===Usage===
*Anonymous, n.d., advertising design and construction services for parks and gardens (quoted in Chase 1973: 37–39): <ref>David B. Chase, ‘The Beginnings of the Landscape Tradition in America’, Historic Preservation, 25 (1973), 34–41, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/KJMNEZBX view on Zotero] . </ref>
:“Designs all sorts of Buildings, well suited to both town and country, [[Pavilion]]s, Summer-Rooms, '''Seats''' for Gardens . . . also Water-houses for [[Park]]s . . . Eye Traps to represent a Building terminating a [[walk]], or to hide some disagreeable Object, Rotundas, Colonades, [[Arcade]]s, Studies in [[Park]]s or Gardens, [[Green House]]s for the Preservation of Herbs.”
* Strachey, William, 1612, describing the seats of Powhatan in Virginia (quoted in Wright and Freund 1967: 57) <ref> Louis B. Wright and Virginia Freund, eds., ''The Historie of Travell into Virginia Britania (1612)'' (Nendeln and Liechtenstein: Kraus, 1967), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/NUX26H7J view on Zotero].</ref>
:“He hath divers '''seates''' or howses, his Chief when we came into the Country was upon ''Pamunky''-River, on the North side which we call Pembrook-side, called ''Werowocomaco'', which by interpretacion signifyes Kings-howse.”
*Byrd, William, II, c. 25 June 1729, describing Westover, seat of William Byrd II, on the James River, Va. (quoted in Tinling 1977: 1:410) <ref> Marion Tinling, ed., ''The Correspondence of the Three William Byrds of Westover, Virginia, 1684-1776'', 2 vols. (Charlottesville, Va.: University Press of Virginia, 1977),[https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/J5UXEFHR view on Zotero].</ref>
:“My habitation has the na[me of] the prettyest '''seat''' in this country.”
* Grove, William Hugh, 1732, describing Williamsburg, Va. (quoted in Stiverson and Butler 1977: 26) <ref>Gregory A. Stiverson and Patrick H. Butler III, eds., ‘Virginia in 1732: The Travel Journal of William Hugh Grove’, ''Virginia Magazine of History and Biography'', 85 (1977), 18–44, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/ACNK9DG9 view on Zotero].</ref>
:“I went by ship up the [York] river, which has pleasant '''Seats''' on the Bank which Shew Like little villages, for having Kitchins, Dayry houses, Barns, Stables, Store houses, and some of them 2 or 3 Negro Quarters all Seperate from Each other but near the mansion houses make a shew to the river of 7 or 8 distinct Tenements, tho all belong to one family.”
* Rush, Dr. Benjamin, 15 July 1782, describing the country seat of John Dickinsen, near Philadelphia, Pa. (quoted in Caemmerer 1950: 87) <ref name="Caemmerer 1950"> H. Paul Caemmerer, ''The Life of Pierre-Charles L’Enfant, Planner of the City Beautiful, The City of Washington'' (Washington, D.C.: National Republic Publishing Company, 1950), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/PHWTAERT view on Zotero].</ref>
:“The ground contiguous to this shed was cut into beautiful [[walk]]s and divided with cedar and pine branches into artificial [[grove]]s. The whole, both the buildings and [[walk]]s, were accommodated with '''seats'''.”
* Shippen, Thomas Lee, 31 December 1783, describing Westover, seat of William Byrd III, on the James River, Va. (1952: n.p.) <ref>Thomas Lee Shippen, ''Westover Described in 1783: A Letter and Drawing Sent by Thomas Lee Shippen, Student of Law in Williamsburg, to His Parents in Philadelphia'' (Richmond, Va.: William Byrd Press, 1952), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/3IWWPMJ5 view on Zotero].</ref>
:“I have markd some little crooked ugly figures for Gentlemen’s '''seats''', which tho’ they do not beautify indeed the picture, add much to the [[prospect]], about as many '''Seats''' are to be seen on the other side.” [Fig. 8]
* Cutler, Rev. Manasseh, 13 July 1787, describing The Hills (later Lemon Hill), estate of Robert Morris, Philadelphia, Pa. (1987: 1:256–57) <ref> William Parker Cutler, ''Life, Journals, and Correspondence of Rev. Manasseh Cutler, LL. D'' (Athens, Ohio: Ohio University Press, 1987), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/3PBNT7H9 view on Zotero].</ref>
:“We continued our route, in [[view]] of the Schuylkill, and up the river several miles, and took a [[view]] of a number of Country-'''seats''', one belonging to Mr. R. Morris, the American financier, and who is said to be possessed of the greatest fortune in America. His country-'''seat''' is not yet completed, but it will be superb. It is planned on a large scale, the gardens and [[walk]]s are extensive, and the villa, situated on an [[eminence]], has a commanding [[prospect]] down the Schuylkill to the Delaware.”
* G., L., 15 June [1788?], describing the Woodlands, '''seat''' of William Hamilton near Philadelphia, Pa. (quoted in Madsen 1989: 19) <ref> Karen Madsen, ‘To Make His Country Smile: William Hamilton’s Woodlands’, ''Arnoldia'', 49 (1989), 14–23,
[https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/K567H4M4 view on Zotero].</ref>
:“[The [[walk]]s were] planted on each side with the most beautiful & curious flowers & shrubs. They are in some parts enclosed with the Lombardy poplar except here & there openings are left to give you a [[view]] of some fine trees or beautiful [[prospect]] beyond, & in others, shaded by [[arbour]]s of the wild grape, or [[clump]]s of large trees under which are placed '''seats''' where you may rest yourself & enjoy the cool air.”
* Wansey, Henry, 1794, describing Worcester, Mass. ([1794] 1970: 64) <ref>Henry Wansey, ''Henry Wansey and His American Journal'', ed. by David John Jeremy (Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society, 1970), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/UQTHRX3W view on Zotero].</ref>
:“Most of the houses have a large court before them, full of lilacs and other shrubs, with a '''seat''' under them, and a paved [[walk]] up the middle.”
* Blandulus [pseud.], November 1794, describing Pleasant Hill, '''seat''' of Joseph Barrell, Charlestown, Mass. (quoted in Hammond 1982: 95) <ref>Charles Arthur Hammond, ‘“Where the Arts and the Virtues Unite”: Country Life Near Boston, 1637-1864’ (unpublished Ph.D. diss., Boston University, 1982), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/VVFZVIKT view on Zotero].</ref>
:“Whereonce the breastwork mark’d the scenes of
* Dwight, Timothy, 1796, describing mill seats in Massachusetts (1821: 2:352)<ref name="Dwight">Timothy Dwight, ''Travels; in New-England and New-York'', 4 vols. (New Haven: The Author, 1821-22), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/VHBP7TH2 view on Zotero].</ref>
:“Immediately below the [[bridge]] [over Miller’s River] is a [[fall]], furnishing excellent mill-'''seats''', which are occupied by several mills. These are uniformly supplied with an abundance of water, and wear the aspect of great activity, and business, particularly in the sawing of timber.”
* La Rochefoucauld Liancourt, François-Alexandre-Frédéric, duc de, 1799, describing a house in Charleston, S.C. (1800: 2:437–38) <ref> François-Alexandre-Frédéric, duc de La Rochefoucauld Liancourt, ''Travels through the United States of North America, the Country of the Iroquois, and Upper Canada, in the Years 1795, 1796, and 1797'', ed. by Brisson Dupont and Charles Ponges, trans. by H. Newman, 2nd edn, 4 vols. (London: R. Philips, 1800), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/SRMDWJ2M view on Zotero].</ref>
:“Half a mile from Batavia . . . stands Middletonhouse, the property of Mrs. MIDDLETON, mother-in-law to young Mr. Isard, which is esteemed the most beautiful house in this part of the country. The out-buildings, such as kitchen, wash-house, and offices, are very capacious. The ensemble of these buildings calls to recollection the ancient English country-'''seats'''.”
*La Rochefoucauld Liancourt, François-Alexandre-Frédéric, duc de, 1799, describing the Woodlands, seat of William Hamilton, near Philadelphia, Pa. (quoted in Madsen 1988: B3) <ref>Karen Madsen, ‘William Hamilton’s Woodlands’, 1988, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/XN8NN9QN view on Zotero].</ref>
:“You pass the Schuylkill at Gray’s-Ferry, the road to which runs below Woodlands, the '''seat''' of Mr. William Hamilton: it stands high, and is seen upon an [[eminence]] from the opposite side of the river.”
* Ogden, John Cosens, 1800, describing Bethlehem, Pa. (pp. 18, 27) <ref>John C. Ogden, ''An Excursion into Bethlehem & Nazareth, in Pennsylvania, in the Year 1799''(Philadelphia: Charles Cist, 1800), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/U5CTTBGB view on Zotero].</ref>
:“'''Seats''' are placed for rest, and to enable the visitors to [[view]] the river at leisure. . . .
* Clitherall, Eliza Caroline Burgwin (Caroline Elizabeth Burgwin), active 1801, describing the Hermitage, seat of John Burgwin, Wilmington, N.C. (quoted in Flowers 1983: 126) <ref>John Flowers, ‘People and Plants: North Carolina’s Garden History Revisited’, ''Eighteenth Century Life'', 8 (1983), 117–29, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/FCVW8GHV view on Zotero].</ref>
:“These [gardens] were extensive and beautifully laid out. There was [''sic'''''Bold text'''] [[alcove]]s and summer houses at the termination of each [[walk]], '''seats''' under trees in the more shady recesses of the Big Garden, as it was called, in distinction from the [[flower garden]] in front of the house.”
* Martin, William Dickinson, 1809, describing the pleasure grounds at Salem Academy, Salem, N.C. (quoted in Bynum 1979: 29) <ref name="Bynum 1979">Flora Ann L. Bynum, ''Old Salem Garden Guide'' (Winston-Salem, N.C.: Old Salem, 1979), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/TJB9XNMF view on Zotero].</ref>
:“Next, I visited a [[flower garden]] belonging to the female department. . . . But it is situated on a hill, the East end of which is high & abrupt; some distance down this, they had dug down right in the earth, & drawing the dirt forward threw it on rock, etc., thereby forming a horizontal plane of about thirty feet in circumference; & on the back, rose a perpendicular [[terrace]] of some height, which was entirely covered over with a grass peculiar to that vicinage. At the bottom of this [[terrace]] were arranged circular '''seats''', which, from the height of the hill in the rear were protected from the sun in an early hour in the afternoon.”
* Smith, Margaret Bayard, 1 August 1809, describing Monticello, plantation of Thomas Jefferson, Charlottesville, Va. (1906: 73) <ref>Margaret Bayard Smith, ''The First Forty Years of Washington Society'', ed. by Gaillard Hunt (New York: Charles Scribner’s, 1906), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/FTDFHRFH view on Zotero].</ref>
:“Mr. J. explained to me all his plans for improvement, where the roads, the [[walk]]s, the '''seats''', the little [[temple]]s were to be placed.”
* Foster, Sir Augustus John, 1812, describing Monticello, plantation of Thomas Jefferson, Charlottesville, Va. (1954: 143) <ref>Sir Augustus John Foster, ''Jeffersonian America: Notes on the United States of America Collected in the Years 1805-1806-1807 and 1811-1812'', ed. by Richard Beale Davis (San Marino, Calif.: Huntington Library, 1954), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/7FU8NDF4 view on Zotero].</ref>
:“It is a very delightful ride of twenty-eight miles from Montpellier to the late President Mr. Jefferson’s '''seat''' at Monticello.”
* Lambert, John, 1816, describing Boston, Mass. (2:328) <ref>John Lambert, ''Travels through Canada, and the United States of North America in the Years 1806, 1807, and 1808'', 2 vols. (London: Baldwin, Cradock, and Joy, 1816), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/T9KUEDWH view on Zotero].</ref>
:“From an elevated part of the town the spectator enjoys a succession of the most beautiful [[view]]s that imagination can conceive. Around him, as far as the eye can reach, are to be seen towns, villages, country '''seats''', rich farms, and pleasure-grounds, seated upon the summits of small hills, hanging on the brows of gentle [[slope]]s, or reclining in the laps of spacious valleys, whose shores are watered by a beautiful river, across which are thrown several [[bridge]]s and causeways.”
* Peale, Charles Willson, c. 1825, describing Belfield, estate of Charles Willson Peale, Germantown, Pa. (Miller, Hart, and Ward, eds., 2000: 381) <ref>
Lillian B. Miller and et al, eds., ''The Selected Papers of Charles Willson Peale and His Family: The Autobiography of Charles Willson Peale. Vol. 5.'' (New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1983–2000), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/IZAKPCBG view on Zotero].</ref>
:“He wanted a place to keep the garden seeds & Tools, and in a part of the Garden where a '''seat''' in the shade was often wanted, he built a shed or small room, and to hide that Salt-like-box, and to try his art of Painting, he made the front like [a] [[Gate]] Way with a step to form a '''seat''', and above, steps painted as representing a passage through an [[Arch]] beyond which was represented a western sky, and to ornament the upper part over the [[arch]], he painted several figures on boards cut to the outlines of said figures as representing [[statue]]s in sculpture.”
* Sheldon, John P., 10 December 1825, describing Fairmount Waterworks, Philadelphia, Pa. (quoted in Gibson 1988: 5) <ref>Jane Mork Gibson, ‘The Fairmount Waterworks’, ''Bulletin, Philadelphia Museum of Art'', 84 (1988), 5–40, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/RZEZDDEN view on Zotero].</ref>
:“Delightful '''seats''', surrounded by various kinds of trees and [[shrubbery]], with gardens containing summer houses, [[vista]]s, embowered [[walk]]s, &c meet your [[view]] in almost every direction, [[wood]]s sloping gently to the river’s edge, by the side of smooth [[lawn]]s, add to the pleasing variety of the scene; and the Schuylkill, with its noble dam and [[bridge]]s serves as a most beautiful finish to the foreground.”

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