of from five to twenty or thirty acres; the second is the country-'''seat''', with a shed behind it for horses or open carriages; but it should be set properly so far back as to command the [[view]] under the branches of treescalled, which are very happily situated for the purposeconsists of from 30 to 500 or more acres. . .:“Yet “But in the summit larger country places, there are ten instances of a naked browfailure for one of success. This is not owing to the want of natural beauty, for the sites are [[picturesque]], the surface varied, commanding and the [[viewwood]]s in every direction, may require a covered '''seat''' or and [[pavilionplantation]]; s excellent. The failure consists, for such the most part, in a situationcertain incongruity and want of distinct character in the treatment of the place as a whole. They are too large to be kept in order as pleasure-grounds, where an architectural building is proper, a circular while they are not laid out or treated as [[templepark]] with a domes. The grass which stretches on all sides of the house, such as the is partly mown for [[templelawn]] , and partly for hay; the lines of the Sybilsfarm and the ornamental portion of the grounds, or that of Tivolimeet in a confused and unsatisfactory manner, and the result is best calculateda residence pretending to be much superior to a common farm, and not yet rising to the dignity of a really tasteful country '''seat'''.”
* AbercrombieJaques, JohnGeorge, with James Mean, 1817January 1852, “Landscape Gardening in New-England” (''Abercrombie’s Practical GardenerHorticulturist'' (p. 4657: 35) <ref>John AbercrombieGeorge Jacques, “Landscape Gardening in New-England,” ''Abercrombie’s Practical Gardener Or, Improved System Horticulturist and Journal of Modern HorticultureRural Art and Rural Taste'' 7, no. 1 (LondonJanuary 1852): T. Cadell and W. Davies, 1817)33–36, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/keywords_in_early_american_landscape_design/items/itemKey/TH54TADZWMEDJ9XX/ q/landscape%20gardening%20in%20new-england view on Zotero].</ref>:“Let woodbine, honey-suckle and climbing roses, here entwine themselves around a [[column]], and wreath themselves there over a window. Here place a rustic '''seat''', half hid among the [[shrubbery]]; there lead a short [[walk]], carelessly curving towards a little vine-clad [[arbor]].”
:“Fine points of [[view]] claim, in the first place, to be distinguished by '''seats'''. '''Seats''' merely serving as places of rest might announce an intrinsic object by some difference in their construction; and if there be no distant [[prospect]] to engage attention, greater elegance in the accompaniments may create a pleasant resting-place. As to the manner of finishing a '''seat'''; where the house is in sight, a correct taste will expect the bench or [[alcove]] to correspond with the style of the house, so far at least as to be avowedly artificial, neat in the workmanship, and painted. In neglected or wild scenes, withdrawn from the polished [[lawn]], pleasing illusions may be induced by a rough block of timber, the arms of a fantastic root, or forest fagots romantically interwoven, offering a '''seat''' under the canopy of a tree, or within a cave or [[grotto]]. This is admissible on principle, in proportion as every thing surrounding is in character. Not that it can be denied, that whimsical '''seats''' at variance with the situation sometimes afford a degree of amusement, and may do no harm in little gardens, or in a scene too tame to be spoiled: but the effect terminates with the oddity; a place destitute of character can excite no romantic interest.”
<hr>
* Loudon, J. C., 1826, ''An Encyclopaedia of Gardening'' (pp. 355, 357, 809) ==Images=====Inscribed===<refspan id="roundabout_img">J. C. (John Claudius) Loudon, ''An Encyclopaedia of Gardening; Comprising the Theory and Practice of Horticulture, Floriculture, Arboriculture, and Landscape-Gardening'', 4th edn (London: Longman et al, 1826),[https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/KNKTCA4W view on Zotero].</refspan:“1805. ''Of convenient decorations'' the variety is almost endless, from the prospect-tower to the rustic '''seat'''; besides aquatic decorations, agreeable to the eye and convenient for the purposes of recreations or culture. Their emplacement, as in the former section, belongs to gardening, and their construction to architecture and engineering. . . .:“1816. ''Roofed '''seats''', boat-houses, moss houses, flint houses, bark huts'', and similar constructions, are different modes of forming resting-places containing '''seats''', and sometimes other furniture or conveniences in or near them. . . .:“1817. ''Roofed '''seats''' of a more polished description'' are boarded structures generally semi-octagonal, and placed so as to be open to the south. Sometimes they are portable, moving on wheels, so as to be placed in different positions, according to the hour of the day, or season of the year, which, in confined spots, is a desirable circumstance. Sometimes they turn on rollers, or on a central pivot, for the same object, and this is very common in what are called barrel-'''seats'''. In general they are opaque, but occasionally their sides are glazed, to admit the sun to the interior in winter.:“1818. ''Folding chairs''. A sort of medium '''seat''', between the roofed and the exposed, is formed by constructing the backs of chairs, benches, or sofas with hinges, so as they may fold down over the '''seat''', and so protect it from rain. . . .'':“1819. ''Elegant structures'' of the '''seat''' kind for summer use, may be constructed of iron rods and wires, and painted canvas; the iron forming the supporting skeleton, and the canvass the protecting tegument. . . .:“1820. ''Exposed '''seats''''' include a great variety, rising in gradation from the turf bank to the carved couch. Intermediate forms are stone benches, root stools, sections of trunks of trees, wooden, stone, or cast-iron mushrooms painted or covered with moss, or mat, or heath; the Chinese barrel-'''seat''', the rustic stool, chair, tripod, sofa, the cast-iron couch or sofa, the wheeling-chair, and many subvarieties. . . .:“6157. . . Light [[bower]]s formed of lattice-work, and covered with climbers, are in general most suitable to [[parterre]]s; plain covered '''seats''' suit the general [[walk]]s of the [[shrubbery]].”<gallery widths="170px" heights="170px" perrow="7">
Image:1722.jpg|[[James Gibbs]], “Two '''Seats''' for the ends of [[Walk]]s,” in ''A Book of Architecture'' (1728), pl. 82.
* AnonymousImage:1723.jpg|[[James Gibbs]], 26 April 1826“Two other '''Seats''' for the same purpose [for the ends of [[walk]]s], “On Landscapes and Picturesque Gardens” (” in ''New England FarmerA Book of Architecture'' 4: 316(1728), pl. 83.
Image:“A few fabrics0925.jpg|William Burgis, rustic ''A South East [[bridgeView]]s, [[hermitage]]s, a [[Temple]], or a Chinese Kiosk or Pagoda, not expensive of ye Great Town of Boston in New England in their executionAmerica'', would advantageously complete the embellishment of a country 1743. “Capt. Cunningham’s '''seatSeat'''” is inscribed over a grand house with beds/parterres in front.
Image:1737.jpg|Batty and Thomas Langley, “An Umbrello, to a '''Seat''', for to Terminate a [[walk]], [[View]], &c. in a Garden,” in ''Gothic Architecture'' (1747), pl. 31.
* Webster, Noah, 1828image:1688.jpg|William and John Halfpenny, “A [[Chinese_manner|Chinese]] [[Alcove]] '''Seat'An American Dictionary of the English Language'' (n.p.) <ref>Noah WebsterFronting Four Ways, ” in ''An American Dictionary of Rural Architecture in the English LanguageChinese Taste'', 2 vols. (New York: S. Converse, 18281755), [https://wwwpl.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/N7BSU467 view on Zotero]8.</ref>
File:“'''SEAT'''2262.jpg|Anonymous, ''n.'' The South West [[It. ''sedia''; Sp. s''ede, sitio'', from L. ''sedes, situs''; Sw. ''sate''; Dan. ''soede''; G. ''sitz''; D. ''zetel'', ''zitplaats''; W. ''sez''; Ir. ''saidh''; W. with a prefix, ''gosod'', whence ''gosodi'', to ''set''. See ''Set'' and ''Sit''. . . .Prospect]]:“1. That on which one sits. . . .:“3. Mansion; residence; dwelling; abode; as Italy of the '''''seat''Seat''' of empire. The Greeks sent colonies to seek a new '''''seat''''' in Gaul.:“In Alba he shall fix his royal '''''seat'''''. Dryden. :“4. Site; situation. The '''''seat''''' of Eden has never been incontrovertibly ascertained. . . .:“8. The place where a thing is settled or established. London is the '''''seat''''' Colonel George Boyd of business and opulence. So we sayPortsmouth, the '''''seat''''' of the musesNew Hampshire, the '''''seat''''' of artsNew England, the '''''seat''1774''' of commerce.
Image:0587.jpg|Anonymous, Plan of the Harbour and City of Annapolis, 1781.
* BridgemanImage:0461.jpg|[[Samuel Vaughan]], ThomasPlan of Bath [[Berkeley Springs|[Berkeley Springs]]], 1832VA, 1787, from the diary of [[Samuel Vaughan]], June–September 1787. Plan lists “bb” as “two [[Piazza]]s with ''The Young Gardener’s Assistant'seats' (p. 111) <ref> Thomas Bridgeman, ''The Young Gardener’s Assistant'', 3rd edn (New York: Geo. Robertson, 1832), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/9FU4SNZK view on Zotero].</ref>
Image:“In a retired part of the [flower] garden0338.jpg|Anonymous, a rustic '''seat''' may be formed, over and around which honey-suckles and other sweet and ornamental creepers and climbers may he A [[''sic''View]] trained on of [[trellisMount Vernon]]es'', so as to afford a pleasant retirementc. 1790.
Image:0021.jpg|Cornelius Tiebout, ''A [[View]] of the present '''Seat''' of his Excel. the Vice President of the United States'', 1790.
* Teschemacher, James EImage:1983.jpg|Jeremiah Paul, 1 August 1835, “Extracts from Foreign Publications” (“[[Robert Morris]]’ '''Seat'Horticultural Register'' 1: 308–9)on [[Schuylkill_River|Schuylkill]],” July 20, 1794.
Image:“''From an article On the various form and character of [[Arbour]]s as objects of use or ornament either in gardens or wild scenery [from Paxton’s Horticultural Register''], we extract the following passages. . . 1925.:“‘The closely shaven turf comes about ten feet inside the [[arch]]es where its edge is cutjpg|Alexander Robertson, and between that and Cleremont the [[basin]] is covered with a fine tawny sand, with an apparently confused but really symmetrical arrangement of marble pedestals, '''seatsseat''' and [[vase]]s with flowering plants placed upon themR. During summer a [[vase]] with a rare flowering plant is placed under each of the external [[arch]]es except four which serve as entrancesR. The entire effect is goodLivingston, and his may be considered as one of the best specimens of the artificial [[bower]] of the present day1796.’”
Image:0939.jpg|[[Charles Fraser]], ''Rice Hope: The '''Seat''' of Dr. William Read, Taken from One of the Rice Fields'', c. 1800.
* SayersImage:0141.jpg|Thomas Coram, Edward, 1838''The [[Grove]], ''The American Flower Garden Companion'Seat'(pp. 14, 19, 131) <ref>Edward Sayers, ''The American Flower Garden Companionof G.A. Hall, Adapted to the Northern StatesEsquire'' (Boston: Joseph Breck, 1838), [https://wwwc.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/GHTFN8B2 view on Zotero]1800.</ref>
Image:“At country residences, where a large extent is appropriated to this department [the [[flower garden]]], many convenient and pleasing appendages can be judiciously introduced; as rustic [[arbor]]s0345.jpg|Alexander Robertson (artist), rustic '''seats'''Francis Jukes (engraver), and [[rockeryMount Vernon]]; and if water can be connected, it always gives a good effect. All such appendages, I recommend to be constructed in as natural a manner as possible. . . .:“In extensive [[pleasure ground]]s the [[rockery]] has a good effect when placed distinct from the [[flower garden]]Virginia, and near a rustic [[arbor]] or ornamental [[bridge]], or '''seat'''; and if placed by the side of a retired [[walk]], near the [[lawn]] or grass [[plot]], it has an easy effect” 1800. . . .:“the margin of the [[pond]] should be planted with drooping willows and trees of a pendulous habit for shade, under which rustic '''seat''' might be properly placed for the accommodation of those who desire to view the sporting fishes, and other interesting objects by which they are surrounded.”
Image:2259.jpg|Anonymous, Plan of the Harvard [[Botanic Garden]], c. 1807. “N. Green-'''seats''' or turf banks.”
* WalshImage:0601.jpg|Anonymous, AlexanderA plan of the section of land on which the Believers live in the state of Ohio, 31 March 1841November 7, “Remarks on Ornamental Gardening” (1807. "'''Seat'New England Farmer'' 19: 308–9)" inscribed on top center left.
Image:“The garden and [[pleasure ground]] I would describe, is of an oblong form, 165 feet by 120 feet, with one end next the north side of the house1924. jpg|P. . .:“X X two Lodet, ''Clermont, 'seats''', each occupying 2 ft. . . . T T two 'Seat''seats'of the Chancellor Livingston - North River 1807'' . . . surrounded by an arched [[arbor]] 10 ft. high, thrown over the [[walk]], ornamented on one side with honeysuckle, on the other by climbing Boursaut rose.” [Fig1807. 9]
Image:0317.jpg|William Russell Birch, ''Montebello—The '''Seat''' of General Smith'', c. 1808.
* LoudonImage:0326.jpg|William Russell Birch, Jane, 1845“The [[View]] from Springland, ” in ''The Country ''Gardening for Ladies'Seats' (pp. 369–70) <ref>Jane Loudon, ''Gardening for Ladies; and Companion to of the Flower-GardenUnited States'', ed. by A. J. Downing (New York: Wiley & Putnam, 18451808), [https://wwwpl.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/3Q5GCH4I view on Zotero]2.</ref>
Image:“'''SEATS''' for gardens are either open or covered; the latter being in the form of root-houses, huts, [[pavilion]]s, [[temple]]s, [[grotto]]es, &c., and the former being either fixed, temporary, or portable. Fixed '''seats''' are commonly of stone, either plain stone benches without backs, or stone supports to wooden benches0311. Sometimes, also, wooden '''seats''' are fixedjpg|William Russell Birch, as when they are placed round a tree, or when boards are nailed to posts, or when '''seats''' are formed “Hoboken in imitation of mushroomsNew Jersey, as in the grounds at Redleaf. Fixed '''seatsSeat''' are also sometimes formed of turfMr. Portable '''seats''' are formed of [[wood]]John Stevens, sometimes contrived to have the back of the '''seat''' folded down when the '''seat''' is not in use; so as to exclude the weather, and avoid the dirt of birds which are apt to perch on them. Another kind of portable ''The Country 'seat''', which is frequently formed in iron, as shown in Seats''fig.'' 49, is readily wheeled from one part of the grounds to another; and the back of which also folds down to protect the United States'''seat''' from the weather. There is a kind of camp-stool which serves as a portable '''seat''', imported from Norway(1808), and sold at the low price of 2''s''pl. 6''d''. or 3''s''.; and there are also straw '''seats''', like half [[beehive]]s, which are, however, only used in garden-huts, or in any situation under cover, because in the open air they would be liable to be soaked with rain. There are a great variety of rustic '''seats''' formed of roots and crooked branches of trees, used both for the open garden and under cover; and there are also '''seats''' of cast and wrought iron, of great variety of form. There should always be some kind of analogy between the '''seat''' and the scene of which it forms a part; and for this reason rustic '''seats''' should be confined to rustic scenery; and the '''seats''' for a [[lawn]] or highly kept pleasure-ground ought to be of comparatively simple and architectural forms, and either of [[wood]] or stone, those of [[wood]] being frequently painted of a stone colour, and sprinkled over with silver sand before the paint is dry, to give them the appearance of stone. Iron '''seats''', generally speaking, are not sufficiently massive for effect; and the metal conveys the idea of cold in winter and heat in summer. [Fig. 10]:“When '''seats''' are placed along a [[walk]], a gravelled recess ought to be formed to receive them; and there ought, generally, to be a footboard to keep the feet from the moist ground, whether the '''seat''' is on gravel or on al awn [''sic'']. In a garden where there are several '''seats''', some ought to be in positions exposed to the sun, and others placed in the shade, and none ought to be put down in a situation where the back of the '''seat''' is seen by a person approaching it before the front. Indeed the backs of all fixed '''seats''' ought to be concealed by shrubs, or by some other means, unless they are circular '''seats''' placed round a tree. '''Seats''' ought not to be put down where there will be any temptation to the persons sitting on them to strain their eyes to the right or left, nor where the boundary of the garden forms a conspicuous object in the [[view]]. In general, all '''seats''' should be of a stone colour, as harmonizing best with vegetation. Noting can be more unartistical than '''seats''' painted a pea-green, and placed among the green of living plants.”
Image:0312.jpg|William Russell Birch, “Hampton, the '''Seat''' of Genl. Chas. Ridgely, Maryland,” in ''The Country '''Seats''' of the United States'' (1808), pl. 4.
* Downing, A. JImage:0303.jpg|William Russell Birch, 1849“Landsdown, the ''A Treatise on the Theory and Practice of Landscape Gardening'Seat' (pp. 454–56, 473–74) <ref>A. J. [Andrew Jackson] Downing, ''A Treatise on the Theory and Practice of Landscape Gardening, Adapted to North America; with a View to the Improvement of Country Residenceslate Wm. Bingham Esq. Comprising Historical Notices and General Principles of the Art, Directions for Laying out Grounds and Arranging PlantationsPennsylvania, the Description and Cultivation ” in ''The Country '''Seats''' of Hardy Trees, Decorative Accompaniments to the House and Grounds, the Formation of Pieces of Artificial Water, Flower Gardens, Etc.: With Remarks on Rural ArchitectureUnited States'', 4th edn (New York: G. P. Putnam, 18491808), [https://www.zoteropl.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/5M4S2D64 view on Zotero]5.</ref>
Image:''“Open and covered '''seats'''''0314.jpg|William Russell Birch, of various descriptions, are among the most convenient and useful decorations for the pleasure-grounds of a country residence. Situated in portions of the [[lawn]] or [[parkMount Vernon]], somewhat distant from the houseVirginia, they offer an agreeable place for rest or repose. If there are certain points from which are obtained agreeable [[prospect]]s or extensive [[view]]s of the surrounding country, a '''seat''', by designating those points, and by affording us a convenient mode of enjoying them, has a double recommendation to our minds.:“Open and covered '''seats''' are of two distinct kinds; one 'Seat'architectural'', or formed after artist-like designs, of stone or [[wood]], in Grecian, Gothic, or other forms; which may, if they are intended to produce an elegant effect, have [[vase]]s on pedestals as accompaniments; the other, ''rustic'', as they are called, which are formed out of trucks and branches of trees, roots, etclate Genl., in their natural forms. . . .:“We consider rustic '''seats''' and structures as likely to be much preferred in the villa and cottage residences of the countryG. They have the merit of being tasteful and [[picturesque]] in their appearanceWashington, and are easily constructed by the amateur, at comparatively little or no expense. There is scarcely a prettier or more pleasant object for the termination of a long [[walk]] in the [[pleasure-grounds]] or [[park]], than a neatly thatched structure of rustic work, with its ''The Country 'seat''Seats' for repose, and a [[view]] of the landscape beyond. . . . [Fig. 11]:''“Unity of expression'' is the maxim and guide in this department of the art, as in every other. . . .:“With regard to [[pavilion]]s, summer-houses, rustic '''seatsUnited States''', and garden edifices of like character, they should, if possible(1808), in all cases be introduced where they are manifestly appropriate or in harmony with the scene. Thus pl. 7. . a rustic covered '''seat''' may occupy a secluded, quiet portion of the grounds, where undisturbed meditation be enjoyed.”
Image:0302.jpg|William Russell Birch, “[[Fountain]] Green, Pennsylv.a the '''Seat''' of Mr. S. Meeker,” in ''The Country '''Seats''' of the United States'' (1808), pl. 8.
* RanlettImage:0316.jpg|William Russell Birch, William H“Devon in Pennsylv., 1849, a the '''Seat'The Architect'' ([1849] 1976: 1:19) <ref>William Hof Mr. RanlettDallas, ” in ''The ArchitectCountry '''Seats''' of the United States'', 2 vols. (New York: Da Capo, 19761808), [https://www.zoteropl.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/QGQPCB5J view on Zotero]10.</ref>
Image:“Probably no portion 0327.jpg|William Russell Birch, “[[Mount]] Sidney, the '''Seat''' of the globeGenl. John Baker, offers Pennsylv.a greater variety of beautiful country ,” in ''The Country '''seatsSeats''' than the vicinity of New-York. No man who has any taste for the retired tranquillity of a suburban retreatUnited States'' (1808), or the lovely beauty of a pl. 11. The inscription reads "[[picturesqueMount]] sceneSidney, or the romantic grandeur '''Seat''' of an enchanting landscape of citiesGen.l John Baker, towns and country; riversPennsylv.a / Drawn, bays and oceanEngraved & Published by W. Birch Springland, could fail to be suited with some of the numerous situations on the undulated shoresnear Bristol, gentle declivities or towering heights of Staten Island, Long Island or the banks of the noble HudsonPennsylvania."
Image:0318.jpg|William Russell Birch, “Montibello the '''seat''' of Genl. S. Smith Maryland,” in ''The Country Seats of the United States'' (1808), pl. 13.
* DowningImage:0304.jpg|William Russell Birch, A“[[The Woodlands|Woodlands]], the '''Seat''' of Mr. JWm.Hamilton, 1850Pennsylva., ” in ''The Architecture of Country Houses'' ([1850] 1968: 80–81) <ref>A. J. [Andrew Jackson] Downing, 'Seats'''The Architecture of Country Houses; Including Designs for Cottages, Farm-Houses, and Villasthe United States'' (Originally published New York; Reprint, New York: D. Appleton; Da Capo, 19681808), [https://wwwpl.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/GRZPQXQI view on Zotero]14.</ref>
Image:“The little rustic [[arbor]]s or covered 0319.jpg|William Russell Birch, “Sedgley '''seatsseat''' on the outside of the bay window may be supposed to answer Mr. Wm. Crammond Pennsylva,” in some measure in the place ''The Country '''Seats''' of a [[veranda]], and convey at the first glanceUnited States'' (1808), an impression of refinement and taste attained in that simple manner so appropriate to a small cottagepl.” [Fig15. 12]
Image:0301.jpg|William Russell Birch, “[[View]] from [[Belmont_(Philadelphia,_PA)|Belmont]] Pennsyla. the '''Seat''' of Judge Peters,” in ''The Country '''Seats''' of the United States'' (1808), pl.16.
* DowningImage:0320.jpg|William Russell Birch, “York-Island with a [[View]] of the '''Seats''' of Mr. A. JGracie, Mr. Church &c., June 1850, “Our ” in ''The Country Villages” (''Horticulturist'Seats''' of the United States'' 4: 540–41(1808), pl. 17.
Image:“The next step0322.jpg|William Russell Birch, after “China Retreat Pennsyl.<sup>a</sup> the possession '''Seat''' of such public pleasure-grounds, would be the social and common enjoyment of themM. Upon the well-mown glades of [[lawn]]<sup>r</sup> Manigault, and beneath the shade of the forest trees, would be formed rustic ” in ''The Country '''Seats''seats'of the United States''(1808), pl. Little [[arbor]]s would be placed near, where in midsummer evenings ices would be served to all who wished them19.
Image:0009.jpg|[[Charles Willson Peale]], Letter to Angelica Peale describing his garden at [[Belfield]], November 22, 1815.
* Downing, AImage:0164. Jjpg|Joshua H.Hayward, March 1851, “The Management “A [[View]] of Large Country Places” (the '''Seat'Horticulturist'' 6: 105–6)of Theodore Lyman, Esqr., in Waltham, taken on the principles of perspective,” Mathematical Thesis, 1818.
Image:“All our country residences may readily be divided into two classes0082. The first and largest classjpg|Cornelia Jefferson Randolph, is the suburban place of from five to twenty or thirty acres; the second is the country-attr., “A Garden '''seatSeat''', properly so called, which consists of from 30 to 500 or more acres. . . by Mr.:“But in the larger country placesJones, there are ten instances of failure for one of success. This is not owing to the want of natural beautyFrom Chamber’s Kew, for the sites are [[picturesque]], the surface varied, and the [[wood]]s and [[plantation]]s excellent” c. The failure consists, for the most part, in a certain incongruity and want of distinct character in the treatment of the place as a whole1820. They are too large to be kept in order as pleasure-grounds, while they are not laid out or treated as [[park]]s. The grass which stretches on all sides of the house, is partly mown for [[lawn]], and partly for hay; the lines of the farm and the ornamental portion of the grounds, meet in a confused and unsatisfactory manner, and the result is a residence pretending to be much superior to a common farm, and not yet rising to the dignity of a really tasteful country '''seat'''.”
Image:1176.jpg|Eliza Susan Quincy, ''View of the seat of Edmund Quincy Esqr.'', 1822. Inscribed on reverse: ''[[View]] / of the [[seat]] of Edmund Quincy Esqr.''
* JaquesImage:1334.jpg|[[J. C. Loudon]], George, January 1852Covered '''seats''' of the [[Rustic_style|rustic]] kind, “Landscape Gardening in New-England” (''HorticulturistAn Encyclopædia of Gardening'' 7: 35, 4th ed/ (1826), 357, fig. 336.
Image:“Let woodbine, honey-suckle and climbing roses, here entwine themselves around a 1335.jpg|[[columnJ. C. Loudon]], and wreath themselves there over a window. Here place a rustic Elegant structures of the '''seat'''kind, in ''An Encyclopædia of Gardening'', 4th ed. (1826), half hid among the [[shrubbery]]; there lead a short [[walk]]357, carelessly curving towards a little vine-clad [[arbor]]figs. 337 and 338.
==Images==Image:1354.jpg|[[J. C. Loudon]], Rough bench in [[Rustic_style|rustic]] hut decorated in [[Shrubbery|shrubberies]], in ''An Encyclopædia of Gardening'', 4th ed. (1826), 809, fig. 561.
===Inscribed===<span id="roundabout_img"></span><gallery widths="170px" heights="170px" perrow="7">Image:1792.jpg|Thomas Cole, ''[[View]] of Monte Video, the '''Seat''' of Daniel Wadsworth, Esq.'', 1828.
Image:10551707.jpg|[[Michael van der GuchtJ. C. Loudon]], “Four Designs for Cloisters,” in “'''Seat''' formed of moss and hazel rods" and "[[Trellis|Trellised]] [[A.-J. Dézallier d’Argenvillearch]]es for climbers, ” in ''The Theory and Practice An Encyclopædia of Gardening'' , new ed. (17121834), pl1196, figs. 960–62. 9
Image:17221764.jpg|James Gibbs[[J. C. Loudon]], "Two Seats for the ends of WalksA [[Rustic_style|rustic]] '''seat'''," in ''A Book of ArchitectureThe Suburban Gardener'' (17281838), pl467, fig. 82173.
Image:17230679.jpg|James GibbsW. Steel, "Two other Seats for the same purpose [for the ends Beech Hill, The Country '''Seat''' of walks]R. Gilmor, Esq.," in W. H. Carpenter and T. S. Arthur, eds., ''The Baltimore Book: A Book of ArchitectureChristmas and New Year’s Present'' (17281838), pl. 83opp. 184.
Image:09251420.jpg|William Burgis[[J. C. Loudon]], “Covered ''A South East View 'Seat''', of ye Great Town of Boston grotesque and [[Rustic_style|rustic]] Masonry,” Cheshunt Cottage, in New England in America''The Gardener’s Magazine'' 15, no. 117 (December 1839): 656, 1743fig. 168.
Image:17371904.jpg|Batty and Thomas Langley[[J. C. Loudon]], "An Umbrello, to Elevation of the Back Woodwork of a [[Rustic_style|Rustic]] Covered '''Seat''', for to Terminate a walkCheshunt Cottage, View, &c. in a Garden," in ''Gothic ArchitectureThe Gardener’s Magazine'' 15, no. 117 (1747December 1839): 660, plfig. 31168.
imageImage:16880936.jpg|William and John HalfpennyAlexander Walsh, "A Chinese Alcove Seat Fronting Four WaysTwo '''seats''' surrounded by an arched [[arbor]]," in ''Rural Architecture in the Chinese TasteNew England Farmer'' 19, no. 39 (1755March 31, 1841): 309, plfig. 84.
Image:03381824.jpg|cAnonymous, “Moveable Garden '''Seat''',” in [[Jane Loudon]], ''Gardening for Ladies; and Companion to the Flower-Garden'' (1845), 369, fig. 49. 1790
Image:00210844.jpg|1790[[Alexander Jackson Davis]], ''[[Montgomery Place]]—Shore '''Seat''''', c. 1847.
Image:19830358.jpg|Anonymous, “[[Rustic_style|Rustic]] '''Seat''',” [[Montgomery Place]], in [[Jeremiah PaulA. J. Downing]], "Robert Morris’ Seat on Schuylkilled.," July 20''Horticulturist'' 2, 1794no. 4 (October 1847): 157, fig. 26.
Image:03450361.jpg|1800Anonymous, “Beaverwyck, the '''Seat''' of Wm. P. Van Rensselaer, Esq.,” in [[A. J. Downing]], ''A Treatise on the Theory and Practice of Landscape Gardening'', 4th ed. (1849), pl. opp. 51, fig. 7.
Image:03010368.jpg|1808Anonymous, “The '''Seat''' of George Sheaff, Esq.,” in [[A. J. Downing]], ''A Treatise on the Theory and Practice of Landscape Gardening'', 4th ed. (1849), pl. between 58 and 59, fig. 12.
Image:03021891.jpg|1808Anonymous, “Simple [[Rustic_style|rustic]] '''seat''',” in [[A. J. Downing]], ''A Treatise on the Theory and Practice of Landscape Gardening'', 4th ed. (1849), 456, fig. 82.
Image:03031892.jpg|1808Anonymous, Simple [[Rustic_style|rustic]] '''seat''' made at the foot of a tree, in [[A. J. Downing]], ''A Treatise on the Theory and Practice of Landscape Gardening'', 4th ed. (1849), 456, fig. 83.
Image:03040397.jpg|1808Anonymous, “Covered '''seat''' or [[Rustic_style|rustic]] [[arbor]],” in [[A. J. Downing]], ''A Treatise on the Theory and Practice of Landscape Gardening'', 4th ed. (1849), 457, fig. 84.
Image:03111893.jpg|1808Anonymous, Covered '''Seat''' for a mineral, shell, or geological collection, in [[A. J. Downing]], ''A Treatise on the Theory and Practice of Landscape Gardening'', 4th ed. (1849), 457, fig. 85.
Image:03120398.jpg|1808Anonymous, “[[Rustic_style|Rustic]] Covered '''Seat''',” in [[A. J. Downing]], ''A Treatise on the Theory and Practice of Landscape Gardening'', 4th ed. (1849), 458, fig. 86.
Image:03141660.jpg|1808Robert B. Leuchars, Ground plan of [[conservatory]] designed for gentleman’s country '''seat''', in ''A Practical Treatise on the Construction, Heating, and Ventilation of Hothouses'' (1850), 95, fig. 32.
Image:03160854.jpg|1808[[Alexander Jackson Davis]], Shore '''Seat''' for [[Montgomery Place]], Annandale-on-Hudson, New York (elevation and plan), 1870—79.</gallery>
Image:0318.jpg|1808===Associated===<gallery widths="170px" heights="170px" perrow="7">
Image:03191055.jpg|1808Michael van der Gucht, “Four Designs for Cloisters,” in A.-J. Dezallier d’Argenville, ''The Theory and Practice of Gardening'' (1712), pl. 9.
Image:03200036.jpg|1808Thomas Lee Shippen, Plan of Westover, 1783. The '''seat''' can be seen at the top of the image, referencing the houses across the river from Westover.
Image:03220043_2.jpg|1808John Archibald Woodside, ''[[Lemon Hill]]'', 1807.
Image:03260313.jpg|William Russell Birch, “The Sun Reflecting on the Dew, a Garden scene, Echo, Pennsylv.a A Place Belonging to Mr. D. Bavarage,” in ''The Country '''Seats''' of the United States'' (1808), pl. 6.
Image:03270315.jpg|William Russell Birch, “Solitude in Pennsyla. belonging to Mr. Penn,” in ''The Country '''Seats''' of the United States'' (1808), pl. 9.
Image:03170321.jpg|cWilliam Russell Birch, “Mendenhall Ferry, [[Schuylkill_River|Schuylkill]], Pennsylvania,” ''The Country '''Seats''' of the United States'' (1808), pl. 18. 1808
Image:00090323.jpg|William Russell Birch, “[[Charles Willson PealeView]]from the Elysian Bower, Springland, Letter to Angelica Peale describing his garden at [[Belfield]]Pennsylv, Nova the residence of Mr W. 22Birch,” ''The Country '''Seats''' of the United States'' (1808), 1815pl. 20.
Image:01640051.jpg|1818William Strickland, “[[The Woodlands]],” 1809, in ''Casket'' 5, no. 10 (October 1830): pl. opp. 432.
Image:00820300.jpg|cThomas Birch, ''Fairmount Water Works'', 1821. 1820
Image:13340541.jpg|John T. Bowen, ''A [[J. C. LoudonView]], Covered seats of Fairmount Water-Works with [[Schuylkill_River|Schuylkill]] in the rustic kinddistance, in taken from the [[Mount]]''An Encyclopædia of Gardening'' (1826), p. 357, figs. 336-3361838.
Image:13350843.jpg|[[J. C. LoudonAlexander Jackson Davis]], Elegant structures of the seat kind[[Montgomery Place]], in ''An Encyclopædia of Gardening'' (1826), p. 357, figs. 337 and 3381844.
Image:13541049.jpg|N. Vautin, [[J. C. LoudonView]], Rough bench in rustic hut decorated in shrubberies, in ''An Encyclopædia of Gardening'' North Side (1826Rear)of Longfellow House, p. 809, fig. 561June 1845.
Image:17070357.jpg|[[Alexander Jackson Davis]], “[[Montgomery Place]],” in [[A. J. C. LoudonDowning]], "Seat formed of moss and hazel rods" and "Trellised arches for climbersed.," in ''An Encyclopædia of GardeningHorticulturist'' 2, no. 4 (1834October 1847), p: pl. 1196, figsopp. 960-962153.
Image:09360359.jpg|Alexander WalshAnonymous, Two seats surrounded by an arched arbor“The [[Lake]],” [[Montgomery Place]], in [[A. J. Downing]], ed., ''New England FarmerHorticulturist'' 192, no. 39 4 (Mar. 31, 1841October 1847): 309158, fig. 427.
Image:18241097.jpg|AnonymousThomas S. Sinclair, “Moveable Garden Seat,” in “Plan of the [[Jane LoudonPleasure_ground|Pleasure Grounds]]and Farm of the [[Pennsylvania Hospital for the Insane]] at Philadelphia,” in Thomas S. Kirkbride, ''Gardening for Ladies; and Companion to the Flower-GardenAmerican Journal of Insanity'' 4, no. 4 (1845April 1848), p: pl. 369, figopp. 49280.
Image:03580363.jpg|Anonymous, “[[View]] in the [[Meadow]] [[Park]] at Geneseo,” in [[A. J. Downing]], ed., ''Horticulturist'' 3, no. 4 (October 18471848): pl. opp. 153.
Image:03630350.jpg|October 1848[[Alexander Jackson Davis]], “View in the Grounds at Blithewood,” in [[A. J. Downing]], ''A Treatise on the Theory and Practice of Landscape Gardening'', 4th ed. (1849), frontispiece.
Image:14200355.jpg|Anonymous, "Covered Seat, of grotesque and rustic Masonry“[[View]] in the Grounds at Hyde Park," in [[A. J. Downing]], ''A Treatise on the Theory and Practice of Landscape Gardening'' , 4th ed. (1849), ppl. opp. 50945, fig. 121.
Image:03610367.jpg|Anonymous, “[[View]] in the Grounds of James Arnold, Esp.,” in [[A. J. Downing]], ''A Treatise on the Theory and Practice of Landscape Gardening'', 4th ed. (1849), pl. opp. 57.
Image:10010378.jpg|Anonymous, "Mount Fordham—the Country Seat “Plan of Lewis G. Morris, Esq.a Suburban Villa Residence," in [[A. J. Downing]], ed., ''HorticulturistA Treatise on the Theory and Practice of Landscape Gardening'' 6, no4th ed. 8 (Aug. 11849), 118, 1851): pl. opp. pfig. 34526.
Image:0920.jpg|Anonymous, “Small Bracketed Cottage,” in [[A. J. Downing]], ''The Architecture of Country Houses'' (1850), pl. opp. 78, fig. 9.
</gallery>
===AssociatedAttributed===
<gallery widths="170px" heights="170px" perrow="7">
Image:00360673.jpg|1783Archibald L. Dick, ''The Battle Ground at Germantown, Cliveden or Chew’s House'', n.d.
Image:11621680.jpg|Anonymous, Plan of the Harvard Botanic Garden'''seat''' from Somerset County, early 19th centuryMD, 1780.
Image:00430477.jpg|1807John Scoles, “Government House,” January 1795.
Image:03130324.jpg|1808William Russell Birch, “Back of the State House, Philadelphia,” 1800.
Image:03150509.jpg|1808[[Charles Fraser]], Rice Hope, c. 1803.
Image:03210330.jpg|1808[[Anne-Marguerite-Henriette Rouillé de Marigny Hyde de Neuville]], attr., ''Tomb du grande Washington au [[Mount Vernon]]'', 1818.
Image:03230120.jpg|1808Anonymous, ''By the Sea'', c. 1820.
Image:00511949.jpg|1809Mary Ann Lucy Gries, Needlework sampler with garden bench, 1826.
Image:03000675.jpg|1821[[Alexander Jackson Davis]], “[[View]] of the Battery and Castle Garden,” 1826–28.
Image:10251948.jpg|AnonymousMrs. G. W. Whitney, "Entrance to Mount Auburn," in The Adams '''Seat'American Magazine of Useful and Entertaining Knowledge'' 1in Quincy, no. 1 (September 1834): p. 91828.
Image:10490811.jpg|N. Vautin[[Alexander Jackson Davis]], ''[[View ]] of North Side (Rear) of Longfellow HouseSt. John’s Chapel, From the [[Park]]'', June 18451829.
Image:03571043.jpg|October 1847Sidney Mason Stone, House for Roger Sherman Baldwin, New Haven, CT, c. 1830–40.
Image:10970490.jpg|Thomas SArchibald L. SinclairDick, "Plan of “Elysian Fields, Hoboken (New York in the Pleasure Grounds and Farm of the Pennsylvania Hospital for the Insane at Philadelphiadistance)," in Thomas S. Kirkbride, ''American Journal of Insanity[[View]]s in New-York and its Environs'' 4 (April 18481831—34): n.p.
Image:03501025.jpg|1849Anonymous, “Entrance to [[Mount Auburn Cemetery|Mount Auburn]],” in ''American Magazine of Useful and Entertaining Knowledge'' 1, no. 1 (September 1834): 9.
Image:03550486.jpg|1849James Smillie, “Bay and Harbour of New York, From the Battery,” 1831. </gallery>Image:0424.jpg|[[Alexander Jackson Davis]], Ithiel Town, and James Dakin, ''New York University, Washington Square'', 1833.
===Attributed===<gallery widths="170px" heights="170px" perrow="7">Image:0464.jpg|Nicolino Calyo, ''Harlem, the Country House of Dr. Edmondson'', 1834.
Image:03300252.jpg|n.dHenry Walton, Three Sisters in a Landscape, 1838.
Image:16801033.jpg|Anonymous, Garden seat from Somerset County“Forest [[Pond]], Md.” in ''The [[Picturesque]] Pocket Companion, and Visitor’s Guide, through Mount Auburn'' (1839), 1780171.
Image:03241477.jpg|1799Anonymous, Honorary membership certificate for Nicholas Biddle in “The Horticultural Association of the Valley of the Hudson” [detail], June 1839.
Imageimage:09390525.jpg|[[Charles Fraser]]William E. Winner, ''Rice Hope: The Seat of Dr. William Read, Taken from One of the Rice FieldsGarden Scene Near Philadelphia'', c. 18001840.
Image:01241103.jpg|1806W. Mason, “[[Pennsylvania Hospital for the Insane]],” c. 1841, in Thomas S. Kirkbride, ''Reports of the Pennsylvania Hospital for the Insane: for the Year 1841'' (1841), frontispiece.
Image:01200895.jpg|cEdwin Whitefield, Sketch of Pokahoe, 1841–44. A seat is located on the lawn, nestled in the trees, seen left of center of the view. 1820
Image:19490448.jpg|Mary Ann Lucy GriesAnonymous, Needlework sampler with garden bench''Brother and Sister'', 1826c. 1845.
Image:10432283.jpg|Sidney Mason StoneAnonymous (artist), House for Roger Sherman BaldwinNathaniel Currier (lithographer), “[[View]] of the Great Conflagration at New HavenYork, Conn” 1845., c. 1830-40The seats are located around the fountain.
Image:02521063.jpg|1838James Smillie, “[[Mount Auburn Cemetery]],” in Cornelia W. Walter, ''Mount Auburn Illustrated'' (1847; repr., 1850), frontispiece.
Image:10330110.jpg|AnonymousJoseph Goldsborough Bruff (artist), "Forest PondEdward Weber & Co. (lithographer)," in ''The Picturesque Pocket Companion, Elements of National Thrift and Visitor’s Guide, through Mount AuburnEmpire'' (1839), pc. 1711847.
Image:14770487.jpg|AnonymousWilliam Wade, Honorary membership certificate for Nicholas Biddle in “The Horticultural Association of ''Castle Garden: From the Valley of the Hudson” [detail]Battery'', June 18391848.
Image:11030384.jpg|W. MasonAnonymous, "Pennsylvania Hospital for the Insane“The Bracketed Mode," c” in [[A. 1841, in Thomas SJ. KirkbrideDowning]], ''Reports A Treatise on the Theory and Practice of the Pennsylvania Hospital for the InsaneLandscape Gardening'' , 4th ed. (18511849), frontispiece393, fig. 52.
Image:10630547.jpg|James Smillie, "Mount Auburn Cemetery," in Cornelia W. WalterErnst Georg Fischer, ''Mount Auburn IllustratedDr. Edmondson and Family'' (, c. 1850 [1847]), frontispiece.
Image:01100442.jpg|Anonymous, ''Memorial to Nicholas M.S. Catlin'', c. 18471852.
Image:03590218.jpg|October 1847Augustus Weidenbach, ''[[Belvedere]]'', c. 1858.
Image:02180396.jpg|cAnonymous, “A circular [[pavilion]],” in [[A. J. Downing]], ''A Treatise on the Theory and Practice of Landscape Gardening'', 4th ed. (1849), 456, fig. 81. 1858
Image:1001.jpg|Anonymous, “Mount Fordham—the Country '''Seat''' of Lewis G. Morris, Esq.,” in [[A. J. Downing]], ed., ''Horticulturist'' 6, no. 8 (August 1851): pl. opp. 345.
</gallery>
 
<hr>
==Notes==
[[Category: Keywords]]
[[Category: Garden Ornaments/Embellishments]]
[[Category: Architecture]]

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