==History==
[[File:0312.jpg|thumb|252px|Fig. 1, William Russell Birch, “Hampton, the Seat of Genl. Chas. Ridgely, Maryland,” in ''The Country Seats of the United States'' (2009), (1808), pl. 4.]]
In the discourse of landscape design, seat possessed two distinct yet equally prevalent meanings, as indicated by Thomas Sheridan’s 1789 dictionary entry. One sense referred to seat as a large estate, usually marked by a country house or mansion, for example, [[William Hamilton|William Hamilton’s]] [[The Woodlands]], near Philadelphia; or General Charles Ridgely’s Hampton, in Baltimore County, Maryland. A seat was also a garden structure for sitting.
In the discourse The meaning of landscape design, seat possessed two distinct yet equally prevalent meanings, as indicated estate was exemplified in colonial America by Thomas Sheridan’s 1789 dictionary entryWilliam Byrd II’s Westover, on the James River, Virginia, and [[Henry Pratt|Henry Pratt’s]] [[Lemon Hill]] in Philadelphia. One sense referred Such country houses were often featured in portraits that flattered the owner and signaled to the public that the colonies and new republic were home to seat as a large estatecultured elite rivaling that of Great Britain. These images typically located the house at the center of the property, with the landscape and various outbuildings extending beyond it. This placement, usually marked by a country which communicated the importance of the house or mansionas the base of operations for the landowner, was a visual shorthand for examplethe landowner’s affluence and power. Observers such as William Hugh Grove (1732) and Thomas Gwatkin (1770) often likened seats to small villages. By the mid 18th century, however, the community-like aspects of seats were downplayed in favor of their rural associations, which contrasted sharply with the increasingly crowded conditions of America’s cities. English emigré William Hamilton’s WoodlandsRussell Birch, in his series ''The Country Seats of the United States of America'' (1808), depicted the homes of the mid-Atlantic elite situated in naturalistic landscapes in emulation of British tableaux [Fig. 1].<ref>Emily Tyson Cooperman, near Philadelphia“William Russell Birch (1755–1834) and the Beginnings of the American Picturesque” (PhD diss., University of Pennsylvania, 1999), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/VSCXM9WR view on Zotero]. See also Emily T. Cooperman, introduction to ''The Country Seats of the United States of North America'', by William Russell Birch (1808; or Genrepr. Charles Ridgely’s Hampton, in Baltimore CountyPhiladelphia: University of Pennsylvania, 2009), Md[https://www. A seat was also a garden structure for sittingzotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/TNTZAF2Q view on Zotero].</ref>
The meaning of [[File:1680.jpg|thumb|left|252px|Fig. 2, Anonymous, Garden seat as estate was exemplified in colonial America by William Byrd II’s Westoverfrom Somerset County, on the James RiverMD, Va1780.]] [[File:0854.jpg|thumb|Fig. 3, and Henry Pratt’s [[Lemon HillAlexander Jackson Davis]] in Philadelphia , Shore Seat for [[FigMontgomery Place]], Annandale-on-Hudson, New York (elevation and plan), 1870—79. 1]. Such country houses were often featured in portraits that flattered the owner and signaled to the public that the colonies and new republic were home to ]As a cultured elite rivaling that of Great Britain. These images typically located the house at the center category of the propertygarden furniture, with seat could refer to either thelandscape and various outbuildings extending beyond itobject upon which one sat [Fig. This placement, which communicated 2] or the importance of the house as the base of operations for the landowner, was a visual shorthand for the landowner’s affluence and powerstructure housing such objects [Fig. 3]. Observers Accounts found in foreign treatises available in America (such as those by Antoine-Joseph Dezallier D’Argenville, Isaac Ware, William Hugh Grove (1732) Marshall, Humphry Repton, and Thomas Gwatkin (1770John Abercrombie) often likened focused on seats as places of rest, terminations to [[walk]]s, or vantage points from which to small villagescontemplate [[view]]s. By the mid-eighteenth centuryLike other garden structures, howeversuch as [[pavilion]]s or [[summerhouse]]s, seats influenced the community-like aspects viewer’s experience of the garden by providing points of seats were downplayed rest that framed [[vista]]s in favor of their rural associations, which contrasted sharply with the increasingly crowded conditions garden and [[view]]s beyond. The use of America’s citiesseats to direct one’s route through a garden was demonstrated by [[A. J. English emigré William Russell Birch, Downing]] in his series ''The Country Seats 1847 description of the United States of America'' (1808)[[Montgomery Place]], Dutchess County, depicted New York. [[Andrew Jackson Downing|Downing]] noted the homes placement of various seats and related [[view]]s that he encountered on the mid- Atlantic elite situated in naturalistic landscapes in emulation course of British tableaux his [Fig. 2[walk]]through the grounds.<ref>Emily Tyson CoopermanMany other garden observers, including Henry Wansey (1794), “William Russell Birch John Cosens Ogden (1755–18341800) , and Eliza Caroline Burgwin Clitherall (active 1801), also commented upon the Beginnings of the American Picturesque” (Ph.D. diss.interrelationships between seats, University of Pennsylvania[[walk]]s, 1999)and [[view]]s. See also Emily TPopular gardening journals likewise recommended placing seats along [[walk]]s. CoopermanFor example, introduction to in 1841 Alexander Walsh proposed a number of seats in a garden design published in the ''The Country Seats of the United States of North AmericaNew England Farmer''. Two seats were situated at cross-walks and another two were ensconced in an arched [[arbor]], by William Russell Birch (1808; reprint, Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania, 2009)placed alongside the main axial [[walk]].</ref>
As a category of garden furniture, seat could refer to either the object upon which one sat [Fig[File:1723. 3] or the structure housing such objects [jpg|thumb|Fig. 4, [[James Gibbs]]. Accounts found in foreign treatises available in America (such as those by A.-J. Dézallier D’Argenville, Isaac Ware, William Marshall, Humphry Repton, and JohnAbercrombie) focused on seats as places “Two other Seats for the same purpose [for the ends of rest, terminations to [[walk]]s],” in ''A Book of Architecture'' (1728), or vantage points from which to contemplate [[viewpl. 83.]]sGarden seats took on a variety of forms. Like other garden structuresIn the 18th century, European and British pattern books and design manuals such as [[pavilionJames Gibbs|James Gibbs’s]]s or ''A Book of Architecture'' (1728) were an important source for American seat designs [[summerhouseFig. 4]]s, seats influenced the viewer’s experience of the garden . Drawings by providing points of rest that framed [[vistaThomas Jefferson]]s in the garden and [[view]]s beyond. The use of seats to direct one’s route through a garden was demonstrated by A. J. Downing in his 1847 description of Montgomery Placegranddaughter, Dutchess CountyCornelia Jefferson Randolph [Fig. 5], N.Y. Downing noted demonstrate the placement influence of various seats and related [[view]]s that he encountered William Kent’s designs on the course of his [[walk]] through the grounds. Many other garden observersfurniture, including Henry Wansey (1794)which appeared in William Chambers’s ''Plans, John Cosens Ogden (1800)Elevations, Sections and Eliza Caroline Burgwin Clitherall Perspective Views of the Gardens and Buildings at Kew in Surrey'' (active 18011763), also commented upon the interrelationships between seats, [[walk]]s, and a volume that [[viewsThomas Jefferson|Jefferson]]owned. Popular gardening journals likewise recommended placing seats along [[walk]]s. For example<ref> William Bainter O’Neal, in 1841 Alexander Walsh proposed a number of seats in a garden design published in ''The New England FarmerJefferson’s Fine Arts Library: His Selections for the University of Virginia Together with His Own Architectural Books''. Two seats were situated at cross-walks and another two were ensconced in an arched [[arbor]](Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1976), 57, placed alongside the main axial [[walk]https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/CUP9BNW2 view on Zotero].</ref>
[[File:0082.jpg|thumb|left|Fig. 5, Cornelia Jefferson Randolph, attr., “A Garden seats took on a variety of formsSeat by Mr. In the eighteenth centuryJones, From Chamber’s Kew, European and” c. 1820.]]British pattern books [[File:1737.jpg|thumb|Fig. 6, Batty and design manuals such as James Gibbs’s A Book of Thomas Langley, “An Umbrello, to a Seat, for to Terminate a [[walk]], [[View]], &c. in a Garden,” in ''Gothic Architecture '' (17281747) were an important source for American seat designs [Fig, pl. 31. 5]. Drawings ]Seat designs could be differentiated by Thomas Jefferson national and historical styles, as well as by his granddaughterplacement and function. Batty and Thomas Langley, Cornelia Jefferson Randolph for instance, proposed a seat in keeping with the Gothic style in their 1747 text about Gothic architecture [Fig. 6]. [[J. C. Loudon]], demonstrate the influence in ''An Encyclopaedia of William Kent’s designs on garden furniture, which appeared in William Chambers’s Gardening''Plans(1826), Elevationsdistinguished among seats found inside garden buildings, roofed seats that could be either fixed or portable, Sections and Perspective Views those lacking any sort of the Gardens and Buildings at Kew roof. [[J. C. Loudon|Loudon]] explained that in Surrey'' form, seats could be simple (1763like the trunk of a tree), or more complex (such as a volume that Jefferson ownedcast-iron couch with decorative treatment).<ref> William Bainter O’Neal, JThese distinctions were echoed by [[Jane Loudon]] in ''efferson’s Fine Arts Library: His Selections Gardening for the University of Virginia Together with His Own Architectural BooksLadies'' (Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 19761845), 57a book that was co-edited by [[Andrew Jackson Downing|Downing]] in America.</ref>
Seat designs could be differentiated by national In ''A Treatise on the Theory and historical Practice of Landscape Gardening'' (1849), [[Andrew Jackson Downing|Downing]] himself provided an extensive illustrated typology of seat styles, as well as by placement and functionemphasizing the propriety of certain styles for different landscapes. Batty and Thomas LangleyFor example, he believed that Grecian or Gothic seats were appropriate for instanceelegant grounds, proposed a seat in keeping with the Gothic whereas [[rustic style in their 1747 text about Gothic architecture [Fig. 7|rustic]]seats were more suited to the irregular aesthetic of the landscape garden. Such [[J. C. Loudonrustic style|rustic]]seats were quite popular in the 19th century, as suggested by the discussion of them in An Encyclopaedia of Gardening (1826)horticultural journals, distinguished among seats found inside garden buildings, roofed seats that could be either fixed or portablesuch as the ''Horticultural Register'', and those lacking any sort in descriptions by both treatise writers and observers of roofthe American landscape. Loudon explained that in formSee, for example, Thomas Bridgeman (1832), seats could be simple Edward Sayers (like the trunk of a tree1838) or more complex , Anna Cora Ogden Mowatt Ritchie (such as a cast-iron couch with decorative treatment1839), C. M. These distinctions were echoed by [[Jane Loudon]] in ''Gardening for Ladies'' Hovey (18451840), a book that was co-edited by Downing in Americaand Georges Jaques (1852).
In ''A Treatise on the Theory and Practice of Landscape Gardening'' (1849), Downing himself provided an extensive illustrated typology of seat styles, emphasizing the propriety of certain styles for different landscapesAnne L. For example, he believed that Grecian or Gothic seats were appropriate for elegant grounds, whereas rustic seats were more suited to the irregular aesthetic of the [[landscape garden]]. Such rustic seats were quite popular in the nineteenth century, as suggested by the discussion of them in horticultural journals, such as the Helmreich''Horticultural Register'', and in descriptions by both treatise writers and observers of the American landscape. See, for example, Thomas Bridgeman (1832), Edward Sayers (1838), Anna Cora Ogden Mowatt Ritchie (1839), C. M. Hovey (1840), and Georges Jaques (1852).
--- ''Anne L. Helmreich''<hr>
==Texts==
 
===Usage===
*Anonymous, n.d., advertising design and construction services for parks and gardens (quoted in Chase 1973: 37–39)<ref>David B. Chase, “The Beginnings of the Landscape Tradition in America,” ''Historic Preservation'' 25 (1973): 34–41, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/KJMNEZBX view on Zotero].</ref>
:“Designs all sorts of Buildings, well suited to both town and country, [[Pavilion]]s, Summer-Rooms, '''Seats''' for Gardens. . . also Water-houses for [[Park]]s. . . Eye Traps to represent a Building terminating a [[walk]], or to hide some disagreeable Object, Rotundas, Colonades, [[Arcade]]s, Studies in [[Park]]s or Gardens, [[greenhouse|Green House]]s for the Preservation of Herbs.”
*Anonymous, n.d., advertising design and construction services for parks and gardens (quoted in Chase 1973: 37–39): <ref>David B. Chase, ‘The Beginnings of the Landscape Tradition in America’, Historic Preservation, 25 (1973), 34–41 [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/KJMNEZBX view on Zotero] </ref>
 
:“Designs all sorts of Buildings, well suited to both town and country, [[Pavilion]]s, Summer-Rooms, '''Seats''' for Gardens . . . also Water-houses for [[Park]]s . . . Eye Traps to represent a Building terminating a [[walk]], or to hide some disagreeable Object, Rotundas, Colonades, [[Arcade]]s, Studies in [[Park]]s or Gardens, [[Green House]]s for the Preservation of Herbs.”
 
 
* Strachey, William, 1612, describing the seats of Powhatan in Virginia (quoted in Wright and Freund 1967: 57) <ref> Louis B. Wright and Virginia Freund, eds., ''The Historie of Travell into Virginia Britania (1612)'' (Nendeln and Liechtenstein: Kraus, 1967) [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/NUX26H7J view on Zotero]</ref>
*Strachey, William, 1612, describing the seats of Powhatan in Virginia (quoted in Wright and Freund 1967: 57)<ref> Louis B. Wright and Virginia Freund, eds., ''The Historie of Travell into Virginia Britania (1612)'' (Nendeln and Liechtenstein: Kraus, 1967), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/NUX26H7J view on Zotero].</ref>
:“He hath divers '''seates''' or howses, his Chief when we came into the Country was upon ''Pamunky''-River, on the North side which we call Pembrook-side, called ''Werowocomaco'', which by interpretacion signifyes Kings-howse.”
*Byrd, William, II, c. June 25 June , 1729, describing Westover, seat of William Byrd II, on the James River, Va. VA (quoted in Tinling 1977: 1:410) <ref> Marion Tinling, ed., ''The Correspondence of the Three William Byrds of Westover, Virginia, 1684-17761684–1776'', 2 vols. (Charlottesville, Va.: University Press of Virginia, 1977), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/J5UXEFHR view on Zotero].</ref> 
:“My habitation has the na[me of] the prettyest '''seat''' in this country.”
* Grove, William Hugh, 1732, describing Williamsburg, Va. VA (quoted in Stiverson and Butler 1977: 26) <ref>Gregory A. Stiverson and Patrick H. Butler III, eds., ‘Virginia “Virginia in 1732: The Travel Journal of William Hugh Grove’Grove, ''Virginia Magazine of History and Biography'', 85 (1977): 18–44, 18–44[https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/ACNK9DG9 view on Zotero].</ref> 
:“I went by ship up the [York] river, which has pleasant '''Seats''' on the Bank which Shew Like little villages, for having Kitchins, Dayry houses, Barns, Stables, Store houses, and some of them 2 or 3 Negro Quarters all Seperate from Each other but near the mansion houses make a shew to the river of 7 or 8 distinct Tenements, tho all belong to one family.”
* Anonymous, August 17 August , 1747, describing property for sale in Somerset County, N.J. NJ (''New York Gazette'') :“TO BE SOLD, A pleasant Country '''Seat''', fitting for a Gentleman or Store-keeper . . . a good [[Orchard]], containing about 200 Apple Trees, and may be extended at Pleasure.”
* Gwatkin, Prof. Thomas, 1770, describing the appearance of seats in Williamsburg, Va. VA (Colonial Williamsburg Foundation; hereafter CWF
:“And the huts of the Negroes which are situated round about give the '''seat''' of a substantial planter something of the Air of a small village.”
[[File:0036.jpg|thumb|225px|Fig. 7, Thomas Lee Shippen, Plan of Westover, 1783.]]* Rush, Dr. Benjamin, July 15 July , 1782, describing the country seat of John Dickinsen, near Philadelphia, Pa. PA (quoted in Caemmerer 1950: 87) <ref name="Caemmerer 1950"> H. Paul Caemmerer, ''The Life of Pierre-Charles L’Enfant, Planner of the City Beautiful, The City of Washington'' (Washington, D.C.DC: National Republic Publishing Company, 1950). , [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/PHWTAERT view on Zotero].</ref> 
:“The ground contiguous to this shed was cut into beautiful [[walk]]s and divided with cedar and pine branches into artificial [[grove]]s. The whole, both the buildings and [[walk]]s, were accommodated with '''seats'''.”
* Shippen, Thomas Lee, December 31 December , 1783, describing Westover, seat of William Byrd III, on the James River, Va. VA (1952: n.p.) <ref>Thomas Lee Shippen, ''Westover Described in 1783: A Letter and Drawing Sent by Thomas Lee Shippen, Student of Law in Williamsburg, to His Parents in Philadelphia'' (Richmond, Va.VA: William Byrd Press, 1952). , [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/3IWWPMJ5 view on Zotero].</ref> :“I have markd some little crooked ugly figures for Gentlemen’s '''seats''', which tho’ they do not beautify indeed the picture, add much to the [[prospect]], about as many '''Seats''' are to be seen on the other side.” [Fig. 87
* Cutler, Rev. Manasseh, 13 July 1787, describing The Hills (later Lemon Hill), estate of Robert Morris, Philadelphia, Pa. (1987: 1:256–57) <ref> William Parker Cutler, ''Life, Journals, and Correspondence of Rev. Manasseh Cutler, LL. D'' (Athens, Ohio: Ohio University Press, 1987). [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/3PBNT7H9 view on Zotero]</ref>
[[File:1983.jpg|thumb|225px|Fig. 8, Jeremiah Paul, “Robert Morris’ Seat on [[Schuylkill_River|Schuylkill]],” July 20, 1794.]]*[[Manasseh Cutler|Cutler, Manasseh]], July 13, 1787, describing [[The Hills]] (later [[Lemon Hill]]), estate of [[Robert Morris]], Philadelphia, PA (1987: 1:256–57)<ref> William Parker Cutler, ''Life, Journals, and Correspondence of Rev. Manasseh Cutler, LL.D.'' (Athens: Ohio University Press, 1987), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/3PBNT7H9 view on Zotero].</ref>:“We continued our route, in [[view]] of the [[Schuylkill_River|Schuylkill]], and up the river several miles, and took a [[view]] of a number of Country-'''seats''', one belonging to [[Robert Morris|Mr. R. Morris]], the American financier, and who is said to be possessed of the greatest fortune in America. His country-'''seat''' is not yet completed, but it will be superb. It is planned on a large scale, the gardens and [[walk]]s are extensive, and the villa, situated on an [[eminence]], has a commanding [[prospect]] down the [[Schuylkill_River|Schuylkill ]] to the Delaware.”[Fig. 8]
* G., L., June 15 June , [1788?], describing the [[The Woodlands]], '''seat''' of [[William Hamilton ]] near Philadelphia, Pa. PA (quoted in Madsen 1989: 19) <ref> Karen Madsen, ‘To “To Make His Country Smile: William Hamilton’s Woodlands’Woodlands, ''Arnoldia'', 49 (1989): 14–23, 14–23[https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/K567H4M4 view on Zotero].</ref> 
:“[The [[walk]]s were] planted on each side with the most beautiful & curious flowers & shrubs. They are in some parts enclosed with the Lombardy poplar except here & there openings are left to give you a [[view]] of some fine trees or beautiful [[prospect]] beyond, & in others, shaded by [[arbour]]s of the wild grape, or [[clump]]s of large trees under which are placed '''seats''' where you may rest yourself & enjoy the cool air.”
* Constantia [pseud.Judith Sargent Murray], June 24 June , 1790, “Description of Gray’s Gardens, Pennsylvania” (''Massachusetts Magazine'' 3: 415)<ref>Constantia [Judith Sargent Murray], “Description of Gray’s Gardens, Pennsylvania,” ''Massachusetts Magazine, or, Monthly Museum of Knowledge and Rational Entertainment'' 7, no. 3 (July 1791): 413–17, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/keywords_in_early_american_landscape_design/items/itemKey/IAJKF9C4 view on Zotero].</ref>
:“At every turn shaded '''seats''' are artfully contrived, and the ground abounds with [[arbour]]s, [[alcove]]s, and summer houses, which are handsomely adorned with odoriferous flowers.”
* [[Pierre-Charles L'Enfant|L’Enfant, Pierre-Charles]], 1791, describing Washington, D.C. DC (quoted in Caemmerer 1950: 136, 151) <ref name="Caemmerer 1950"></ref>:“[March 11, in a letter to Thomas Jefferson]. . . The remainder part of that ground towards Georgetown is more broken. It may afford pleasant '''seats''', but, although the bank of the river between the two creeks can command as grand a [[prospect]] as any of the other spots, it seems to be less commendable for the establishment of a city, not only because the level surface it presents is but small, but because the hights from beyond Georgetown absolutely command the whole. . .:“[June 22, in a report to George Washington]. . . I next made the distribution regular with streets at right angle ''north-south'' and ''east west'' but afterwards I opened others on various directions as [[avenue]]s to and from every principal places, wishing by this not merely to contrast with the general regularity nor to afford a greater variety of pleasant '''seats''' and [[prospect]] as will be obtained from the advantageous ground over the which the [[avenue]]s are mostly directed but principally to connect each part of the city with more efficacy.”
:“[11 March, in a letter to Thomas Jefferson] . . . The remainder part of that ground towards Georgetown is more broken. It may afford pleasant '''seats''', but, although the bank of the river between the two creeks can command as grand a [[prospect]] as any of the other spots, it seems to be less commendable for the establishment of a city, not only because the level surface it presents is but small, but because the hights from beyond Georgetown absolutely command the whole. . . .
:“[22 June, in a report to George Washington] . . . I next made the distribution regular with streets at right angle ''north-south'' and ''east west'' but afterwards I opened others on various directions as [[avenue]]s to and from every principal places, wishing by this not merely to contrast with the general regularity nor to afford a greater variety of pleasant '''seats''' and [[prospect]] as will be obtained from the advantageous ground over the which the [[avenue]]s are mostly directed but principally to connect each part of the city with more efficacy.”
 
 
* Wansey, Henry, 1794, describing Worcester, Mass. ([1794] 1970: 64) <ref>Henry Wansey, ''Henry Wansey and His American Journal'', ed. by David John Jeremy (Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society, 1970)[https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/UQTHRX3W view on Zotero]</ref>
*Wansey, Henry, 1794, describing Worcester, MA (1794; repr., 1970: 64)<ref>Henry Wansey, ''Henry Wansey and His American Journal'', ed. David John Jeremy (1794; repr., Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society, 1970), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/UQTHRX3W view on Zotero].</ref>
:“Most of the houses have a large court before them, full of lilacs and other shrubs, with a '''seat''' under them, and a paved [[walk]] up the middle.”
* Blandulus [pseud.], November 1794, describing Pleasant Hill, '''seat''' of Joseph Barrell, Charlestown, Mass. MA (quoted in Hammond 1982: 95) <ref>Charles Arthur Hammond, ‘“Where “‘Where the Arts and the Virtues Unite”Unite’: Country Life Near Boston, 1637-1864’ 1637–1864” (unpublished Ph.D. PhD diss., Boston University, 1982). , [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/VVFZVIKT view on Zotero].</ref> 
:“Whereonce the breastwork mark’d the scenes of
::blood,
* [[Timothy Dwight|Dwight, Timothy]], 1796, describing mill seats in Massachusetts (1821: 2:352)<ref name="Dwight">Timothy Dwight, ''Travels; in New-England and New-York'', 4 vols. (New Haven: The Author, 1821-221821–22). , [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/VHBP7TH2 view on Zotero].</ref>:“Immediately below the [[bridge]] [over Miller’s River] is a [[Fall/Falling_garden|fall]], furnishing excellent mill-'''seats''', which are occupied by several mills. These are uniformly supplied with an abundance of water, and wear the aspect of great activity, and business, particularly in the sawing of timber.”
:“Immediately below the [[bridge]] [over Miller’s River] is a [[fall]], furnishing excellent mill-'''seats''', which are occupied by several mills. These are uniformly supplied with an abundance of water, and wear the aspect of great activity, and business, particularly in the sawing of timber.”
*[[Timothy Dwight|Dwight, Timothy]], 1799, describing New York, NY (1822: 3:481–82)<ref name="Dwight"></ref>
:“the heights, and many of the lower grounds, contain a rich display of gentlemen’s country '''seats''', connected with a great variety of handsome appendages.”
* Dwight, Timothy, 1799, describing New York, N.Y. (1822: 3:481–82) <ref name="Dwight"></ref>
*La Rochefoucauld Liancourt, François-Alexandre-Frédéric, duc de, 1799, describing a house in Charleston, SC (1800:“the heights2:437–38)<ref> François-Alexandre-Frédéric, duc de La Rochefoucauld Liancourt, ''Travels through the United States of North America, the Country of the Iroquois, and many Upper Canada, in the Years 1795, 1796, and 1797'', ed. Brisson Dupont and Charles Ponges, trans. H. Newman, 2nd ed., 4 vols. (London: R. Philips, 1800), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/SRMDWJ2M view on Zotero].</ref>:“Half a mile from Batavia. . . stands Middletonhouse, the property of Mrs. MIDDLETON, mother-in-law to young Mr. Isard, which is esteemed the lower groundsmost beautiful house in this part of the country. The out-buildings, such as kitchen, wash-house, and offices, contain a rich display are very capacious. The ensemble of gentlemen’s these buildings calls to recollection the ancient English country -'''seats''', connected with a great variety of handsome appendages.”
[[File:0304.jpg|thumb|225px|Fig. 9, William Russell Birch, “[[The Woodlands|Woodlands]], the Seat of Mr. Wm. Hamilton, Pennsylva.,” in ''The Country Seats of the United States'' (1808), pl. 14.]]* La Rochefoucauld Liancourt, François-Alexandre-Frédéric, duc de, 1799, describing a house in Charleston[[The Woodlands]], seat of [[William Hamilton]], near Philadelphia, S.C. PA (1800: 2quoted in Madsen 1988:437–38B3) <ref> François-Alexandre-FrédéricKaren Madsen, duc de La Rochefoucauld Liancourt, ''Travels through the United States of North America, the Country of the Iroquois, and Upper Canada“William Hamilton’s Woodlands, ” (paper presented for seminar in the Years 1795, 1796American Landscape, and 1797''1790–1900, ed. instructed by Brisson Dupont and Charles Ponges, trans. by HE. NewmanMcPeck, 2nd ednRadcliffe Institute for Advanced Study, 4 vols. (London: R. PhilipsHarvard University, 18001988). , [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/SRMDWJ2M XN8NN9QN view on Zotero].</ref>:“You pass the Schuylkill at [[Gray’s Garden|Gray’s-Ferry]], the road to which runs below [[The Woodlands|Woodlands]], the '''seat''' of Mr. William Hamilton: it stands high, and is seen upon an [[eminence]] from the opposite side of the river.” [Fig. 9]
:“Half a mile from Batavia . . . stands Middletonhouse, the property of Mrs. MIDDLETON, mother-in-law to young Mr. Isard, which is esteemed the most beautiful house in this part of the country. The out-buildings, such as kitchen, wash-house, and offices, are very capacious. The ensemble of these buildings calls to recollection the ancient English country-'''seats'''.”
*Ogden, John Cosens, 1800, describing Bethlehem, PA (1800: 18, 27)<ref>John C. Ogden, ''An Excursion into Bethlehem & Nazareth, in Pennsylvania, in the Year 1799'' (Philadelphia: Charles Cist, 1800), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/U5CTTBGB view on Zotero].</ref>
:“'''Seats''' are placed for rest, and to enable the visitors to [[view]] the river at leisure. . .
:“The island is not large, but affords fine [[walk]]s and an area for exercise, as well as '''seats''' and shelters for visitors.”
*La Rochefoucauld Liancourt, François-Alexandre-Frédéric, duc de, 1799, describing the Woodlands, seat of William Hamilton, near Philadelphia, Pa. (quoted in Madsen 1988: B3) <ref>Karen Madsen, ‘William Hamilton’s Woodlands’, 1988. [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/XN8NN9QN view on Zotero]</ref>
*Clitherall, Eliza Caroline Burgwin (Caroline Elizabeth Burgwin), active 1801, describing the Hermitage, seat of John Burgwin, Wilmington, NC (quoted in Flowers 1983: 126)<ref>John Flowers, “People and Plants: North Carolina’s Garden History Revisited,” ''Eighteenth Century Life'' 8 (1983): 117–29, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/FCVW8GHV view on Zotero].</ref>:“You pass the Schuylkill “These [gardens] were extensive and beautifully laid out. There was [''sic''] [[alcove]]s and [[summerhouse|summer houses]] at Gray’s-Ferry, the road to which runs below Woodlandstermination of each [[walk]], the '''seatseats''' under trees in the more shady recesses of Mr. William Hamilton: the Big Garden, as it stands highwas called, and is seen upon an in distinction from the [[eminenceflower garden]] from the opposite side in front of the riverhouse.”
* Ogden[[Thomas Jefferson|Jefferson, John CosensThomas]], 18001804, describing Bethlehem[[Monticello]], [[plantation]] of [[Thomas Jefferson]], Pa. Charlottesville, VA (pp. 18Massachusetts Historical Society, 27Jefferson Papers) <ref>John C. Ogden, :“[[Temple]]s or '''seats'An Excursion into Bethlehem & Nazareth, in Pennsylvania, in the Year 1799''(Philadelphia: Charles Cist, 1800). at those spots on the [[walk]]s most interesting either for [[https://www.zoteroprospect]] or the immediate scenery.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/U5CTTBGB view on Zotero]</ref>
 *Scott, Joseph, 1806, describing the Schuylkill River in Pennsylvania (1806:53)<ref>Joseph Scott, ''A Geographical Description of Pennsylvania'Seats''' are placed for rest(Philadelphia: Printed by R. Cochran, 1806), and to enable the visitors to [[https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/55XKIWPN/ viewon Zotero]] the river at leisure. . . .</ref>:“The island is not largebanks of the river are, but affords fine [[walk]]s and an area for exercisein many places, as well as adorned with beautiful country '''seats''' , belonging to the wealthy citizens of Philadelphia. To these their families usually retire, in the summer months, from the bustle, and noise of the city, and shelters for visitorsto enjoy the salubrity of the country air.”
* ClitherallMartin, Eliza Caroline Burgwin (Caroline Elizabeth Burgwin)William Dickinson, active 18011809, describing the Hermitagepleasure grounds at Salem Academy, seat of John BurgwinSalem, Wilmington, N.C. NC (quoted in Flowers 1983Bynum 1979: 12629) <refname="Bynum 1979">John Flowers, ‘People and Plants: North Carolina’s Garden History Revisited’Flora Ann L. Bynum, ''Eighteenth Century LifeOld Salem Garden Guide''(Winston-Salem, 8 (1983NC: Old Salem, 1979), 117–29. [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/FCVW8GHV TJB9XNMF view on Zotero].</ref>:“Next, I visited a [[flower garden]] belonging to the female department. . . But it is situated on a hill, the East end of which is high & abrupt; some distance down this, they had dug down right in the earth, & drawing the dirt forward threw it on rock, etc., thereby forming a horizontal plane of about thirty feet in circumference; & on the back, rose a perpendicular [[Terrace/Slope|terrace]] of some height, which was entirely covered over with a grass peculiar to that vicinage. At the bottom of this [[Terrace/Slope|terrace]] were arranged circular '''seats''', which, from the height of the hill in the rear were protected from the sun in an early hour in the afternoon.”
:“These [gardens] were extensive and beautifully laid out. There was [''sic'''''Bold text'''] [[alcove]]s and summer houses at the termination of each [[walk]], '''seats''' under trees in the more shady recesses of the Big Garden, as it was called, in distinction from the [[flower garden]] in front of the house.”
*Martin, William Dickinson, May 20, 1809, describing [[The Woodlands]], seat of [[William Hamilton]], near Philadelphia, PA (Colonial Williamsburg Foundation)
:“Altho’ much has been done to beautify this delightful '''seat''', much still remains to be done, for the perfecting it in all the capabilities which nature in her boundless profusion has bestowed.”
*Jefferson, Thomas, 1804, describing Monticello, plantation of Thomas Jefferson, Charlottesville, Va. (Massachusetts Historical Society, Jefferson Papers)
:“*Smith, Margaret Bayard, August 1, 1809, describing [[Monticello]], [[plantation]] of [[TempleThomas Jefferson]]s or , Charlottesville, VA (1906: 73)<ref>Margaret Bayard Smith, ''The First Forty Years of Washington Society'seats''' at those spots , ed. Gaillard Hunt (New York: Charles Scribner’s, 1906), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/FTDFHRFH view on Zotero].</ref>:“Mr. J. explained to me all his plans for improvement, where the roads, the [[walk]]s most interesting either for , the '''seats''', the little [[prospecttemple]] or the immediate scenerys were to be placed.”
* ScottFoster, JosephSir Augustus John, 18061812, describing the Schuylkill River in Pennsylvania [[Monticello]], [[plantation]] of [[Thomas Jefferson]], Charlottesville, VA (p. 531954: 143) <ref>Scott, JosephSir Augustus John Foster, ''A Geographical Description Jeffersonian America: Notes on the United States of PennsylvaniaAmerica Collected in the Years 1805–1806–1807 and 1811–1812'' , ed. Richard Beale Davis (PhiladelphiaSan Marino, CA: Printed by R. CochranHuntington Library, 18061954). , [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/55XKIWPN/7FU8NDF4 view on Zotero].</ref>:“It is a very delightful ride of twenty-eight miles from Montpellier to the late President [[Thomas Jefferson|Mr. Jefferson’s]] '''seat''' at [[Monticello]].”
:“The banks of the river are, in many places, adorned with beautiful country '''seats''', belonging to the wealthy citizens of Philadelphia. To these their families usually retire, in the summer months, from the bustle, and noise of the city, and to enjoy the salubrity of the country air.”
*Warden, David Bailie, 1816, describing Analostan Island, seat of Gen. John Mason, Washington, DC (quoted in Phillips 1917: 49)<ref>Philip Lee Phillips, ''The Beginnings of Washington: As Described in Books, Maps, and Views'' (Washington, DC: The author, 1917), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/QXZXNN8N view on Zotero].</ref>
* Martin:"ANNALOSTAN ISLAND: . . . Annalostan Island is evidently of modern formation. . . The highest [[eminence]], William Dickinsonon which the house stands, 1809, describing is fifty feet above the level of the river. The common tide rises to the height of three feet. I can never forget how de-lighted I was with my first visit to this island. The amiable ladies whom I had the pleasure grounds to accompany, left their carriage at Salem AcademyGeorgetown, Salemand we walked to the mansion-house under a delicious shade. The blossoms of the cherry, apple, Nand peach trees, of the hawthorn and aromatic [[shrub]]s, filled the air with their fragrance.C. (quoted in Bynum 1979: 29) <ref name="Bynum 1979">Flora Ann L. BynumThe house, of a simple and neat form, is situated near that side of the island which commands a [[view]] of the Potomac, the President''Old Salem Garden Guide'' (Winston-Salems House, Capitol, Nand other buildings.C.: Old SalemThe garden, the sides of which are washed by the waters of the river, is ornamented with a variety of trees and [[shrub]]s, and, in the midst, 1979)there is a [[lawn]] covered with a beautiful verdure. The [[https://wwwSummerhouse|summer-house]] is shaded by oak and lin-den-trees, the coolness and tranquility of which invite to contemplation.zoteroThe refresh-ing breezes of the Potomac, and the gentle murmuring of its waters against the rocks, the warbling of birds, and the mournful as-pect of the weeping-willows, inspire a thousand various sensations.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/TJB9XNMF view on Zotero]</ref>What a delicious shade-
:“Next, I visited a "Ducere sol[[flower garden]] belonging to the female department. . . . But it is situated on a hill, the East end of which is high & abrupt; some distance down this, they had dug down right in the earth, & drawing the dirt forward threw it on rock, etc., thereby forming a horizontal plane of about thirty feet in circumference; & on the back, rose a perpendicular [[terrace]] of some height, which was entirely covered over with a grass peculiar to that vicinage. At the bottom of this [[terrace]l] were arranged circular '''seats''', which, from the height of the hill in the rear were protected from the sun in an early hour in the afternoon.”icitae jucunda oblivia vitae"
:The [[view]] from this spot is delightful. It embraces the [[picturesque]] banks of the Po-tomac, a portion of the city, and an expanse of water, of which the bridge terminates the [[view]]. . . A few feet below the [[Summerhouse|sum-mer-house]] the rocks afford the '''seats''', where those who are fond of fishing may indulge in this amusement. From the [[portico]] on the oppo-site [139] side of the house, Georgetown, Calorama, the beautiful '''seat''' of Joel Barlow, Esq. and the adjacent finely-wooded hills, appear a [[vista]]."
* Martin, William Dickinson, 20 May 1809, describing the Woodlands, seat of William Hamilton, near Philadelphia, Pa. (CWF)
*Lambert, John, 1816, describing Boston, MA (1816: 2:328)<ref>John Lambert, ''Travels through Canada, and the United States of North America in the Years 1806, 1807, and 1808'', 2 vols. (London: Baldwin, Cradock, and Joy, 1816), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/T9KUEDWH view on Zotero].</ref>:“Altho’ much has been done “From an elevated part of the town the spectator enjoys a succession of the most beautiful [[view]]s that imagination can conceive. Around him, as far as the eye can reach, are to beautify this delightful be seen towns, villages, country '''seatseats''', much still remains to be donerich farms, and [[pleasure ground|pleasure-grounds]], seated upon the summits of small hills, for hanging on the perfecting it brows of gentle [[Terrace/Slope|slopes]], or reclining in all the capabilities laps of spacious valleys, whose shores are watered by a beautiful river, across which nature in her boundless profusion has bestowedare thrown several [[bridge]]s and causeways.”
* SmithRandolph, Margaret BayardJohn, 1 August 18091820s, describing Monticelloan estate in Roanoke, plantation of Thomas Jefferson, Charlottesville, Va. VA (1906quoted in Martin 1991: 73223n. 46) <ref>Margaret Bayard SmithPeter Martin, ''The First Forty Years Pleasure Gardens of Washington SocietyVirginia: From Jamestown to Jefferson''(Princeton, ed. by Gaillard Hunt (New YorkNJ: Charles Scribner’sPrinceton University Press, 19061991). , [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/FTDFHRFH 6TAHS88N view on Zotero].</ref>:“From my earliest childhood I have delighted in the [[grove]]s and solitudes of poor old Matoax. I now recall several of my favorite '''seats''' where I used to ruminate, ‘chewing the cud of sweet and bitter fancies,’ all bitter now.”
:“Mr. J. explained to me all his plans for improvement, where the roads, the [[walk]]s, the '''seats''', the little [[temple]]s were to be placed.”
*[[Charles Willson Peale|Peale, Charles Willson]], c. 1825, describing [[Belfield]], estate of Charles Willson Peale, Germantown, PA (Miller et al., eds., 2000: 5:381)<ref>Lillian B. Miller and et al., eds., ''The Selected Papers of Charles Willson Peale and His Family'', vol. 5, ''The Autobiography of Charles Willson Peale'' (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2000), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/IZAKPCBG view on Zotero].</ref>
:“He wanted a place to keep the garden seeds & Tools, and in a part of the Garden where a '''seat''' in the shade was often wanted, he built a shed or small room, and to hide that Salt-like-box, and to try his art of Painting, he made the front like [a] [[gateway|Gate Way]] with a step to form a '''seat''', and above, steps painted as representing a passage through an [[Arch]] beyond which was represented a western sky, and to ornament the upper part over the [[arch]], he painted several figures on boards cut to the outlines of said figures as representing [[statue]]s in sculpture.”
* Foster, Sir Augustus John, 1812, describing Monticello, plantation of Thomas Jefferson, Charlottesville, Va. (1954: 143) <ref>Sir Augustus John Foster, ''Jeffersonian America: Notes on the United States of America Collected in the Years 1805-1806-1807 and 1811-1812'', ed. by Richard Beale Davis (San Marino, Calif.: Huntington Library, 1954). [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/7FU8NDF4 view on Zotero]</ref>
[[File:“It is a very delightful ride 0300.jpg|thumb|225px|Fig. 10, Thomas Birch, ''Fairmount Water Works'', 1821.]] *Sheldon, John P., December 10, 1825, describing Fairmount Waterworks, Philadelphia, PA (quoted in Gibson 1988: 5)<ref>Jane Mork Gibson, “The Fairmount Waterworks,” ''Philadelphia Museum of twenty-eight miles from Montpellier to the late President MrArt Bulletin'' 84 (1988): 5–40, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/RZEZDDEN view on Zotero]. Jefferson’s </ref>:“Delightful '''seatseats''' at Monticello, surrounded by various kinds of trees and [[shrubbery]], with gardens containing [[summerhouse|summer houses]], [[vista]]s, embowered [[walk]]s, &c meet your [[view]] in almost every direction, [[wood]]s sloping gently to the river’s edge, by the side of smooth [[lawn]]s, add to the pleasing variety of the scene; and the Schuylkill, with its noble dam and [[bridge]]s serves as a most beautiful finish to the foreground.”[Fig. 10]
* LambertConnor, JohnJuliana Margaret, 18161827, describing Bostonthe garden at the pottery (Lot 48) on Main Street, Salem, Mass. NC (2quoted in Bynum 1979:32828) <ref name="Bynum 1979"></ref>John Lambert, ''Travels through Canada:“Afterwards walked into the garden belonging to the establishment where we saw what I conceived to be a curiosity and in itself extremely beautiful. It was a large [[summerhouse|summer house]] formed of eight cedar trees planted in a circle, and the United States of North America tops whilst young were chained together in the Years 1806center forming a cone. The immense branches were all cut, 1807so that there was not a leaf, the outside is beautifully trimmed perfectly even and 1808very thick within, were '''seats'''placed around and doors or openings were cut, 2 vols. (London: Baldwin, Cradock, and Joythrough the branches, 1816). [https://www.zoteroit had been planted 40 years.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/T9KUEDWH view on Zotero]</ref>
:“From an elevated part of the town the spectator enjoys a succession of the most beautiful [[view]]s that imagination can conceive. Around him, as far as the eye can reach, are to be seen towns, villages, country '''seats''', rich farms, and pleasure-grounds, seated upon the summits of small hills, hanging on the brows of gentle [[slope]]s, or reclining in the laps of spacious valleys, whose shores are watered by a beautiful river, across which are thrown several [[bridge]]s and causeways.”
*Bernhard, Duke of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach, 1828, describing the Bloomingdale Asylum for the Insane, New York, NY (quoted in Little 1972: 64)<ref>Nina Fletcher Little, ''Early Years of the McLean Hospital, Recorded in the Journal of George William Folsom, Apothecary at the Asylum in Charlestown'' (Boston: Francis A. Countway Library of Medicine, 1972), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/Q8IX8NHN/ view on Zotero].</ref>
:“The Lunatic Asylum is five miles from the city [New York] on a hill, in a very healthy situation, the road leads between country '''seats''' and handsome gardens and is one of the most pleasant I have seen in America.”
* Randolph, John, 1820s, describing an estate in Roanoke, Va. (quoted in Martin 1991: 223n. 46) <ref>Peter Martin, ''The Pleasure Gardens of Virginia: From Jamestown to Jefferson'' (Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1991).
[https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/6TAHS88N]</ref>
*Wailes, Benjamin L. C., December 29, 1829, describing [[Lemon Hill]], estate of [[Henry Pratt]], Philadelphia, PA (quoted in Moore 1954:“From my earliest childhood I have delighted 359)<ref>John Hebron Moore, “A View of Philadelphia in 1829: Selections from the Journal of B. L. C. Wailes of Natchez,” ''Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography'' 78 (July 1954): 353–60, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/Z9IBV7A4 view on Zotero].</ref>:“But the most enchanting [[prospect]] is towards the grand pleasure grove& [[green house]] of a [[Henry Pratt|Mr. Prat[t]]], a gentleman of fortune, and to this we next proceeded by a circutous [''sic''] rout, passing in [[view]] of the fish ponds, [[bower]]s, [[rustic style|rustic]] retreats, [[summerhouse|summer houses]], [[fountain]]s , [[grotto]], &c., &c. The [[grotto]] is dug in a bank [and] is of a circular form, the side built up of rock and solitudes arched over head, and a number of poor old MatoaxShells [?]. I now recall A dog of natural size carved out of marble sits just within the entrance, the guardian of the place. A narrow aperture lined with a [[hedge]] of [[arbor]] vitae leads to it. Next is a round fish pond with a small [[fountain]] playing in the [[pond]]. An Oval & several oblong fish ponds of my favorite larger size follow, & between the two last is an artificial [[cascade]]. Several summer houses in [[rustic style]] are made by nailing bark on the outside & thaching the roof. There is also a [[rustic style|rustic]] '''seatsseat''' where I used built in the branches of a tree, & to ruminate, ‘chewing which a flight of steps ascend. In one of the cud [[summerhouse|summer houses]] is a Spring with '''seats''' arrond it. The houses are all embelished [''sic''] with marble busts of sweet Venus, Appollo, Diana and bitter fancies,’ all bitter nowa Bacanti. One sits on an Island on the fish pond. All the [[pond]]s filled with handsome coloured fish.”
* PealeTrollope, Charles WillsonFrances Milton, c. 18251830, describing Belfield, estate of Charles Willson PealePhiladelphia, Germantown, Pa. PA (Miller, Hart, and Ward, eds., 20001832: 2: 38148–49; 152) <ref>Lillian B. Miller and et al, eds.Frances Trollope, ''The Selected Papers Domestic Manners of Charles Willson Peale and His Family: The Autobiography of Charles Willson Peale. Vol. 5.the Americans'' (New Haven, Conn3rd ed., 2 vols.(London: Yale University PressWittaker, Treacher, 1983–20001832). , [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/IZAKPCBG T5RXDF7G view on Zotero].</ref>:“Near this enclosure [at the State House] is another of much the same description, called [[Washington Square (Philadelphia)|Washington Square]]. Here there was an excellent crop of clover; but as the trees are numerous, and highly beautiful, and several commodious '''seats''' are placed beneath their shade, it is, spite of the long grass, a very agreeable retreat from heat and dust. It was rarely, however, that I saw any of these '''seats''' occupied; the Americans have either no leisure, or no inclination for those moments of ''delassement'' that all other people, I believe, indulge in. . . it is nevertheless the nearest approach to a London square that is to be found in Philadelphia. . . “The Delaware river, above Philadelphia, still flows through a landscape too level for beauty, but it is rendered interesting by a succession of gentlemen’s '''seats''', which, if less elaborately finished in architecture, and garden grounds, than the lovely villas on the Thames, are still beautiful objects to gaze upon as you float rapidly past on the broad silvery stream that washes their [[lawn]]s.”
:“He wanted a place to keep the garden seeds & Tools, and in a part of the Garden where a '''seat''' in the shade was often wanted, he built a shed or small room, and to hide that Salt-like-box, and to try his art of Painting, he made the front like [a] [[Gate]] Way with a step to form a '''seat''', and above, steps painted as representing a passage through an [[Arch]] beyond which was represented a western sky, and to ornament the upper part over the [[arch]], he painted several figures on boards cut to the outlines of said figures as representing [[statue]]s in sculpture.”
*[[Andrew Jackson Downing|Downing, Andrew Jackson]], January 1837, “Notices on the State and Progress of Horticulture in the United States,” describing [[Hyde Park]], seat of [[David Hosack]], on the Hudson, NY (''Magazine of Horticulture'' 3: 5)<ref>A. J. Downing, “Notices on the State and Progress of Horticulture in the United States,” ''Magazine of Horticulture, Botany, and All Useful Discoveries and Improvements in Rural Affairs'' 3, no. 1 (January 1837): 1–10, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/keywords_in_early_american_landscape_design/items/itemKey/HPNHTESI/q/Notices%20on%20the%20State%20and%20Progress%20of%20Horticulture view on Zotero].</ref>
:“The most distinguished amateur and patron of gardening, in every sense of the word, in this state, was the late [[Dr. Hosack]]. [[Hyde Park]], on the Hudson, the '''seat''' of this gentleman, has been probably the best specimen of a highly improved residence in the United States.”
* Sheldon, John P., 10 December 1825, describing Fairmount Waterworks, Philadelphia, Pa. (quoted in Gibson 1988: 5) <ref>Jane Mork Gibson, ‘The Fairmount Waterworks’, ''Bulletin, Philadelphia Museum of Art'', 84 (1988), 5–40. [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/RZEZDDEN view on Zotero]</ref>
:“Delightful '''seats'''*Ritchie, Anna Cora Ogden Mowatt, 1839, surrounded by various kinds describing Bonaparte’s Park at estate of trees and [[shrubbery]]Joseph Bonaparte (Count de Survilliers), with gardens containing summer housesBordentown, [[vista]]sNJ (quoted in Weber 1854: 186)<ref>Constance Weber, embowered [[walk]]s“A Sketch of Joseph Bonaparte, &c meet your [[view]] in almost every direction''Godey’s Lady’s Book'' (Philadelphia: L. A. Godey, [[wood]]s sloping gently to the river’s edge1854), by the side of smooth [[lawnhttps://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/NEDC6TSD/ view on Zotero]]s, add to .</ref>:“Equally rustic '''seats''' are scattered beneath the pleasing variety shade of the scene; tall trees on its banks, and the Schuylkill, with upon its noble dam and [[bridge]]s serves as clear surface a most beautiful finish to the foregroundflock of snow-white swans were floating about.”
* ConnorHovey, Juliana MargaretC. M. (Charles Mason), September 1840, “Notes on Gardens and Gardening, in New Bedford, 1827Mass., describing the garden at the pottery estate of James Arnold, New Bedford, MA (Lot 48''Magazine of Horticulture'' 6: 364) <ref>Charles Mason Hovey, “Notes on Main StreetGardens and Gardening, Salemin New Bedford, NMass.C,” ''Magazine of Horticulture, Botany, and All Useful Discoveries and Improvements in Rural Affairs'' 6, no. 9 (quoted in Bynum 1979September 1840): 361–66, [https: 28) <ref name="Bynum 1979">//www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/QQC7WWZB view on Zotero].</ref>:“Continuing through the winding [[walk]]s, shady [[bower]]s, and umbrageous retreats, through which rustic '''seats''' were placed, we arrived at the shell [[grotto]].”
:“Afterwards walked into the garden belonging to the establishment where we saw what I conceived to be a curiosity and in itself extremely beautiful. It was a large summer house formed of eight cedar trees planted in a circle, the tops whilst young were chained together in the center forming a cone. The immense branches were all cut, so that there was not a leaf, the outside is beautifully trimmed perfectly even and very thick within, were '''seats''' placed around and doors or openings were cut, through the branches, it had been planted 40 years.”
*Adams, Nehemiah, 1842, describing [[Boston Common]], Boston, MA (1842: 54)<ref>Nehemiah Adams, ''Boston Common'' (Boston: William D. Ticknor and H. B. Williams, 1842), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/VXTWGJ58 view on Zotero].</ref>
:“One of the next improvements in the [[Boston Common|Common]] we suspect will be a suitable supply of proper '''seats''' in the [[mall]]. As a defence against our American propensity to whittle, the city government caused some of the wooden '''seats''' to be sheathed with sheet iron. Vain defence against the knife of an American whittler! . . . The city government thought that they would ‘try what virtue there is in stones.’ Blocks of granite have been deposited there for '''seats'''. . . The stone '''seats''' are smooth only on the upper side, and their rough look is not strictly in Boston taste, though it is excusable, considering the penitentiary object which led to their substitution for wooden '''seats'''. . . The idea of sitting on a natural, rough rock, to enjoy the beauties of nature, is poetical and in good keeping, but we have tried in vain to make those stone '''seats''' on the [[mall]] seem poetical.”
* Bernhard, Duke of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach, 1828, describing the Bloomingdale Asylum for the Insane, New York, N.Y. (quoted in Little 1972: 64) <ref>Nina Fletcher Little, ''Early Years of the McLean Hospital, Recorded in the Journal of George William Folsom, Apothecary at the Asylum in Charlestown'' (Boston: Francis A. Countway Library of Medicine, 1972). [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/Q8IX8NHN/ view on Zotero]</ref>
*Buckingham, James Silk, 1842, describing Red Sulphur Springs, VA (Colonial Williamsburg Foundation):“The Lunatic Asylum “In the centre of the valley, is five miles from the city a triangular [[New Yorkplot]] on a hillof grass, which has been enclosed with well-finished rails, painted white, and laid out in [[walk]]s like a very healthy situation[[lawn]], having also several large and fine trees, the road leads between country under which '''seats''' and handsome gardens and is one of are placed for enjoying the most pleasant I have seen in Americashade.”
* WailesAnonymous, Benjamin L. C., 29 December 18296, describing Lemon Hill1842, estate of Henry Pratt, Philadelphia“Letter from Ministry at New Lebanon to Ministry at Graveland” (Western Reserve Historical Society Library, Pa. (quoted in Moore 1954: 359Shaker Manuscript Collection) <ref>John Hebron Moore, ‘A View of Philadelphia in 1829: Selections from “And it is my will that your '''seats''' be prepared after the Journal following order. Ye may take boards of Bsufficient width & thickness to form a '''seat'''.LThese may be planed.C. Wailes Place these upon square blocks of Natchez’, sufficient bigness to elevate the '''seat'''Pennsylvania Magazine of History a suitable height; and Biographythese are sufficient for '''seats''', upon my holy ground. And if ye desire to build a shed, near by the meeting ground under which you can place these '''seats''', at such parts of the year as they are not wanted, 78 (July) (1954)ye may freely do it; but if my feast ground is located near your dwellings, 353–60. [https://www.zoteroyou had better carry them there to place under shelter.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/Z9IBV7A4 view on Zotero]</ref>
:“But the most enchanting [[prospect]] is towards the grand pleasure grove & [[green house]] of a Mr. Prat[t], a gentleman of fortune, and to this we next proceeded by a circutous [''sic''] rout, passing in [[view]] of the fish ponds, [[bower]]s, rustic retreats, summer houses, [[fountain]]s, [[grotto]], &c., &c. The [[grotto]] is dug in a bank [and] is of a circular form, the side built up of rock and arched over head, and a number of Shells [?]. A dog of natural size carved out of marble sits just within the entrance, the guardian of the place. A narrow aperture lined with a [[hedge]] of [[arbor]] vitae leads to it. Next is a round fish pond with a small [[fountain]] playing in the [[pond]]. An Oval & several oblong fish ponds of larger size follow, & between the two last is an artificial [[cascade]]. Several summer houses in [[rustic style]] are made by nailing bark on the outside & thaching the roof. There is also a rustic '''seat''' built in the branches of a tree, & to which a flight of steps ascend. In one of the summer houses is a Spring with '''seats''' arrond it. The houses are all embelished [''sic''] with marble busts of Venus, Appollo, Diana and a Bacanti. One sits on an Island on the fish pond. All the [[pond]]s filled with handsome coloured fish.” [See Fig. 1]
*Longfellow, Henry Wadsworth, c. 1845, describing the Vassall-Craigie-Longfellow House, Cambridge, MA (quoted in Evans 1993: 41)<ref>Catherine Evans, ''Cultural Landscape Report for Longfellow National Historic Site, History and Existing Conditions'' (Boston: National Park Service, North Atlantic Region, 1993), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/9TI9GUQN view on Zotero].</ref>
:“Made the [[flower garden]]; laying it out in the form of a Lyre. Built also the [[rustic style|rustic]] '''seat''' in the Old Apple tree. Set out the roses under the Library windows.”
* Trollope, Frances Milton, 1830, describing Philadelphia, Pa. (1832: 2:48–49; 152) <ref>Frances Trollope, ''Domestic Manners of the Americans'', 3rd edn, 2 vols. (London: Wittaker, Treacher, 1832). [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/T5RXDF7G view on Zotero]</ref>
[[Image:“Near this enclosure 0359.jpg|thumb|225px|Fig. 11, Anonymous, “The [[Lake]],” [[at the State HouseMontgomery Place]] is another of much the same description, called in [[Washington SquareA. J. Downing]], ed., ''Horticulturist'' 2, no. 4 (October 1847): 158, fig. 27. Here there was an excellent crop ]]*[[Andrew Jackson Downing|Downing, Andrew Jackson]], 1847, describing [[Montgomery Place]], country home of clover; but as the trees are numerousMrs. Edward (Louise) Livingston, Dutchess County, NY (quoted in Haley 1988: 20, 47, 50)<ref>Jacquetta M. Haley, ed., ''Pleasure Grounds: Andrew Jackson Downing and highly beautifulMontgomery Place'' (Tarrytown, and several commodious NY: Sleepy Hollow Press, 1988), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/SSZXJFSC/ view on Zotero].</ref>:“I forgot to beg you before you leave [[Montgomery Place]] to sketch the [[view]] from the bold rustic '''seatsseat''' are placed beneath their shade, it is, spite with rustic balustrade in front*on the high west river [[walk]]. It seems to me one of the long grass, a very agreeable retreat from heat and dustfinest things I have seen anywhere. It was rarely, however, :<nowiki>*</nowiki> that I saw any of these '''seatsseat''' occupied; about half way between the steps & the south terminus. . .:“A path on the Americans have either no leisure, or no inclination for those moments left of the broad [[lawn]] leads one to the fanciful rustic-gabled ''delassement'seat''' that all other people, I believe, indulge inamong a growth of locusts at the bottom of the [[Terrace/Slope|slope]]. . . . it is nevertheless Half-way along this morning ramble, a rustic '''seat''', placed on a bold little plateau, at the base of a large tree, eighty feet above the nearest approach to water, and fenced about with a London square that is rustic barrier, invites you to be found in Philadelphialinger and gaze at the fascinating river landscape here presented. . . . “The Delaware river:“A little farther on, above Philadelphia, still flows through we reach a landscape too level for beautyflight of rocky steps, but it leading up to the [[border]] of the [[lawn]]. At the top of these is rendered interesting by a succession of gentlemen’s rustic '''seatsseat'''with a thatched canopy, whichcuriously built round the trunk of an aged pine. . .:“This part of the grounds [the [[lake]]] is seen to the most advantage, if less elaborately finished either toward evening, or in architecturemoonlight. Then the effect of contrast in light and shadow is most striking, and garden grounds, than the lovely villas on seclusion and beauty of the Thames, spot are still beautiful objects more fully enjoyable than at any hour. Then you will most certainly be tempted to gaze upon as you float rapidly past on leave the broad silvery stream that washes their curious rustic '''seat''', with its roof wrapped round with a rude entablature like Pluto’s crown.” [[lawn]Fig. 11]s.”
* Downing, A[[File:1097. Jjpg|thumb|225px|Fig.12, January 1837Thomas S. Sinclair, “Notices on “Plan of the State [[Pleasure Ground]]s and Progress Farm of Horticulture in the United States[[Pennsylvania Hospital for the Insane]] at Philadelphia,” describing Hyde Parkin Thomas S. Kirkbride, seat ''American Journal of DrInsanity'' 4 (April 1848): pl. opp. 280.]]*Kirkbride, Thomas S. David Hosack, on April 1848, describing the [[pleasure ground|pleasure grounds]] and farm of the [[Pennsylvania Hospital for the HudsonInsane]], N.Y. Philadelphia (''Magazine American Journal of HorticultureInsanity'' 34: 5349)<ref>Thomas S. Kirkbride, “Description of the Pleasure Grounds and Farm of the Pennsylvania Hospital for the Insane, with Remarks,” ''American Journal of Insanity'' 4, no. 4 (April 1848): 347–54, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/keywords_in_early_american_landscape_design/items/itemKey/9RWM2FH8/q/kirkbride view on Zotero].</ref>:“The [[summerhouse|summer-houses]], [[rustic style|rustic]]-'''seats''', exercising-swings &c., in this division are all in particularly pleasant positions. The cottage fronts the [[wood]]s, and in every part this portion of the grounds is completely protected from intrusion and observation.” [Fig. 12]
:“The most distinguished amateur and patron of gardening, in every sense of the word, in this state, was the late Dr. Hosack. Hyde Park, on the Hudson, the '''seat''' of this gentleman, has been probably the best specimen of a highly improved residence in the United States.”
*[[J. C. (John Claudius) Loudon|Loudon, J. C. (John Claudius)]], 1850, describing the public gardens in Philadelphia, PA (1850: 332–33)
:“856. ''[[public garden|Public Gardens]]''. . .
:“''[[Promenade]] at Philadelphia''. There is a very pretty enclosure before the walnut tree entrance to the state-house, with good well-kept gravel [[walk]]s, and many beautiful flowering trees. It is laid down in grass, not in turf; which, indeed, Mrs. Trollope observes, ‘is a luxury she never saw in America. Near this enclosure is another of a similar description, called [[Washington Square (Philadelphia)|Washington Square]], which has numerous trees, with commodious '''seats''' placed beneath their shade.’ (''Ibid''. [''D. M. &c''.] vol. ii. p. 48.) . . .
:“''Waterworks at Fair Mount, near Philadelphia''. ‘. . . On the farther side of the river is a gentleman’s '''seat''', the beautiful [[lawn]] of which slopes down to the water’s edge; and groups of weeping willows and other trees throw their shadows on the stream.’ (''Domestic Manners of the Americans'', vol. ii. p. 44.)”
===Citations===* RitchieDezallier d’Argenville, Anna Cora Ogden MowattAntoine-Joseph, 18391712, describing Bonaparte’s Park at estate ''The Theory and Practice of Joseph Bonaparte Gardening'' (Count de Survilliers1712: 78), Bordentown, N<ref> A.-J. (quoted in Weber 1854: 186Antoine Joseph) <ref>Constance WeberDézallier d’Argenville, ‘A Sketch ''The Theory and Practice of Joseph Bonaparte’Gardening; Wherein Is Fully Handled All That Relates to Fine Gardens, . . . Containing Divers Plans, in ''Godey’s Lady's Bookand General Dispositions of Gardens. . . '' , trans. John James (PhiladelphiaLondon: LGeo. A. GodeyJames, 18541712). , [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/NEDC6TSD/ RNT8ZVZ8 view on Zotero].</ref>:“'''SEATS''', or Benches, besides the Conveniency they constantly afford in great Gardens, where you can scarce ever have too many, there is such need of them in walking, look very well also in a Garden, when set in certain Places they are destin’d to, as in the Niches or Sinkings that face principal [[Walk]]s and [[Vista]]s, and in the Halls and Galleries of [[Grove]]s.”
:“Equally rustic '''seats''' are scattered beneath the shade of the tall trees on its banks, and upon its clear surface a flock of snow-white swans were floating about.”
*Ware, Isaac, 1756, ''A Complete Body of Architecture'' (1756: 636, 641)<ref>Isaac Ware, ''A Complete Body of Architecture'' (London: T. Osborne and J. Shipton, 1756), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/2EK2USKV view on Zotero].</ref>
:“The first principle is here that there be space to [[walk]], and '''seats''' to rest. These must be proportioned also to one another: it would be absurd to terminate a vast [[walk]] with a plain bench; nor less ridiculous to erect a pompous [[temple]] where there was not the extent of a hundred yards from the building. . .
:“He who would know where to place his [[pavilion]], '''seat''', or [[temple]], in a garden, must first understand what the purpose of it is, and what the true beauty and excellence of the garden itself.”
* Hovey, C. M., September 1840, “Notes on Gardens and Gardening, in New Bedford, Mass,” describing the estate of James Arnold, New Bedford, Mass. (''Magazine of Horticulture'' 6: 364)
*Sheridan, Thomas, 1789, ''A Complete Dictionary of the English Language'' (1789:“Continuing through n.p.)<ref>Thomas A. Sheridan, ''A Complete Dictionary of the winding [[walk]]sEnglish Language, Carefully Revised and Corrected by John Andrews. . . '', 5th ed. (Philadelphia: William Young, 1789), shady [[bowerhttps://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/T5GU4CBQ view on Zotero]]s, and umbrageous retreats, through which rustic .</ref>:“'''seatsSEAT''' were placed, we arrived at the shell [[grotto]]se’t. s. A chair, bench, or any thing on which one may sit; chair of state; tribunal; mansion, abode; situation, site.”
* AdamsAnonymous, Rev1798, ''Encyclopaedia'' (1798: 7:561):“‘V. '''SEATS''' have a two-fold use; they are useful as places of rest and conversation, and as guides to the points of [[view]] in which the beauties of the surrounding scene are disclosed. Every point of [[view]] should be marked with a '''seat'''; and speaking generally, no '''seat''' ought to appear but in some favourable point of [[view]]. This rule may not be invariable, but it ought seldom to be deviated from. Nehemiah:“In the ruder scenes of neglected nature, the simple trunk, 1842rough from the woodman’s hands, describing Boston Commonand the butts or stools of rooted trees, Bostonwithout any other marks of tools upon them than those of the saw which severed them from their stems, are '''seats''' in character; and in romantic or recluse situations, Massthe cave or the [[grotto]] are admissible. (But wherever human design has been executed upon the natural objects of the place, the '''seat''' and every other artificial accompaniment ought to be in unison; and whether the bench or the [[alcove]] be chosen, it ought to be formed and finished in such a manner as to unite with the [[wood]], the [[lawn]], and the [[Adamswalk]] 1842, which lie around it.: 54) <ref>Nehemiah Adams, “The colour of '''seats'Boston Common'' (Bostonshould likewise be suited to situations: William Dwhere uncultivated nature prevails, the natural brown of the [[wood]] itself ought not to be altered; but where the rural art presides, white or stone colour has a much better effect. Ticknor ’ ''Practical Treatise on Planting and HGardening p. B593 &c. Williams, 1842). [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/VXTWGJ58 view on Zotero]</ref>''”
:“One of the next improvements in the [[Common]] we suspect will be a suitable supply of proper '''seats''' in the [[mall]]. As a defence against our American propensity to whittle, the city government caused some of the wooden '''seats''' to be sheathed with sheet iron. Vain defence against the knife of an American whittler! . . . The city government thought that they would ‘try what virtue there is in stones.’ Blocks of granite have been deposited there for '''seats'''. . . . The stone '''seats''' are smooth only on the upper side, and their rough look is not strictly in Boston taste, though it is excusable, considering the penitentiary object which led to their substitution for wooden '''seats'''. . . . The idea of sitting on a natural, rough rock, to enjoy the beauties of nature, is poetical and in good keeping, but we have tried in vain to make those stone '''seats''' on the [[mall]] seem poetical.”
*Repton, Humphry, 1803, ''Observations on the Theory and Practice of Landscape Gardening'' (1803: 69, 153)<ref>Humphry Repton, ''Observations on the Theory and Practice of Landscape Gardening'' (London: Printed by T. Bensley for J. Taylor, 1803), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/VVQPC3BI view on Zotero].</ref>
:“This would be a proper place for a covered '''seat''', with a shed behind it for horses or open carriages; but it should be set so far back as to command the [[view]] under the branches of trees, which are very happily situated for the purpose. . .
:“Yet the summit of a naked brow, commanding [[view]]s in every direction, may require a covered '''seat''' or [[pavilion]]; for such a situation, where an architectural building is proper, a circular [[temple]] with a dome, such as the [[temple]] of the Sybils, or that of Tivoli, is best calculated.”
* Buckingham, James Silk, 1842, describing Red Sulphur Springs, Va. (CWF)
*Abercrombie, John, with James Mean, 1817, ''Abercrombie’s Practical Gardener'' (1817:“In 465)<ref>John Abercrombie, ''Abercrombie’s Practical Gardener Or, Improved System of Modern Horticulture'' (London: T. Cadell and W. Davies, 1817), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/TH54TADZ/ view on Zotero].</ref>:“Fine points of [[view]] claim, in the centre first place, to be distinguished by '''seats'''. '''Seats''' merely serving as places of rest might announce an intrinsic object by some difference in their construction; and if there be no distant [[prospect]] to engage attention, greater elegance in the accompaniments may create a pleasant resting-place. As to the valleymanner of finishing a '''seat'''; where the house is in sight, is a triangular correct taste will expect the bench or [[plotalcove]] to correspond with the style of grassthe house, so far at least as to be avowedly artificial, which has been enclosed with wellfinished railsneat in the workmanship, and painted white. In neglected or wild scenes, and laid out in withdrawn from the polished [[walklawn]]s like , pleasing illusions may be induced by a rough block of timber, the arms of a fantastic root, or forest fagots romantically interwoven, offering a '''seat''' under the canopy of a tree, or within a cave or [[lawngrotto]]. This is admissible on principle, having also several large and fine treesin proportion as every thing surrounding is in character. Not that it can be denied, under which that whimsical '''seats''' are placed for enjoying at variance with the shadesituation sometimes afford a degree of amusement, and may do no harm in little gardens, or in a scene too tame to be spoiled: but the effect terminates with the oddity; a place destitute of character can excite no romantic interest.”
[[File:1334.jpg|thumb|225px|Fig. 13, [[J. C. Loudon]], Covered seats of the [[Rustic_style|rustic]] kind, in ''An Encyclopædia of Gardening'', 4th ed. (1826), 357, fig. 336.]] * Anonymous[[J. C. (John Claudius) Loudon|Loudon, 6 December 1842J. C. (John Claudius)]], 1826, ''An Encyclopaedia of Gardening'' (1826: 355, 357, 809)<ref>J. C. (John Claudius) Loudon, ''An Encyclopaedia of Gardening; Comprising the Theory and Practice of Horticulture, Floriculture, Arboriculture, and Landscape-Gardening'', 4th ed. (London: Longman et al., 1826),[https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/KNKTCA4W view on Zotero].</ref>:“1805. ''Of convenient decorations'' the variety is almost endless, “Letter from Ministry at New Lebanon the prospect-tower to the rustic '''seat'''; besides aquatic decorations, agreeable to the eye and convenient for the purposes of recreations or culture. Their emplacement, as in the former section, belongs to gardening, and their construction to architecture and engineering. . .:“1816. ''Roofed '''seats''', boat-houses, moss houses, flint houses, bark huts'', and similar constructions, are different modes of forming resting-places containing '''seats''', and sometimes other furniture or conveniences in or near them. . . [Fig. 13]:“1817. ''Roofed '''seats''' of a more polished description'' are boarded structures generally semi-octagonal, and placed so as to be open to the south. Sometimes they are portable, moving on wheels, so as to be placed in different positions, according to Ministry at Graveland” the hour of the day, or season of the year, which, in confined spots, is a desirable circumstance. Sometimes they turn on rollers, or on a central pivot, for the same object, and this is very common in what are called barrel-'''seats'''. In general they are opaque, but occasionally their sides are glazed, to admit the sun to the interior in winter.[[File:1335.jpg|thumb|225px|Fig. 14, [[J. C. Loudon]], Elegant structures of the seat kind, in ''An Encyclopædia of Gardening'' 4th ed. (Western Reserve Historical Society Library1826), 357, figs. 337 and 338.]] :“1818. ''Folding chairs''. A sort of medium '''seat''', between the roofed and the exposed, is formed by constructing the backs of chairs, benches, or sofas with hinges, Shaker Manuscript Collection)so as they may fold down over the '''seat''', and so protect it from rain. . .:“1819. ''Elegant structures'' of the '''seat''' kind for summer use, may be constructed of iron rods and wires, and painted canvas; the iron forming the supporting skeleton, and the canvass the protecting tegument. . . [Fig. 14]:“1820. ''Exposed '''seats''''' include a great variety, rising in gradation from the turf bank to the carved couch. Intermediate forms are stone benches, root stools, sections of trunks of trees, wooden, stone, or cast-iron mushrooms painted or covered with moss, or mat, or heath; the Chinese barrel-'''seat''', the rustic stool, chair, tripod, sofa, the cast-iron couch or sofa, the wheeling-chair, and many subvarieties. . .:“6157. . . Light [[bower]]s formed of lattice-work, and covered with climbers, are in general most suitable to [[parterre]]s; plain covered '''seats''' suit the general [[walk]]s of the [[shrubbery]].”
:“And it is my will that your '''seats''' be prepared after the following order. Ye may take boards of sufficient width & thickness to form a '''seat'''. These may be planed. Place these upon square blocks of sufficient bigness to elevate the '''seat''' of a suitable height; and these are sufficient for '''seats''', upon my holy ground. And if ye desire to build a shed, near by the meeting ground under which you can place these '''seats''', at such parts of the year as they are not wanted, ye may freely do it; but if my feast ground is located near your dwellings, you had better carry them there to place under shelter.”
*Anonymous, April 26, 1826, “On Landscapes and Picturesque Gardens” (''New England Farmer'' 4: 316)<ref>Anonymous, “On Landscape and Picturesque Gardens,” ''New England Farmer'' 4, no. 40 (April 28, 1826): 316, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/keywords_in_early_american_landscape_design/items/itemKey/I3K5QGBZ? view on Zotero].</ref>
:“A few fabrics, rustic [[bridge]]s, [[hermitage]]s, a [[Temple]], or a Chinese Kiosk or Pagoda, not expensive in their execution, would advantageously complete the embellishment of a country '''seat'''.”
* Longfellow, Henry Wadsworth, c. 1845, describing the Vassall-Craigie-Longfellow House, Cambridge, Mass. (quoted in Evans 1993: 41) <ref>Catherine Evans, ''Cultural Landscape Report for Longfellow National Historic Site, History and Existing Conditions'' (Boston: National Park Service, North Atlantic Region, 1993), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/9TI9GUQN view on Zotero]</ref>
*[[Noah Webster|Webster, Noah]], 1828, ''An American Dictionary of the English Language'' (1828: 2:“Made n.p.)<ref>Noah Webster, ''An American Dictionary of the English Language'', 2 vols. (New York: S. Converse, 1828), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/N7BSU467 view on Zotero].</ref>:“'''SEAT''', ''n.'' [flower garden]It. ''sedia''; Sp. s''ede, sitio'', from L. ''sedes, situs''; Sw. ''sate''; Dan. ''soede''; G. ''sitz''; D. ''zetel'', ''zitplaats''; W. ''sez''; Ir. ''saidh''; W. with a prefix, ''gosod'', whence ''gosodi'', to ''set''. See ''Set'' and ''Sit''. . .]:“1. That on which one sits. . .:“3. Mansion; residence; dwelling; abode; laying it out as Italy the '''''seat''''' of empire. The Greeks sent colonies to seek a new '''''seat''''' in Gaul.:“In Alba he shall fix his royal '''''seat'''''. Dryden. :“4. Site; situation. The '''''seat''''' of Eden has never been incontrovertibly ascertained. . .:“8. The place where a thing is settled or established. London is the form '''''seat''''' of a Lyrebusiness and opulence. Built also So we say, the rustic '''''seat''' in '' of the Old Apple tree. Set out muses, the roses under '''''seat''''' of arts, the Library windows'''''seat''''' of commerce.”
* DowningBridgeman, A. J.Thomas, 26 July 18471832, describing Montgomery Place, country home of Mrs. Edward (Louise) Livingston, Dutchess County, N.Y. ''The Young Gardener’s Assistant'' (quoted in Haley 19881832: 20, 47, 50111) <ref>Jacquetta M. Haley, ed.Thomas Bridgeman, ''Pleasure Grounds: Andrew Jackson Downing and Montgomery PlaceThe Young Gardener’s Assistant'' (Tarrytown, N3rd ed.Y(New York: Geo.: Sleepy Hollow PressRobertson, 19881832). , [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/SSZXJFSC/ 9FU4SNZK view on Zotero].</ref>:“In a retired part of the [flower] garden, a rustic '''seat''' may be formed, over and around which honey-suckles and other sweet and ornamental creepers and climbers may he [''sic''] trained on [[trellis]]es, so as to afford a pleasant retirement.”
:“I forgot to beg you before you leave Montgomery Place to sketch the [[view]] from the bold rustic '''seat''' with rustic balustrade in front* on the high west river [[walk]]. It seems to me one of the very finest things I have seen anywhere.
:<nowiki>*</nowiki> that '''seat''' about half way between the steps & the south terminus. . . .
:“A path on the left of the broad [[lawn]] leads one to the fanciful rustic-gabled '''seat''', among a growth of locusts at the bottom of the [[slope]]. . . Half-way along this morning ramble, a rustic '''seat''', placed on a bold little plateau, at the base of a large tree, eighty feet above the water, and fenced about with a rustic barrier, invites you to linger and gaze at the fascinating river landscape here presented. . . .
:“A little farther on, we reach a flight of rocky steps, leading up to the [[border]] of the [[lawn]]. At the top of these is a rustic '''seat''' with a thatched canopy, curiously built round the trunk of an aged pine. . . .
:“This part of the grounds [the [[lake]]] is seen to the most advantage, either toward evening, or in moonlight. Then the effect of contrast in light and shadow is most striking, and the seclusion and beauty of the spot are more fully enjoyable than at any hour. Then you will most certainly be tempted to leave the curious rustic '''seat''', with its roof wrapped round with a rude entablature like Pluto’s crown.”
*Teschemacher, James E., August 1, 1835, “Extracts from Foreign Publications” (''Horticultural Register'' 1: 308–9)<ref>James E. Teschemacher, “Extracts from Foreign Publications,” ''Horticultural Register, and Gardener’s Magazine'' 1 (August 1, 1835): 304–9, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/keywords_in_early_american_landscape_design/items/itemKey/CNPGMS5X/q/extracts%20from%20foreign%20publications view on Zotero].</ref>
:“''From an article On the various form and character of [[Arbour]]s as objects of use or ornament either in gardens or wild scenery [from Paxton’s Horticultural Register''], we extract the following passages. . .
:“‘The closely shaven turf comes about ten feet inside the [[arch]]es where its edge is cut, and between that and the [[basin]] is covered with a fine tawny sand, with an apparently confused but really symmetrical arrangement of marble pedestals, '''seats''' and [[vase]]s with flowering plants placed upon them. During summer a [[vase]] with a rare flowering plant is placed under each of the external [[arch]]es except four which serve as entrances. The entire effect is good, and his may be considered as one of the best specimens of the artificial [[bower]] of the present day.’”
* Kirkbride, Thomas S., April 1848, describing the pleasure grounds and farm of the Pennsylvania Hospital for the Insane, Philadelphia, Pa. (''American Journal of Insanity'' 4: 349)
*Sayers, Edward, 1838, ''The American Flower Garden Companion'' (1838:“The summer-houses14, 19, 131)<ref>Edward Sayers, ''The American Flower Garden Companion, Adapted to the Northern States'' (Boston: Joseph Breck, 1838), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/GHTFN8B2 view on Zotero].</ref>:“At country residences, where a large extent is appropriated to this department [the [[flower garden]]], many convenient and pleasing appendages can be judiciously introduced; as rustic [[arbor]]s, rustic-'''seats''', exercisingswings &cand [[rockery]]; and if water can be connected, it always gives a good effect.All such appendages, I recommend to be constructed in this division are all in particularly pleasant positionsas natural a manner as possible. . . The cottage fronts :“In extensive [[pleasure ground]]s the [[rockery]] has a good effect when placed distinct from the [[flower garden]], and near a rustic [[arbor]] or ornamental [[bridge]], or '''seat'''; and if placed by the side of a retired [[walk]], near the [[woodlawn]] or grass [[plot]]s, it has an easy effect. . . .:“the margin of the [[pond]] should be planted with drooping willows and in every part this portion trees of a pendulous habit for shade, under which rustic '''seat''' might be properly placed for the accommodation of those who desire to view the grounds is completely protected from intrusion sporting fishes, and observationother interesting objects by which they are surrounded.”[[File:0936.jpg|thumb|225px|Fig. 15, Alexander Walsh, Two seats surrounded by an arched [[arbor]], in ''New England Farmer'' 19, no. 39 (March 31, 1841): 309, fig. 4.]]
* Walsh, Alexander, March 31, 1841, “Remarks on Ornamental Gardening” (''New England Farmer'' 19: 308–9)<ref>Alexander Walsh, “Remarks on Ornamental Gardening, With a Plan of a Fruit, Flower and Vegetable Garden,” ''New England Farmer, and Horticultural Register'' 19, no. 39 (March 31, 1841): 308–9, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/HD2AV62D view on Zotero.]</ref>:“The garden and [[pleasure ground]] I would describe, is of an oblong form, 165 feet by 120 feet, with one end next the north side of the house. . .:“X X two '''seats''', each occupying 2 ft. . . T T two '''seats'''. . . surrounded by an arched [[arbor]] 10 ft. high, thrown over the [[walk]], ornamented on one side with honeysuckle, on the other by climbing Boursaut rose.” [Fig. 15]  [[File:1824.jpg|thumb|225px|Fig. 16, Anonymous, “Moveable Garden Seat,” in Jane Loudon, ''Gardening for Ladies'' (1843), 283, fig. 49.]] *[[Jane Loudon|Loudon, Jane]], 1843, ''Gardening for Ladies'' (1843: 283–84)<ref>Jane Loudon, ''Gardening for Ladies; And Companion to the Flower-Garden,'' ed. A. J. CDowning (New York: Wiley and Putnam, 1843), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/VJ3SM523 view on Zotero].</ref>:“'''SEATS''' for gardens are either open or covered; the latter being in the form of root-houses, huts, [[pavilion]]s, [[temple]]s, [[grotto]]es, &c., and the former being either fixed, temporary, or portable. Fixed '''seats''' are commonly of stone, either plain stone benches without backs, or stone supports to wooden benches. Sometimes, also, wooden '''seats''' are fixed, as when they are placed round a tree, or when boards are nailed to posts, or when '''seats''' are formed in imitation of mushrooms, as in the grounds at Redleaf. Fixed '''seats''' are also sometimes formed of turf. Portable '''seats''' are formed of [[wood]], sometimes contrived to have the back of the '''seat''' folded down when the '''seat''' is not in use; so as to exclude the weather, and avoid the dirt of birds which are apt to perch on them. Another kind of portable '''seat''', which is frequently formed in iron, as shown in ''fig.'' 49, is readily wheeled from one part of the grounds to another; and the back of which also folds down to protect the '''seat''' from the weather. There is a kind of camp-stool which serves as a portable '''seat''', imported from Norway, and sold at the low price of 2''s''. 6''d''. or 3''s''.; and there are also straw '''seats''', like half [[beehive]]s, which are, however, only used in garden-huts, or in any situation under cover, because in the open air they would be liable to be soaked with rain. There are a great variety of rustic '''seats''' formed of roots and crooked branches of trees, used both for the open garden and under cover; and there are also '''seats''' of cast and wrought iron, of great variety of form. There should always be some kind of analogy between the '''seat''' and the scene of which it forms a part; and for this reason rustic '''seats''' should be confined to rustic scenery; and the '''seats''' for a [[lawn]] or highly kept pleasure-ground ought to be of comparatively simple and architectural forms, and either of [[wood]] or stone, those of [[wood]] being frequently painted of a stone colour, and sprinkled over with silver sand before the paint is dry, to give them the appearance of stone. Iron '''seats''', generally speaking, are not sufficiently massive for effect; and the metal conveys the idea of cold in winter and heat in summer.[Fig. 16]:“When '''seats''' are placed along a [[walk]], a gravelled recess ought to be formed to receive them; and there ought, generally, to be a footboard to keep the feet from the moist ground, 1850whether the '''seat''' is on gravel or on al awn [''sic'']. In a garden where there are several '''seats''', describing some ought to be in positions exposed to the public gardens sun, and others placed in the shade, and none ought to be put down in a situation where the back of the '''seat''' is seen by a person approaching it before the front. Indeed the backs of all fixed '''seats''' ought to be concealed by shrubs, or by some other means, unless they are circular '''seats''' placed round a tree. '''Seats''' ought not to be put down where there will be any temptation to the persons sitting on them to strain their eyes to the right or left, nor where the boundary of the garden forms a conspicuous object in Philadelphiathe [[view]]. In general, Paall '''seats''' should be of a stone colour, as harmonizing best with vegetation. (ppNoting can be more unartistical than '''seats''' painted a pea-green, and placed among the green of living plants. 332–33)
:“856. ''[[Public Gardens]]''. . . .
:“''[[Promenade]] at Philadelphia''. There is a very pretty enclosure before the walnut tree entrance to the state-house, with good well-kept gravel [[walk]]s, and many beautiful flowering trees. It is laid down in grass, not in turf; which, indeed, Mrs. Trollope observes, ‘is a luxury she never saw in America. Near this enclosure is another of a similar description, called [[Washington Square]], which has numerous trees, with commodious '''seats''' placed beneath their shade.’ (''Ibid''. [''D. M. &c''.] vol. ii. p. 48.) . . .
:“''Waterworks at Fair Mount, near Philadelphia''. ‘. . . On the farther side of the river is a gentleman’s '''seat''', the beautiful [[lawn]] of which slopes down to the water’s edge; and groups of weeping willows and other trees throw their shadows on the stream.’ (''Domestic Manners of the Americans'', vol. ii. p. 44.)”
===Citations===[[File:0398.jpg|thumb|225px|Fig. 17, Anonymous, “[[Rustic_style|Rustic]] Covered Seat,” in [[A. J. Downing]], ''A Treatise on the Theory and Practice of Landscape Gardening'', 4th ed. (1849), 458, fig. 86.]]*[[Andrew Jackson Downing|Downing, Andrew Jackson]], 1849, ''A Treatise on the Theory and Practice of Landscape Gardening'' (1849: 454–56, 473–74)<ref>A. J. [Andrew Jackson] Downing, ''A Treatise on the Theory and Practice of Landscape Gardening, Adapted to North America. . . '', 4th ed. (New York: G. P. Putnam, 1849), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/5M4S2D64 view on Zotero].</ref>:''“Open and covered '''seats''''', of various descriptions, are among the most convenient and useful decorations for the pleasure-grounds of a country residence. Situated in portions of the [[lawn]] or [[park]], somewhat distant from the house, they offer an agreeable place for rest or repose. If there are certain points from which are obtained agreeable [[prospect]]s or extensive [[view]]s of the surrounding country, a '''seat''', by designating those points, and by affording us a convenient mode of enjoying them, has a double recommendation to our minds.:“Open and covered '''seats''' are of two distinct kinds; one ''architectural'', or formed after artist-like designs, of stone or [[wood]], in Grecian, Gothic, or other forms; which may, if they are intended to produce an elegant effect, have [[vase]]s on pedestals as accompaniments; the other, ''rustic'', as they are called, which are formed out of trucks and branches of trees, roots, etc., in their natural forms. . .:“We consider rustic '''seats''' and structures as likely to be much preferred in the villa and cottage residences of the country. They have the merit of being tasteful and [[picturesque]] in their appearance, and are easily constructed by the amateur, at comparatively little or no expense. There is scarcely a prettier or more pleasant object for the termination of a long [[walk]] in the [[Pleasure_ground|pleasure-grounds]] or [[park]], than a neatly thatched structure of rustic work, with its '''seat''' for repose, and a [[view]] of the landscape beyond. . . [Fig. 17]:''“Unity of expression'' is the maxim and guide in this department of the art, as in every other. . .:“With regard to [[pavilion]]s, summer-houses, rustic '''seats''', and garden edifices of like character, they should, if possible, in all cases be introduced where they are manifestly appropriate or in harmony with the scene. Thus. . . a rustic covered '''seat''' may occupy a secluded, quiet portion of the grounds, where undisturbed meditation be enjoyed.”
* [Dézallier d’Argenville, A.-J.], 1712, ''The Theory and Practice of Gardening'' ([1712] 1969: 78) <ref> A.-J. (Antoine Joseph) Dézallier d’Argenville, ''The Theory and Practice of Gardening; Wherein Is Fully Handled All That Relates to Fine Gardens, ... Containing Divers Plans, and General Dispositions of Gardens; ...'', trans. by John James (London: Geo. James, 1712). [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/RNT8ZVZ8 view on Zotero]</ref>
: “*Ranlett, William H., 1849, ''The Architect''(1849; repr., 1976: 1:19)<ref>William H. Ranlett, 'SEATS'The Architect'', or Benches2 vols. (1849–51; repr., besides the Conveniency they constantly afford in great GardensNew York: Da Capo, where you can scarce ever have too many1976), there is such need [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/QGQPCB5J view on Zotero].</ref>:“Probably no portion of them in walkingthe globe, look very well also in offers a Gardengreater variety of beautiful country '''seats''' than the vicinity of New-York. No man who has any taste for the retired tranquillity of a suburban retreat, when set in certain Places they are destin’d to, as in or the Niches or Sinkings that face principal lovely beauty of a [[Walkpicturesque]]s scene, or the romantic grandeur of an enchanting landscape of cities, towns and [[Vista]]scountry; rivers, bays and in ocean, could fail to be suited with some of the numerous situations on the Halls and Galleries undulated shores, gentle declivities or towering heights of Staten Island, Long Island or the banks of [[Grove]]sthe noble Hudson.”
''
* Ware, Isaac, 1756, ''A Complete Body of Architecture'' (pp. 636, 641) <ref>
Isaac Ware, ''A Complete Body of Architecture'' (London: T. Osborne and J. Shipton, 1756). [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/2EK2USKV view on Zotero]</ref>
[[File:“The first principle is here that there be space to 0920.jpg|thumb|225px|Fig. 18, Anonymous, “Small Bracketed Cottage,” in [[walkA. J. Downing]], and ''The Architecture of Country Houses'seats''' to rest(1850), pl. opp. 78, fig. 9. These must be proportioned also to one another: it would be absurd to terminate a vast ]]*[[walkAndrew Jackson Downing|Downing, Andrew Jackson]] with a plain bench, 1850, ''The Architecture of Country Houses'' (1850; nor less ridiculous to erect a pompous [repr., 1968: 80–81)<ref>A. J. [templeAndrew Jackson]] where there was not the extent Downing, ''The Architecture of a hundred yards from the buildingCountry Houses; Including Designs for Cottages, Farm-Houses, and Villas'' (1850; repr. , New York: D. Appleton; Da Capo, 1968), [https://www.zotero. org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/GRZPQXQI view on Zotero].</ref>:“He who would know where to place his “The little rustic [[pavilionarbor]], s or covered '''seatseats''', or on the outside of the bay window may be supposed to answer in some measure in the place of a [[templeveranda]], in a gardenand convey at the first glance, must first understand what the purpose an impression of it is, refinement and what the true beauty and excellence of the garden itselftaste attained in that simple manner so appropriate to a small cottage.”[Fig. 18]
* Sheridan[[Andrew Jackson Downing|Downing, ThomasAndrew Jackson]], 1789June 1850, “Our Country Villages” (''A Complete Dictionary of the English LanguageHorticulturist'' (n.p.4: 540–41) <ref>Thomas A. SheridanJ. Downing, “Our Country Villages, ''A Complete Dictionary Horticulturist and Journal of the English Language, Carefully Revised Rural Art and Corrected by John Andrews....Rural Taste''4, 5th edn no. 12 (PhiladelphiaJune 1850): William Young537–41, 1789). [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/keywords_in_early_american_landscape_design/items/itemKey/T5GU4CBQ 2DJ27X4W/q/our%20country%20villages view on Zotero].</ref>:“The next step, after the possession of such public pleasure-grounds, would be the social and common enjoyment of them. Upon the well-mown glades of [[lawn]], and beneath the shade of the forest trees, would be formed rustic '''seats'''. Little [[arbor]]s would be placed near, where in midsummer evenings ices would be served to all who wished them.”
:“'''SEAT''', se’t. s. A chair, bench, or any thing on which one may sit; chair of state; tribunal; mansion, abode; situation, site.”
*[[Andrew Jackson Downing|Downing, Andrew Jackson]], March 1851, “The Management of Large Country Places” (''Horticulturist'' 6: 105–6)<ref>A. J. Downing, “The Management of Large Country Places,” ''Horticulturist and Journal of Rural Art and Rural Taste'' 6, no. 3 (March 1851): 105–8, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/keywords_in_early_american_landscape_design/items/itemKey/HKQH76RW/q/management%20of%20large%20country%20places view on Zotero].</ref>
:“All our country residences may readily be divided into two classes. The first and largest class, is the suburban place of from five to twenty or thirty acres; the second is the country-'''seat''', properly so called, which consists of from 30 to 500 or more acres. . .
:“But in the larger country places, there are ten instances of failure for one of success. This is not owing to the want of natural beauty, for the sites are [[picturesque]], the surface varied, and the [[wood]]s and [[plantation]]s excellent. The failure consists, for the most part, in a certain incongruity and want of distinct character in the treatment of the place as a whole. They are too large to be kept in order as pleasure-grounds, while they are not laid out or treated as [[park]]s. The grass which stretches on all sides of the house, is partly mown for [[lawn]], and partly for hay; the lines of the farm and the ornamental portion of the grounds, meet in a confused and unsatisfactory manner, and the result is a residence pretending to be much superior to a common farm, and not yet rising to the dignity of a really tasteful country '''seat'''.”
* Anonymous, 1798, ''Encyclopaedia'' (7:561)
:“‘V. *Jaques, George, January 1852, “Landscape Gardening in New-England” (''Horticulturist'SEATS'7: 35)<ref> George Jacques, “Landscape Gardening in New-England,” '' have a two-fold use; they are useful as places Horticulturist and Journal of rest and conversation, Rural Art and as guides to the points of [[view]] in which the beauties of the surrounding scene are disclosed. Every point of [[view]] should be marked with a ''Rural Taste'seat'''; and speaking generally7, no '''seat''' ought to appear but in some favourable point of [. 1 (January 1852): 33–36, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/keywords_in_early_american_landscape_design/items/itemKey/WMEDJ9XX/q/landscape%20gardening%20in%20new-england viewon Zotero]]. This rule may not be invariable, but it ought seldom to be deviated from.</ref>:“In the ruder scenes of neglected nature, the simple trunk, rough from the woodman’s hands“Let woodbine, honey-suckle and the butts or stools of rooted treesclimbing roses, without any other marks of tools upon them than those of the saw which severed them from their stems, are '''seats''' in character; and in romantic or recluse situations, the cave or the here entwine themselves around a [[grottocolumn]] are admissible, and wreath themselves there over a window. But wherever human design has been executed upon the natural objects of the Here place, the a rustic '''seat''' and every other artificial accompaniment ought to be in unison; and whether the bench or , half hid among the [[alcoveshrubbery]] be chosen, it ought to be formed and finished in such ; there lead a manner as to unite with the [[wood]], the [[lawn]], and the short [[walk]], which lie around it.:“The colour of '''seats''' should likewise be suited to situations: where uncultivated nature prevails, the natural brown of the carelessly curving towards a little vine-clad [[woodarbor]] itself ought not to be altered; but where the rural art presides, white or stone colour has a much better effect.’ ''Practical Treatise on Planting and Gardening p. 593 &c.''
* Repton, Humphry, 1803, ''Observations on the Theory and Practice of Landscape Gardening'' (pp. 69, 153) <ref>Humphry Repton, ''Observations on the Theory and Practice of Landscape Gardening'' (London: Printed by T. Bensley for J. Taylor, 1803). [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/VVQPC3BI view on Zotero]</refhr>
:“This would be a proper place for a covered '''seat''', with a shed behind it for horses or open carriages; but it should be set so far back as to command the [[view]] under the branches of trees, which are very happily situated for the purpose. . .==Images==:“Yet the summit of a naked brow, commanding [[view]]s in every direction, may require a covered '''seat''' or [[pavilion]]; for such a situation, where an architectural building is proper, a circular [[temple]] with a dome, such as the [[temple]] of the Sybils, or that of Tivoli, is best calculated.”===Inscribed===<span id="roundabout_img"></span><gallery widths="170px" heights="170px" perrow="7">
Image:1722.jpg|[[James Gibbs]], “Two '''Seats''' for the ends of [[Walk]]s,” in ''A Book of Architecture'' (1728), pl. 82.
* Abercrombie, John, with Image:1723.jpg|[[James Mean, 1817Gibbs]], “Two other '''Seats'Abercrombie’s Practical Gardener'' (p. 465) <ref>John Abercrombiefor the same purpose [for the ends of [[walk]]s], ” in ''Abercrombie’s Practical Gardener Or, Improved System A Book of Modern HorticultureArchitecture'' (London: T. Cadell and W. Davies1728), 1817)pl. [https://www83.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/TH54TADZ/ view on Zotero]</ref>
Image:“Fine points of [[view]] claim, in the first place0925.jpg|William Burgis, to be distinguished by '''seats'''. '''Seats''' merely serving as places of rest might announce an intrinsic object by some difference in their construction; and if there be no distant A South East [[prospectView]] to engage attention, greater elegance in the accompaniments may create a pleasant resting-place. As to the manner of finishing a '''seat'''; where the house is ye Great Town of Boston in sight, a correct taste will expect the bench or [[alcove]] to correspond with the style of the house, so far at least as to be avowedly artificial, neat New England in the workmanship, and painted. In neglected or wild scenes, withdrawn from the polished [[lawn]], pleasing illusions may be induced by a rough block of timber, the arms of a fantastic root, or forest fagots romantically interwoven, offering a '''seat'America'' under the canopy of a tree, or within a cave or [[grotto]]1743. This is admissible on principle, in proportion as every thing surrounding is in character“Capt. Not that it can be denied, that whimsical Cunningham’s '''seatsSeat''' at variance ” is inscribed over a grand house with the situation sometimes afford a degree of amusement, and may do no harm in little gardens, or beds/parterres in a scene too tame to be spoiled: but the effect terminates with the oddity; a place destitute of character can excite no romantic interestfront.
Image:1737.jpg|Batty and Thomas Langley, “An Umbrello, to a '''Seat''', for to Terminate a [[walk]], [[View]], &c. in a Garden,” in ''Gothic Architecture'' (1747), pl. 31.
* Loudon, J. Cimage:1688.jpg|William and John Halfpenny, 1826, “A [[Chinese_manner|Chinese]] [[Alcove]] '''Seat'An Encyclopaedia of Gardening'' (pp. 355, 357, 809) <ref>J. C. (John Claudius) LoudonFronting Four Ways, ” in ''An Encyclopaedia of Gardening; Comprising Rural Architecture in the Theory and Practice of Horticulture, Floriculture, Arboriculture, and Landscape-GardeningChinese Taste'', 4th edn (London: Longman et al1755), 1826)pl. [https://www.zotero8.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/KNKTCA4W view on Zotero]</ref>
File:“18052262. ''Of convenient decorations'' the variety is almost endlessjpg|Anonymous, from the prospect-tower to the rustic '''seat'''; besides aquatic decorations, agreeable to the eye and convenient for the purposes The South West [[Prospect]] of recreations or culture. Their emplacement, as in the former section, belongs to gardening, and their construction to architecture and engineering. . . .:“1816. ''Roofed '''seats''Seat', boat-houses, moss houses, flint houses, bark huts'', and similar constructions, are different modes of forming resting-places containing '''seats''', and sometimes other furniture or conveniences in or near them. . . .:“1817. ''Roofed '''seats''' Colonel George Boyd of a more polished description'' are boarded structures generally semi-octagonal, and placed so as to be open to the south. Sometimes they are portablePortsmouth, moving on wheelsNew Hampshire, so as to be placed in different positionsNew England, according to the hour of the day, or season of the year, which, in confined spots, is a desirable circumstance. Sometimes they turn on rollers, or on a central pivot, for the same object, and this is very common in what are called barrel-'''seats'1774''. In general they are opaque, but occasionally their sides are glazed, to admit the sun to the interior in winter.:“1818. ''Folding chairs''. A sort of medium '''seat''', between the roofed and the exposed, is formed by constructing the backs of chairs, benches, or sofas with hinges, so as they may fold down over the '''seat''', and so protect it from rain. . . .'':“1819. ''Elegant structures'' of the '''seat''' kind for summer use, may be constructed of iron rods and wires, and painted canvas; the iron forming the supporting skeleton, and the canvass the protecting tegument. . . .:“1820. ''Exposed '''seats''''' include a great variety, rising in gradation from the turf bank to the carved couch. Intermediate forms are stone benches, root stools, sections of trunks of trees, wooden, stone, or cast-iron mushrooms painted or covered with moss, or mat, or heath; the Chinese barrel-'''seat''', the rustic stool, chair, tripod, sofa, the cast-iron couch or sofa, the wheeling-chair, and many subvarieties. . . .:“6157. . . Light [[bower]]s formed of lattice-work, and covered with climbers, are in general most suitable to [[parterre]]s; plain covered '''seats''' suit the general [[walk]]s of the [[shrubbery]].”
Image:0587.jpg|Anonymous, Plan of the Harbour and City of Annapolis, 1781.
* AnonymousImage:0461.jpg|[[Samuel Vaughan]], Plan of Bath [[Berkeley Springs|[Berkeley Springs]]], VA, 26 April 18261787, “On Landscapes and Picturesque Gardens” (from the diary of [[Samuel Vaughan]], June–September 1787. Plan lists “bb” as “two [[Piazza]]s with ''New England Farmer'seats' 4: 316)''.”
Image:“A few fabrics0338.jpg|Anonymous, rustic ''A [[bridgeView]]s, [[hermitage]]s, a of [[TempleMount Vernon]], or a Chinese Kiosk or Pagoda, not expensive in their execution, would advantageously complete the embellishment of a country '''seat''', c. 1790.
Image:0021.jpg|Cornelius Tiebout, ''A [[View]] of the present '''Seat''' of his Excel. the Vice President of the United States'', 1790.
* Webster, Noah, 1828Image:1983.jpg|Jeremiah Paul, “[[Robert Morris]]’ ''An American Dictionary of the English Language'Seat' (n.p.) <ref>Noah Webster, ''An American Dictionary of the English Language''on [[Schuylkill_River|Schuylkill]], 2 vols. (New York: S. Converse” July 20, 1828)1794. [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/N7BSU467 view on Zotero]</ref>
Image:“'''SEAT''', ''n.'' [It. ''sedia''; Sp1925. s''edejpg|Alexander Robertson, sitio'', from L. ''sedes, situs''; Sw. ''sate''; Dan. ''soede''; G. ''sitz''; D. ''zetel'', ''zitplaats''; W. ''sez''; Ir. ''saidh''; W. with a prefix, ''gosod'', whence ''gosodi'', to ''set''. See ''Set'' and ''Sit''. . . .]:“1. That on which one sits. . . .:“3. Mansion; residence; dwelling; abode; as Italy Cleremont the '''''seat''''' of empireR. The Greeks sent colonies to seek a new '''''seat''''' in GaulR.:“In Alba he shall fix his royal '''''seat'''''. Dryden. :“4. Site; situation. The '''''seat''''' of Eden has never been incontrovertibly ascertained. . . .:“8. The place where a thing is settled or established. London is the '''''seat''''' of business and opulence. So we say, the '''''seat''''' of the musesLivingston, the '''''seat''''' of arts, the '''''seat''''' of commerce1796.
Image:0939.jpg|[[Charles Fraser]], ''Rice Hope: The '''Seat''' of Dr. William Read, Taken from One of the Rice Fields'', c. 1800.
* Bridgeman, Image:0141.jpg|Thomas, 1832Coram, ''The Young Gardener’s Assistant[[Grove]], '' (p. 111) <ref> Thomas Bridgeman, 'Seat'The Young Gardener’s Assistant''of G.A. Hall, 3rd edn (New York: Geo. RobertsonEsquire'', 1832)c. [https://www1800.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/9FU4SNZK view on Zotero]</ref>
Image:“In a retired part of the [flower] garden0345.jpg|Alexander Robertson (artist), a rustic '''seat''' may be formedFrancis Jukes (engraver), over and around which honey-suckles and other sweet and ornamental creepers and climbers may he [''sic''] trained on [[trellisMount Vernon]]esin Virginia, so as to afford a pleasant retirement” 1800.
Image:2259.jpg|Anonymous, Plan of the Harvard [[Botanic Garden]], c. 1807. “N. Green-'''seats''' or turf banks.”
* TeschemacherImage:0601.jpg|Anonymous, James E.A plan of the section of land on which the Believers live in the state of Ohio, 1 August 1835November 7, “Extracts from Foreign Publications” (1807. "'''Seat'Horticultural Register'' 1: 308–9)" inscribed on top center left.
Image:“''From an article On the various form and character of [[Arbour]]s as objects of use or ornament either in gardens or wild scenery [from Paxton’s Horticultural Register''], we extract the following passages. 1924. jpg|P. .:“‘The closely shaven turf comes about ten feet inside the [[arch]]es where its edge is cutLodet, and between that and the [[basin]] is covered with a fine tawny sand, with an apparently confused but really symmetrical arrangement of marble pedestals''Clermont, '''seatsSeat''' and [[vase]]s with flowering plants placed upon them. During summer a [[vase]] with a rare flowering plant is placed under each of the external [[arch]]es except four which serve as entrances. The entire effect is goodChancellor Livingston - North River 1807'', and his may be considered as one of the best specimens of the artificial [[bower]] of the present day1807.’”
Image:0317.jpg|William Russell Birch, ''Montebello—The '''Seat''' of General Smith'', c. 1808.
* SayersImage:0326.jpg|William Russell Birch, Edward, 1838“The [[View]] from Springland, ” in ''The American Flower Garden CompanionCountry '''Seats'(pp. 14, 19, 131) <ref>Edward Sayers, ''The American Flower Garden Companion, Adapted to of the Northern United States'' (Boston: Joseph Breck1808), 1838). [https://wwwpl.zotero2.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/GHTFN8B2 view on Zotero]</ref>
Image:“At country residences0311.jpg|William Russell Birch, “Hoboken in New Jersey, where a large extent is appropriated to this department [the [[flower garden]]], many convenient and pleasing appendages can be judiciously introduced; as rustic [[arbor]]s, rustic '''seatsSeat''', and [[rockery]]; and if water can be connected, it always gives a good effectof Mr. All such appendagesJohn Stevens, I recommend to be constructed in as natural a manner as possible. . . .:“In extensive [[pleasure ground]]s the [[rockery]] has a good effect when placed distinct from the [[flower garden]], and near a rustic [[arbor]] or ornamental [[bridge]], or ''The Country '''seatSeats'''; and if placed by the side of a retired [[walk]], near the [[lawn]] or grass [[plot]], it has an easy effect. . . .:“the margin of the [[pond]] should be planted with drooping willows and trees of a pendulous habit for shade, under which rustic '''seat'United States'' might be properly placed for the accommodation of those who desire to view the sporting fishes(1808), and other interesting objects by which they are surroundedpl. 3.
Image:0312.jpg|William Russell Birch, “Hampton, the '''Seat''' of Genl. Chas. Ridgely, Maryland,” in ''The Country '''Seats''' of the United States'' (1808), pl. 4.
* WalshImage:0303.jpg|William Russell Birch, Alexander“Landsdown, 31 March 1841the '''Seat''' of the late Wm. Bingham Esq., Pennsylvania, “Remarks on Ornamental Gardening” (” in ''The Country '''Seats'''New England Farmerof the United States'' 19: 308–9(1808), pl. 5.
Image:“The garden and 0314.jpg|William Russell Birch, “[[pleasure groundMount Vernon]] I would describe, is of an oblong form, 165 feet by 120 feetVirginia, with one end next the north side of the house. . . .:“X X two '''seatsSeat''', each occupying 2 ftof the late Genl. G. . . T T two Washington,” in ''The Country '''seatsSeats''' . . . surrounded by an arched [[arbor]] 10 ft. high, thrown over of the [[walk]], ornamented on one side with honeysuckleUnited States'' (1808), on the other by climbing Boursaut rosepl.” [Fig7. 9]
Image:0302.jpg|William Russell Birch, “[[Fountain]] Green, Pennsylv.a the '''Seat''' of Mr. S. Meeker,” in ''The Country '''Seats''' of the United States'' (1808), pl. 8.
* Loudon, Jane, 1845Image:0316.jpg|William Russell Birch, “Devon in Pennsylv.a the '''Seat'Gardening for Ladies'' (ppof Mr. 369–70) <ref>Jane LoudonDallas, ” in ''The Country 'Gardening for Ladies; and Companion to ''Seats''' of the Flower-GardenUnited States'', ed. by A. J. Downing (New York: Wiley & Putnam1808), 1845). [https://wwwpl.zotero10.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/3Q5GCH4I view on Zotero]</ref>
Image:0327.jpg|William Russell Birch, '''SEATS''' for gardens are either open or covered; the latter being in the form of root-houses, huts, [[pavilionMount]]sSidney, [[temple]]s, [[grotto]]es, &c., and the former being either fixed, temporary, or portable. Fixed '''seatsSeat''' are commonly of stoneGenl. John Baker, either plain stone benches without backs, or stone supports to wooden benchesPennsylv. Sometimes, also, wooden '''seats''' are fixed, as when they are placed round a tree, or when boards are nailed to posts, or when '''seats''' are formed in imitation of mushrooms, as in the grounds at Redleaf. Fixed ''The Country 'seats''' are also sometimes formed of turf. Portable '''seats''' are formed of [[wood]], sometimes contrived to have the back of the '''seat''' folded down when the '''seat''' is not in use; so as to exclude the weather, and avoid the dirt of birds which are apt to perch on them. Another kind of portable '''seatSeats''', which is frequently formed in iron, as shown in ''fig.'' 49, is readily wheeled from one part of the grounds to another; and the back of which also folds down to protect the '''seat''' from the weather. There is a kind of camp-stool which serves as a portable '''seat'United States''(1808), imported from Norway, and sold at the low price of 2''s''pl. 6''d''. or 3''s''.; and there are also straw '''seats''', like half [[beehive]]s, which are, however, only used in garden-huts, or in any situation under cover, because in the open air they would be liable to be soaked with rain. There are a great variety of rustic '''seats''' formed of roots and crooked branches of trees, used both for the open garden and under cover; and there are also '''seats''' of cast and wrought iron, of great variety of form11. There should always be some kind of analogy between the '''seat''' and the scene of which it forms a part; and for this reason rustic '''seats''' should be confined to rustic scenery; and the '''seats''' for a [[lawn]] or highly kept pleasure-ground ought to be of comparatively simple and architectural forms, and either of The inscription reads "[[woodMount]] or stoneSidney, those of [[wood]] being frequently painted of a stone colour, and sprinkled over with silver sand before the paint is dry, to give them the appearance of stone. Iron '''seatsSeat''', generally speaking, are not sufficiently massive for effect; and the metal conveys the idea of cold in winter and heat in summer. [FigGen. 10]:“When '''seats''' are placed along a [[walk]], a gravelled recess ought to be formed to receive them; and there ought, generally, to be a footboard to keep the feet from the moist groundl John Baker, whether the '''seat''' is on gravel or on al awn [''sic'']Pennsylv. In a garden where there are several '''seats'''/ Drawn, some ought to be in positions exposed to the sun, and others placed in the shade, and none ought to be put down in a situation where the back of the '''seat''' is seen Engraved & Published by a person approaching it before the frontW. Indeed the backs of all fixed '''seats''' ought to be concealed by shrubsBirch Springland, or by some other meansnear Bristol, unless they are circular '''seats''' placed round a treePennsylvania. '''Seats''' ought not to be put down where there will be any temptation to the persons sitting on them to strain their eyes to the right or left, nor where the boundary of the garden forms a conspicuous object in the [[view]]. In general, all '''seats''' should be of a stone colour, as harmonizing best with vegetation. Noting can be more unartistical than '''seats''' painted a pea-green, and placed among the green of living plants.”"
Image:0318.jpg|William Russell Birch, “Montibello the '''seat''' of Genl. S. Smith Maryland,” in ''The Country Seats of the United States'' (1808), pl. 13.
* Downing, A. JImage:0304.jpg|William Russell Birch, 1849“[[The Woodlands|Woodlands]], the '''Seat'A Treatise on the Theory and Practice of Landscape Gardening'' (ppof Mr. Wm. 454–56Hamilton, 473–74) <ref>A. JPennsylva. [Andrew Jackson] Downing, ” in ''A Treatise on the Theory and Practice of Landscape Gardening, Adapted to North America; with a View to the Improvement of The Country Residences. Comprising Historical Notices and General Principles of the Art, Directions for Laying out Grounds and Arranging Plantations, the Description and Cultivation '''Seats''' of Hardy Trees, Decorative Accompaniments to the House and Grounds, the Formation of Pieces of Artificial Water, Flower Gardens, Etc.: With Remarks on Rural ArchitectureUnited States'', 4th edn (New York: G. P. Putnam1808), 1849). [https://wwwpl.zotero14.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/5M4S2D64 view on Zotero]</ref>
Image:''“Open and covered '''seats''''', of various descriptions, are among the most convenient and useful decorations for the pleasure-grounds of a country residence. Situated in portions of the [[lawn]] or [[park]], somewhat distant from the house, they offer an agreeable place for rest or repose0319. If there are certain points from which are obtained agreeable [[prospect]]s or extensive [[view]]s of the surrounding countryjpg|William Russell Birch, a “Sedgley '''seat''', by designating those points, and by affording us a convenient mode of enjoying them, has a double recommendation to our mindsMr.:“Open and covered '''seats''' are of two distinct kinds; one ''architectural'', or formed after artist-like designs, of stone or [[wood]], in Grecian, Gothic, or other forms; which may, if they are intended to produce an elegant effect, have [[vase]]s on pedestals as accompaniments; the other, ''rustic'', as they are called, which are formed out of trucks and branches of trees, roots, etcWm.Crammond Pennsylva, in their natural forms. . . .:“We consider rustic '''seats''' and structures as likely to be much preferred in the villa and cottage residences of the country. They have the merit of being tasteful and [[picturesque]] in their appearance, and are easily constructed by the amateur, at comparatively little or no expense. There is scarcely a prettier or more pleasant object for the termination of a long [[walk]] in the [[pleasure-grounds]] or [[park]], than a neatly thatched structure of rustic work, with its ''The Country 'seat''Seats' for repose, and a [[view]] of the landscape beyond. . . . [Fig. 11]:''“Unity of expression'' is the maxim and guide in this department of the art, as in every other. . . .:“With regard to [[pavilion]]s, summer-houses, rustic '''seats'United States''(1808), and garden edifices of like character, they should, if possible, in all cases be introduced where they are manifestly appropriate or in harmony with the scenepl. Thus 15. . . a rustic covered '''seat''' may occupy a secluded, quiet portion of the grounds, where undisturbed meditation be enjoyed.”
Image:0301.jpg|William Russell Birch, “[[View]] from [[Belmont_(Philadelphia,_PA)|Belmont]] Pennsyla. the '''Seat''' of Judge Peters,” in ''The Country '''Seats''' of the United States'' (1808), pl.16.
* RanlettImage:0320.jpg|William Russell Birch, William H“York-Island with a [[View]] of the '''Seats''' of Mr. A.Gracie, 1849Mr. Church &c., ” in ''The ArchitectCountry '''Seats' ([1849] 1976: 1:19) <ref>William H. Ranlett, ''The Architectof the United States'', 2 vols. (New York: Da Capo1808), 1976)pl. [https://www.zotero17.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/QGQPCB5J view on Zotero]</ref>
Image:“Probably no portion of the globe0322.jpg|William Russell Birch, offers “China Retreat Pennsyl.<sup>a greater variety of beautiful country </sup> the '''seatsSeat''' than the vicinity of New-YorkM. No man who has any taste for the retired tranquillity of a suburban retreat<sup>r</sup> Manigault, or the lovely beauty ” in ''The Country '''Seats''' of a [[picturesque]] scene, or the romantic grandeur of an enchanting landscape of citiesUnited States'' (1808), towns and country; rivers, bays and ocean, could fail to be suited with some of the numerous situations on the undulated shores, gentle declivities or towering heights of Staten Island, Long Island or the banks of the noble Hudsonpl. 19.
Image:0009.jpg|[[Charles Willson Peale]], Letter to Angelica Peale describing his garden at [[Belfield]], November 22, 1815.
* Downing, AImage:0164. Jjpg|Joshua H.Hayward, 1850, “A [[View]] of the ''The Architecture of Country Houses'Seat' ([1850] 1968: 80–81) <ref>A. J. [Andrew Jackson] Downing, ''The Architecture of Country Houses; Including Designs for CottagesTheodore Lyman, Esqr., Farm-Housesin Waltham, and Villas'' (Originally published New York; Reprinttaken on the principles of perspective, New York: D. Appleton; Da Capo” Mathematical Thesis, 1968). [https://www1818.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/GRZPQXQI view on Zotero]</ref>
Image:“The little rustic [[arbor]]s or covered 0082.jpg|Cornelia Jefferson Randolph, attr., “A Garden '''seatsSeat''' on the outside of the bay window may be supposed to answer in some measure in the place of a [[veranda]]by Mr. Jones, and convey at the first glanceFrom Chamber’s Kew, an impression of refinement and taste attained in that simple manner so appropriate to a small cottage” c.” [Fig1820. 12]
Image:1176.jpg|Eliza Susan Quincy, ''View of the seat of Edmund Quincy Esqr.'', 1822. Inscribed on reverse: ''[[View]] / of the [[seat]] of Edmund Quincy Esqr.''
* Downing, AImage:1334. jpg|[[J.C. Loudon]], June 1850Covered '''seats''' of the [[Rustic_style|rustic]] kind, “Our Country Villages” (in ''HorticulturistAn Encyclopædia of Gardening'' 4: 540–41, 4th ed/ (1826), 357, fig. 336.
Image:“The next step, after the possession of such public pleasure-grounds, would be the social and common enjoyment of them1335. Upon the well-mown glades of jpg|[[lawnJ. C. Loudon]], and beneath the shade Elegant structures of the forest trees, would be formed rustic '''seatsseat''' kind, in ''An Encyclopædia of Gardening'', 4th ed. Little [[arbor]]s would be placed near(1826), 357, where in midsummer evenings ices would be served to all who wished themfigs. 337 and 338.
Image:1354.jpg|[[J. C. Loudon]], Rough bench in [[Rustic_style|rustic]] hut decorated in [[Shrubbery|shrubberies]], in ''An Encyclopædia of Gardening'', 4th ed. (1826), 809, fig. 561.
* Downing, A. JImage:1792.jpg|Thomas Cole, March 1851''[[View]] of Monte Video, “The Management of Large Country Places” (the '''Seat'''Horticulturistof Daniel Wadsworth, Esq.'' 6: 105–6), 1828.
Image:“All our country residences may readily be divided into two classes1707. The first and largest classjpg|[[J. C. Loudon]], is the suburban place of from five to twenty or thirty acres; the second is the country-'''seatSeat''', properly so called, which consists formed of from 30 to 500 or more acres. . . .:“But in the larger country places, there are ten instances of failure for one of success. This is not owing to the want of natural beauty, for the sites are [[picturesque]], the surface varied, moss and hazel rods" and the "[[woodTrellis|Trellised]]s and [[plantationarch]]s excellent. The failure consists, es for the most partclimbers, in a certain incongruity and want ''An Encyclopædia of distinct character in the treatment of the place as a whole. They are too large to be kept in order as pleasure-groundsGardening'', while they are not laid out or treated as [[park]]snew ed. The grass which stretches on all sides of the house(1834), is partly mown for [[lawn]]1196, and partly for hay; the lines of the farm and the ornamental portion of the grounds, meet in a confused and unsatisfactory manner, and the result is a residence pretending to be much superior to a common farm, and not yet rising to the dignity of a really tasteful country '''seat'''figs. 960–62.
Image:1764.jpg|[[J. C. Loudon]], A [[Rustic_style|rustic]] '''seat''', in ''The Suburban Gardener'' (1838), 467, fig. 173.
* JaquesImage:0679.jpg|James W. Steel, GeorgeBeech Hill, January 1852The Country '''Seat''' of R. Gilmor, Esq., “Landscape Gardening in New-England” (W. H. Carpenter and T. S. Arthur, eds., ''HorticulturistThe Baltimore Book: A Christmas and New Year’s Present'' 7: 35(1838), pl. opp. 184.
Image:“Let woodbine, honey-suckle and climbing roses, here entwine themselves around a 1420.jpg|[[columnJ. C. Loudon]], and wreath themselves there over a window. Here place a rustic “Covered '''seatSeat''', half hid among the of grotesque and [[shrubbery]]; there lead a short [[walkRustic_style|rustic]]Masonry,” Cheshunt Cottage, in ''The Gardener’s Magazine'' 15, no. 117 (December 1839): 656, carelessly curving towards a little vine-clad [[arbor]]fig. 168.
==Images==Image:1904.jpg|[[J. C. Loudon]], Elevation of the Back Woodwork of a [[Rustic_style|Rustic]] Covered '''Seat''', Cheshunt Cottage, in ''The Gardener’s Magazine'' 15, no. 117 (December 1839): 660, fig. 168.
===Inscribed===<span id="roundabout_img"></span><gallery widths="170px" heights="170px" perrow="7">Image:0936.jpg|Alexander Walsh, Two '''seats''' surrounded by an arched [[arbor]], in ''New England Farmer'' 19, no. 39 (March 31, 1841): 309, fig. 4.
Image:17221824.jpg|James GibbsAnonymous, "Two Seats for the ends of Walks“Moveable Garden '''Seat'''," in [[Jane Loudon]], ''A Book of ArchitectureGardening for Ladies; and Companion to the Flower-Garden'' (17281845), pl369, fig. 8249.
Image:17230844.jpg|James Gibbs[[Alexander Jackson Davis]], "Two other Seats for the same purpose ''[for the ends of walks[Montgomery Place]," in ]—Shore '''Seat'''A Book of Architecture'' (1728), plc. 831847.
Image:17370358.jpg|Batty and Thomas LangleyAnonymous, "An Umbrello, to a “[[Rustic_style|Rustic]] '''Seat''', for to Terminate a walk” [[Montgomery Place]], Viewin [[A. J. Downing]], &ced. in a Garden," in ''Gothic ArchitectureHorticulturist'' 2, no. 4 (1747October 1847): 157, plfig. 3126.
imageImage:16880361.jpg|William and John HalfpennyAnonymous, “Beaverwyck, "A Chinese Alcove the '''Seat Fronting Four Ways''' of Wm. P. Van Rensselaer, Esq.," in [[A. J. Downing]], ''Rural Architecture in A Treatise on the Chinese TasteTheory and Practice of Landscape Gardening'' , 4th ed. (17551849), pl. 8opp. 51, fig. 7.
Image:03380368.jpg|cAnonymous, “The '''Seat''' of George Sheaff, Esq.,” in [[A. J. Downing]], ''A Treatise on the Theory and Practice of Landscape Gardening'', 4th ed. (1849), pl. between 58 and 59, fig. 12. 1790
Image:00211891.jpg|1790Anonymous, “Simple [[Rustic_style|rustic]] '''seat''',” in [[A. J. Downing]], ''A Treatise on the Theory and Practice of Landscape Gardening'', 4th ed. (1849), 456, fig. 82.
Image:19831892.jpg|Anonymous, Simple [[Rustic_style|rustic]] '''seat''' made at the foot of a tree, in [[Jeremiah PaulA. J. Downing]], "Robert Morris’ Seat ''A Treatise on Schuylkillthe Theory and Practice of Landscape Gardening'', 4th ed. (1849)," July 20456, 1794fig. 83.
Image:03450397.jpg|1800Anonymous, “Covered '''seat''' or [[Rustic_style|rustic]] [[arbor]],” in [[A. J. Downing]], ''A Treatise on the Theory and Practice of Landscape Gardening'', 4th ed. (1849), 457, fig. 84.
Image:03011893.jpg|1808Anonymous, Covered '''Seat''' for a mineral, shell, or geological collection, in [[A. J. Downing]], ''A Treatise on the Theory and Practice of Landscape Gardening'', 4th ed. (1849), 457, fig. 85.
Image:03020398.jpg|1808Anonymous, “[[Rustic_style|Rustic]] Covered '''Seat''',” in [[A. J. Downing]], ''A Treatise on the Theory and Practice of Landscape Gardening'', 4th ed. (1849), 458, fig. 86.
Image:03031660.jpg|1808Robert B. Leuchars, Ground plan of [[conservatory]] designed for gentleman’s country '''seat''', in ''A Practical Treatise on the Construction, Heating, and Ventilation of Hothouses'' (1850), 95, fig. 32.
Image:03040854.jpg|1808[[Alexander Jackson Davis]], Shore '''Seat''' for [[Montgomery Place]], Annandale-on-Hudson, New York (elevation and plan), 1870—79.</gallery>
Image:0311.jpg|1808===Associated===<gallery widths="170px" heights="170px" perrow="7">
Image:03121055.jpg|1808Michael van der Gucht, “Four Designs for Cloisters,” in A.-J. Dezallier d’Argenville, ''The Theory and Practice of Gardening'' (1712), pl. 9.
Image:03140036.jpg|1808Thomas Lee Shippen, Plan of Westover, 1783. The '''seat''' can be seen at the top of the image, referencing the houses across the river from Westover.
Image:03160043_2.jpg|1808John Archibald Woodside, ''[[Lemon Hill]]'', 1807.
Image:03180313.jpg|William Russell Birch, “The Sun Reflecting on the Dew, a Garden scene, Echo, Pennsylv.a A Place Belonging to Mr. D. Bavarage,” in ''The Country '''Seats''' of the United States'' (1808), pl. 6.
Image:03190315.jpg|William Russell Birch, “Solitude in Pennsyla. belonging to Mr. Penn,” in ''The Country '''Seats''' of the United States'' (1808), pl. 9.
Image:03200321.jpg|William Russell Birch, “Mendenhall Ferry, [[Schuylkill_River|Schuylkill]], Pennsylvania,” ''The Country '''Seats''' of the United States'' (1808), pl. 18.
Image:03220323.jpg|William Russell Birch, “[[View]] from the Elysian Bower, Springland, Pennsylv,a the residence of Mr W. Birch,” ''The Country '''Seats''' of the United States'' (1808), pl. 20.
Image:03260051.jpg|1808William Strickland, “[[The Woodlands]],” 1809, in ''Casket'' 5, no. 10 (October 1830): pl. opp. 432.
Image:03270300.jpg|1808Thomas Birch, ''Fairmount Water Works'', 1821.
Image:03170541.jpg|cJohn T. Bowen, ''A [[View]] of Fairmount Water-Works with [[Schuylkill_River|Schuylkill]] in the distance, taken from the [[Mount]]'', 1838. 1808
Image:00090843.jpg|[[Charles Willson PealeAlexander Jackson Davis]], Letter to Angelica Peale describing his garden at [[BelfieldMontgomery Place]], Nov. 22, 18151844.
Image:01641049.jpg|1818N. Vautin, [[View]] of North Side (Rear) of Longfellow House, June 1845.
Image:00820357.jpg|c[[Alexander Jackson Davis]], “[[Montgomery Place]],” in [[A. J. Downing]], ed., ''Horticulturist'' 2, no. 4 (October 1847): pl. opp. 153. 1820
Image:13540359.jpg|Anonymous, “The [[Lake]],” [[Montgomery Place]], in [[A. J. C. LoudonDowning]], The construction of an Ice Houseed., in ''An Encyclopædia of GardeningHorticulturist'' 2, no. 4 (1826October 1847), p. 341: 158, fig. 29127.
Image:17071097.jpg|Thomas S. Sinclair, “Plan of the [[J. C. LoudonPleasure_ground|Pleasure Grounds]], "Seat formed and Farm of moss and hazel rods" and "Trellised arches the [[Pennsylvania Hospital for climbersthe Insane]] at Philadelphia," in Thomas S. Kirkbride, ''An Encyclopædia American Journal of GardeningInsanity'' 4, no. 4 (1834April 1848), p: pl. 1196, figsopp. 960-962280.
Image:18240363.jpg|Anonymous, “Moveable Garden Seat“[[View]] in the [[Meadow]] [[Park]] at Geneseo,” in [[Jane LoudonA. J. Downing]], ed., ''Gardening for Ladies; and Companion to the Flower-GardenHorticulturist'' 3, no. 4 (1845October 1848), p: pl. 369, figopp. 49153.
Image:03580350.jpg|October 1847[[Alexander Jackson Davis]], “View in the Grounds at Blithewood,” in [[A. J. Downing]], ''A Treatise on the Theory and Practice of Landscape Gardening'', 4th ed. (1849), frontispiece.
Image:03630355.jpg|October 1848Anonymous, “[[View]] in the Grounds at Hyde Park,” in [[A. J. Downing]], ''A Treatise on the Theory and Practice of Landscape Gardening'', 4th ed. (1849), pl. opp. 45, fig. 1.
Image:14200367.jpg|Anonymous, "Covered Seat“[[View]] in the Grounds of James Arnold, of grotesque and rustic MasonryEsp.," in [[A. J. Downing]], ''A Treatise on the Theory and Practice of Landscape Gardening'' , 4th ed. (1849), ppl. 509, figopp. 1257.
Image:03610378.jpg|Anonymous, “Plan of a Suburban Villa Residence,” in [[A. J. Downing]], ''A Treatise on the Theory and Practice of Landscape Gardening'', 4th ed. (1849), 118, fig. 26.
Image:0920.jpg|Anonymous, “Small Bracketed Cottage,” in [[A. J. Downing]], ''The Architecture of Country Houses'' (1850), pl. opp. 78, fig. 9.
</gallery>
===AssociatedAttributed===
<gallery widths="170px" heights="170px" perrow="7">
Image:00360673.jpg|1783Archibald L. Dick, ''The Battle Ground at Germantown, Cliveden or Chew’s House'', n.d. Image:1680.jpg|Anonymous, Garden '''seat''' from Somerset County, MD, 1780.  Image:0477.jpg|John Scoles, “Government House,” January 1795. Image:0324.jpg|William Russell Birch, “Back of the State House, Philadelphia,” 1800. Image:0509.jpg|[[Charles Fraser]], Rice Hope, c. 1803. Image:0330.jpg|[[Anne-Marguerite-Henriette Rouillé de Marigny Hyde de Neuville]], attr., ''Tomb du grande Washington au [[Mount Vernon]]'', 1818. Image:0120.jpg|Anonymous, ''By the Sea'', c. 1820. Image:1949.jpg|Mary Ann Lucy Gries, Needlework sampler with garden bench, 1826. Image:0675.jpg|[[Alexander Jackson Davis]], “[[View]] of the Battery and Castle Garden,” 1826–28. Image:1948.jpg|Mrs. G. W. Whitney, The Adams '''Seat''' in Quincy, 1828.
Image:00430811.jpg|1807[[Alexander Jackson Davis]], ''[[View]] of St. John’s Chapel, From the [[Park]]'', 1829.
Image:03131043.jpg|1808Sidney Mason Stone, House for Roger Sherman Baldwin, New Haven, CT, c. 1830–40.
Image:03150490.jpg|1808Archibald L. Dick, “Elysian Fields, Hoboken (New York in the distance),” in ''[[View]]s in New-York and its Environs'' (1831—34).
Image:03211025.jpg|1808Anonymous, “Entrance to [[Mount Auburn Cemetery|Mount Auburn]],” in ''American Magazine of Useful and Entertaining Knowledge'' 1, no. 1 (September 1834): 9.
Image:03230486.jpg|1808James Smillie, “Bay and Harbour of New York, From the Battery,” 1831.
Image:00510424.jpg|1809[[Alexander Jackson Davis]], Ithiel Town, and James Dakin, ''New York University, Washington Square'', 1833.
Image:03000464.jpg|1821Nicolino Calyo, ''Harlem, the Country House of Dr. Edmondson'', 1834.
Image:03570252.jpg|October 1847Henry Walton, Three Sisters in a Landscape, 1838.
Image:03501033.jpg|1849Anonymous, “Forest [[Pond]],” in ''The [[Picturesque]] Pocket Companion, and Visitor’s Guide, through Mount Auburn'' (1839), 171.
Image:03551477.jpg|1849</gallery>Anonymous, Honorary membership certificate for Nicholas Biddle in “The Horticultural Association of the Valley of the Hudson” [detail], June 1839.
image:0525.jpg|William E. Winner, ''Garden Scene Near Philadelphia'', c. 1840.
===Attributed===<gallery widths="170px" heights="170px" perrow="7">Image:1103.jpg|W. Mason, “[[Pennsylvania Hospital for the Insane]],” c. 1841, in Thomas S. Kirkbride, ''Reports of the Pennsylvania Hospital for the Insane: for the Year 1841'' (1841), frontispiece.
Image:03300895.jpg|nEdwin Whitefield, Sketch of Pokahoe, 1841–44.dA seat is located on the lawn, nestled in the trees, seen left of center of the view.
Image:16800448.jpg|Anonymous, Garden seat from Somerset County''Brother and Sister'', Mdc., 17801845.
Image:03242283.jpg|1799Anonymous (artist), Nathaniel Currier (lithographer), “[[View]] of the Great Conflagration at New York,” 1845. The seats are located around the fountain.
Image:01241063.jpg|1806James Smillie, “[[Mount Auburn Cemetery]],” in Cornelia W. Walter, ''Mount Auburn Illustrated'' (1847; repr., 1850), frontispiece.
Image:01200110.jpg|Joseph Goldsborough Bruff (artist), Edward Weber & Co. (lithographer), ''Elements of National Thrift and Empire'', c. 18201847.
Image:19490487.jpg|Mary Ann Lucy GriesWilliam Wade, Needlework sampler with garden bench''Castle Garden: From the Battery'', 18261848.
Image:02520384.jpg|1838Anonymous, “The Bracketed Mode,” in [[A. J. Downing]], ''A Treatise on the Theory and Practice of Landscape Gardening'', 4th ed. (1849), 393, fig. 52.
Image:14770547.jpg|AnonymousErnst Georg Fischer, Honorary membership certificate for Nicholas Biddle in “The Horticultural Association of the Valley of the Hudson” [detail]''Dr. Edmondson and Family'', June 1839c. 1850.
Image:01100442.jpg|Anonymous, ''Memorial to Nicholas M.S. Catlin'', c. 18471852.
Image:03590218.jpg|October 1847Augustus Weidenbach, ''[[Belvedere]]'', c. 1858.
Image:02180396.jpg|cAnonymous, “A circular [[pavilion]],” in [[A. J. Downing]], ''A Treatise on the Theory and Practice of Landscape Gardening'', 4th ed. (1849), 456, fig. 81. 1858
Image:1001.jpg|Anonymous, “Mount Fordham—the Country '''Seat''' of Lewis G. Morris, Esq.,” in [[A. J. Downing]], ed., ''Horticulturist'' 6, no. 8 (August 1851): pl. opp. 345.
</gallery>
 
<hr>
==Notes==
[[Category: Keywords]]
[[Category: Garden Ornaments/Embellishments]]
[[Category: Architecture]]

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