==History==
[[File:0312.jpg|thumb|252px|Fig. 1, William Russell Birch, “Hampton, the Seat of Genl. Chas. Ridgely, Maryland,” in ''The Country Seats of the United States'' (2009), (1808), pl. 4.]]
In the discourse of landscape design, seat possessed two distinct yet equally prevalent meanings, as indicated by Thomas Sheridan’s 1789 dictionary entry. One sense referred to seat as a large estate, usually marked by a country house or mansion, for example, [[William Hamilton|William Hamilton’s]] [[The Woodlands]], near Philadelphia; or General Charles Ridgely’s Hampton, in Baltimore County, Maryland. A seat was also a garden structure for sitting.
In the discourse The meaning of landscape design, seat possessed two distinct yet equally prevalent meanings, as indicated estate was exemplified in colonial America by Thomas Sheridan’s 1789 dictionary entryWilliam Byrd II’s Westover, on the James River, Virginia, and [[Henry Pratt|Henry Pratt’s]] [[Lemon Hill]] in Philadelphia. One sense referred Such country houses were often featured in portraits that flattered the owner and signaled to the public that the colonies and new republic were home to seat as a large estatecultured elite rivaling that of Great Britain. These images typically located the house at the center of the property, with the landscape and various outbuildings extending beyond it. This placement, usually marked by a country which communicated the importance of the house or mansionas the base of operations for the landowner, was a visual shorthand for examplethe landowner’s affluence and power. Observers such as William Hugh Grove (1732) and Thomas Gwatkin (1770) often likened seats to small villages. By the mid 18th century, however, the community-like aspects of seats were downplayed in favor of their rural associations, which contrasted sharply with the increasingly crowded conditions of America’s cities. English emigré William Hamilton’s WoodlandsRussell Birch, in his series ''The Country Seats of the United States of America'' (1808), depicted the homes of the mid-Atlantic elite situated in naturalistic landscapes in emulation of British tableaux [Fig. 1].<ref>Emily Tyson Cooperman, near Philadelphia“William Russell Birch (1755–1834) and the Beginnings of the American Picturesque” (PhD diss., University of Pennsylvania, 1999), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/VSCXM9WR view on Zotero]. See also Emily T. Cooperman, introduction to ''The Country Seats of the United States of North America'', by William Russell Birch (1808; or Genrepr. Charles Ridgely’s Hampton, in Baltimore CountyPhiladelphia: University of Pennsylvania, 2009), Md[https://www. A seat was also a garden structure for sittingzotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/TNTZAF2Q view on Zotero].</ref>
The meaning of [[File:1680.jpg|thumb|left|252px|Fig. 2, Anonymous, Garden seat as estate was exemplified in colonial America by William Byrd II’s Westoverfrom Somerset County, on the James RiverMD, Va1780.]] [[File:0854.jpg|thumb|Fig. 3, and Henry Pratt’s [[Lemon HillAlexander Jackson Davis]] in Philadelphia , Shore Seat for [[FigMontgomery Place]], Annandale-on-Hudson, New York (elevation and plan), 1870—79. 1]. Such country houses were often featured in portraits that flattered the owner and signaled to the public that the colonies and new republic were home to ]As a cultured elite rivaling that of Great Britain. These images typically located the house at the center category of the propertygarden furniture, with seat could refer to either thelandscape and various outbuildings extending beyond itobject upon which one sat [Fig. This placement, which communicated 2] or the importance of the house as the base of operations for the landowner, was a visual shorthand for the landowner’s affluence and powerstructure housing such objects [Fig. 3]. Observers Accounts found in foreign treatises available in America (such as those by Antoine-Joseph Dezallier D’Argenville, Isaac Ware, William Hugh Grove (1732) Marshall, Humphry Repton, and Thomas Gwatkin (1770John Abercrombie) often likened focused on seats as places of rest, terminations to [[walk]]s, or vantage points from which to small villagescontemplate [[view]]s. By the mid-eighteenth centuryLike other garden structures, howeversuch as [[pavilion]]s or [[summerhouse]]s, seats influenced the community-like aspects viewer’s experience of the garden by providing points of seats were downplayed rest that framed [[vista]]s in favor of their rural associations, which contrasted sharply with the increasingly crowded conditions garden and [[view]]s beyond. The use of America’s citiesseats to direct one’s route through a garden was demonstrated by [[A. J. English emigré William Russell Birch, Downing]] in his series ''The Country Seats 1847 description of the United States of America'' (1808)[[Montgomery Place]], Dutchess County, depicted New York. [[Andrew Jackson Downing|Downing]] noted the homes placement of various seats and related [[view]]s that he encountered on the mid- Atlantic elite situated in naturalistic landscapes in emulation course of British tableaux his [Fig. 2[walk]]through the grounds.<ref>Emily Tyson CoopermanMany other garden observers, including Henry Wansey (1794), “William Russell Birch John Cosens Ogden (1755–18341800) , and Eliza Caroline Burgwin Clitherall (active 1801), also commented upon the Beginnings of the American Picturesque” (Ph.D. diss.interrelationships between seats, University of Pennsylvania[[walk]]s, 1999)and [[view]]s. See also Emily TPopular gardening journals likewise recommended placing seats along [[walk]]s. CoopermanFor example, introduction to in 1841 Alexander Walsh proposed a number of seats in a garden design published in the ''The Country Seats of the United States of North AmericaNew England Farmer''. Two seats were situated at cross-walks and another two were ensconced in an arched [[arbor]], by William Russell Birch (1808; reprint, Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania, 2009)placed alongside the main axial [[walk]].</ref>
As a category of garden furniture, seat could refer to either the object upon which one sat [Fig[File:1723. 3] or the structure housing such objects [jpg|thumb|Fig. 4, [[James Gibbs]]. Accounts found in foreign treatises available in America (such as those by A.-J. Dézallier D’Argenville, Isaac Ware, William Marshall, Humphry Repton, and JohnAbercrombie) focused on seats as places “Two other Seats for the same purpose [for the ends of rest, terminations to [[walk]]s],” in ''A Book of Architecture'' (1728), or vantage points from which to contemplate [[viewpl. 83.]]sGarden seats took on a variety of forms. Like other garden structuresIn the 18th century, European and British pattern books and design manuals such as [[pavilionJames Gibbs|James Gibbs’s]]s or ''A Book of Architecture'' (1728) were an important source for American seat designs [[summerhouseFig. 4]]s, seats influenced the viewer’s experience of the garden . Drawings by providing points of rest that framed [[vistaThomas Jefferson]]s in the garden and [[view]]s beyond. The use of seats to direct one’s route through a garden was demonstrated by A. J. Downing in his 1847 description of Montgomery Placegranddaughter, Dutchess CountyCornelia Jefferson Randolph [Fig. 5], N.Y. Downing noted demonstrate the placement influence of various seats and related [[view]]s that he encountered William Kent’s designs on the course of his [[walk]] through the grounds. Many other garden observersfurniture, including Henry Wansey (1794)which appeared in William Chambers’s ''Plans, John Cosens Ogden (1800)Elevations, Sections and Eliza Caroline Burgwin Clitherall Perspective Views of the Gardens and Buildings at Kew in Surrey'' (active 18011763), also commented upon the interrelationships between seats, [[walk]]s, and a volume that [[viewsThomas Jefferson|Jefferson]]owned. Popular gardening journals likewise recommended placing seats along [[walk]]s. For example<ref> William Bainter O’Neal, in 1841 Alexander Walsh proposed a number of seats in a garden design published in ''The New England FarmerJefferson’s Fine Arts Library: His Selections for the University of Virginia Together with His Own Architectural Books''. Two seats were situated at cross-walks and another two were ensconced in an arched [[arbor]](Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1976), 57, placed alongside the main axial [[walk]https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/CUP9BNW2 view on Zotero].</ref>
[[File:0082.jpg|thumb|left|Fig. 5, Cornelia Jefferson Randolph, attr., “A Garden seats took on a variety of formsSeat by Mr. In the eighteenth centuryJones, From Chamber’s Kew, European and” c. 1820.]]British pattern books [[File:1737.jpg|thumb|Fig. 6, Batty and design manuals such as James Gibbs’s A Book of Thomas Langley, “An Umbrello, to a Seat, for to Terminate a [[walk]], [[View]], &c. in a Garden,” in ''Gothic Architecture '' (17281747) were an important source for American seat designs [Fig, pl. 31. 5]. Drawings ]Seat designs could be differentiated by Thomas Jefferson national and historical styles, as well as by his granddaughterplacement and function. Batty and Thomas Langley, Cornelia Jefferson Randolph for instance, proposed a seat in keeping with the Gothic style in their 1747 text about Gothic architecture [Fig. 6]. [[J. C. Loudon]], demonstrate the influence in ''An Encyclopaedia of William Kent’s designs on garden furniture, which appeared in William Chambers’s Gardening''Plans(1826), Elevationsdistinguished among seats found inside garden buildings, roofed seats that could be either fixed or portable, Sections and Perspective Views those lacking any sort of the Gardens and Buildings at Kew roof. [[J. C. Loudon|Loudon]] explained that in Surrey'' form, seats could be simple (1763like the trunk of a tree), or more complex (such as a volume that Jefferson ownedcast-iron couch with decorative treatment).<ref> William Bainter O’Neal, JThese distinctions were echoed by [[Jane Loudon]] in ''efferson’s Fine Arts Library: His Selections Gardening for the University of Virginia Together with His Own Architectural BooksLadies'' (Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 19761845), 57a book that was co-edited by [[Andrew Jackson Downing|Downing]] in America.</ref>
Seat designs could be differentiated by national In ''A Treatise on the Theory and historical Practice of Landscape Gardening'' (1849), [[Andrew Jackson Downing|Downing]] himself provided an extensive illustrated typology of seat styles, as well as by placement and functionemphasizing the propriety of certain styles for different landscapes. Batty and Thomas LangleyFor example, he believed that Grecian or Gothic seats were appropriate for instanceelegant grounds, proposed a seat in keeping with the Gothic whereas [[rustic style in their 1747 text about Gothic architecture [Fig. 7|rustic]]seats were more suited to the irregular aesthetic of the landscape garden. Such [[J. C. Loudonrustic style|rustic]]seats were quite popular in the 19th century, as suggested by the discussion of them in An Encyclopaedia of Gardening (1826)horticultural journals, distinguished among seats found inside garden buildings, roofed seats that could be either fixed or portablesuch as the ''Horticultural Register'', and those lacking any sort in descriptions by both treatise writers and observers of roofthe American landscape. Loudon explained that in formSee, for example, Thomas Bridgeman (1832), seats could be simple Edward Sayers (like the trunk of a tree1838) or more complex , Anna Cora Ogden Mowatt Ritchie (such as a cast-iron couch with decorative treatment1839), C. M. These distinctions were echoed by [[Jane Loudon]] in ''Gardening for Ladies'' Hovey (18451840), a book that was co-edited by Downing in Americaand Georges Jaques (1852).
In ''A Treatise on the Theory and Practice of Landscape Gardening'' (1849), Downing himself provided an extensive illustrated typology of seat styles, emphasizing the propriety of certain styles for different landscapesAnne L. For example, he believed that Grecian or Gothic seats were appropriate for elegant grounds, whereas rustic seats were more suited to the irregular aesthetic of the [[landscape garden]]. Such rustic seats were quite popular in the nineteenth century, as suggested by the discussion of them in horticultural journals, such as the Helmreich''Horticultural Register'', and in descriptions by both treatise writers and observers of the American landscape. See, for example, Thomas Bridgeman (1832), Edward Sayers (1838), Anna Cora Ogden Mowatt Ritchie (1839), C. M. Hovey (1840), and Georges Jaques (1852).
--- ''Anne L. Helmreich''<hr>
==Texts==
 
===Usage===
 *Anonymous, n.d., advertising design and construction services for parks and gardens (quoted in Chase 1973: 37–39): <ref>David B. Chase, ‘The “The Beginnings of the Landscape Tradition in America’America, ” ''Historic Preservation, '' 25 (1973): 34–41, 34–41 [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/KJMNEZBX view on Zotero] .</ref> :“Designs all sorts of Buildings, well suited to both town and country, [[Pavilion]]s, Summer-Rooms, '''Seats''' for Gardens . . . also Water-houses for [[Park]]s . . . Eye Traps to represent a Building terminating a [[walk]], or to hide some disagreeable Object, Rotundas, Colonades, [[Arcade]]s, Studies in [[Park]]s or Gardens, [[greenhouse|Green House]]s for the Preservation of Herbs.”
* Strachey, William, 1612, describing the seats of Powhatan in Virginia (quoted in Wright and Freund 1967: 57) <ref> Louis B. Wright and Virginia Freund, eds., ''The Historie of Travell into Virginia Britania (1612)'' (Nendeln and Liechtenstein: Kraus, 1967) , [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/NUX26H7J view on Zotero].</ref> 
:“He hath divers '''seates''' or howses, his Chief when we came into the Country was upon ''Pamunky''-River, on the North side which we call Pembrook-side, called ''Werowocomaco'', which by interpretacion signifyes Kings-howse.”
*Byrd, William, II, c. June 25 June , 1729, describing Westover, seat of William Byrd II, on the James River, Va. VA (quoted in Tinling 1977: 1:410) <ref> Marion Tinling, ed., ''The Correspondence of the Three William Byrds of Westover, Virginia, 1684-17761684–1776'', 2 vols. (Charlottesville, Va.: University Press of Virginia, 1977), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/J5UXEFHR view on Zotero].</ref> 
:“My habitation has the na[me of] the prettyest '''seat''' in this country.”
* Grove, William Hugh, 1732, describing Williamsburg, Va. VA (quoted in Stiverson and Butler 1977: 26) <ref>Gregory A. Stiverson and Patrick H. Butler III, eds., ‘Virginia “Virginia in 1732: The Travel Journal of William Hugh Grove’Grove, ''Virginia Magazine of History and Biography'', 85 (1977): 18–44, 18–44[https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/ACNK9DG9 view on Zotero].</ref> 
:“I went by ship up the [York] river, which has pleasant '''Seats''' on the Bank which Shew Like little villages, for having Kitchins, Dayry houses, Barns, Stables, Store houses, and some of them 2 or 3 Negro Quarters all Seperate from Each other but near the mansion houses make a shew to the river of 7 or 8 distinct Tenements, tho all belong to one family.”
* Anonymous, August 17 August , 1747, describing property for sale in Somerset County, N.J. NJ (''New York Gazette'') :“TO BE SOLD, A pleasant Country '''Seat''', fitting for a Gentleman or Store-keeper . . . a good [[Orchard]], containing about 200 Apple Trees, and may be extended at Pleasure.” 
* Gwatkin, Prof. Thomas, 1770, describing the appearance of seats in Williamsburg, Va. (Colonial Williamsburg Foundation; hereafter CWF)
*Gwatkin, Prof. Thomas, 1770, describing the appearance of seats in Williamsburg, VA (Colonial Williamsburg Foundation)
:“And the huts of the Negroes which are situated round about give the '''seat''' of a substantial planter something of the Air of a small village.”
[[File:0036.jpg|thumb|225px|Fig. 7, Thomas Lee Shippen, Plan of Westover, 1783.]]* Rush, Dr. Benjamin, July 15 July , 1782, describing the country seat of John Dickinsen, near Philadelphia, Pa. PA (quoted in Caemmerer 1950: 87) <ref name="Caemmerer 1950"> H. Paul Caemmerer, ''The Life of Pierre-Charles L’Enfant, Planner of the City Beautiful, The City of Washington'' (Washington, D.C.DC: National Republic Publishing Company, 1950). , [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/PHWTAERT view on Zotero].</ref> 
:“The ground contiguous to this shed was cut into beautiful [[walk]]s and divided with cedar and pine branches into artificial [[grove]]s. The whole, both the buildings and [[walk]]s, were accommodated with '''seats'''.”
* Shippen, Thomas Lee, December 31 December , 1783, describing Westover, seat of William Byrd III, on the James River, Va. VA (1952: n.p.) <ref>Thomas Lee Shippen, ''Westover Described in 1783: A Letter and Drawing Sent by Thomas Lee Shippen, Student of Law in Williamsburg, to His Parents in Philadelphia'' (Richmond, Va.VA: William Byrd Press, 1952). , [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/3IWWPMJ5 view on Zotero].</ref> :“I have markd some little crooked ugly figures for Gentlemen’s '''seats''', which tho’ they do not beautify indeed the picture, add much to the [[prospect]], about as many '''Seats''' are to be seen on the other side.” [Fig. 87]
[[File:1983.jpg|thumb|225px|Fig. 8, Jeremiah Paul, “Robert Morris’ Seat on [[Schuylkill_River|Schuylkill]],” July 20, 1794.]]* [[Manasseh Cutler|Cutler, Rev. Manasseh]], July 13 July , 1787, describing [[The Hills ]] (later [[Lemon Hill]]), estate of [[Robert Morris]], Philadelphia, Pa. PA (1987: 1:256–57) <ref> William Parker Cutler, ''Life, Journals, and Correspondence of Rev. Manasseh Cutler, LL. D.'' (Athens, Ohio: Ohio University Press, 1987). , [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/3PBNT7H9 view on Zotero].</ref>:“We continued our route, in [[view]] of the [[Schuylkill_River|Schuylkill]], and up the river several miles, and took a [[view]] of a number of Country-'''seats''', one belonging to [[Robert Morris|Mr. R. Morris]], the American financier, and who is said to be possessed of the greatest fortune in America. His country-'''seat''' is not yet completed, but it will be superb. It is planned on a large scale, the gardens and [[walk]]s are extensive, and the villa, situated on an [[eminence]], has a commanding [[prospect]] down the [[Schuylkill_River|Schuylkill]] to the Delaware.” [Fig. 8]
:“We continued our route, in [[view]] of the Schuylkill, and up the river several miles, and took a [[view]] of a number of Country-'''seats''', one belonging to Mr. R. Morris, the American financier, and who is said to be possessed of the greatest fortune in America. His country-'''seat''' is not yet completed, but it will be superb. It is planned on a large scale, the gardens and [[walk]]s are extensive, and the villa, situated on an [[eminence]], has a commanding [[prospect]] down the Schuylkill to the Delaware.”
 
 
* G., L., 15 June [1788?], describing the Woodlands, '''seat''' of William Hamilton near Philadelphia, Pa. (quoted in Madsen 1989: 19) <ref> Karen Madsen, ‘To Make His Country Smile: William Hamilton’s Woodlands’, ''Arnoldia'', 49 (1989), 14–23
[https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/K567H4M4 view on Zotero]</ref>
*G., L., June 15, [1788?], describing [[The Woodlands]], seat of [[William Hamilton]] near Philadelphia, PA (quoted in Madsen 1989: 19)<ref> Karen Madsen, “To Make His Country Smile: William Hamilton’s Woodlands,” ''Arnoldia'' 49 (1989): 14–23, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/K567H4M4 view on Zotero].</ref>
:“[The [[walk]]s were] planted on each side with the most beautiful & curious flowers & shrubs. They are in some parts enclosed with the Lombardy poplar except here & there openings are left to give you a [[view]] of some fine trees or beautiful [[prospect]] beyond, & in others, shaded by [[arbour]]s of the wild grape, or [[clump]]s of large trees under which are placed '''seats''' where you may rest yourself & enjoy the cool air.”
* Constantia [pseud.Judith Sargent Murray], June 24 June , 1790, “Description of Gray’s Gardens, Pennsylvania” (''Massachusetts Magazine'' 3: 415)<ref>Constantia [Judith Sargent Murray], “Description of Gray’s Gardens, Pennsylvania,” ''Massachusetts Magazine, or, Monthly Museum of Knowledge and Rational Entertainment'' 7, no. 3 (July 1791): 413–17, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/keywords_in_early_american_landscape_design/items/itemKey/IAJKF9C4 view on Zotero].</ref>
:“At every turn shaded '''seats''' are artfully contrived, and the ground abounds with [[arbour]]s, [[alcove]]s, and summer houses, which are handsomely adorned with odoriferous flowers.”
* [[Pierre-Charles L'Enfant|L’Enfant, Pierre-Charles]], 1791, describing Washington, D.C. DC (quoted in Caemmerer 1950: 136, 151) <ref name="Caemmerer 1950"></ref> :“[March 11 March, in a letter to Thomas Jefferson] . . . The remainder part of that ground towards Georgetown is more broken. It may afford pleasant '''seats''', but, although the bank of the river between the two creeks can command as grand a [[prospect]] as any of the other spots, it seems to be less commendable for the establishment of a city, not only because the level surface it presents is but small, but because the hights from beyond Georgetown absolutely command the whole. . . .:“[June 22 June, in a report to George Washington] . . . I next made the distribution regular with streets at right angle ''north-south'' and ''east west'' but afterwards I opened others on various directions as [[avenue]]s to and from every principal places, wishing by this not merely to contrast with the general regularity nor to afford a greater variety of pleasant '''seats''' and [[prospect]] as will be obtained from the advantageous ground over the which the [[avenue]]s are mostly directed but principally to connect each part of the city with more efficacy.” 
* Wansey, Henry, 1794, describing Worcester, Mass. ([1794] 1970: 64) <ref>Henry Wansey, ''Henry Wansey and His American Journal'', ed. by David John Jeremy (Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society, 1970)[https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/UQTHRX3W view on Zotero]</ref>
*Wansey, Henry, 1794, describing Worcester, MA (1794; repr., 1970: 64)<ref>Henry Wansey, ''Henry Wansey and His American Journal'', ed. David John Jeremy (1794; repr., Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society, 1970), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/UQTHRX3W view on Zotero].</ref>
:“Most of the houses have a large court before them, full of lilacs and other shrubs, with a '''seat''' under them, and a paved [[walk]] up the middle.”
* Blandulus [pseud.], November 1794, describing Pleasant Hill, '''seat''' of Joseph Barrell, Charlestown, Mass. MA (quoted in Hammond 1982: 95) <ref>Charles Arthur Hammond, ‘“Where “‘Where the Arts and the Virtues Unite”Unite’: Country Life Near Boston, 1637-1864’ 1637–1864” (unpublished Ph.D. PhD diss., Boston University, 1982). , [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/VVFZVIKT view on Zotero].</ref> 
:“Whereonce the breastwork mark’d the scenes of
::blood,
* [[Timothy Dwight|Dwight, Timothy]], 1796, describing mill seats in Massachusetts (1821: 2:352)<ref name="Dwight">Timothy Dwight, ''Travels; in New-England and New-York'', 4 vols. (New Haven: The Author, 1821-221821–22). , [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/VHBP7TH2 view on Zotero].</ref>:“Immediately below the [[bridge]] [over Miller’s River] is a [[Fall/Falling_garden|fall]], furnishing excellent mill-'''seats''', which are occupied by several mills. These are uniformly supplied with an abundance of water, and wear the aspect of great activity, and business, particularly in the sawing of timber.”
:“Immediately below the [[bridge]] [over Miller’s River] is a [[fall]], furnishing excellent mill-'''seats''', which are occupied by several mills. These are uniformly supplied with an abundance of water, and wear the aspect of great activity, and business, particularly in the sawing of timber.”
*[[Timothy Dwight|Dwight, Timothy]], 1799, describing New York, NY (1822: 3:481–82)<ref name="Dwight"></ref>
:“the heights, and many of the lower grounds, contain a rich display of gentlemen’s country '''seats''', connected with a great variety of handsome appendages.”
* Dwight, Timothy, 1799, describing New York, N.Y. (1822: 3:481–82) <ref name="Dwight"></ref>
*La Rochefoucauld Liancourt, François-Alexandre-Frédéric, duc de, 1799, describing a house in Charleston, SC (1800:“the heights2:437–38)<ref> François-Alexandre-Frédéric, duc de La Rochefoucauld Liancourt, ''Travels through the United States of North America, the Country of the Iroquois, and many Upper Canada, in the Years 1795, 1796, and 1797'', ed. Brisson Dupont and Charles Ponges, trans. H. Newman, 2nd ed., 4 vols. (London: R. Philips, 1800), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/SRMDWJ2M view on Zotero].</ref>:“Half a mile from Batavia. . . stands Middletonhouse, the property of Mrs. MIDDLETON, mother-in-law to young Mr. Isard, which is esteemed the lower groundsmost beautiful house in this part of the country. The out-buildings, such as kitchen, wash-house, and offices, contain a rich display are very capacious. The ensemble of gentlemen’s these buildings calls to recollection the ancient English country -'''seats''', connected with a great variety of handsome appendages.”
[[File:0304.jpg|thumb|225px|Fig. 9, William Russell Birch, “[[The Woodlands|Woodlands]], the Seat of Mr. Wm. Hamilton, Pennsylva.,” in ''The Country Seats of the United States'' (1808), pl. 14.]]* La Rochefoucauld Liancourt, François-Alexandre-Frédéric, duc de, 1799, describing a house in Charleston[[The Woodlands]], seat of [[William Hamilton]], near Philadelphia, S.C. PA (1800: 2quoted in Madsen 1988:437–38B3) <ref> François-Alexandre-FrédéricKaren Madsen, duc de La Rochefoucauld Liancourt, ''Travels through the United States of North America, the Country of the Iroquois, and Upper Canada“William Hamilton’s Woodlands, ” (paper presented for seminar in the Years 1795, 1796American Landscape, and 1797''1790–1900, ed. instructed by Brisson Dupont and Charles Ponges, trans. by HE. NewmanMcPeck, 2nd ednRadcliffe Institute for Advanced Study, 4 vols. (London: R. PhilipsHarvard University, 18001988). , [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/SRMDWJ2M XN8NN9QN view on Zotero].</ref>:“You pass the Schuylkill at [[Gray’s Garden|Gray’s-Ferry]], the road to which runs below [[The Woodlands|Woodlands]], the '''seat''' of Mr. William Hamilton: it stands high, and is seen upon an [[eminence]] from the opposite side of the river.” [Fig. 9]
:“Half a mile from Batavia . . . stands Middletonhouse, the property of Mrs. MIDDLETON, mother-in-law to young Mr. Isard, which is esteemed the most beautiful house in this part of the country. The out-buildings, such as kitchen, wash-house, and offices, are very capacious. The ensemble of these buildings calls to recollection the ancient English country-'''seats'''.”
*Ogden, John Cosens, 1800, describing Bethlehem, PA (1800: 18, 27)<ref>John C. Ogden, ''An Excursion into Bethlehem & Nazareth, in Pennsylvania, in the Year 1799'' (Philadelphia: Charles Cist, 1800), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/U5CTTBGB view on Zotero].</ref>
:“'''Seats''' are placed for rest, and to enable the visitors to [[view]] the river at leisure. . .
:“The island is not large, but affords fine [[walk]]s and an area for exercise, as well as '''seats''' and shelters for visitors.”
*La Rochefoucauld Liancourt, François-Alexandre-Frédéric, duc de, 1799, describing the Woodlands, seat of William Hamilton, near Philadelphia, Pa. (quoted in Madsen 1988: B3) <ref>Karen Madsen, ‘William Hamilton’s Woodlands’, 1988. [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/XN8NN9QN view on Zotero]</ref>
*Clitherall, Eliza Caroline Burgwin (Caroline Elizabeth Burgwin), active 1801, describing the Hermitage, seat of John Burgwin, Wilmington, NC (quoted in Flowers 1983: 126)<ref>John Flowers, “People and Plants: North Carolina’s Garden History Revisited,” ''Eighteenth Century Life'' 8 (1983): 117–29, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/FCVW8GHV view on Zotero].</ref>:“You pass the Schuylkill “These [gardens] were extensive and beautifully laid out. There was [''sic''] [[alcove]]s and [[summerhouse|summer houses]] at Gray’s-Ferry, the road to which runs below Woodlandstermination of each [[walk]], the '''seatseats''' under trees in the more shady recesses of Mr. William Hamilton: the Big Garden, as it stands highwas called, and is seen upon an in distinction from the [[eminenceflower garden]] from the opposite side in front of the riverhouse.”
* Ogden[[Thomas Jefferson|Jefferson, John CosensThomas]], 18001804, describing Bethlehem[[Monticello]], [[plantation]] of [[Thomas Jefferson]], Pa. Charlottesville, VA (pp. 18Massachusetts Historical Society, 27Jefferson Papers) <ref>John C. Ogden, :“[[Temple]]s or '''seats'An Excursion into Bethlehem & Nazareth, in Pennsylvania, in the Year 1799''(Philadelphia: Charles Cist, 1800). at those spots on the [[walk]]s most interesting either for [[https://www.zoteroprospect]] or the immediate scenery.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/U5CTTBGB view on Zotero]</ref>
:“'''Seats''' are placed for rest, and to enable the visitors to [[view]] the river at leisure. . . .
:“The island is not large, but affords fine [[walk]]s and an area for exercise, as well as '''seats''' and shelters for visitors.”
*Scott, Joseph, 1806, describing the Schuylkill River in Pennsylvania (1806: 53)<ref>Joseph Scott, ''A Geographical Description of Pennsylvania'' (Philadelphia: Printed by R. Cochran, 1806), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/55XKIWPN/ view on Zotero].</ref>
:“The banks of the river are, in many places, adorned with beautiful country '''seats''', belonging to the wealthy citizens of Philadelphia. To these their families usually retire, in the summer months, from the bustle, and noise of the city, and to enjoy the salubrity of the country air.”
* Clitherall, Eliza Caroline Burgwin (Caroline Elizabeth Burgwin), active 1801, describing the Hermitage, seat of John Burgwin, Wilmington, N.C. (quoted in Flowers 1983: 126) <ref>John Flowers, ‘People and Plants: North Carolina’s Garden History Revisited’, ''Eighteenth Century Life'', 8 (1983), 117–29. [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/FCVW8GHV view on Zotero]</ref>
*Martin, William Dickinson, 1809, describing the pleasure grounds at Salem Academy, Salem, NC (quoted in Bynum 1979:“These [gardens] were extensive and beautifully laid out29)<ref name="Bynum 1979">Flora Ann L. There was [Bynum, ''sic'''''Bold text'Old Salem Garden Guide''(Winston-Salem, NC: Old Salem, 1979), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/TJB9XNMF view on Zotero] .</ref>:“Next, I visited a [[alcoveflower garden]]s and summer houses at belonging to the female department. . . But it is situated on a hill, the East end of which is high & abrupt; some distance down this, they had dug down right in the earth, & drawing the termination dirt forward threw it on rock, etc., thereby forming a horizontal plane of each about thirty feet in circumference; & on the back, rose a perpendicular [[walkTerrace/Slope|terrace]]of some height, which was entirely covered over with a grass peculiar to that vicinage. At the bottom of this [[Terrace/Slope|terrace]] were arranged circular '''seats''' under trees in , which, from the more shady recesses height of the Big Garden, as it was called, hill in distinction the rear were protected from the [[flower garden]] sun in an early hour in front of the houseafternoon.”
*JeffersonMartin, ThomasWilliam Dickinson, 1804May 20, 1809, describing Monticello[[The Woodlands]], plantation seat of Thomas Jefferson[[William Hamilton]], Charlottesvillenear Philadelphia, Va. PA (Massachusetts Historical SocietyColonial Williamsburg Foundation):“Altho’ much has been done to beautify this delightful '''seat''', much still remains to be done, Jefferson Papers)for the perfecting it in all the capabilities which nature in her boundless profusion has bestowed.”
:“[[Temple]]s or '''seats''' at those spots on the [[walk]]s most interesting either for [[prospect]] or the immediate scenery.”
*Smith, Margaret Bayard, August 1, 1809, describing [[Monticello]], [[plantation]] of [[Thomas Jefferson]], Charlottesville, VA (1906: 73)<ref>Margaret Bayard Smith, ''The First Forty Years of Washington Society'', ed. Gaillard Hunt (New York: Charles Scribner’s, 1906), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/FTDFHRFH view on Zotero].</ref>
:“Mr. J. explained to me all his plans for improvement, where the roads, the [[walk]]s, the '''seats''', the little [[temple]]s were to be placed.”
* Scott, Joseph, 1806, describing the Schuylkill River in Pennsylvania (p. 53) <ref>Scott, Joseph, ''A Geographical Description of Pennsylvania'' (Philadelphia: Printed by R. Cochran, 1806). [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/55XKIWPN/]</ref>
:“The banks *Foster, Sir Augustus John, 1812, describing [[Monticello]], [[plantation]] of the river are[[Thomas Jefferson]], Charlottesville, in many placesVA (1954: 143)<ref>Sir Augustus John Foster, adorned with beautiful country '''seats'Jeffersonian America: Notes on the United States of America Collected in the Years 1805–1806–1807 and 1811–1812'', belonging to the wealthy citizens of Philadelphiaed. To these their families usually retireRichard Beale Davis (San Marino, in the summer monthsCA: Huntington Library, from the bustle1954), and noise [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/7FU8NDF4 view on Zotero].</ref>:“It is a very delightful ride of the city, and twenty-eight miles from Montpellier to enjoy the salubrity of the country airlate President [[Thomas Jefferson|Mr. Jefferson’s]] '''seat''' at [[Monticello]].”
* MartinWarden, William DickinsonDavid Bailie, 18091816, describing the pleasure grounds at Salem AcademyAnalostan Island, Salemseat of Gen. John Mason, Washington, N.C. DC (quoted in Bynum 1979Phillips 1917: 2949) <ref name="Bynum 1979">Flora Ann L. BynumPhilip Lee Phillips, ''Old Salem Garden GuideThe Beginnings of Washington: As Described in Books, Maps, and Views'' (Winston-SalemWashington, N.C.DC: Old SalemThe author, 19791917). , [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/TJB9XNMF QXZXNN8N view on Zotero].</ref>
:“Next"ANNALOSTAN ISLAND: . . . Annalostan Island is evidently of modern formation. . . The highest [[eminence]], on which the house stands, is fifty feet above the level of the river. The common tide rises to the height of three feet. I can never forget how de-lighted I was with my first visit to this island. The amiable ladies whom I visited had the pleasure to accompany, left their carriage at Georgetown, and we walked to the mansion-house under a delicious shade. The blossoms of the cherry, apple, and peach trees, of the hawthorn and aromatic [[flower gardenshrub]] belonging to s, filled the female departmentair with their fragrance. . . . But it The house, of a simple and neat form, is situated on near that side of the island which commands a hill[[view]] of the Potomac, the East end President's House, Capitol, and other buildings. The garden, the sides of which is high & abrupt; some distance down this, they had dug down right in are washed by the earth, & drawing waters of the dirt forward threw it on rockriver, etc., thereby forming is ornamented with a horizontal plane variety of about thirty feet trees and [[shrub]]s, and, in circumference; & on the backmidst, rose there is a perpendicular [[terracelawn]] of some height, which was entirely covered over with a grass peculiar to that vicinagebeautiful verdure. At the bottom of this The [[terraceSummerhouse|summer-house]] were arranged circular '''seats'''is shaded by oak and lin-den-trees, the coolness and tranquility of whichinvite to contemplation. The refresh-ing breezes of the Potomac, from and the height gentle murmuring of its waters against the hill in rocks, the rear were protected from warbling of birds, and the sun in an early hour in mournful as-pect of the afternoonweeping-willows, inspire a thousand various sensations.What a delicious shade-
:"Ducere sol[l]icitae jucunda oblivia vitae"
* Martin:The [[view]] from this spot is delightful. It embraces the [[picturesque]] banks of the Po-tomac, William Dickinsona portion of the city, 20 May 1809and an expanse of water, describing of which the bridge terminates the Woodlands[[view]]. . . A few feet below the [[Summerhouse|sum-mer-house]] the rocks afford the '''seats''', where those who are fond of fishing may indulge in this amusement. From the [[portico]] on the oppo-site [139] side of the house, Georgetown, Calorama, the beautiful '''seat ''' of William HamiltonJoel Barlow, near PhiladelphiaEsq. and the adjacent finely-wooded hills, Paappear a [[vista]]. (CWF)"
:“Altho’ much has been done to beautify this delightful '''seat''', much still remains to be done, for the perfecting it in all the capabilities which nature in her boundless profusion has bestowed.”
*Lambert, John, 1816, describing Boston, MA (1816: 2:328)<ref>John Lambert, ''Travels through Canada, and the United States of North America in the Years 1806, 1807, and 1808'', 2 vols. (London: Baldwin, Cradock, and Joy, 1816), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/T9KUEDWH view on Zotero].</ref>
:“From an elevated part of the town the spectator enjoys a succession of the most beautiful [[view]]s that imagination can conceive. Around him, as far as the eye can reach, are to be seen towns, villages, country '''seats''', rich farms, and [[pleasure ground|pleasure-grounds]], seated upon the summits of small hills, hanging on the brows of gentle [[Terrace/Slope|slopes]], or reclining in the laps of spacious valleys, whose shores are watered by a beautiful river, across which are thrown several [[bridge]]s and causeways.”
* Smith, Margaret Bayard, 1 August 1809, describing Monticello, plantation of Thomas Jefferson, Charlottesville, Va. (1906: 73) <ref>Margaret Bayard Smith, ''The First Forty Years of Washington Society'', ed. by Gaillard Hunt (New York: Charles Scribner’s, 1906). [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/FTDFHRFH view on Zotero]</ref>
*Randolph, John, 1820s, describing an estate in Roanoke, VA (quoted in Martin 1991:“Mr223n. J. explained 46)<ref>Peter Martin, ''The Pleasure Gardens of Virginia: From Jamestown to me all his plans for improvementJefferson'' (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, where the roads1991), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/6TAHS88N view on Zotero].</ref>:“From my earliest childhood I have delighted in the [[walkgrove]]s, the and solitudes of poor old Matoax. I now recall several of my favorite '''seats'''where I used to ruminate, ‘chewing the little [[temple]]s were to be placedcud of sweet and bitter fancies,’ all bitter now.”
* Foster[[Charles Willson Peale|Peale, Sir Augustus JohnCharles Willson]], 1812c. 1825, describing Monticello[[Belfield]], plantation estate of Thomas JeffersonCharles Willson Peale, Germantown, CharlottesvillePA (Miller et al., Vaeds. (1954, 2000: 5: 143381) <ref>Sir Augustus John FosterLillian B. Miller and et al., eds., ''Jeffersonian America: Notes on the United States The Selected Papers of America Collected in the Years 1805-1806-1807 Charles Willson Peale and 1811-1812His Family'', edvol. by Richard Beale Davis 5, ''The Autobiography of Charles Willson Peale'' (San MarinoNew Haven, Calif.CT: Huntington LibraryYale University Press, 19542000). , [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/7FU8NDF4 IZAKPCBG view on Zotero].</ref>:“He wanted a place to keep the garden seeds & Tools, and in a part of the Garden where a '''seat''' in the shade was often wanted, he built a shed or small room, and to hide that Salt-like-box, and to try his art of Painting, he made the front like [a] [[gateway|Gate Way]] with a step to form a '''seat''', and above, steps painted as representing a passage through an [[Arch]] beyond which was represented a western sky, and to ornament the upper part over the [[arch]], he painted several figures on boards cut to the outlines of said figures as representing [[statue]]s in sculpture.”
:“It is a very delightful ride of twenty-eight miles from Montpellier to the late President Mr. Jefferson’s '''seat''' at Monticello.”
[[File:0300.jpg|thumb|225px|Fig. 10, Thomas Birch, ''Fairmount Water Works'', 1821.]]
*Sheldon, John P., December 10, 1825, describing Fairmount Waterworks, Philadelphia, PA (quoted in Gibson 1988: 5)<ref>Jane Mork Gibson, “The Fairmount Waterworks,” ''Philadelphia Museum of Art Bulletin'' 84 (1988): 5–40, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/RZEZDDEN view on Zotero].</ref>
:“Delightful '''seats''', surrounded by various kinds of trees and [[shrubbery]], with gardens containing [[summerhouse|summer houses]], [[vista]]s, embowered [[walk]]s, &c meet your [[view]] in almost every direction, [[wood]]s sloping gently to the river’s edge, by the side of smooth [[lawn]]s, add to the pleasing variety of the scene; and the Schuylkill, with its noble dam and [[bridge]]s serves as a most beautiful finish to the foreground.” [Fig. 10]
* Lambert, John, 1816, describing Boston, Mass. (2:328) <ref>John Lambert, ''Travels through Canada, and the United States of North America in the Years 1806, 1807, and 1808'', 2 vols. (London: Baldwin, Cradock, and Joy, 1816). [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/T9KUEDWH view on Zotero]</ref>
*Connor, Juliana Margaret, 1827, describing the garden at the pottery (Lot 48) on Main Street, Salem, NC (quoted in Bynum 1979: 28)<ref name="Bynum 1979"></ref>:“From an elevated part of “Afterwards walked into the town garden belonging to the spectator enjoys establishment where we saw what I conceived to be a succession of the most curiosity and in itself extremely beautiful . It was a large [[viewsummerhouse|summer house]]s that imagination can conceive. Around himformed of eight cedar trees planted in a circle, as far as the eye can reachtops whilst young were chained together in the center forming a cone. The immense branches were all cut, are to be seen townsso that there was not a leaf, villagesthe outside is beautifully trimmed perfectly even and very thick within, country were '''seats''', rich farms, placed around and pleasure-grounds, seated upon the summits of small hills, hanging on the brows of gentle [[slope]]sdoors or openings were cut, or reclining in through the laps of spacious valleysbranches, whose shores are watered by a beautiful river, across which are thrown several [[bridge]]s and causewaysit had been planted 40 years.”
* RandolphBernhard, JohnDuke of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach, 1820s1828, describing an estate in Roanokethe Bloomingdale Asylum for the Insane, New York, Va. NY (quoted in Martin 1991Little 1972: 223n. 4664) <ref>Peter MartinNina Fletcher Little, ''The Pleasure Gardens Early Years of Virginia: From Jamestown to Jeffersonthe McLean Hospital, Recorded in the Journal of George William Folsom, Apothecary at the Asylum in Charlestown'' (Princeton, NBoston: Francis A.J.: Princeton University PressCountway Library of Medicine, 19911972)., [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/6TAHS88NQ8IX8NHN/ view on Zotero].</ref>:“The Lunatic Asylum is five miles from the city [New York] on a hill, in a very healthy situation, the road leads between country '''seats''' and handsome gardens and is one of the most pleasant I have seen in America.”
:“From my earliest childhood I have delighted in the [[grove]]s and solitudes of poor old Matoax. I now recall several of my favorite '''seats''' where I used to ruminate, ‘chewing the cud of sweet and bitter fancies,’ all bitter now.”
*Wailes, Benjamin L. C., December 29, 1829, describing [[Lemon Hill]], estate of [[Henry Pratt]], Philadelphia, PA (quoted in Moore 1954: 359)<ref>John Hebron Moore, “A View of Philadelphia in 1829: Selections from the Journal of B. L. C. Wailes of Natchez,” ''Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography'' 78 (July 1954): 353–60, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/Z9IBV7A4 view on Zotero].</ref>
:“But the most enchanting [[prospect]] is towards the grand pleasure grove & [[green house]] of a [[Henry Pratt|Mr. Prat[t]]], a gentleman of fortune, and to this we next proceeded by a circutous [''sic''] rout, passing in [[view]] of the fish ponds, [[bower]]s, [[rustic style|rustic]] retreats, [[summerhouse|summer houses]], [[fountain]]s, [[grotto]], &c., &c. The [[grotto]] is dug in a bank [and] is of a circular form, the side built up of rock and arched over head, and a number of Shells [?]. A dog of natural size carved out of marble sits just within the entrance, the guardian of the place. A narrow aperture lined with a [[hedge]] of [[arbor]] vitae leads to it. Next is a round fish pond with a small [[fountain]] playing in the [[pond]]. An Oval & several oblong fish ponds of larger size follow, & between the two last is an artificial [[cascade]]. Several summer houses in [[rustic style]] are made by nailing bark on the outside & thaching the roof. There is also a [[rustic style|rustic]] '''seat''' built in the branches of a tree, & to which a flight of steps ascend. In one of the [[summerhouse|summer houses]] is a Spring with '''seats''' arrond it. The houses are all embelished [''sic''] with marble busts of Venus, Appollo, Diana and a Bacanti. One sits on an Island on the fish pond. All the [[pond]]s filled with handsome coloured fish.”
* Peale, Charles Willson, c. 1825, describing Belfield, estate of Charles Willson Peale, Germantown, Pa. (Miller, Hart, and Ward, eds., 2000: 381) <ref>
Lillian B. Miller and et al, eds., ''The Selected Papers of Charles Willson Peale and His Family: The Autobiography of Charles Willson Peale. Vol. 5.'' (New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1983–2000). [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/IZAKPCBG view on Zotero]</ref>
*Trollope, Frances Milton, 1830, describing Philadelphia, PA (1832: 2:48–49; 152)<ref>Frances Trollope, ''Domestic Manners of the Americans'', 3rd ed., 2 vols. (London: Wittaker, Treacher, 1832), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/T5RXDF7G view on Zotero].</ref>:“He wanted a place to keep “Near this enclosure [at the State House] is another of much the same description, called [[Washington Square (Philadelphia)|Washington Square]]. Here there was an excellent crop of clover; but as the garden seeds & Toolstrees are numerous, and highly beautiful, and in a part several commodious '''seats''' are placed beneath their shade, it is, spite of the Garden where long grass, a very agreeable retreat from heat and dust. It was rarely, however, that I saw any of these '''seatseats''' in occupied; the shade was often wantedAmericans have either no leisure, he built a shed or small roomno inclination for those moments of ''delassement'' that all other people, I believe, and indulge in. . . it is nevertheless the nearest approach to hide a London square that Salt-like-boxis to be found in Philadelphia. . . “The Delaware river, and to try his art of Paintingabove Philadelphia, he made the front like [still flows through a] [[Gate]] Way with a step to form landscape too level for beauty, but it is rendered interesting by a succession of gentlemen’s '''seatseats''', and abovewhich, steps painted as representing a passage through an [[Arch]] beyond which was represented a western skyif less elaborately finished in architecture, and to ornament garden grounds, than the upper part over lovely villas on the [[arch]]Thames, he painted several figures are still beautiful objects to gaze upon as you float rapidly past on boards cut to the outlines of said figures as representing broad silvery stream that washes their [[statuelawn]]s in sculpture.”
* Sheldon[[Andrew Jackson Downing|Downing, Andrew Jackson]], John P.January 1837, 10 December 1825“Notices on the State and Progress of Horticulture in the United States, describing Fairmount Waterworks[[Hyde Park]], seat of [[David Hosack]], Philadelphiaon the Hudson, Pa. NY (quoted in Gibson 1988''Magazine of Horticulture'' 3: 5) <ref>Jane Mork GibsonA. J. Downing, ‘The Fairmount Waterworks’“Notices on the State and Progress of Horticulture in the United States, ''BulletinMagazine of Horticulture, Philadelphia Museum of ArtBotany, and All Useful Discoveries and Improvements in Rural Affairs''3, 84 no. 1 (1988January 1837): 1–10, 5–40. [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/keywords_in_early_american_landscape_design/items/itemKey/RZEZDDEN HPNHTESI/q/Notices%20on%20the%20State%20and%20Progress%20of%20Horticulture view on Zotero].</ref>:“The most distinguished amateur and patron of gardening, in every sense of the word, in this state, was the late [[Dr. Hosack]]. [[Hyde Park]], on the Hudson, the '''seat''' of this gentleman, has been probably the best specimen of a highly improved residence in the United States.”
:“Delightful '''seats''', surrounded by various kinds of trees and [[shrubbery]], with gardens containing summer houses, [[vista]]s, embowered [[walk]]s, &c meet your [[view]] in almost every direction, [[wood]]s sloping gently to the river’s edge, by the side of smooth [[lawn]]s, add to the pleasing variety of the scene; and the Schuylkill, with its noble dam and [[bridge]]s serves as a most beautiful finish to the foreground.”
*Ritchie, Anna Cora Ogden Mowatt, 1839, describing Bonaparte’s Park at estate of Joseph Bonaparte (Count de Survilliers), Bordentown, NJ (quoted in Weber 1854: 186)<ref>Constance Weber, “A Sketch of Joseph Bonaparte,” in ''Godey’s Lady’s Book'' (Philadelphia: L. A. Godey, 1854), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/NEDC6TSD/ view on Zotero].</ref>
:“Equally rustic '''seats''' are scattered beneath the shade of the tall trees on its banks, and upon its clear surface a flock of snow-white swans were floating about.”
* Connor, Juliana Margaret, 1827, describing the garden at the pottery (Lot 48) on Main Street, Salem, N.C. (quoted in Bynum 1979: 28) <ref name="Bynum 1979"></ref>
*Hovey, C. M. (Charles Mason), September 1840, “Notes on Gardens and Gardening, in New Bedford, Mass.,” describing the estate of James Arnold, New Bedford, MA (''Magazine of Horticulture'' 6:“Afterwards walked into the garden belonging to the establishment where we saw what I conceived to be a curiosity 364)<ref>Charles Mason Hovey, “Notes on Gardens and Gardening, in itself extremely beautifulNew Bedford, Mass. It was a large summer house formed ,” ''Magazine of eight cedar trees planted Horticulture, Botany, and All Useful Discoveries and Improvements in a circleRural Affairs'' 6, no. 9 (September 1840): 361–66, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/QQC7WWZB view on Zotero].</ref>:“Continuing through the tops whilst young were chained together in the center forming a cone. The immense branches were all cutwinding [[walk]]s, so that there was not a leafshady [[bower]]s, the outside is beautifully trimmed perfectly even and very thick withinumbrageous retreats, were through which rustic '''seats''' were placed around and doors or openings were cut, through we arrived at the branches, it had been planted 40 yearsshell [[grotto]].”
* BernhardAdams, Duke of Saxe-Weimar-EisenachNehemiah, 18281842, describing the Bloomingdale Asylum for the Insane[[Boston Common]], New YorkBoston, N.Y. MA (quoted in Little 19721842: 6454) <ref>Nina Fletcher LittleNehemiah Adams, ''Early Years of the McLean Hospital, Recorded in the Journal of George William Folsom, Apothecary at the Asylum in CharlestownBoston Common'' (Boston: Francis AWilliam D. Ticknor and H. B. Countway Library of MedicineWilliams, 19721842). , [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/Q8IX8NHN/ VXTWGJ58 view on Zotero].</ref>:“One of the next improvements in the [[Boston Common|Common]] we suspect will be a suitable supply of proper '''seats''' in the [[mall]]. As a defence against our American propensity to whittle, the city government caused some of the wooden '''seats''' to be sheathed with sheet iron. Vain defence against the knife of an American whittler! . . . The city government thought that they would ‘try what virtue there is in stones.’ Blocks of granite have been deposited there for '''seats'''. . . The stone '''seats''' are smooth only on the upper side, and their rough look is not strictly in Boston taste, though it is excusable, considering the penitentiary object which led to their substitution for wooden '''seats'''. . . The idea of sitting on a natural, rough rock, to enjoy the beauties of nature, is poetical and in good keeping, but we have tried in vain to make those stone '''seats''' on the [[mall]] seem poetical.”
:“The Lunatic Asylum is five miles from the city [New York] on a hill, in a very healthy situation, the road leads between country '''seats''' and handsome gardens and is one of the most pleasant I have seen in America.”
*Buckingham, James Silk, 1842, describing Red Sulphur Springs, VA (Colonial Williamsburg Foundation)
:“In the centre of the valley, is a triangular [[plot]] of grass, which has been enclosed with well-finished rails, painted white, and laid out in [[walk]]s like a [[lawn]], having also several large and fine trees, under which '''seats''' are placed for enjoying the shade.”
* Wailes, Benjamin L. C., 29 December 1829, describing Lemon Hill, estate of Henry Pratt, Philadelphia, Pa. (quoted in Moore 1954: 359) <ref>John Hebron Moore, ‘A View of Philadelphia in 1829: Selections from the Journal of B.L.C. Wailes of Natchez’, ''Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography'', 78 (July) (1954), 353–60. [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/Z9IBV7A4 view on Zotero]</ref>
:“But the most enchanting [[prospect]] is towards the grand pleasure grove & [[green house]] of a Mr. Prat[t]*Anonymous, December 6, a gentleman of fortune1842, and “Letter from Ministry at New Lebanon to this we next proceeded by a circutous [Ministry at Graveland” (Western Reserve Historical Society Library, Shaker Manuscript Collection):“And it is my will that your '''seats'sic''] rout, passing in [[view]] of be prepared after the fish ponds, [[bower]]s, rustic retreats, summer houses, [[fountain]]s, [[grotto]], &cfollowing order., Ye may take boards of sufficient width &c. The [[grotto]] is dug in a bank [and] is of a circular thickness to form, the side built up of rock and arched over head, and a number of Shells [?]'''seat'''. A dog of natural size carved out of marble sits just within the entrance, the guardian of the placeThese may be planed. A narrow aperture lined with a [[hedge]] Place these upon square blocks of [[arbor]] vitae leads sufficient bigness to it. Next is a round fish pond with a small [[fountain]] playing in the [[pond]]. An Oval & several oblong fish ponds of larger size follow, & between the two last is an artificial [[cascade]]. Several summer houses in [[rustic style]] are made by nailing bark on elevate the outside & thaching the roof. There is also a rustic '''seat''' built in the branches of a tree, & to which a flight of steps ascend. In one of the summer houses is a Spring with suitable height; and these are sufficient for '''seats''' arrond it, upon my holy ground. The houses are all embelished [And if ye desire to build a shed, near by the meeting ground under which you can place these '''sicseats''] with marble busts ', at such parts of Venusthe year as they are not wanted, Appolloye may freely do it; but if my feast ground is located near your dwellings, Diana and a Bacanti. One sits on an Island on the fish pond. All the [[pond]]s filled with handsome coloured fishyou had better carry them there to place under shelter.” [See Fig. 1]
* TrollopeLongfellow, Frances MiltonHenry Wadsworth, 1830c. 1845, describing Philadelphiathe Vassall-Craigie-Longfellow House, Cambridge, Pa. MA (1832quoted in Evans 1993: 2:48–49; 15241) <ref>Frances TrollopeCatherine Evans, ''Domestic Manners of the AmericansCultural Landscape Report for Longfellow National Historic Site, History and Existing Conditions'', 3rd edn, 2 vols. (LondonBoston: WittakerNational Park Service, TreacherNorth Atlantic Region, 18321993). , [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/T5RXDF7G 9TI9GUQN view on Zotero].</ref>:“Made the [[flower garden]]; laying it out in the form of a Lyre. Built also the [[rustic style|rustic]] '''seat''' in the Old Apple tree. Set out the roses under the Library windows.”
:“Near this enclosure [at the State House] is another of much the same description, called [[Washington Square]]. Here there was an excellent crop of clover; but as the trees are numerous, and highly beautiful, and several commodious '''seats''' are placed beneath their shade, it is, spite of the long grass, a very agreeable retreat from heat and dust. It was rarely, however, that I saw any of these '''seats''' occupied; the Americans have either no leisure, or no inclination for those moments of ''delassement'' that all other people, I believe, indulge in. . . . it is nevertheless the nearest approach to a London square that is to be found in Philadelphia. . . . “The Delaware river, above Philadelphia, still flows through a landscape too level for beauty, but it is rendered interesting by a succession of gentlemen’s '''seats''', which, if less elaborately finished in architecture, and garden grounds, than the lovely villas on the Thames, are still beautiful objects to gaze upon as you float rapidly past on the broad silvery stream that washes their [[lawn]]s.”
[[Image:0359.jpg|thumb|225px|Fig. 11, Anonymous, “The [[Lake]],” [[Montgomery Place]], in [[A. J. Downing]], ed., ''Horticulturist'' 2, no. 4 (October 1847): 158, fig. 27.]]
*[[Andrew Jackson Downing|Downing, Andrew Jackson]], 1847, describing [[Montgomery Place]], country home of Mrs. Edward (Louise) Livingston, Dutchess County, NY (quoted in Haley 1988: 20, 47, 50)<ref>Jacquetta M. Haley, ed., ''Pleasure Grounds: Andrew Jackson Downing and Montgomery Place'' (Tarrytown, NY: Sleepy Hollow Press, 1988), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/SSZXJFSC/ view on Zotero].</ref>
:“I forgot to beg you before you leave [[Montgomery Place]] to sketch the [[view]] from the bold rustic '''seat''' with rustic balustrade in front*on the high west river [[walk]]. It seems to me one of the very finest things I have seen anywhere.
:<nowiki>*</nowiki> that '''seat''' about half way between the steps & the south terminus. . .
:“A path on the left of the broad [[lawn]] leads one to the fanciful rustic-gabled '''seat''', among a growth of locusts at the bottom of the [[Terrace/Slope|slope]]. . . Half-way along this morning ramble, a rustic '''seat''', placed on a bold little plateau, at the base of a large tree, eighty feet above the water, and fenced about with a rustic barrier, invites you to linger and gaze at the fascinating river landscape here presented. . .
:“A little farther on, we reach a flight of rocky steps, leading up to the [[border]] of the [[lawn]]. At the top of these is a rustic '''seat''' with a thatched canopy, curiously built round the trunk of an aged pine. . .
:“This part of the grounds [the [[lake]]] is seen to the most advantage, either toward evening, or in moonlight. Then the effect of contrast in light and shadow is most striking, and the seclusion and beauty of the spot are more fully enjoyable than at any hour. Then you will most certainly be tempted to leave the curious rustic '''seat''', with its roof wrapped round with a rude entablature like Pluto’s crown.” [Fig. 11]
* Downing, A. J., January 1837, “Notices on the State and Progress of Horticulture in the United States,” describing Hyde Park, seat of Dr. David Hosack, on the Hudson, N.Y. (''Magazine of Horticulture'' 3: 5)
[[File:“The most distinguished amateur 1097.jpg|thumb|225px|Fig. 12, Thomas S. Sinclair, “Plan of the [[Pleasure Ground]]s and patron Farm of gardeningthe [[Pennsylvania Hospital for the Insane]] at Philadelphia, in every sense Thomas S. Kirkbride, ''American Journal of Insanity'' 4 (April 1848): pl. opp. 280.]]*Kirkbride, Thomas S., April 1848, describing the [[pleasure ground|pleasure grounds]] and farm of the word[[Pennsylvania Hospital for the Insane]], in this statePhiladelphia (''American Journal of Insanity'' 4: 349)<ref>Thomas S. Kirkbride, was “Description of the late DrPleasure Grounds and Farm of the Pennsylvania Hospital for the Insane, with Remarks,” ''American Journal of Insanity'' 4, no. 4 (April 1848): 347–54, [https://www. Hosackzotero. Hyde Park, org/groups/54737/keywords_in_early_american_landscape_design/items/itemKey/9RWM2FH8/q/kirkbride view on the HudsonZotero].</ref>:“The [[summerhouse|summer-houses]], the [[rustic style|rustic]]-'''seatseats''' of , exercising-swings &c., in this gentlemandivision are all in particularly pleasant positions. The cottage fronts the [[wood]]s, has been probably the best specimen and in every part this portion of a highly improved residence in the United Statesgrounds is completely protected from intrusion and observation.”[Fig. 12]
* Ritchie[[J. C. (John Claudius) Loudon|Loudon, Anna Cora Ogden MowattJ. C. (John Claudius)]], 18391850, describing Bonaparte’s Park at estate of Joseph Bonaparte the public gardens in Philadelphia, PA (Count de Survilliers1850: 332–33):“856. ''[[public garden|Public Gardens]]''. . .:“''[[Promenade]] at Philadelphia''. There is a very pretty enclosure before the walnut tree entrance to the state-house, Bordentownwith good well-kept gravel [[walk]]s, Nand many beautiful flowering trees.JIt is laid down in grass, not in turf; which, indeed, Mrs. Trollope observes, ‘is a luxury she never saw in America. Near this enclosure is another of a similar description, called [[Washington Square (quoted in Weber 1854: 186Philadelphia) <ref>Constance Weber|Washington Square]], ‘A Sketch of Joseph Bonaparte’which has numerous trees, in with commodious '''Godey’s Ladyseats's Book'' placed beneath their shade.’ (Philadelphia: L''Ibid''. [''D. M. &c''.] vol. ii. p. A48. Godey, 1854). [https. .://www“''Waterworks at Fair Mount, near Philadelphia''.zotero.org/. . On the farther side of the river is a gentleman’s '''seat''', the beautiful [[lawn]] of which slopes down to the water’s edge; and groups/54737/items/itemKey/NEDC6TSD/ view of weeping willows and other trees throw their shadows on Zotero]</ref>the stream.’ (''Domestic Manners of the Americans'', vol. ii. p. 44.)”
===Citations===*Dezallier d’Argenville, Antoine-Joseph, 1712, ''The Theory and Practice of Gardening'' (1712:“Equally rustic 78)<ref> A.-J. (Antoine Joseph) Dézallier d’Argenville, ''The Theory and Practice of Gardening; Wherein Is Fully Handled All That Relates to Fine Gardens, . . . Containing Divers Plans, and General Dispositions of Gardens. . . '', trans. John James (London: Geo. James, 1712), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/RNT8ZVZ8 view on Zotero].</ref>:“'seats''SEATS' are scattered beneath '', or Benches, besides the shade Conveniency they constantly afford in great Gardens, where you can scarce ever have too many, there is such need of them in walking, look very well also in a Garden, when set in certain Places they are destin’d to, as in the tall trees on its banksNiches or Sinkings that face principal [[Walk]]s and [[Vista]]s, and upon its clear surface a flock in the Halls and Galleries of snow-white swans were floating about[[Grove]]s.”
* HoveyWare, CIsaac, 1756, ''A Complete Body of Architecture'' (1756: 636, 641)<ref>Isaac Ware, ''A Complete Body of Architecture'' (London: T. MOsborne and J.Shipton, September 18401756), “Notes [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/2EK2USKV view on Gardens Zotero].</ref>:“The first principle is here that there be space to [[walk]], and Gardening'''seats''' to rest. These must be proportioned also to one another: it would be absurd to terminate a vast [[walk]] with a plain bench; nor less ridiculous to erect a pompous [[temple]] where there was not the extent of a hundred yards from the building. . .:“He who would know where to place his [[pavilion]], '''seat''', or [[temple]], in New Bedforda garden, Massmust first understand what the purpose of it is,” describing and what the estate true beauty and excellence of James Arnold, New Bedford, Massthe garden itself. (''Magazine of Horticulture'' 6: 364)
:“Continuing through the winding [[walk]]s, shady [[bower]]s, and umbrageous retreats, through which rustic '''seats''' were placed, we arrived at the shell [[grotto]].”
*Sheridan, Thomas, 1789, ''A Complete Dictionary of the English Language'' (1789: n.p.)<ref>Thomas A. Sheridan, ''A Complete Dictionary of the English Language, Carefully Revised and Corrected by John Andrews. . . '', 5th ed. (Philadelphia: William Young, 1789), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/T5GU4CBQ view on Zotero].</ref>
:“'''SEAT''', se’t. s. A chair, bench, or any thing on which one may sit; chair of state; tribunal; mansion, abode; situation, site.”
* Adams, Rev. Nehemiah, 1842, describing Boston Common, Boston, Mass. ([Adams] 1842: 54) <ref>Nehemiah Adams, ''Boston Common'' (Boston: William D. Ticknor and H. B. Williams, 1842). [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/VXTWGJ58 view on Zotero]</ref>
*Anonymous, 1798, ''Encyclopaedia'' (1798: 7:561):“One “‘V. '''SEATS''' have a two-fold use; they are useful as places of rest and conversation, and as guides to the next improvements points of [[view]] in which the beauties of the surrounding scene are disclosed. Every point of [[Commonview]] we suspect will should be marked with a suitable supply of proper '''seatsseat'''; and speaking generally, no '''seat''' ought to appear but in the some favourable point of [[mallview]]. As a defence against our American propensity This rule may not be invariable, but it ought seldom to whittlebe deviated from.:“In the ruder scenes of neglected nature, the simple trunk, rough from the city government caused some woodman’s hands, and the butts or stools of rooted trees, without any other marks of tools upon them than those of the wooden saw which severed them from their stems, are '''seats''' to be sheathed with sheet ironin character; and in romantic or recluse situations, the cave or the [[grotto]] are admissible. Vain defence against But wherever human design has been executed upon the knife natural objects of an American whittler! . . . The city government thought that they would ‘try what virtue there is in stones.’ Blocks of granite have been deposited there for the place, the '''seatsseat'''. . . . The stone '''seats''' are smooth only on and every other artificial accompaniment ought to be in unison; and whether the bench or the upper side[[alcove]] be chosen, it ought to be formed and their rough look is not strictly finished in Boston tastesuch a manner as to unite with the [[wood]], though it is excusablethe [[lawn]], considering and the penitentiary object [[walk]], which led to their substitution for wooden lie around it.:“The colour of '''seats'''. . . . The idea should likewise be suited to situations: where uncultivated nature prevails, the natural brown of sitting on a natural, rough rock, the [[wood]] itself ought not to enjoy be altered; but where the beauties of naturerural art presides, is poetical and in good keeping, but we have tried in vain to make those white or stone colour has a much better effect.’ ''Practical Treatise on Planting and Gardening p. 593 &c.'seats''' on the [[mall]] seem poetical.
* BuckinghamRepton, James SilkHumphry, 18421803, describing Red Sulphur Springs''Observations on the Theory and Practice of Landscape Gardening'' (1803: 69, 153)<ref>Humphry Repton, Va''Observations on the Theory and Practice of Landscape Gardening'' (London: Printed by T. (CWFBensley for J. Taylor, 1803), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/VVQPC3BI view on Zotero].</ref>:“This would be a proper place for a covered '''seat''', with a shed behind it for horses or open carriages; but it should be set so far back as to command the [[view]] under the branches of trees, which are very happily situated for the purpose. . .:“Yet the summit of a naked brow, commanding [[view]]s in every direction, may require a covered '''seat''' or [[pavilion]]; for such a situation, where an architectural building is proper, a circular [[temple]] with a dome, such as the [[temple]] of the Sybils, or that of Tivoli, is best calculated.”
:“In the centre of the valley, is a triangular [[plot]] of grass, which has been enclosed with wellfinished rails, painted white, and laid out in [[walk]]s like a [[lawn]], having also several large and fine trees, under which '''seats''' are placed for enjoying the shade.”
*Abercrombie, John, with James Mean, 1817, ''Abercrombie’s Practical Gardener'' (1817: 465)<ref>John Abercrombie, ''Abercrombie’s Practical Gardener Or, Improved System of Modern Horticulture'' (London: T. Cadell and W. Davies, 1817), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/TH54TADZ/ view on Zotero].</ref>
:“Fine points of [[view]] claim, in the first place, to be distinguished by '''seats'''. '''Seats''' merely serving as places of rest might announce an intrinsic object by some difference in their construction; and if there be no distant [[prospect]] to engage attention, greater elegance in the accompaniments may create a pleasant resting-place. As to the manner of finishing a '''seat'''; where the house is in sight, a correct taste will expect the bench or [[alcove]] to correspond with the style of the house, so far at least as to be avowedly artificial, neat in the workmanship, and painted. In neglected or wild scenes, withdrawn from the polished [[lawn]], pleasing illusions may be induced by a rough block of timber, the arms of a fantastic root, or forest fagots romantically interwoven, offering a '''seat''' under the canopy of a tree, or within a cave or [[grotto]]. This is admissible on principle, in proportion as every thing surrounding is in character. Not that it can be denied, that whimsical '''seats''' at variance with the situation sometimes afford a degree of amusement, and may do no harm in little gardens, or in a scene too tame to be spoiled: but the effect terminates with the oddity; a place destitute of character can excite no romantic interest.”
* Anonymous, 6 December 1842, “Letter from Ministry at New Lebanon to Ministry at Graveland” (Western Reserve Historical Society Library, Shaker Manuscript Collection)
[[File:“And it 1334.jpg|thumb|225px|Fig. 13, [[J. C. Loudon]], Covered seats of the [[Rustic_style|rustic]] kind, in ''An Encyclopædia of Gardening'', 4th ed. (1826), 357, fig. 336.]] *[[J. C. (John Claudius) Loudon|Loudon, J. C. (John Claudius)]], 1826, ''An Encyclopaedia of Gardening'' (1826: 355, 357, 809)<ref>J. C. (John Claudius) Loudon, ''An Encyclopaedia of Gardening; Comprising the Theory and Practice of Horticulture, Floriculture, Arboriculture, and Landscape-Gardening'', 4th ed. (London: Longman et al., 1826),[https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/KNKTCA4W view on Zotero].</ref>:“1805. ''Of convenient decorations'' the variety is my will that your almost endless, from the prospect-tower to the rustic '''seat'''; besides aquatic decorations, agreeable to the eye and convenient for the purposes of recreations or culture. Their emplacement, as in the former section, belongs to gardening, and their construction to architecture and engineering. . .:“1816. ''Roofed '''seats''', boat-houses, moss houses, flint houses, bark huts'', and similar constructions, are different modes of forming resting-places containing '''seats''', and sometimes other furniture or conveniences in or near them. . . [Fig. 13]:“1817. ''Roofed '''seats''' of a more polished description'' are boarded structures generally semi-octagonal, and placed so as to be prepared after open to the following ordersouth. Ye may take boards Sometimes they are portable, moving on wheels, so as to be placed in different positions, according to the hour of the day, or season of sufficient width & thickness to form the year, which, in confined spots, is a desirable circumstance. Sometimes they turn on rollers, or on a central pivot, for the same object, and this is very common in what are called barrel-'''seats'''. In general they are opaque, but occasionally their sides are glazed, to admit the sun to the interior in winter.[[File:1335.jpg|thumb|225px|Fig. 14, [[J. C. Loudon]], Elegant structures of the seatkind, in ''An Encyclopædia of Gardening'' 4th ed. (1826), 357, figs. 337 and 338.]] :“1818. ''Folding chairs''. These A sort of medium '''seat''', between the roofed and the exposed, is formed by constructing the backs of chairs, benches, or sofas with hinges, so as they may be planedfold down over the '''seat''', and so protect it from rain. . .:“1819. Place these upon square blocks ''Elegant structures'' of sufficient bigness to elevate the '''seat''' kind for summer use, may be constructed of a suitable heightiron rods and wires, and painted canvas; the iron forming the supporting skeleton, and these are sufficient for the canvass the protecting tegument. . . [Fig. 14]:“1820. ''Exposed '''seats''''' include a great variety, upon my holy groundrising in gradation from the turf bank to the carved couch. And if ye desire to build a shedIntermediate forms are stone benches, root stools, sections of trunks of trees, wooden, stone, or cast-iron mushrooms painted or covered with moss, or mat, near by or heath; the meeting ground under which you can place these Chinese barrel-'''seatsseat''', at such parts the rustic stool, chair, tripod, sofa, the cast-iron couch or sofa, the wheeling-chair, and many subvarieties. . .:“6157. . . Light [[bower]]s formed of the year as they are not wantedlattice-work, ye may freely do it; but if my feast ground is located near your dwellingsand covered with climbers, you had better carry them there are in general most suitable to place under shelter[[parterre]]s; plain covered '''seats''' suit the general [[walk]]s of the [[shrubbery]].”
* LongfellowAnonymous, Henry WadsworthApril 26, c. 18451826, describing the Vassall-Craigie-Longfellow House, Cambridge, Mass. “On Landscapes and Picturesque Gardens” (quoted in Evans 1993''New England Farmer'' 4: 41316) <ref>Catherine EvansAnonymous, “On Landscape and Picturesque Gardens, ''Cultural Landscape Report for Longfellow National Historic Site, History and Existing ConditionsNew England Farmer'' 4, no. 40 (Boston: National Park ServiceApril 28, North Atlantic Region, 19931826): 316, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/keywords_in_early_american_landscape_design/items/itemKey/9TI9GUQN I3K5QGBZ? view on Zotero].</ref>:“A few fabrics, rustic [[bridge]]s, [[hermitage]]s, a [[Temple]], or a Chinese Kiosk or Pagoda, not expensive in their execution, would advantageously complete the embellishment of a country '''seat'''.”
:“Made the [[flower garden]]; laying it out in the form of a Lyre. Built also the rustic '''seat''' in the Old Apple tree. Set out the roses under the Library windows.”
*[[Noah Webster|Webster, Noah]], 1828, ''An American Dictionary of the English Language'' (1828: 2:n.p.)<ref>Noah Webster, ''An American Dictionary of the English Language'', 2 vols. (New York: S. Converse, 1828), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/N7BSU467 view on Zotero].</ref>
:“'''SEAT''', ''n.'' [It. ''sedia''; Sp. s''ede, sitio'', from L. ''sedes, situs''; Sw. ''sate''; Dan. ''soede''; G. ''sitz''; D. ''zetel'', ''zitplaats''; W. ''sez''; Ir. ''saidh''; W. with a prefix, ''gosod'', whence ''gosodi'', to ''set''. See ''Set'' and ''Sit''. . .]
:“1. That on which one sits. . .
:“3. Mansion; residence; dwelling; abode; as Italy the '''''seat''''' of empire. The Greeks sent colonies to seek a new '''''seat''''' in Gaul.
:“In Alba he shall fix his royal '''''seat'''''. Dryden.
:“4. Site; situation. The '''''seat''''' of Eden has never been incontrovertibly ascertained. . .
:“8. The place where a thing is settled or established. London is the '''''seat''''' of business and opulence. So we say, the '''''seat''''' of the muses, the '''''seat''''' of arts, the '''''seat''''' of commerce.”
* Downing, A. J., 26 July 1847, describing Montgomery Place, country home of Mrs. Edward (Louise) Livingston, Dutchess County, N.Y. (quoted in Haley 1988: 20, 47, 50) <ref>Jacquetta M. Haley, ed., ''Pleasure Grounds: Andrew Jackson Downing and Montgomery Place'' (Tarrytown, N.Y.: Sleepy Hollow Press, 1988). [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/SSZXJFSC/ view on Zotero]</ref>
:“I forgot to beg you before you leave Montgomery Place to sketch the [[view]] from the bold rustic '*Bridgeman, Thomas, 1832, ''seatThe Young Gardener’s Assistant''' with rustic balustrade in front* on the high west river [[walk]]. It seems to me one of the very finest things I have seen anywhere.(1832:111)<nowikiref>*</nowiki> that 'Thomas Bridgeman, ''seatThe Young Gardener’s Assistant''' about half way between the steps & the south terminus, 3rd ed. (New York: Geo. Robertson, 1832), [https://www. zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/9FU4SNZK view on Zotero].</ref>:“A path on the left of the broad [[lawn]] leads one to the fanciful rustic-gabled '''seat''', among “In a growth of locusts at the bottom retired part of the [[slopeflower]]. . . Half-way along this morning ramblegarden, a rustic '''seat'''may be formed, placed on a bold little plateau, at the base of a large tree, eighty feet above the water, over and around which honey-suckles and other sweet and fenced about with a rustic barrier, invites you to linger ornamental creepers and gaze at the fascinating river landscape here presented. . . .:“A little farther on, we reach a flight of rocky steps, leading up to the [climbers may he [border]] of the [[lawn]]. At the top of these is a rustic ''sic'seat''' with a thatched canopy, curiously built round the trunk of an aged pine. . . .:“This part of the grounds ] trained on [the [[laketrellis]]] is seen to the most advantagees, either toward evening, or in moonlight. Then the effect of contrast in light and shadow is most striking, and the seclusion and beauty of the spot are more fully enjoyable than at any hour. Then you will most certainly be tempted so as to leave the curious rustic '''seat''', with its roof wrapped round with afford a rude entablature like Pluto’s crownpleasant retirement.”
* KirkbrideTeschemacher, Thomas SJames E., April 1848August 1, describing 1835, “Extracts from Foreign Publications” (''Horticultural Register'' 1: 308–9)<ref>James E. Teschemacher, “Extracts from Foreign Publications,” ''Horticultural Register, and Gardener’s Magazine'' 1 (August 1, 1835): 304–9, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/keywords_in_early_american_landscape_design/items/itemKey/CNPGMS5X/q/extracts%20from%20foreign%20publications view on Zotero].</ref>:“''From an article On the pleasure grounds various form and farm character of [[Arbour]]s as objects of use or ornament either in gardens or wild scenery [from Paxton’s Horticultural Register''], we extract the following passages. . .:“‘The closely shaven turf comes about ten feet inside the Pennsylvania Hospital for [[arch]]es where its edge is cut, and between that and the Insane[[basin]] is covered with a fine tawny sand, Philadelphiawith an apparently confused but really symmetrical arrangement of marble pedestals, Pa. (''American Journal of Insanity'seats''' 4: 349)and [[vase]]s with flowering plants placed upon them. During summer a [[vase]] with a rare flowering plant is placed under each of the external [[arch]]es except four which serve as entrances. The entire effect is good, and his may be considered as one of the best specimens of the artificial [[bower]] of the present day.’”
 *Sayers, Edward, 1838, ''The American Flower Garden Companion'' (1838:“The summer-houses14, 19, 131)<ref>Edward Sayers, ''The American Flower Garden Companion, Adapted to the Northern States'' (Boston: Joseph Breck, 1838), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/GHTFN8B2 view on Zotero].</ref>:“At country residences, where a large extent is appropriated to this department [the [[flower garden]]], many convenient and pleasing appendages can be judiciously introduced; as rustic [[arbor]]s, rustic-'''seats''', exercisingswings &cand [[rockery]]; and if water can be connected, it always gives a good effect.All such appendages, I recommend to be constructed in this division are all in particularly pleasant positionsas natural a manner as possible. . . The cottage fronts :“In extensive [[pleasure ground]]s the [[rockery]] has a good effect when placed distinct from the [[flower garden]], and near a rustic [[arbor]] or ornamental [[bridge]], or '''seat'''; and if placed by the side of a retired [[walk]], near the [[woodlawn]] or grass [[plot]]s, it has an easy effect. . . .:“the margin of the [[pond]] should be planted with drooping willows and in every part this portion trees of a pendulous habit for shade, under which rustic '''seat''' might be properly placed for the accommodation of those who desire to view the grounds is completely protected from intrusion sporting fishes, and observationother interesting objects by which they are surrounded.”[[File:0936.jpg|thumb|225px|Fig. 15, Alexander Walsh, Two seats surrounded by an arched [[arbor]], in ''New England Farmer'' 19, no. 39 (March 31, 1841): 309, fig. 4.]]
* LoudonWalsh, JAlexander, March 31, 1841, “Remarks on Ornamental Gardening” (''New England Farmer'' 19: 308–9)<ref>Alexander Walsh, “Remarks on Ornamental Gardening, With a Plan of a Fruit, Flower and Vegetable Garden,” ''New England Farmer, and Horticultural Register'' 19, no. 39 (March 31, 1841): 308–9, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/HD2AV62D view on Zotero. C]</ref>:“The garden and [[pleasure ground]] I would describe, is of an oblong form, 165 feet by 120 feet, with one end next the north side of the house.. .:“X X two '''seats''', 1850each occupying 2 ft. . . T T two '''seats'''. . . surrounded by an arched [[arbor]] 10 ft. high, describing thrown over the public gardens in Philadelphia[[walk]], Paornamented on one side with honeysuckle, on the other by climbing Boursaut rose. (pp” [Fig. 332–33)15]
:“856. ''[[Public Gardens]]''. . . .
:“''[[Promenade]] at Philadelphia''. There is a very pretty enclosure before the walnut tree entrance to the state-house, with good well-kept gravel [[walk]]s, and many beautiful flowering trees. It is laid down in grass, not in turf; which, indeed, Mrs. Trollope observes, ‘is a luxury she never saw in America. Near this enclosure is another of a similar description, called [[Washington Square]], which has numerous trees, with commodious '''seats''' placed beneath their shade.’ (''Ibid''. [''D. M. &c''.] vol. ii. p. 48.) . . .
:“''Waterworks at Fair Mount, near Philadelphia''. ‘. . . On the farther side of the river is a gentleman’s '''seat''', the beautiful [[lawn]] of which slopes down to the water’s edge; and groups of weeping willows and other trees throw their shadows on the stream.’ (''Domestic Manners of the Americans'', vol. ii. p. 44.)”
===Citations===[[File:1824.jpg|thumb|225px|Fig. 16, Anonymous, “Moveable Garden Seat,” in Jane Loudon, ''Gardening for Ladies'' (1843), 283, fig. 49.]] *[[Jane Loudon|Loudon, Jane]], 1843, ''Gardening for Ladies'' (1843: 283–84)<ref>Jane Loudon, ''Gardening for Ladies; And Companion to the Flower-Garden,'' ed. A. J. Downing (New York: Wiley and Putnam, 1843), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/VJ3SM523 view on Zotero].</ref>:“'''SEATS''' for gardens are either open or covered; the latter being in the form of root-houses, huts, [[pavilion]]s, [[temple]]s, [[grotto]]es, &c., and the former being either fixed, temporary, or portable. Fixed '''seats''' are commonly of stone, either plain stone benches without backs, or stone supports to wooden benches. Sometimes, also, wooden '''seats''' are fixed, as when they are placed round a tree, or when boards are nailed to posts, or when '''seats''' are formed in imitation of mushrooms, as in the grounds at Redleaf. Fixed '''seats''' are also sometimes formed of turf. Portable '''seats''' are formed of [[wood]], sometimes contrived to have the back of the '''seat''' folded down when the '''seat''' is not in use; so as to exclude the weather, and avoid the dirt of birds which are apt to perch on them. Another kind of portable '''seat''', which is frequently formed in iron, as shown in ''fig.'' 49, is readily wheeled from one part of the grounds to another; and the back of which also folds down to protect the '''seat''' from the weather. There is a kind of camp-stool which serves as a portable '''seat''', imported from Norway, and sold at the low price of 2''s''. 6''d''. or 3''s''.; and there are also straw '''seats''', like half [[beehive]]s, which are, however, only used in garden-huts, or in any situation under cover, because in the open air they would be liable to be soaked with rain. There are a great variety of rustic '''seats''' formed of roots and crooked branches of trees, used both for the open garden and under cover; and there are also '''seats''' of cast and wrought iron, of great variety of form. There should always be some kind of analogy between the '''seat''' and the scene of which it forms a part; and for this reason rustic '''seats''' should be confined to rustic scenery; and the '''seats''' for a [[lawn]] or highly kept pleasure-ground ought to be of comparatively simple and architectural forms, and either of [[wood]] or stone, those of [[wood]] being frequently painted of a stone colour, and sprinkled over with silver sand before the paint is dry, to give them the appearance of stone. Iron '''seats''', generally speaking, are not sufficiently massive for effect; and the metal conveys the idea of cold in winter and heat in summer. [Fig. 16]:“When '''seats''' are placed along a [[walk]], a gravelled recess ought to be formed to receive them; and there ought, generally, to be a footboard to keep the feet from the moist ground, whether the '''seat''' is on gravel or on al awn [''sic'']. In a garden where there are several '''seats''', some ought to be in positions exposed to the sun, and others placed in the shade, and none ought to be put down in a situation where the back of the '''seat''' is seen by a person approaching it before the front. Indeed the backs of all fixed '''seats''' ought to be concealed by shrubs, or by some other means, unless they are circular '''seats''' placed round a tree. '''Seats''' ought not to be put down where there will be any temptation to the persons sitting on them to strain their eyes to the right or left, nor where the boundary of the garden forms a conspicuous object in the [[view]]. In general, all '''seats''' should be of a stone colour, as harmonizing best with vegetation. Noting can be more unartistical than '''seats''' painted a pea-green, and placed among the green of living plants.”
* [Dézallier d’Argenville, A.-J.], 1712, ''The Theory and Practice of Gardening'' ([1712] 1969: 78) <ref> A.-J. (Antoine Joseph) Dézallier d’Argenville, ''The Theory and Practice of Gardening; Wherein Is Fully Handled All That Relates to Fine Gardens, ... Containing Divers Plans, and General Dispositions of Gardens; ...'', trans. by John James (London: Geo. James, 1712). [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/RNT8ZVZ8 view on Zotero]</ref>
[[File: 0398.jpg|thumb|225px|Fig. 17, Anonymous, [[Rustic_style|Rustic]] Covered Seat,” in [[A. J. Downing]], ''A Treatise on the Theory and Practice of Landscape Gardening'SEATS', 4th ed. (1849), 458, fig. 86.]]*[[Andrew Jackson Downing|Downing, Andrew Jackson]], 1849, ''A Treatise on the Theory and Practice of Landscape Gardening'' (1849: 454–56, 473–74)<ref>A. J. [Andrew Jackson] Downing, ''A Treatise on the Theory and Practice of Landscape Gardening, Adapted to North America. . . '', 4th ed. (New York: G. P. Putnam, 1849), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/5M4S2D64 view on Zotero].</ref>:''“Open and covered '''seats''''', of various descriptions, are among the most convenient and useful decorations for the pleasure-grounds of a country residence. Situated in portions of the [[lawn]] or Benches[[park]], besides somewhat distant from the Conveniency house, they constantly afford in great Gardensoffer an agreeable place for rest or repose. If there are certain points from which are obtained agreeable [[prospect]]s or extensive [[view]]s of the surrounding country, a '''seat''', where you can scarce ever have too manyby designating those points, there is such need and by affording us a convenient mode of enjoying them in walking, look very well also in has a Gardendouble recommendation to our minds.:“Open and covered '''seats''' are of two distinct kinds; one ''architectural'', or formed after artist-like designs, of stone or [[wood]], when set in certain Places Grecian, Gothic, or other forms; which may, if they are destin’d intended toproduce an elegant effect, have [[vase]]s on pedestals as accompaniments; the other, ''rustic'', as they are called, which are formed out of trucks and branches of trees, roots, etc., in their natural forms. . .:“We consider rustic '''seats''' and structures as likely to be much preferred in the villa and cottage residences of the country. They have the merit of being tasteful and [[picturesque]] in their appearance, and are easily constructed by the Niches amateur, at comparatively little or Sinkings that face principal no expense. There is scarcely a prettier or more pleasant object for the termination of a long [[Walkwalk]]s and in the [[Pleasure_ground|pleasure-grounds]] or [[Vistapark]]s, than a neatly thatched structure of rustic work, with its '''seat''' for repose, and in a [[view]] of the landscape beyond. . . [Fig. 17]:''“Unity of expression'' is the Halls maxim and Galleries guide in this department of the art, as in every other. . .:“With regard to [[Grovepavilion]]s, summer-houses, rustic '''seats''', and garden edifices of like character, they should, if possible, in all cases be introduced where they are manifestly appropriate or in harmony with the scene. Thus. . . a rustic covered '''seat''' may occupy a secluded, quiet portion of the grounds, where undisturbed meditation be enjoyed.”
''
* Ware, Isaac, 1756, ''A Complete Body of Architecture'' (pp. 636, 641) <ref>
Isaac Ware, ''A Complete Body of Architecture'' (London: T. Osborne and J. Shipton, 1756). [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/2EK2USKV view on Zotero]</ref>
:“The first principle is here that there be space to [[walk]]*Ranlett, William H., 1849, and ''The Architect'' (1849; repr., 1976: 1:19)<ref>William H. Ranlett, 'seats'The Architect'' to rest, 2 vols. (1849–51; repr. These must be proportioned also to one another, New York: it would be absurd to terminate a vast Da Capo, 1976), [[walk]] with a plain bench; nor less ridiculous to erect a pompous [[temple]] where there was not the extent of a hundred yards from the building. https://www. zotero. org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/QGQPCB5J view on Zotero].</ref>:“He who would know where to place his [[pavilion]]“Probably no portion of the globe, offers a greater variety of beautiful country '''seatseats'''than the vicinity of New-York. No man who has any taste for the retired tranquillity of a suburban retreat, or the lovely beauty of a [[templepicturesque]]scene, or the romantic grandeur of an enchanting landscape of cities, towns and country; rivers, in a gardenbays and ocean, must first understand what could fail to be suited with some of the purpose numerous situations on the undulated shores, gentle declivities or towering heights of it isStaten Island, and what Long Island or the true beauty and excellence banks of the garden itselfnoble Hudson.”
[[File:0920.jpg|thumb|225px|Fig. 18, Anonymous, “Small Bracketed Cottage,” in [[A. J. Downing]], ''The Architecture of Country Houses'' (1850), pl. opp. 78, fig. 9.]]* Sheridan[[Andrew Jackson Downing|Downing, ThomasAndrew Jackson]], 17891850, ''A Complete Dictionary The Architecture of the English LanguageCountry Houses'' (n.p1850; repr., 1968: 80–81) <ref>Thomas A. SheridanJ. [Andrew Jackson] Downing, ''A Complete Dictionary The Architecture of the English LanguageCountry Houses; Including Designs for Cottages, Farm-Houses, Carefully Revised and Corrected by John Andrews....Villas''(1850; repr., 5th edn (PhiladelphiaNew York: William YoungD. Appleton; Da Capo, 17891968). , [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/T5GU4CBQ GRZPQXQI view on Zotero].</ref>:“The little rustic [[arbor]]s or covered '''seats''' on the outside of the bay window may be supposed to answer in some measure in the place of a [[veranda]], and convey at the first glance, an impression of refinement and taste attained in that simple manner so appropriate to a small cottage.” [Fig. 18]
:“'''SEAT''', se’t. s. A chair, bench, or any thing on which one may sit; chair of state; tribunal; mansion, abode; situation, site.”
*[[Andrew Jackson Downing|Downing, Andrew Jackson]], June 1850, “Our Country Villages” (''Horticulturist'' 4: 540–41)<ref>A. J. Downing, “Our Country Villages,” ''Horticulturist and Journal of Rural Art and Rural Taste'' 4, no. 12 (June 1850): 537–41, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/keywords_in_early_american_landscape_design/items/itemKey/2DJ27X4W/q/our%20country%20villages view on Zotero].</ref>
:“The next step, after the possession of such public pleasure-grounds, would be the social and common enjoyment of them. Upon the well-mown glades of [[lawn]], and beneath the shade of the forest trees, would be formed rustic '''seats'''. Little [[arbor]]s would be placed near, where in midsummer evenings ices would be served to all who wished them.”
* Anonymous, 1798, ''Encyclopaedia'' (7:561)
:“‘V. *[[Andrew Jackson Downing|Downing, Andrew Jackson]], March 1851, “The Management of Large Country Places” (''Horticulturist'SEATS'6: 105–6)<ref>A. J. Downing, “The Management of Large Country Places,” '' have a two-fold use; they are useful as places Horticulturist and Journal of rest Rural Art and conversationRural Taste'' 6, no. 3 (March 1851): 105–8, and as guides to the points of [[https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/keywords_in_early_american_landscape_design/items/itemKey/HKQH76RW/q/management%20of%20large%20country%20places viewon Zotero]] in which .</ref>:“All our country residences may readily be divided into two classes. The first and largest class, is the beauties suburban place of from five to twenty or thirty acres; the second is the surrounding scene are disclosed. Every point of [[view]] should be marked with a country-'''seat'''; and speaking generally, no '''seat''' ought properly so called, which consists of from 30 to appear but 500 or more acres. . .:“But in some favourable point the larger country places, there are ten instances of failure for one of [[view]]success. This rule may is not be invariable, but it ought seldom owing to be deviated from.:“In the ruder scenes want of neglected naturenatural beauty, for the simple trunksites are [[picturesque]], rough from the woodman’s handssurface varied, and the butts or stools of rooted trees, without any other marks of tools upon them than those of the saw which severed them from their stems, are '''seats''' in character; [[wood]]s and in romantic or recluse situations, the cave or the [[grottoplantation]] are admissibles excellent. But wherever human design has been executed upon the natural objects of The failure consists, for the placemost part, the '''seat''' in a certain incongruity and every other artificial accompaniment ought to be want of distinct character in unison; and whether the bench or treatment of the [[alcove]] be chosen, it ought place as a whole. They are too large to be formed and finished kept in such a manner order as pleasure-grounds, while they are not laid out or treated as to unite with the [[woodpark]]s. The grass which stretches on all sides of the house, the is partly mown for [[lawn]], and partly for hay; the lines of the [[walk]]farm and the ornamental portion of the grounds, meet in a confused and unsatisfactory manner, which lie around it.:“The colour of '''seats''' should likewise and the result is a residence pretending to be suited much superior to situations: where uncultivated nature prevailsa common farm, the natural brown of the [[wood]] itself ought and not yet rising to be altered; but where the rural art presides, white or stone colour has dignity of a much better effect.’ really tasteful country '''seat'Practical Treatise on Planting and Gardening p. 593 &c.''.
* ReptonJaques, HumphryGeorge, 1803January 1852, “Landscape Gardening in New-England” (''Observations on the Theory and Practice of Landscape GardeningHorticulturist'' (pp. 69, 1537: 35) <ref>Humphry ReptonGeorge Jacques, “Landscape Gardening in New-England, ''Observations on the Theory Horticulturist and Practice Journal of Landscape GardeningRural Art and Rural Taste'' 7, no. 1 (LondonJanuary 1852): Printed by T. Bensley for J. Taylor33–36, 1803). [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/keywords_in_early_american_landscape_design/items/itemKey/VVQPC3BI WMEDJ9XX/q/landscape%20gardening%20in%20new-england view on Zotero].</ref>:“Let woodbine, honey-suckle and climbing roses, here entwine themselves around a [[column]], and wreath themselves there over a window. Here place a rustic '''seat''', half hid among the [[shrubbery]]; there lead a short [[walk]], carelessly curving towards a little vine-clad [[arbor]].”
:“This would be a proper place for a covered '''seat''', with a shed behind it for horses or open carriages; but it should be set so far back as to command the [[view]] under the branches of trees, which are very happily situated for the purpose. . .
:“Yet the summit of a naked brow, commanding [[view]]s in every direction, may require a covered '''seat''' or [[pavilion]]; for such a situation, where an architectural building is proper, a circular [[temple]] with a dome, such as the [[temple]] of the Sybils, or that of Tivoli, is best calculated.”
<hr>
* Abercrombie, John, with James Mean, 1817, ''Abercrombie’s Practical Gardener'' (p. 465) ==Images=====Inscribed===<refspan id="roundabout_img">John Abercrombie, ''Abercrombie’s Practical Gardener Or, Improved System of Modern Horticulture'' (London: T. Cadell and W. Davies, 1817). [https:<//www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/TH54TADZ/ view on Zotero]span></refgallery widths="170px" heights="170px" perrow="7">
Image:“Fine points of 1722.jpg|[[viewJames Gibbs]] claim, in the first place, to be distinguished by '''seats'''. “Two '''Seats''' merely serving as places for the ends of rest might announce an intrinsic object by some difference in their construction; and if there be no distant [[prospectWalk]] to engage attentions, greater elegance in the accompaniments may create a pleasant resting-place. As to the manner of finishing a '''seat'''; where the house is in sight, a correct taste will expect the bench or [[alcove]] to correspond with the style of the house, so far at least as to be avowedly artificial, neat in the workmanship, and painted. In neglected or wild scenes, withdrawn from the polished [[lawn]], pleasing illusions may be induced by a rough block A Book of timber, the arms of a fantastic root, or forest fagots romantically interwoven, offering a Architecture'''seat''' under the canopy of a tree, or within a cave or [[grotto]]. This is admissible on principle(1728), in proportion as every thing surrounding is in characterpl. Not that it can be denied, that whimsical '''seats''' at variance with the situation sometimes afford a degree of amusement, and may do no harm in little gardens, or in a scene too tame to be spoiled: but the effect terminates with the oddity; a place destitute of character can excite no romantic interest82.
Image:1723.jpg|[[James Gibbs]], “Two other '''Seats''' for the same purpose [for the ends of [[walk]]s],” in ''A Book of Architecture'' (1728), pl. 83.
* Loudon, J. CImage:0925., 1826jpg|William Burgis, ''An Encyclopaedia A South East [[View]] of Gardeningye Great Town of Boston in New England in America'' (pp. 355, 357, 809) <ref>J1743. C“Capt. (John Claudius) Loudon, Cunningham’s '''Seat'An Encyclopaedia of Gardening; Comprising the Theory and Practice of Horticulture, Floriculture, Arboriculture, and Landscape-Gardening'', 4th edn (London: Longman et al, 1826). [https:” is inscribed over a grand house with beds//wwwparterres in front.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/KNKTCA4W view on Zotero]</ref>
Image:“18051737. ''Of convenient decorations'' the variety is almost endless, from the prospect-tower to the rustic '''seat'''; besides aquatic decorations, agreeable to the eye jpg|Batty and convenient for the purposes of recreations or culture. Their emplacementThomas Langley, as in the former section“An Umbrello, belongs to gardening, and their construction to architecture and engineering. . . .:“1816. ''Roofed '''seats''', boat-houses, moss houses, flint houses, bark huts'', and similar constructions, are different modes of forming resting-places containing '''seats''', and sometimes other furniture or conveniences in or near them. . . .:“1817. ''Roofed ''a 'seats''Seat' of a more polished description'' are boarded structures generally semi-octagonal, and placed so as to be open to the south. Sometimes they are portable, moving on wheels, so as to be placed in different positions, according to the hour of the day, or season of the year, which, in confined spots, is a desirable circumstance. Sometimes they turn on rollers, or on a central pivot, for the same object, and this is very common in what are called barrel-'''seats'''. In general they are opaque, but occasionally their sides are glazed, to admit the sun to the interior in winter.:“1818. ''Folding chairs''. A sort of medium '''seat''', between the roofed and the exposed, is formed by constructing the backs of chairs, benches, or sofas with hinges, so as they may fold down over the '''seat''', and so protect it from rain. . . .'':“1819. ''Elegant structures'' of the '''seat''' kind for summer use, may be constructed of iron rods and wires, and painted canvas; the iron forming the supporting skeleton, and the canvass the protecting tegument. . . .:“1820. ''Exposed '''seats''''' include Terminate a great variety, rising in gradation from the turf bank to the carved couch. Intermediate forms are stone benches, root stools, sections of trunks of trees, wooden, stone, or cast-iron mushrooms painted or covered with moss, or mat, or heath; the Chinese barrel-'''seat''', the rustic stool, chair, tripod, sofa, the cast-iron couch or sofa, the wheeling-chair, and many subvarieties. . . .:“6157. . . Light [[bowerwalk]]s formed of lattice-work, and covered with climbers, are in general most suitable to [[parterreView]]s; plain covered , &c. in a Garden,” in ''Gothic Architecture'seats''' suit the general [[walk]]s of the [[shrubbery]](1747), pl. 31.
image:1688.jpg|William and John Halfpenny, “A [[Chinese_manner|Chinese]] [[Alcove]] '''Seat''' Fronting Four Ways,” in ''Rural Architecture in the Chinese Taste'' (1755), pl. 8.
* File:2262.jpg|Anonymous, 26 April 1826, “On Landscapes and Picturesque Gardens” (''The South West [[Prospect]] of the '''Seat''' of Colonel George Boyd of Portsmouth, New Hampshire, New England Farmer, 1774'' 4: 316).
Image:“A few fabrics0587.jpg|Anonymous, rustic [[bridge]]s, [[hermitage]]s, a [[Temple]], or a Chinese Kiosk or Pagoda, not expensive in their execution, would advantageously complete Plan of the embellishment Harbour and City of a country '''seat'''Annapolis, 1781.
Image:0461.jpg|[[Samuel Vaughan]], Plan of Bath [[Berkeley Springs|[Berkeley Springs]]], VA, 1787, from the diary of [[Samuel Vaughan]], June–September 1787. Plan lists “bb” as “two [[Piazza]]s with '''seats'''.”
* Webster, Noah, 1828, ''An American Dictionary of the English Language'' (n.pImage:0338.) <ref>Noah Websterjpg|Anonymous, ''An American Dictionary A [[View]] of the English Language[[Mount Vernon]]'', 2 volsc. (New York: S1790. Converse, 1828). [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/N7BSU467 view on Zotero]</ref>
Image:“'''SEAT'''0021.jpg|Cornelius Tiebout, ''n.'' A [[It. ''sedia''; Sp. s''ede, sitio'', from L. ''sedes, situs''; Sw. ''sate''; Dan. ''soede''; G. ''sitz''; D. ''zetel'', ''zitplaats''; W. ''sez''; Ir. ''saidh''; W. with a prefix, ''gosod'', whence ''gosodi'', to ''set''. See ''Set'' and ''Sit''. . . .View]]:“1. That on which one sits. . . .:“3. Mansion; residence; dwelling; abode; as Italy of the present '''''seat''Seat''' of empire. The Greeks sent colonies to seek a new '''''seat''''' in Gaul.:“In Alba he shall fix his royal '''''seat'''''Excel. Dryden. :“4. Site; situation. The '''''seat''''' of Eden has never been incontrovertibly ascertained. . . .:“8. The place where a thing is settled or established. London is the '''''seat''''' Vice President of business and opulence. So we say, the United States'''''seat''''' of the muses, the '''''seat''''' of arts, the '''''seat''''' of commerce1790.
Image:1983.jpg|Jeremiah Paul, “[[Robert Morris]]’ '''Seat''' on [[Schuylkill_River|Schuylkill]],” July 20, 1794.
* Bridgeman, Thomas, 1832Image:1925.jpg|Alexander Robertson, Cleremont the ''The Young Gardener’s Assistant'seat' (p. 111) <ref> Thomas Bridgeman, ''The Young Gardener’s Assistant'', 3rd edn (New York: GeoR. R. RobertsonLivingston, 1832). [https://www.zotero1796.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/9FU4SNZK view on Zotero]</ref>
Image:“In a retired part of the 0939.jpg|[[flowerCharles Fraser]] garden, a rustic ''Rice Hope: The 'seat''Seat' may be formed, over and around which honey-suckles and other sweet and ornamental creepers and climbers may he [''sicof Dr. William Read, Taken from One of the Rice Fields''] trained on [[trellis]]es, so as to afford a pleasant retirementc. 1800.
Image:0141.jpg|Thomas Coram, ''The [[Grove]], '''Seat''' of G.A. Hall, Esquire'', c. 1800.
* Teschemacher, James EImage:0345.jpg|Alexander Robertson (artist), 1 August 1835, “Extracts from Foreign Publications” Francis Jukes (''Horticultural Register'' 1: 308–9engraver), “[[Mount Vernon]] in Virginia,” 1800.
Image:“''From an article On 2259.jpg|Anonymous, Plan of the various form and character of Harvard [[ArbourBotanic Garden]]s as objects of use or ornament either in gardens or wild scenery [from Paxton’s Horticultural Register''], we extract the following passages. c. 1807. “N.:“‘The closely shaven turf comes about ten feet inside the [[arch]]es where its edge is cut, and between that and the [[basin]] is covered with a fine tawny sand, with an apparently confused but really symmetrical arrangement of marble pedestals, Green-'''seats''' and [[vase]]s with flowering plants placed upon them. During summer a [[vase]] with a rare flowering plant is placed under each of the external [[arch]]es except four which serve as entrances. The entire effect is good, and his may be considered as one of the best specimens of the artificial [[bower]] of the present dayor turf banks.’”
Image:0601.jpg|Anonymous, A plan of the section of land on which the Believers live in the state of Ohio, November 7, 1807. "'''Seat'''" inscribed on top center left.
* SayersImage:1924.jpg|P. Lodet, Edward, 1838''Clermont, ''The American Flower Garden Companion'Seat'(pp. 14, 19, 131) <ref>Edward Sayers, ''The American Flower Garden Companion, Adapted to of the Northern StatesChancellor Livingston - North River 1807'' (Boston: Joseph Breck, 1838). [https://www.zotero1807.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/GHTFN8B2 view on Zotero]</ref>
Image:“At country residences0317.jpg|William Russell Birch, where a large extent is appropriated to this department [the [[flower garden]]], many convenient and pleasing appendages can be judiciously introduced; as rustic [[arbor]]s, rustic ''Montebello—The 'seats''Seat', and [[rockery]]; and if water can be connected, it always gives a good effect. All such appendages, I recommend to be constructed in as natural a manner as possible. . . .:“In extensive [[pleasure ground]]s the [[rockery]] has a good effect when placed distinct from the [[flower garden]], and near a rustic [[arbor]] or ornamental [[bridge]], or '''seat'of General Smith''; and if placed by the side of a retired [[walk]], near the [[lawn]] or grass [[plot]], it has an easy effectc. 1808. . .:“the margin of the [[pond]] should be planted with drooping willows and trees of a pendulous habit for shade, under which rustic '''seat''' might be properly placed for the accommodation of those who desire to view the sporting fishes, and other interesting objects by which they are surrounded.”
Image:0326.jpg|William Russell Birch, “The [[View]] from Springland,” in ''The Country '''Seats''' of the United States'' (1808), pl. 2.
* WalshImage:0311.jpg|William Russell Birch, Alexander“Hoboken in New Jersey, 31 March 1841the '''Seat''' of Mr. John Stevens, “Remarks on Ornamental Gardening” (” in ''The Country '''Seats'''New England Farmerof the United States'' 19: 308–9(1808), pl. 3.
Image:“The garden and [[pleasure ground]] I would describe, is of an oblong form0312.jpg|William Russell Birch, 165 feet by 120 feet“Hampton, with one end next the north side of the house. . . .:“X X two '''seatsSeat''', each occupying 2 ftof Genl. Chas. . . T T two Ridgely, Maryland,” in ''The Country '''seatsSeats''' . . . surrounded by an arched [[arbor]] 10 ft. high, thrown over of the [[walk]]United States'' (1808), ornamented on one side with honeysuckle, on the other by climbing Boursaut rosepl.” [Fig4. 9]
Image:0303.jpg|William Russell Birch, “Landsdown, the '''Seat''' of the late Wm. Bingham Esq., Pennsylvania,” in ''The Country '''Seats''' of the United States'' (1808), pl. 5.
* LoudonImage:0314.jpg|William Russell Birch, Jane“[[Mount Vernon]], 1845Virginia, the ''Gardening for Ladies'Seat' (pp'' of the late Genl. G. 369–70) <ref>Jane LoudonWashington, ” in ''The Country '''Seats'''Gardening for Ladies; and Companion to of the Flower-GardenUnited States'', ed. by A. J. Downing (New York: Wiley & Putnam1808), 1845)pl. [https://www7.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/3Q5GCH4I view on Zotero]</ref>
Image:“'''SEATS''' for gardens are either open or covered; the latter being in the form of root-houses, huts, [[pavilion]]s, [[temple]]s, [[grotto]]es, &c0302.jpg|William Russell Birch, and the former being either fixed, temporary, or portable. Fixed '''seats''' are commonly of stone, either plain stone benches without backs, or stone supports to wooden benches. Sometimes, also, wooden '''seats''' are fixed, as when they are placed round a tree, or when boards are nailed to posts, or when '''seats''' are formed in imitation of mushrooms, as in the grounds at Redleaf. Fixed '''seats''' are also sometimes formed of turf. Portable '''seats''' are formed of [[wood]], sometimes contrived to have the back of the '''seat''' folded down when the '''seat''' is not in use; so as to exclude the weather, and avoid the dirt of birds which are apt to perch on them. Another kind of portable '''seat''', which is frequently formed in iron, as shown in ''fig.'' 49, is readily wheeled from one part of the grounds to another; and the back of which also folds down to protect the '''seat''' from the weather. There is a kind of camp-stool which serves as a portable '''seat''', imported from Norway, and sold at the low price of 2''s''. 6''d''. or 3''s''.; and there are also straw '''seats''', like half [[beehiveFountain]]s, which are, however, only used in garden-huts, or in any situation under cover, because in the open air they would be liable to be soaked with rain. There are a great variety of rustic '''seats''' formed of roots and crooked branches of treesGreen, used both for the open garden and under cover; and there are also '''seats''' of cast and wrought iron, of great variety of formPennsylv. There should always be some kind of analogy between the '''seat''' and the scene of which it forms a part; and for this reason rustic '''seats''' should be confined to rustic scenery; and the '''seats''' for a [[lawn]] or highly kept pleasure-ground ought to be of comparatively simple and architectural forms, and either of [[wood]] or stone, those of [[wood]] being frequently painted of a stone colour, and sprinkled over with silver sand before the paint is dry, to give them the appearance of stone. Iron '''seatsSeat''', generally speaking, are not sufficiently massive for effect; and the metal conveys the idea of cold in winter and heat in summerMr. [FigS. 10]:“When '''seats''' are placed along a [[walk]]Meeker, a gravelled recess ought to be formed to receive them; and there ought, generally, to be a footboard to keep the feet from the moist ground, whether the '''seat''' is on gravel or on al awn [''sic'']. In a garden where there are several '''seats''', some ought to be in positions exposed to the sun, and others placed in the shade, and none ought to be put down in a situation where the back of the '''seat''' is seen by a person approaching it before the front. Indeed the backs of all fixed '''seats''' ought to be concealed by shrubs, or by some other means, unless they are circular '''seats''' placed round a tree. The Country '''Seats''' ought not to be put down where there will be any temptation to the persons sitting on them to strain their eyes to the right or left, nor where the boundary of the garden forms a conspicuous object in the [[view]]. In general, all '''seats'United States'' should be of a stone colour(1808), as harmonizing best with vegetationpl. Noting can be more unartistical than '''seats''' painted a pea-green, and placed among the green of living plants8.
Image:0316.jpg|William Russell Birch, “Devon in Pennsylv.a the '''Seat''' of Mr. Dallas,” in ''The Country '''Seats''' of the United States'' (1808), pl.10.
* Downing, A. JImage:0327.jpg|William Russell Birch, 1849“[[Mount]] Sidney, the '''Seat'A Treatise on the Theory and Practice of Landscape Gardening'' (ppof Genl. 454–56John Baker, 473–74) <ref>APennsylv. J. [Andrew Jackson] Downinga, ” in ''A Treatise on the Theory and Practice of Landscape Gardening, Adapted to North America; with a View to the Improvement of The Country Residences. Comprising Historical Notices and General Principles '''Seats''' of the ArtUnited States'' (1808), Directions for Laying out Grounds and Arranging Plantationspl. 11. The inscription reads "[[Mount]] Sidney, the Description and Cultivation of Hardy Trees, Decorative Accompaniments to the House and Grounds, the Formation of Pieces of Artificial Water, Flower Gardens, Etc.: With Remarks on Rural Architecture'', 4th edn (New York: G'Seat''' of Gen. P. Putnaml John Baker, 1849)Pennsylv. [https:a //wwwDrawn, Engraved & Published by W.zoteroBirch Springland, near Bristol, Pennsylvania.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/5M4S2D64 view on Zotero]</ref>"
Image:''“Open and covered '''seats''''', of various descriptions, are among the most convenient and useful decorations for the pleasure-grounds of a country residence0318. Situated in portions of the [[lawn]] or [[park]]jpg|William Russell Birch, somewhat distant from “Montibello the house, they offer an agreeable place for rest or repose. If there are certain points from which are obtained agreeable [[prospect]]s or extensive [[view]]s of the surrounding country, a '''seat''', by designating those points, and by affording us a convenient mode of enjoying them, has a double recommendation to our mindsGenl.:“Open and covered '''seats''' are of two distinct kinds; one ''architectural'', or formed after artist-like designs, of stone or [[wood]], in Grecian, Gothic, or other forms; which may, if they are intended to produce an elegant effect, have [[vase]]s on pedestals as accompaniments; the other, ''rustic'', as they are called, which are formed out of trucks and branches of trees, roots, etcS.Smith Maryland, in their natural forms. . . .:“We consider rustic '''seats''' and structures as likely to be much preferred in the villa and cottage residences The Country Seats of the country. They have the merit of being tasteful and [[picturesque]] in their appearance, and are easily constructed by the amateur, at comparatively little or no expense. There is scarcely a prettier or more pleasant object for the termination of a long [[walk]] in the [[pleasure-grounds]] or [[park]], than a neatly thatched structure of rustic work, with its United States'''seat''' for repose(1808), and a [[view]] of the landscape beyond. . . . [Fig. 11]:''“Unity of expression'' is the maxim and guide in this department of the art, as in every otherpl. 13. . .:“With regard to [[pavilion]]s, summer-houses, rustic '''seats''', and garden edifices of like character, they should, if possible, in all cases be introduced where they are manifestly appropriate or in harmony with the scene. Thus . . . a rustic covered '''seat''' may occupy a secluded, quiet portion of the grounds, where undisturbed meditation be enjoyed.”
Image:0304.jpg|William Russell Birch, “[[The Woodlands|Woodlands]], the '''Seat''' of Mr. Wm. Hamilton, Pennsylva.,” in ''The Country '''Seats''' of the United States'' (1808), pl. 14.
* Ranlett, Image:0319.jpg|William H., 1849Russell Birch, “Sedgley '''seat'The Architect'' ([1849] 1976: 1:19) <ref>William Hof Mr. Wm. RanlettCrammond Pennsylva, ” in ''The ArchitectCountry '''Seats''' of the United States'', 2 vols. (New York: Da Capo1808), 1976). [https://wwwpl.zotero15.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/QGQPCB5J view on Zotero]</ref>
Image:“Probably no portion of the globe, offers a greater variety of beautiful country '''seats''' than the vicinity of New-York0301. No man who has any taste for the retired tranquillity of a suburban retreatjpg|William Russell Birch, or the lovely beauty of a [[picturesqueView]] scenefrom [[Belmont_(Philadelphia, or _PA)|Belmont]] Pennsyla. the romantic grandeur of an enchanting landscape '''Seat''' of citiesJudge Peters, towns and country; rivers, bays and ocean, could fail to be suited with some ” in ''The Country '''Seats''' of the numerous situations on the undulated shoresUnited States'' (1808), gentle declivities or towering heights of Staten Island, Long Island or the banks of the noble Hudsonpl.16.
Image:0320.jpg|William Russell Birch, “York-Island with a [[View]] of the '''Seats''' of Mr. A. Gracie, Mr. Church &c.,” in ''The Country '''Seats''' of the United States'' (1808), pl. 17.
* DowningImage:0322.jpg|William Russell Birch, A“China Retreat Pennsyl. J<sup>a</sup> the '''Seat''' of M.<sup>r</sup> Manigault, 1850, ” in ''The Architecture of Country Houses'' ([1850] 1968: 80–81) <ref>A. J. [Andrew Jackson] Downing, 'Seats'''The Architecture of Country Houses; Including Designs for Cottages, Farm-Houses, and Villasthe United States'' (Originally published New York; Reprint, New York: D. Appleton; Da Capo1808), 1968)pl. [https://www19.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/GRZPQXQI view on Zotero]</ref>
Image:“The little rustic 0009.jpg|[[arborCharles Willson Peale]]s or covered '''seats''' on the outside of the bay window may be supposed , Letter to answer in some measure in the place of a Angelica Peale describing his garden at [[verandaBelfield]], and convey at the first glanceNovember 22, an impression of refinement and taste attained in that simple manner so appropriate to a small cottage.” [Fig1815. 12]
Image:0164.jpg|Joshua H. Hayward, “A [[View]] of the '''Seat''' of Theodore Lyman, Esqr., in Waltham, taken on the principles of perspective,” Mathematical Thesis, 1818.
* DowningImage:0082.jpg|Cornelia Jefferson Randolph, A. Jattr., June 1850, “Our Country Villages” (“A Garden '''Seat'Horticulturist'' 4: 540–41)by Mr. Jones, From Chamber’s Kew,” c. 1820.
Image:“The next step1176.jpg|Eliza Susan Quincy, after ''View of the possession seat of such public pleasure-groundsEdmund Quincy Esqr.'', would be the social and common enjoyment of them1822. Upon the well-mown glades of Inscribed on reverse: ''[[lawnView]], and beneath the shade / of the forest trees, would be formed rustic '''seats'''. Little [[arborseat]]s would be placed near, where in midsummer evenings ices would be served to all who wished themof Edmund Quincy Esqr.''
Image:1334.jpg|[[J. C. Loudon]], Covered '''seats''' of the [[Rustic_style|rustic]] kind, in ''An Encyclopædia of Gardening'', 4th ed/ (1826), 357, fig. 336.
* Downing, AImage:1335. jpg|[[J.C. Loudon]], March 1851Elegant structures of the '''seat''' kind, “The Management of Large Country Places” (in ''HorticulturistAn Encyclopædia of Gardening'' 6: 105–6, 4th ed. (1826), 357, figs. 337 and 338.
Image:“All our country residences may readily be divided into two classes. The first and largest class, is the suburban place of from five to twenty or thirty acres; the second is the country-'''seat''', properly so called, which consists of from 30 to 500 or more acres. 1354. jpg|[[J. C.:“But in the larger country places, there are ten instances of failure for one of success. This is not owing to the want of natural beauty, for the sites are [[picturesqueLoudon]], the surface varied, and the Rough bench in [[woodRustic_style|rustic]]s and hut decorated in [[plantationShrubbery|shrubberies]]s excellent. The failure consists, for the most part, in a certain incongruity and want ''An Encyclopædia of distinct character in the treatment of the place as a whole. They are too large to be kept in order as pleasure-groundsGardening'', while they are not laid out or treated as [[park]]s4th ed. The grass which stretches on all sides of the house, is partly mown for [[lawn]], and partly for hay; the lines of the farm and the ornamental portion of the grounds, meet in a confused and unsatisfactory manner(1826), and the result is a residence pretending to be much superior to a common farm809, and not yet rising to the dignity of a really tasteful country '''seat'''fig. 561.
Image:1792.jpg|Thomas Cole, ''[[View]] of Monte Video, the '''Seat''' of Daniel Wadsworth, Esq.'', 1828.
* JaquesImage:1707.jpg|[[J. C. Loudon]], George, January 1852“'''Seat''' formed of moss and hazel rods" and "[[Trellis|Trellised]] [[arch]]es for climbers, “Landscape Gardening in New-England” (''HorticulturistAn Encyclopædia of Gardening'' 7: 35, new ed. (1834), 1196, figs. 960–62.
Image:“Let woodbine, honey-suckle and climbing roses, here entwine themselves around a 1764.jpg|[[columnJ. C. Loudon]], and wreath themselves there over a window. Here place a A [[Rustic_style|rustic ]] '''seat''', half hid among the [[shrubbery]]; there lead a short [[walk]]in ''The Suburban Gardener'' (1838), 467, carelessly curving towards a little vine-clad [[arbor]]fig. 173.
==Images==Image:0679.jpg|James W. Steel, Beech Hill, The Country '''Seat''' of R. Gilmor, Esq., in W. H. Carpenter and T. S. Arthur, eds., ''The Baltimore Book: A Christmas and New Year’s Present'' (1838), pl. opp. 184.
===Inscribed===<span id="roundabout_img"></span><gallery widths="170px" heights="170px" perrow="7">Image:1420.jpg|[[J. C. Loudon]], “Covered '''Seat''', of grotesque and [[Rustic_style|rustic]] Masonry,” Cheshunt Cottage, in ''The Gardener’s Magazine'' 15, no. 117 (December 1839): 656, fig. 168.
Image:17221904.jpg|James Gibbs[[J. C. Loudon]], "Two Seats for Elevation of the ends Back Woodwork of Walksa [[Rustic_style|Rustic]] Covered '''Seat''', Cheshunt Cottage," in ''A Book of ArchitectureThe Gardener’s Magazine'' 15, no. 117 (1728December 1839): 660, plfig. 82168.
Image:17230936.jpg|James GibbsAlexander Walsh, "Two other Seats for the same purpose '''seats''' surrounded by an arched [for the ends of walks[arbor]]," in ''A Book of ArchitectureNew England Farmer'' 19, no. 39 (1728March 31, 1841): 309, plfig. 834.
Image:17371824.jpg|Batty and Thomas LangleyAnonymous, "An Umbrello, to a “Moveable Garden '''Seat''', for to Terminate a walk, View, &c. in a Garden[[Jane Loudon]]," in ''Gothic ArchitectureGardening for Ladies; and Companion to the Flower-Garden'' (17471845), pl369, fig. 3149.
imageImage:16880844.jpg|William and John Halfpenny[[Alexander Jackson Davis]], "A Chinese Alcove ''[[Montgomery Place]]—Shore '''Seat Fronting Four Ways," in ''Rural Architecture in the Chinese Taste'' (1755)', plc. 81847.
Image:03380358.jpg|cAnonymous, “[[Rustic_style|Rustic]] '''Seat''',” [[Montgomery Place]], in [[A. J. Downing]], ed., ''Horticulturist'' 2, no. 4 (October 1847): 157, fig. 26. 1790
Image:00210361.jpg|1790Anonymous, “Beaverwyck, the '''Seat''' of Wm. P. Van Rensselaer, Esq.,” in [[A. J. Downing]], ''A Treatise on the Theory and Practice of Landscape Gardening'', 4th ed. (1849), pl. opp. 51, fig. 7.
Image:19830368.jpg|Anonymous, “The '''Seat''' of George Sheaff, Esq.,” in [[Jeremiah PaulA. J. Downing]], "Robert Morris’ Seat ''A Treatise on Schuylkillthe Theory and Practice of Landscape Gardening'', 4th ed. (1849)," July 20pl. between 58 and 59, 1794fig. 12.
Image:03451891.jpg|1800Anonymous, “Simple [[Rustic_style|rustic]] '''seat''',” in [[A. J. Downing]], ''A Treatise on the Theory and Practice of Landscape Gardening'', 4th ed. (1849), 456, fig. 82.
Image:03011892.jpg|1808Anonymous, Simple [[Rustic_style|rustic]] '''seat''' made at the foot of a tree, in [[A. J. Downing]], ''A Treatise on the Theory and Practice of Landscape Gardening'', 4th ed. (1849), 456, fig. 83.
Image:03020397.jpg|1808Anonymous, “Covered '''seat''' or [[Rustic_style|rustic]] [[arbor]],” in [[A. J. Downing]], ''A Treatise on the Theory and Practice of Landscape Gardening'', 4th ed. (1849), 457, fig. 84.
Image:03031893.jpg|1808Anonymous, Covered '''Seat''' for a mineral, shell, or geological collection, in [[A. J. Downing]], ''A Treatise on the Theory and Practice of Landscape Gardening'', 4th ed. (1849), 457, fig. 85.
Image:03040398.jpg|1808Anonymous, “[[Rustic_style|Rustic]] Covered '''Seat''',” in [[A. J. Downing]], ''A Treatise on the Theory and Practice of Landscape Gardening'', 4th ed. (1849), 458, fig. 86.
Image:03111660.jpg|1808Robert B. Leuchars, Ground plan of [[conservatory]] designed for gentleman’s country '''seat''', in ''A Practical Treatise on the Construction, Heating, and Ventilation of Hothouses'' (1850), 95, fig. 32.
Image:03120854.jpg|1808[[Alexander Jackson Davis]], Shore '''Seat''' for [[Montgomery Place]], Annandale-on-Hudson, New York (elevation and plan), 1870—79.</gallery>
Image:0314.jpg|1808===Associated===<gallery widths="170px" heights="170px" perrow="7">
Image:03161055.jpg|1808Michael van der Gucht, “Four Designs for Cloisters,” in A.-J. Dezallier d’Argenville, ''The Theory and Practice of Gardening'' (1712), pl. 9.
Image:03180036.jpg|1808Thomas Lee Shippen, Plan of Westover, 1783. The '''seat''' can be seen at the top of the image, referencing the houses across the river from Westover.
Image:03190043_2.jpg|1808John Archibald Woodside, ''[[Lemon Hill]]'', 1807.
Image:03200313.jpg|William Russell Birch, “The Sun Reflecting on the Dew, a Garden scene, Echo, Pennsylv.a A Place Belonging to Mr. D. Bavarage,” in ''The Country '''Seats''' of the United States'' (1808), pl. 6.
Image:03220315.jpg|William Russell Birch, “Solitude in Pennsyla. belonging to Mr. Penn,” in ''The Country '''Seats''' of the United States'' (1808), pl. 9.
Image:03260321.jpg|William Russell Birch, “Mendenhall Ferry, [[Schuylkill_River|Schuylkill]], Pennsylvania,” ''The Country '''Seats''' of the United States'' (1808), pl. 18.
Image:03270323.jpg|William Russell Birch, “[[View]] from the Elysian Bower, Springland, Pennsylv,a the residence of Mr W. Birch,” ''The Country '''Seats''' of the United States'' (1808), pl. 20.
Image:03170051.jpg|cWilliam Strickland, “[[The Woodlands]],” 1809, in ''Casket'' 5, no. 10 (October 1830): pl. opp. 432. 1808
Image:00090300.jpg|[[Charles Willson Peale]]Thomas Birch, Letter to Angelica Peale describing his garden at [[Belfield]]''Fairmount Water Works'', Nov. 22, 18151821.
Image:01640541.jpg|1818John T. Bowen, ''A [[View]] of Fairmount Water-Works with [[Schuylkill_River|Schuylkill]] in the distance, taken from the [[Mount]]'', 1838.
Image:00820843.jpg|c[[Alexander Jackson Davis]], [[Montgomery Place]], 1844. 1820
Image:13341049.jpg|N. Vautin, [[J. C. LoudonView]], Covered seats of the rustic kind, in ''An Encyclopædia of Gardening'' North Side (1826Rear)of Longfellow House, p. 357, figs. 336-336June 1845.
Image:13350357.jpg|[[Alexander Jackson Davis]], “[[Montgomery Place]],” in [[A. J. C. LoudonDowning]], Elegant structures of the seat kinded., in ''An Encyclopædia of GardeningHorticulturist'' 2, no. 4 (1826October 1847), p: pl. 357, figsopp. 337 and 338153.
Image:13540359.jpg|Anonymous, “The [[Lake]],” [[Montgomery Place]], in [[A. J. C. LoudonDowning]], Rough bench in rustic hut decorated in shrubberiesed., in ''An Encyclopædia of GardeningHorticulturist'' 2, no. 4 (1826October 1847), p. 809: 158, fig. 56127.
Image:17071097.jpg|Thomas S. Sinclair, “Plan of the [[J. C. LoudonPleasure_ground|Pleasure Grounds]], "Seat formed and Farm of moss and hazel rods" and "Trellised arches the [[Pennsylvania Hospital for climbersthe Insane]] at Philadelphia," in Thomas S. Kirkbride, ''An Encyclopædia American Journal of GardeningInsanity'' 4, no. 4 (1834April 1848), p: pl. 1196, figsopp. 960-962280.
Image:18240363.jpg|Anonymous, “Moveable Garden Seat“[[View]] in the [[Meadow]] [[Park]] at Geneseo,” in [[Jane LoudonA. J. Downing]], ed., ''Gardening for Ladies; and Companion to the Flower-GardenHorticulturist'' 3, no. 4 (1845October 1848), p: pl. 369, figopp. 49153.
Image:03580350.jpg|October 1847[[Alexander Jackson Davis]], “View in the Grounds at Blithewood,” in [[A. J. Downing]], ''A Treatise on the Theory and Practice of Landscape Gardening'', 4th ed. (1849), frontispiece.
Image:03630355.jpg|October 1848Anonymous, “[[View]] in the Grounds at Hyde Park,” in [[A. J. Downing]], ''A Treatise on the Theory and Practice of Landscape Gardening'', 4th ed. (1849), pl. opp. 45, fig. 1.
Image:14200367.jpg|Anonymous, "Covered Seat“[[View]] in the Grounds of James Arnold, of grotesque and rustic MasonryEsp.," in [[A. J. Downing]], ''A Treatise on the Theory and Practice of Landscape Gardening'' , 4th ed. (1849), ppl. 509, figopp. 1257.
Image:03610378.jpg|Anonymous, “Plan of a Suburban Villa Residence,” in [[A. J. Downing]], ''A Treatise on the Theory and Practice of Landscape Gardening'', 4th ed. (1849), 118, fig. 26.
Image:0920.jpg|Anonymous, “Small Bracketed Cottage,” in [[A. J. Downing]], ''The Architecture of Country Houses'' (1850), pl. opp. 78, fig. 9.
</gallery>
===AssociatedAttributed===
<gallery widths="170px" heights="170px" perrow="7">
Image:00360673.jpg|1783Archibald L. Dick, ''The Battle Ground at Germantown, Cliveden or Chew’s House'', n.d.
Image:11621680.jpg|Anonymous, Plan of the Harvard Botanic Garden'''seat''' from Somerset County, early 19th centuryMD, 1780.
Image:00430477.jpg|1807John Scoles, “Government House,” January 1795.
Image:03130324.jpg|1808William Russell Birch, “Back of the State House, Philadelphia,” 1800.
Image:03150509.jpg|1808[[Charles Fraser]], Rice Hope, c. 1803.
Image:03210330.jpg|1808[[Anne-Marguerite-Henriette Rouillé de Marigny Hyde de Neuville]], attr., ''Tomb du grande Washington au [[Mount Vernon]]'', 1818.
Image:03230120.jpg|1808Anonymous, ''By the Sea'', c. 1820.
Image:00511949.jpg|1809Mary Ann Lucy Gries, Needlework sampler with garden bench, 1826. Image:0675.jpg|[[Alexander Jackson Davis]], “[[View]] of the Battery and Castle Garden,” 1826–28. Image:1948.jpg|Mrs. G. W. Whitney, The Adams '''Seat''' in Quincy, 1828.
Image:03000811.jpg|1821[[Alexander Jackson Davis]], ''[[View]] of St. John’s Chapel, From the [[Park]]'', 1829.
Image:03571043.jpg|October 1847Sidney Mason Stone, House for Roger Sherman Baldwin, New Haven, CT, c. 1830–40.
Image:10970490.jpg|Thomas SArchibald L. SinclairDick, "Plan of “Elysian Fields, Hoboken (New York in the Pleasure Grounds and Farm of the Pennsylvania Hospital for the Insane at Philadelphiadistance)," in Thomas S. Kirkbride, ''American Journal of Insanity[[View]]s in New-York and its Environs'' 4 (April 18481831—34): n.p.
Image:03501025.jpg|1849Anonymous, “Entrance to [[Mount Auburn Cemetery|Mount Auburn]],” in ''American Magazine of Useful and Entertaining Knowledge'' 1, no. 1 (September 1834): 9.
Image:03550486.jpg|1849James Smillie, “Bay and Harbour of New York, From the Battery,” 1831.  Image:0424.jpg|[[Alexander Jackson Davis]], Ithiel Town, and James Dakin, ''New York University, Washington Square'', 1833.  Image:0464.jpg|Nicolino Calyo, ''Harlem, the Country House of Dr. Edmondson'', 1834.  </gallery>Image:0252.jpg|Henry Walton, Three Sisters in a Landscape, 1838.  Image:1033.jpg|Anonymous, “Forest [[Pond]],” in ''The [[Picturesque]] Pocket Companion, and Visitor’s Guide, through Mount Auburn'' (1839), 171.  Image:1477.jpg|Anonymous, Honorary membership certificate for Nicholas Biddle in “The Horticultural Association of the Valley of the Hudson” [detail], June 1839.
===Attributed===<gallery widths="170px" heights="170px" perrow="7">image:0525.jpg|William E. Winner, ''Garden Scene Near Philadelphia'', c. 1840.
Image:03301103.jpg|nW.dMason, “[[Pennsylvania Hospital for the Insane]],” c. 1841, in Thomas S. Kirkbride, ''Reports of the Pennsylvania Hospital for the Insane: for the Year 1841'' (1841), frontispiece.
Image:16800895.jpg|AnonymousEdwin Whitefield, Garden Sketch of Pokahoe, 1841–44. A seat from Somerset Countyis located on the lawn, Md.nestled in the trees, 1780seen left of center of the view.
Image:03240448.jpg|1799Anonymous, ''Brother and Sister'', c. 1845.
Image:01242283.jpg|1806Anonymous (artist), Nathaniel Currier (lithographer), “[[View]] of the Great Conflagration at New York,” 1845. The seats are located around the fountain.
Image:01201063.jpg|cJames Smillie, “[[Mount Auburn Cemetery]],” in Cornelia W. Walter, ''Mount Auburn Illustrated'' (1847; repr., 1850), frontispiece. 1820
Image:19490110.jpg|Mary Ann Lucy GriesJoseph Goldsborough Bruff (artist), Needlework sampler with garden benchEdward Weber & Co. (lithographer), 1826''Elements of National Thrift and Empire'', c. 1847.
Image:02520487.jpg|1838William Wade, ''Castle Garden: From the Battery'', 1848.
Image:14770384.jpg|Anonymous, Honorary membership certificate for Nicholas Biddle “The Bracketed Mode,” in “The Horticultural Association of [[A. J. Downing]], ''A Treatise on the Valley Theory and Practice of the Hudson” [detail]Landscape Gardening'', 4th ed. (1849), 393, June 1839fig. 52.
Image:11030547.jpg|W. Mason, "Pennsylvania Hospital for the Insane," c. 1841, in Thomas S. KirkbrideErnst Georg Fischer, ''Reports of the Pennsylvania Hospital for the InsaneDr. Edmondson and Family'' (1851), frontispiecec. 1850.
Image:01100442.jpg|Anonymous, ''Memorial to Nicholas M.S. Catlin'', c. 18471852.
Image:03590218.jpg|October 1847Augustus Weidenbach, ''[[Belvedere]]'', c. 1858.
Image:02180396.jpg|cAnonymous, “A circular [[pavilion]],” in [[A. J. Downing]], ''A Treatise on the Theory and Practice of Landscape Gardening'', 4th ed. (1849), 456, fig. 81. 1858
Image:1001.jpg|Anonymous, “Mount Fordham—the Country '''Seat''' of Lewis G. Morris, Esq.,” in [[A. J. Downing]], ed., ''Horticulturist'' 6, no. 8 (August 1851): pl. opp. 345.
</gallery>
 
<hr>
==Notes==
[[Category: Keywords]]
[[Category: Garden Ornaments/Embellishments]]
[[Category: Architecture]]

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Changes - History of Early American Landscape Design
A Project of the Center for Advanced Study in the Visual Arts, National Gallery of Art
History of Early American Landscape Design
HEALD will be upgrading in spring 2021. New features and content will be available this summer. Thank you for your patience!

Changes

[http://www.nga.gov/content/ngaweb/research/casva/research-projects.html A Project of the National Gallery of Art, Center for Advanced Study in the Visual Arts ]
A Project of the Center for Advanced Study in the Visual Arts

National Gallery of Art, Washington


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