==History==
[[File:0312.jpg|thumb|252px|Fig. 1, William Russell Birch, “Hampton, the Seat of Genl. Chas. Ridgely, Maryland,” in ''The Country Seats of the United States'' (2009), (1808), pl. 4.]]
In the discourse of landscape design, seat possessed two distinct yet equally prevalent meanings, as indicated by Thomas Sheridan’s 1789 dictionary entry. One sense referred to seat as a large estate, usually marked by a country house or mansion, for example, [[William Hamilton|William Hamilton’s]] [[The Woodlands]], near Philadelphia; or General Charles Ridgely’s Hampton, in Baltimore County, Maryland. A seat was also a garden structure for sitting.
In the discourse The meaning of landscape design, seat possessed two distinct yet equally prevalent meanings, as indicated estate was exemplified in colonial America by Thomas Sheridan’s 1789 dictionary entryWilliam Byrd II’s Westover, on the James River, Virginia, and [[Henry Pratt|Henry Pratt’s]] [[Lemon Hill]] in Philadelphia. One sense referred Such country houses were often featured in portraits that flattered the owner and signaled to the public that the colonies and new republic were home to seat as a large estatecultured elite rivaling that of Great Britain. These images typically located the house at the center of the property, with the landscape and various outbuildings extending beyond it. This placement, usually marked by a country which communicated the importance of the house or mansionas the base of operations for the landowner, was a visual shorthand for examplethe landowner’s affluence and power. Observers such as William Hugh Grove (1732) and Thomas Gwatkin (1770) often likened seats to small villages. By the mid 18th century, however, the community-like aspects of seats were downplayed in favor of their rural associations, which contrasted sharply with the increasingly crowded conditions of America’s cities. English emigré William Hamilton’s WoodlandsRussell Birch, in his series ''The Country Seats of the United States of America'' (1808), depicted the homes of the mid-Atlantic elite situated in naturalistic landscapes in emulation of British tableaux [Fig. 1].<ref>Emily Tyson Cooperman, near Philadelphia“William Russell Birch (1755–1834) and the Beginnings of the American Picturesque” (PhD diss., University of Pennsylvania, 1999), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/VSCXM9WR view on Zotero]. See also Emily T. Cooperman, introduction to ''The Country Seats of the United States of North America'', by William Russell Birch (1808; or Genrepr. Charles Ridgely’s Hampton, in Baltimore CountyPhiladelphia: University of Pennsylvania, 2009), Md[https://www. A seat was also a garden structure for sittingzotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/TNTZAF2Q view on Zotero].</ref>
The meaning of [[File:1680.jpg|thumb|left|252px|Fig. 2, Anonymous, Garden seat as estate was exemplified in colonial America by William Byrd II’s Westoverfrom Somerset County, on the James RiverMD, Va1780.]] [[File:0854.jpg|thumb|Fig. 3, and Henry Pratt’s [[Lemon HillAlexander Jackson Davis]] in Philadelphia , Shore Seat for [[FigMontgomery Place]], Annandale-on-Hudson, New York (elevation and plan), 1870—79. 1]. Such country houses were often featured in portraits that flattered the owner and signaled to the public that the colonies and new republic were home to ]As a cultured elite rivaling that of Great Britain. These images typically located the house at the center category of the propertygarden furniture, with seat could refer to either thelandscape and various outbuildings extending beyond itobject upon which one sat [Fig. This placement, which communicated 2] or the importance of the house as the base of operations for the landowner, was a visual shorthand for the landowner’s affluence and powerstructure housing such objects [Fig. 3]. Observers Accounts found in foreign treatises available in America (such as those by Antoine-Joseph Dezallier D’Argenville, Isaac Ware, William Hugh Grove (1732) Marshall, Humphry Repton, and Thomas Gwatkin (1770John Abercrombie) often likened focused on seats as places of rest, terminations to [[walk]]s, or vantage points from which to small villagescontemplate [[view]]s. By the mid-eighteenth centuryLike other garden structures, howeversuch as [[pavilion]]s or [[summerhouse]]s, seats influenced the community-like aspects viewer’s experience of the garden by providing points of seats were downplayed rest that framed [[vista]]s in favor of their rural associations, which contrasted sharply with the increasingly crowded conditions garden and [[view]]s beyond. The use of America’s citiesseats to direct one’s route through a garden was demonstrated by [[A. J. English emigré William Russell Birch, Downing]] in his series ''The Country Seats 1847 description of the United States of America'' (1808)[[Montgomery Place]], Dutchess County, depicted New York. [[Andrew Jackson Downing|Downing]] noted the homes placement of various seats and related [[view]]s that he encountered on the mid- Atlantic elite situated in naturalistic landscapes in emulation course of British tableaux his [Fig. 2[walk]]through the grounds.<ref>Emily Tyson CoopermanMany other garden observers, including Henry Wansey (1794), “William Russell Birch John Cosens Ogden (1755–18341800) , and Eliza Caroline Burgwin Clitherall (active 1801), also commented upon the Beginnings of the American Picturesque” (Ph.D. diss.interrelationships between seats, University of Pennsylvania[[walk]]s, 1999)and [[view]]s. See also Emily TPopular gardening journals likewise recommended placing seats along [[walk]]s. CoopermanFor example, introduction to in 1841 Alexander Walsh proposed a number of seats in a garden design published in the ''The Country Seats of the United States of North AmericaNew England Farmer''. Two seats were situated at cross-walks and another two were ensconced in an arched [[arbor]], by William Russell Birch (1808; reprint, Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania, 2009)placed alongside the main axial [[walk]].</ref>
As a category of garden furniture, seat could refer to either the object upon which one sat [Fig[File:1723. 3] or the structure housing such objects [jpg|thumb|Fig. 4, [[James Gibbs]]. Accounts found in foreign treatises available in America (such as those by A.-J. Dézallier D’Argenville, Isaac Ware, William Marshall, Humphry Repton, and JohnAbercrombie) focused on seats as places “Two other Seats for the same purpose [for the ends of rest, terminations to [[walk]]s],” in ''A Book of Architecture'' (1728), or vantage points from which to contemplate [[viewpl. 83.]]sGarden seats took on a variety of forms. Like other garden structuresIn the 18th century, European and British pattern books and design manuals such as [[pavilionJames Gibbs|James Gibbs’s]]s or ''A Book of Architecture'' (1728) were an important source for American seat designs [[summerhouseFig. 4]]s, seats influenced the viewer’s experience of the garden . Drawings by providing points of rest that framed [[vistaThomas Jefferson]]s in the garden and [[view]]s beyond. The use of seats to direct one’s route through a garden was demonstrated by A. J. Downing in his 1847 description of Montgomery Placegranddaughter, Dutchess CountyCornelia Jefferson Randolph [Fig. 5], N.Y. Downing noted demonstrate the placement influence of various seats and related [[view]]s that he encountered William Kent’s designs on the course of his [[walk]] through the grounds. Many other garden observersfurniture, including Henry Wansey (1794)which appeared in William Chambers’s ''Plans, John Cosens Ogden (1800)Elevations, Sections and Eliza Caroline Burgwin Clitherall Perspective Views of the Gardens and Buildings at Kew in Surrey'' (active 18011763), also commented upon the interrelationships between seats, [[walk]]s, and a volume that [[viewsThomas Jefferson|Jefferson]]owned. Popular gardening journals likewise recommended placing seats along [[walk]]s. For example<ref> William Bainter O’Neal, in 1841 Alexander Walsh proposed a number of seats in a garden design published in ''The New England FarmerJefferson’s Fine Arts Library: His Selections for the University of Virginia Together with His Own Architectural Books''. Two seats were situated at cross-walks and another two were ensconced in an arched [[arbor]](Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1976), 57, placed alongside the main axial [[walk]https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/CUP9BNW2 view on Zotero].</ref>
[[File:0082.jpg|thumb|left|Fig. 5, Cornelia Jefferson Randolph, attr., “A Garden seats took on a variety of formsSeat by Mr. In the eighteenth centuryJones, From Chamber’s Kew, European and” c. 1820.]]British pattern books [[File:1737.jpg|thumb|Fig. 6, Batty and design manuals such as James Gibbs’s A Book of Thomas Langley, “An Umbrello, to a Seat, for to Terminate a [[walk]], [[View]], &c. in a Garden,” in ''Gothic Architecture '' (17281747) were an important source for American seat designs [Fig, pl. 31. 5]. Drawings ]Seat designs could be differentiated by Thomas Jefferson national and historical styles, as well as by his granddaughterplacement and function. Batty and Thomas Langley, Cornelia Jefferson Randolph for instance, proposed a seat in keeping with the Gothic style in their 1747 text about Gothic architecture [Fig. 6]. [[J. C. Loudon]], demonstrate the influence in ''An Encyclopaedia of William Kent’s designs on garden furniture, which appeared in William Chambers’s Gardening''Plans(1826), Elevationsdistinguished among seats found inside garden buildings, roofed seats that could be either fixed or portable, Sections and Perspective Views those lacking any sort of the Gardens and Buildings at Kew roof. [[J. C. Loudon|Loudon]] explained that in Surrey'' form, seats could be simple (1763like the trunk of a tree), or more complex (such as a volume that Jefferson ownedcast-iron couch with decorative treatment).<ref> William Bainter O’Neal, JThese distinctions were echoed by [[Jane Loudon]] in ''efferson’s Fine Arts Library: His Selections Gardening for the University of Virginia Together with His Own Architectural BooksLadies'' (Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 19761845), 57a book that was co-edited by [[Andrew Jackson Downing|Downing]] in America.</ref>
Seat designs could be differentiated by national In ''A Treatise on the Theory and historical Practice of Landscape Gardening'' (1849), [[Andrew Jackson Downing|Downing]] himself provided an extensive illustrated typology of seat styles, as well as by placement and functionemphasizing the propriety of certain styles for different landscapes. Batty and Thomas LangleyFor example, he believed that Grecian or Gothic seats were appropriate for instanceelegant grounds, proposed a seat in keeping with the Gothic whereas [[rustic style in their 1747 text about Gothic architecture [Fig. 7|rustic]]seats were more suited to the irregular aesthetic of the landscape garden. Such [[J. C. Loudonrustic style|rustic]]seats were quite popular in the 19th century, as suggested by the discussion of them in An Encyclopaedia of Gardening (1826)horticultural journals, distinguished among seats found inside garden buildings, roofed seats that could be either fixed or portablesuch as the ''Horticultural Register'', and those lacking any sort in descriptions by both treatise writers and observers of roofthe American landscape. Loudon explained that in formSee, for example, Thomas Bridgeman (1832), seats could be simple Edward Sayers (like the trunk of a tree1838) or more complex , Anna Cora Ogden Mowatt Ritchie (such as a cast-iron couch with decorative treatment1839), C. M. These distinctions were echoed by [[Jane Loudon]] in ''Gardening for Ladies'' Hovey (18451840), a book that was co-edited by Downing in Americaand Georges Jaques (1852).
In ''A Treatise on the Theory and Practice of Landscape Gardening'' (1849), Downing himself provided an extensive illustrated typology of seat styles, emphasizing the propriety of certain styles for different landscapesAnne L. For example, he believed that Grecian or Gothic seats were appropriate for elegant grounds, whereas rustic seats were more suited to the irregular aesthetic of the [[landscape garden]]. Such rustic seats were quite popular in the nineteenth century, as suggested by the discussion of them in horticultural journals, such as the Helmreich''Horticultural Register'', and in descriptions by both treatise writers and observers of the American landscape. See, for example, Thomas Bridgeman (1832), Edward Sayers (1838), Anna Cora Ogden Mowatt Ritchie (1839), C. M. Hovey (1840), and Georges Jaques (1852).
--- ''Anne L. Helmreich''<hr>
==Texts==
===Usage===
*Anonymous, n.d., advertising design and construction services for parks and gardens (quoted in Chase 1973: 37–39)<ref>David B. Chase, “The Beginnings of the Landscape Tradition in America,” ''Historic Preservation'' 25 (1973): 34–41, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/KJMNEZBX view on Zotero].</ref>
:“Designs all sorts of Buildings, well suited to both town and country, [[Pavilion]]s, Summer-Rooms, '''Seats''' for Gardens. . . also Water-houses for [[Park]]s. . . Eye Traps to represent a Building terminating a [[walk]], or to hide some disagreeable Object, Rotundas, Colonades, [[Arcade]]s, Studies in [[Park]]s or Gardens, [[greenhouse|Green House]]s for the Preservation of Herbs.”
===Usage===
*AnonymousStrachey, n.d.William, 1612, advertising design and construction services for parks and gardens describing the seats of Powhatan in Virginia (quoted in Chase 1973Wright and Freund 1967: 37–3957): <ref>David Louis B. ChaseWright and Virginia Freund, eds., ‘The Beginnings ''The Historie of the Landscape Tradition in America’, Historic PreservationTravell into Virginia Britania (1612)'' (Nendeln and Liechtenstein: Kraus, 25 (19731967), 34–41 [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/KJMNEZBX NUX26H7J view on Zotero] .</ref>:“He hath divers '''seates''' or howses, his Chief when we came into the Country was upon ''Pamunky''-River, on the North side which we call Pembrook-side, called ''Werowocomaco'', which by interpretacion signifyes Kings-howse.”
:“Designs all sorts of Buildings, well suited to both town and country, [[Pavilion]]s, Summer-Rooms, '''Seats''' for Gardens . . . also Water-houses for [[Park]]s . . . Eye Traps to represent a Building terminating a [[walk]], or to hide some disagreeable Object, Rotundas, Colonades, [[Arcade]]s, Studies in [[Park]]s or Gardens, [[Green House]]s for the Preservation of Herbs.”
*Byrd, William, II, c. June 25, 1729, describing Westover, seat of William Byrd II, on the James River, VA (quoted in Tinling 1977: 1:410)<ref> Marion Tinling, ed., ''The Correspondence of the Three William Byrds of Westover, Virginia, 1684–1776'', 2 vols. (Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1977), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/J5UXEFHR view on Zotero].</ref>
:“My habitation has the na[me of] the prettyest '''seat''' in this country.”
* Strachey, William, 1612, describing the seats of Powhatan in Virginia (quoted in Wright and Freund 1967: 57) <ref> Louis B. Wright and Virginia Freund, eds., ''The Historie of Travell into Virginia Britania (1612)'' (Nendeln and Liechtenstein: Kraus, 1967) [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/NUX26H7J view on Zotero]</ref>
*Grove, William Hugh, 1732, describing Williamsburg, VA (quoted in Stiverson and Butler 1977:“He hath divers 26)<ref>Gregory A. Stiverson and Patrick H. Butler III, eds., “Virginia in 1732: The Travel Journal of William Hugh Grove,” ''Virginia Magazine of History and Biography'seates'85 (1977): 18–44, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/ACNK9DG9 view on Zotero].</ref>:“I went by ship up the [York] river, which has pleasant '' or howses, his Chief when we came into the Country was upon 'Seats'Pamunky''-River, on the North side Bank which we call Pembrook-sideShew Like little villages, called ''Werowocomaco''for having Kitchins, Dayry houses, Barns, Stables, Store houses, and some of them 2 or 3 Negro Quarters all Seperate from Each other but near the mansion houses make a shew to the river of 7 or 8 distinct Tenements, which by interpretacion signifyes Kings-howsetho all belong to one family.”
*ByrdAnonymous, WilliamAugust 17, II, c. 25 June 17291747, describing Westoverproperty for sale in Somerset County, seat of William Byrd II, on the James River, Va. NJ (quoted in Tinling 1977''New York Gazette''): 1:410) <ref> Marion Tinling, ed.“TO BE SOLD, A pleasant Country '''Seat'The Correspondence of the Three William Byrds of Westover, Virginia, 1684-1776'', 2 volsfitting for a Gentleman or Store-keeper. (Charlottesville. . a good [[Orchard]], Va.: University Press of Virginiacontaining about 200 Apple Trees, 1977)[https://www.zoteroand may be extended at Pleasure.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/J5UXEFHR view on Zotero]</ref>
:“My habitation has the na[me of] the prettyest '''seat''' in this country.”
*Gwatkin, Prof. Thomas, 1770, describing the appearance of seats in Williamsburg, VA (Colonial Williamsburg Foundation)
:“And the huts of the Negroes which are situated round about give the '''seat''' of a substantial planter something of the Air of a small village.”
* Grove, William Hugh, 1732, describing Williamsburg, Va. (quoted in Stiverson and Butler 1977: 26) <ref>Gregory A. Stiverson and Patrick H. Butler III, eds., ‘Virginia in 1732: The Travel Journal of William Hugh Grove’, ''Virginia Magazine of History and Biography'', 85 (1977), 18–44[https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/ACNK9DG9 view on Zotero]</ref>
[[File:“I went by ship up the [York0036.jpg|thumb|225px|Fig. 7, Thomas Lee Shippen, Plan of Westover, 1783.]] river*Rush, Dr. Benjamin, which has pleasant '''Seats''' on the Bank which Shew Like little villagesJuly 15, for having Kitchins1782, Dayry housesdescribing the country seat of John Dickinsen, Barnsnear Philadelphia, StablesPA (quoted in Caemmerer 1950: 87)<ref name="Caemmerer 1950"> H. Paul Caemmerer, Store houses''The Life of Pierre-Charles L’Enfant, and some Planner of them 2 or 3 Negro Quarters all Seperate from Each other but near the mansion houses make a shew City Beautiful, The City of Washington'' (Washington, DC: National Republic Publishing Company, 1950), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/PHWTAERT view on Zotero].</ref>:“The ground contiguous to this shed was cut into beautiful [[walk]]s and divided with cedar and pine branches into artificial [[grove]]s. The whole, both the river of 7 or 8 distinct Tenementsbuildings and [[walk]]s, tho all belong to one familywere accommodated with '''seats'''.”
* AnonymousShippen, 17 August 1747Thomas Lee, December 31, 1783, describing property for sale Westover, seat of William Byrd III, on the James River, VA (1952: n.p.)<ref>Thomas Lee Shippen, ''Westover Described in 1783: A Letter and Drawing Sent by Thomas Lee Shippen, Student of Law in Williamsburg, to His Parents in Somerset CountyPhiladelphia'' (Richmond, VA: William Byrd Press, N1952), [https://www.Jzotero. (org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/3IWWPMJ5 view on Zotero].</ref>:“I have markd some little crooked ugly figures for Gentlemen’s '''seats''', which tho’ they do not beautify indeed the picture, add much to the [[prospect]], about as many '''Seats'New York Gazette'')are to be seen on the other side.” [Fig. 7]
:“TO BE SOLD, A pleasant Country '''Seat''', fitting for a Gentleman or Store-keeper . . . a good [[Orchard]], containing about 200 Apple Trees, and may be extended at Pleasure.”
[[File:1983.jpg|thumb|225px|Fig. 8, Jeremiah Paul, “Robert Morris’ Seat on [[Schuylkill_River|Schuylkill]],” July 20, 1794.]]
*[[Manasseh Cutler|Cutler, Manasseh]], July 13, 1787, describing [[The Hills]] (later [[Lemon Hill]]), estate of [[Robert Morris]], Philadelphia, PA (1987: 1:256–57)<ref> William Parker Cutler, ''Life, Journals, and Correspondence of Rev. Manasseh Cutler, LL.D.'' (Athens: Ohio University Press, 1987), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/3PBNT7H9 view on Zotero].</ref>
:“We continued our route, in [[view]] of the [[Schuylkill_River|Schuylkill]], and up the river several miles, and took a [[view]] of a number of Country-'''seats''', one belonging to [[Robert Morris|Mr. R. Morris]], the American financier, and who is said to be possessed of the greatest fortune in America. His country-'''seat''' is not yet completed, but it will be superb. It is planned on a large scale, the gardens and [[walk]]s are extensive, and the villa, situated on an [[eminence]], has a commanding [[prospect]] down the [[Schuylkill_River|Schuylkill]] to the Delaware.” [Fig. 8]
* Gwatkin, Prof. Thomas, 1770, describing the appearance of seats in Williamsburg, Va. (Colonial Williamsburg Foundation; hereafter CWF)
*G., L., June 15, [1788?], describing [[The Woodlands]], seat of [[William Hamilton]] near Philadelphia, PA (quoted in Madsen 1989: 19)<ref> Karen Madsen, “To Make His Country Smile:“And William Hamilton’s Woodlands,” ''Arnoldia'' 49 (1989): 14–23, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/K567H4M4 view on Zotero].</ref>:“[The [[walk]]s were] planted on each side with the most beautiful & curious flowers & shrubs. They are in some parts enclosed with the huts Lombardy poplar except here & there openings are left to give you a [[view]] of some fine trees or beautiful [[prospect]] beyond, & in others, shaded by [[arbour]]s of the Negroes wild grape, or [[clump]]s of large trees under which are situated round about give the placed '''seatseats''' of a substantial planter something of where you may rest yourself & enjoy the Air of a small villagecool air.”
* RushConstantia [Judith Sargent Murray], Dr. BenjaminJune 24, 15 July 17821790, describing the country seat “Description of John DickinsenGray’s Gardens, near Philadelphia, Pa. Pennsylvania” (quoted in Caemmerer 1950''Massachusetts Magazine'' 3: 87415) <ref name="Caemmerer 1950"> H. Paul CaemmererConstantia [Judith Sargent Murray], “Description of Gray’s Gardens, Pennsylvania, ''The Life of Pierre-Charles L’EnfantMassachusetts Magazine, Planner of the City Beautifulor, The City Monthly Museum of WashingtonKnowledge and Rational Entertainment'' (Washington7, D.Cno.3 (July 1791): National Republic Publishing Company413–17, 1950). [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/keywords_in_early_american_landscape_design/items/itemKey/PHWTAERT IAJKF9C4 view on Zotero].</ref>:“At every turn shaded '''seats''' are artfully contrived, and the ground abounds with [[arbour]]s, [[alcove]]s, and summer houses, which are handsomely adorned with odoriferous flowers.”
:“The ground contiguous to this shed was cut into beautiful [[walk]]s and divided with cedar and pine branches into artificial [[grove]]s. The whole, both the buildings and [[walk]]s, were accommodated with '''seats'''.”
*[[Pierre-Charles L'Enfant|L’Enfant, Pierre-Charles]], 1791, describing Washington, DC (quoted in Caemmerer 1950: 136, 151)<ref name="Caemmerer 1950"></ref>
:“[March 11, in a letter to Thomas Jefferson]. . . The remainder part of that ground towards Georgetown is more broken. It may afford pleasant '''seats''', but, although the bank of the river between the two creeks can command as grand a [[prospect]] as any of the other spots, it seems to be less commendable for the establishment of a city, not only because the level surface it presents is but small, but because the hights from beyond Georgetown absolutely command the whole. . .
:“[June 22, in a report to George Washington]. . . I next made the distribution regular with streets at right angle ''north-south'' and ''east west'' but afterwards I opened others on various directions as [[avenue]]s to and from every principal places, wishing by this not merely to contrast with the general regularity nor to afford a greater variety of pleasant '''seats''' and [[prospect]] as will be obtained from the advantageous ground over the which the [[avenue]]s are mostly directed but principally to connect each part of the city with more efficacy.”
* Shippen, Thomas Lee, 31 December 1783, describing Westover, seat of William Byrd III, on the James River, Va. (1952: n.p.) <ref>Thomas Lee Shippen, ''Westover Described in 1783: A Letter and Drawing Sent by Thomas Lee Shippen, Student of Law in Williamsburg, to His Parents in Philadelphia'' (Richmond, Va.: William Byrd Press, 1952). [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/3IWWPMJ5 view on Zotero]</ref>
*Wansey, Henry, 1794, describing Worcester, MA (1794; repr., 1970:“I have markd some little crooked ugly figures for Gentlemen’s 64)<ref>Henry Wansey, '''seats'Henry Wansey and His American Journal'', which tho’ they do not beautify indeed the pictureed. David John Jeremy (1794; repr., Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society, 1970), add much to the [[prospect]https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/UQTHRX3W view on Zotero].</ref>:“Most of the houses have a large court before them, full of lilacs and other shrubs, about as many with a '''Seatsseat''' are to be seen on under them, and a paved [[walk]] up the other sidemiddle.” [Fig. 8]
* Cutler, RevBlandulus [pseud. Manasseh], 13 July 1787November 1794, describing The Hills (later Lemon Pleasant Hill), estate seat of Robert MorrisJoseph Barrell, PhiladelphiaCharlestown, Pa. MA (1987quoted in Hammond 1982: 1:256–5795) <ref> William Parker CutlerCharles Arthur Hammond, ''“‘Where the Arts and the Virtues Unite’: Country LifeNear Boston, Journals, and Correspondence of Rev1637–1864” ( PhD diss. Manasseh Cutler, LL. D'' (Athens, Ohio: Ohio Boston University Press, 19871982). , [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/3PBNT7H9 VVFZVIKT view on Zotero].</ref>:“Whereonce the breastwork mark’d the scenes of::blood,:While Freedom’s sons inclosed the haughty foe,:Rearing its head majestic from afar:The venerable '''seat''' of Barrell stands:Like some strong English Castle.”
:“We continued our route, in [[view]] of the Schuylkill, and up the river several miles, and took a [[view]] of a number of Country-'''seats''', one belonging to Mr. R. Morris, the American financier, and who is said to be possessed of the greatest fortune in America. His country-'''seat''' is not yet completed, but it will be superb. It is planned on a large scale, the gardens and [[walk]]s are extensive, and the villa, situated on an [[eminence]], has a commanding [[prospect]] down the Schuylkill to the Delaware.”
*[[Timothy Dwight|Dwight, Timothy]], 1796, describing mill seats in Massachusetts (1821: 2:352)<ref name="Dwight">Timothy Dwight, ''Travels; in New-England and New-York'', 4 vols. (New Haven: The Author, 1821–22), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/VHBP7TH2 view on Zotero].</ref>
:“Immediately below the [[bridge]] [over Miller’s River] is a [[Fall/Falling_garden|fall]], furnishing excellent mill-'''seats''', which are occupied by several mills. These are uniformly supplied with an abundance of water, and wear the aspect of great activity, and business, particularly in the sawing of timber.”
* G., L., 15 June [1788?], describing the Woodlands, '''seat''' of William Hamilton near Philadelphia, Pa. (quoted in Madsen 1989: 19) <ref> Karen Madsen, ‘To Make His Country Smile: William Hamilton’s Woodlands’, ''Arnoldia'', 49 (1989), 14–23
[https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/K567H4M4 view on Zotero]</ref>
:“*[The [[walkTimothy Dwight|Dwight, Timothy]]s were] planted on each side with the most beautiful & curious flowers & shrubs. They are in some parts enclosed with the Lombardy poplar except here & there openings are left to give you a [[view]] of some fine trees or beautiful [[prospect]] beyond, & in others1799, describing New York, NY (1822: 3:481–82)<ref name="Dwight"></ref>:“the heights, shaded by [[arbour]]s and many of the wild grapelower grounds, or [[clump]]s contain a rich display of large trees under which are placed gentlemen’s country '''seats''' where you may rest yourself & enjoy the cool air, connected with a great variety of handsome appendages.”
* Constantia La Rochefoucauld Liancourt, François-Alexandre-Frédéric, duc de, 1799, describing a house in Charleston, SC (1800: 2:437–38)<ref> François-Alexandre-Frédéric, duc de La Rochefoucauld Liancourt, ''Travels through the United States of North America, the Country of the Iroquois, and Upper Canada, in the Years 1795, 1796, and 1797'', ed. Brisson Dupont and Charles Ponges, trans. H. Newman, 2nd ed., 4 vols. (London: R. Philips, 1800), [pseudhttps://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/SRMDWJ2M view on Zotero].</ref>:“Half a mile from Batavia. . . stands Middletonhouse, the property of Mrs. MIDDLETON, 24 June 1790mother-in-law to young Mr. Isard, “Description which is esteemed the most beautiful house in this part of Gray’s Gardensthe country. The out-buildings, such as kitchen, wash-house, and offices, Pennsylvania” (are very capacious. The ensemble of these buildings calls to recollection the ancient English country-'''seats'Massachusetts Magazine'' 3: 415).”
:“At every turn shaded '''seats''' are artfully contrived, and the ground abounds with [[arbour]]s, [[alcove]]s, and summer houses, which are handsomely adorned with odoriferous flowers.”
[[File:0304.jpg|thumb|225px|Fig. 9, William Russell Birch, “[[The Woodlands|Woodlands]], the Seat of Mr. Wm. Hamilton, Pennsylva.,” in ''The Country Seats of the United States'' (1808), pl. 14.]]
*La Rochefoucauld Liancourt, François-Alexandre-Frédéric, duc de, 1799, describing [[The Woodlands]], seat of [[William Hamilton]], near Philadelphia, PA (quoted in Madsen 1988: B3)<ref>Karen Madsen, “William Hamilton’s Woodlands,” (paper presented for seminar in American Landscape, 1790–1900, instructed by E. McPeck, Radcliffe Institute for Advanced Study, Harvard University, 1988), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/XN8NN9QN view on Zotero].</ref>
:“You pass the Schuylkill at [[Gray’s Garden|Gray’s-Ferry]], the road to which runs below [[The Woodlands|Woodlands]], the '''seat''' of Mr. William Hamilton: it stands high, and is seen upon an [[eminence]] from the opposite side of the river.” [Fig. 9]
* L’Enfant, Pierre-Charles, 1791, describing Washington, D.C. (quoted in Caemmerer 1950: 136, 151) <ref name="Caemmerer 1950"></ref>
*Ogden, John Cosens, 1800, describing Bethlehem, PA (1800:“[11 March18, 27)<ref>John C. Ogden, ''An Excursion into Bethlehem & Nazareth, in Pennsylvania, in a letter to Thomas Jefferson] the Year 1799'' (Philadelphia: Charles Cist, 1800), [https://www. zotero. org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/U5CTTBGB view on Zotero]. The remainder part of that ground towards Georgetown is more broken. It may afford pleasant </ref>:“'''seatsSeats'''are placed for rest, but, although and to enable the bank of the river between the two creeks can command as grand a visitors to [[prospectview]] as any of the other spots, it seems to be less commendable for the establishment of a city, not only because the level surface it presents is but small, but because the hights from beyond Georgetown absolutely command the whole. river at leisure. . .:“[22 June“The island is not large, in a report to George Washington] . . . I next made the distribution regular with streets at right angle ''north-south'' and ''east west'' but afterwards I opened others on various directions as affords fine [[avenuewalk]]s to and from every principal placesan area for exercise, wishing by this not merely to contrast with the general regularity nor to afford a greater variety of pleasant as well as '''seats''' and [[prospect]] as will be obtained from the advantageous ground over the which the [[avenue]]s are mostly directed but principally to connect each part of the city with more efficacyshelters for visitors.”
* WanseyClitherall, HenryEliza Caroline Burgwin (Caroline Elizabeth Burgwin), 1794active 1801, describing Worcesterthe Hermitage, seat of John Burgwin, Wilmington, Mass. NC ([1794] 1970quoted in Flowers 1983: 64126) <ref>Henry WanseyJohn Flowers, “People and Plants: North Carolina’s Garden History Revisited, ''Henry Wansey and His American JournalEighteenth Century Life'', ed. by David John Jeremy 8 (Philadelphia1983): American Philosophical Society117–29, 1970)[https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/UQTHRX3W FCVW8GHV view on Zotero].</ref>:“These [gardens] were extensive and beautifully laid out. There was [''sic''] [[alcove]]s and [[summerhouse|summer houses]] at the termination of each [[walk]], '''seats''' under trees in the more shady recesses of the Big Garden, as it was called, in distinction from the [[flower garden]] in front of the house.”
:“Most of the houses have a large court before them, full of lilacs and other shrubs, with a '''seat''' under them, and a paved [[walk]] up the middle.”
*[[Thomas Jefferson|Jefferson, Thomas]], 1804, describing [[Monticello]], [[plantation]] of [[Thomas Jefferson]], Charlottesville, VA (Massachusetts Historical Society, Jefferson Papers)
:“[[Temple]]s or '''seats''' at those spots on the [[walk]]s most interesting either for [[prospect]] or the immediate scenery.”
* Blandulus [pseud.], November 1794, describing Pleasant Hill, '''seat''' of Joseph Barrell, Charlestown, Mass. (quoted in Hammond 1982: 95) <ref>Charles Arthur Hammond, ‘“Where the Arts and the Virtues Unite”: Country Life Near Boston, 1637-1864’ (unpublished Ph.D. diss., Boston University, 1982). [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/VVFZVIKT view on Zotero]</ref>
*Scott, Joseph, 1806, describing the Schuylkill River in Pennsylvania (1806:“Whereonce the breastwork mark’d the scenes 53)<ref>Joseph Scott, ''A Geographical Description ofPennsylvania'' (Philadelphia:Printed by R. Cochran, 1806), [https:blood,//www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/55XKIWPN/ view on Zotero].</ref>:While Freedom’s sons inclosed “The banks of the haughty foeriver are, in many places,:Rearing its head majestic from afar:The venerable adorned with beautiful country '''seatseats''' , belonging to the wealthy citizens of Barrell stands:Like some strong English CastlePhiladelphia. To these their families usually retire, in the summer months, from the bustle, and noise of the city, and to enjoy the salubrity of the country air.”
* DwightMartin, TimothyWilliam Dickinson, 17961809, describing mill seats the pleasure grounds at Salem Academy, Salem, NC (quoted in Massachusetts (1821Bynum 1979: 2:35229)<ref name="DwightBynum 1979">Timothy DwightFlora Ann L. Bynum, ''Travels; in New-England and New-YorkOld Salem Garden Guide''(Winston-Salem, 4 vols. (New HavenNC: The AuthorOld Salem, 1821-221979). , [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/VHBP7TH2 TJB9XNMF view on Zotero].</ref>:“Next, I visited a [[flower garden]] belonging to the female department. . . But it is situated on a hill, the East end of which is high & abrupt; some distance down this, they had dug down right in the earth, & drawing the dirt forward threw it on rock, etc., thereby forming a horizontal plane of about thirty feet in circumference; & on the back, rose a perpendicular [[Terrace/Slope|terrace]] of some height, which was entirely covered over with a grass peculiar to that vicinage. At the bottom of this [[Terrace/Slope|terrace]] were arranged circular '''seats''', which, from the height of the hill in the rear were protected from the sun in an early hour in the afternoon.”
:“Immediately below the [[bridge]] [over Miller’s River] is a [[fall]], furnishing excellent mill-'''seats''', which are occupied by several mills. These are uniformly supplied with an abundance of water, and wear the aspect of great activity, and business, particularly in the sawing of timber.”
*Martin, William Dickinson, May 20, 1809, describing [[The Woodlands]], seat of [[William Hamilton]], near Philadelphia, PA (Colonial Williamsburg Foundation)
:“Altho’ much has been done to beautify this delightful '''seat''', much still remains to be done, for the perfecting it in all the capabilities which nature in her boundless profusion has bestowed.”
* Dwight, Timothy, 1799, describing New York, N.Y. (1822: 3:481–82) <ref name="Dwight"></ref>
*Smith, Margaret Bayard, August 1, 1809, describing [[Monticello]], [[plantation]] of [[Thomas Jefferson]], Charlottesville, VA (1906:“the heights73)<ref>Margaret Bayard Smith, and many ''The First Forty Years of Washington Society'', ed. Gaillard Hunt (New York: Charles Scribner’s, 1906), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/FTDFHRFH view on Zotero].</ref>:“Mr. J. explained to me all his plans for improvement, where the roads, the lower grounds[[walk]]s, contain a rich display of gentlemen’s country the '''seats''', connected with a great variety of handsome appendagesthe little [[temple]]s were to be placed.”
* La Rochefoucauld LiancourtFoster, François-Alexandre-FrédéricSir Augustus John, duc de1812, 1799describing [[Monticello]], [[plantation]] of [[Thomas Jefferson]], describing a house in CharlestonCharlottesville, S.C. VA (18001954: 2:437–38143) <ref> François-Alexandre-Frédéric, duc de La Rochefoucauld LiancourtSir Augustus John Foster, ''Travels through Jeffersonian America: Notes on the United States of North America, the Country of the Iroquois, and Upper Canada, Collected in the Years 1795, 1796, 1805–1806–1807 and 17971811–1812'', ed. by Brisson Dupont and Charles PongesRichard Beale Davis (San Marino, trans. by H. Newman, 2nd edn, 4 vols. (LondonCA: R. PhilipsHuntington Library, 18001954). , [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/SRMDWJ2M 7FU8NDF4 view on Zotero].</ref>:“It is a very delightful ride of twenty-eight miles from Montpellier to the late President [[Thomas Jefferson|Mr. Jefferson’s]] '''seat''' at [[Monticello]].”
:“Half a mile from Batavia . . . stands Middletonhouse, the property of Mrs. MIDDLETON, mother-in-law to young Mr. Isard, which is esteemed the most beautiful house in this part of the country. The out-buildings, such as kitchen, wash-house, and offices, are very capacious. The ensemble of these buildings calls to recollection the ancient English country-'''seats'''.”
*Warden, David Bailie, 1816, describing Analostan Island, seat of Gen. John Mason, Washington, DC (quoted in Phillips 1917: 49)<ref>Philip Lee Phillips, ''The Beginnings of Washington: As Described in Books, Maps, and Views'' (Washington, DC: The author, 1917), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/QXZXNN8N view on Zotero].</ref>
*La Rochefoucauld Liancourt:"ANNALOSTAN ISLAND: . . . Annalostan Island is evidently of modern formation. . . The highest [[eminence]], Françoison which the house stands, is fifty feet above the level of the river. The common tide rises to the height of three feet. I can never forget how de-Alexandrelighted I was with my first visit to this island. The amiable ladies whom I had the pleasure to accompany, left their carriage at Georgetown, and we walked to the mansion-Frédérichouse under a delicious shade. The blossoms of the cherry, duc deapple, 1799and peach trees, describing of the Woodlandshawthorn and aromatic [[shrub]]s, filled the air with their fragrance. . . The house, seat of William Hamiltona simple and neat form, is situated near Philadelphiathat side of the island which commands a [[view]] of the Potomac, Pathe President's House, Capitol, and other buildings. (quoted The garden, the sides of which are washed by the waters of the river, is ornamented with a variety of trees and [[shrub]]s, and, in Madsen 1988: B3) <ref>Karen Madsenthe midst, ‘William Hamilton’s Woodlands’, 1988there is a [[lawn]] covered with a beautiful verdure. The [https://www[Summerhouse|summer-house]] is shaded by oak and lin-den-trees, the coolness and tranquility of which invite to contemplation.zoteroThe refresh-ing breezes of the Potomac, and the gentle murmuring of its waters against the rocks, the warbling of birds, and the mournful as-pect of the weeping-willows, inspire a thousand various sensations.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/XN8NN9QN view on Zotero]</ref>What a delicious shade-
:“You pass the Schuylkill at Gray’s-Ferry, the road to which runs below Woodlands, the '''seat''' of Mr. William Hamilton: it stands high, and is seen upon an "Ducere sol[[eminence]l] from the opposite side of the river.”icitae jucunda oblivia vitae"
:The [[view]] from this spot is delightful. It embraces the [[picturesque]] banks of the Po-tomac, a portion of the city, and an expanse of water, of which the bridge terminates the [[view]]. . . A few feet below the [[Summerhouse|sum-mer-house]] the rocks afford the '''seats''', where those who are fond of fishing may indulge in this amusement. From the [[portico]] on the oppo-site [139] side of the house, Georgetown, Calorama, the beautiful '''seat''' of Joel Barlow, Esq. and the adjacent finely-wooded hills, appear a [[vista]]."
* Ogden, John Cosens, 1800, describing Bethlehem, Pa. (pp. 18, 27) <ref>John C. Ogden, ''An Excursion into Bethlehem & Nazareth, in Pennsylvania, in the Year 1799''(Philadelphia: Charles Cist, 1800). [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/U5CTTBGB view on Zotero]</ref>
*Lambert, John, 1816, describing Boston, MA (1816: 2:328)<ref>John Lambert, ''Travels through Canada, and the United States of North America in the Years 1806, 1807, and 1808'Seats''' are placed for rest, 2 vols. (London: Baldwin, Cradock, and to enable the visitors to [Joy, 1816), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/T9KUEDWH viewon Zotero]] the river at leisure. . . .</ref>:“The island is not large, but affords fine “From an elevated part of the town the spectator enjoys a succession of the most beautiful [[walkview]]s and an area for exercisethat imagination can conceive. Around him, as well far as the eye can reach, are to be seen towns, villages, country '''seats''' , rich farms, and [[pleasure ground|pleasure-grounds]], seated upon the summits of small hills, hanging on the brows of gentle [[Terrace/Slope|slopes]], or reclining in the laps of spacious valleys, whose shores are watered by a beautiful river, across which are thrown several [[bridge]]s and shelters for visitorscauseways.”
* ClitherallRandolph, Eliza Caroline Burgwin (Caroline Elizabeth Burgwin)John, active 18011820s, describing the Hermitage, seat of John Burgwin, Wilmingtonan estate in Roanoke, N.C. VA (quoted in Flowers 1983Martin 1991: 126223n. 46) <ref>John Flowers, ‘People and Plants: North Carolina’s Garden History Revisited’Peter Martin, ''Eighteenth Century LifeThe Pleasure Gardens of Virginia: From Jamestown to Jefferson''(Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 8 (19831991), 117–29. [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/FCVW8GHV 6TAHS88N view on Zotero].</ref>:“From my earliest childhood I have delighted in the [[grove]]s and solitudes of poor old Matoax. I now recall several of my favorite '''seats''' where I used to ruminate, ‘chewing the cud of sweet and bitter fancies,’ all bitter now.”
:“These [gardens] were extensive and beautifully laid out. There was [''sic'''''Bold text'''] [[alcove]]s and summer houses at the termination of each [[walk]], '''seats''' under trees in the more shady recesses of the Big Garden, as it was called, in distinction from the [[flower garden]] in front of the house.”
*[[Charles Willson Peale|Peale, Charles Willson]], c. 1825, describing [[Belfield]], estate of Charles Willson Peale, Germantown, PA (Miller et al., eds., 2000: 5:381)<ref>Lillian B. Miller and et al., eds., ''The Selected Papers of Charles Willson Peale and His Family'', vol. 5, ''The Autobiography of Charles Willson Peale'' (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2000), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/IZAKPCBG view on Zotero].</ref>
:“He wanted a place to keep the garden seeds & Tools, and in a part of the Garden where a '''seat''' in the shade was often wanted, he built a shed or small room, and to hide that Salt-like-box, and to try his art of Painting, he made the front like [a] [[gateway|Gate Way]] with a step to form a '''seat''', and above, steps painted as representing a passage through an [[Arch]] beyond which was represented a western sky, and to ornament the upper part over the [[arch]], he painted several figures on boards cut to the outlines of said figures as representing [[statue]]s in sculpture.”
*Jefferson, Thomas, 1804, describing Monticello, plantation of Thomas Jefferson, Charlottesville, Va. (Massachusetts Historical Society, Jefferson Papers)
:“[[TempleFile:0300.jpg|thumb|225px|Fig. 10, Thomas Birch, ''Fairmount Water Works'', 1821.]]s or *Sheldon, John P., December 10, 1825, describing Fairmount Waterworks, Philadelphia, PA (quoted in Gibson 1988: 5)<ref>Jane Mork Gibson, “The Fairmount Waterworks,” ''Philadelphia Museum of Art Bulletin'' 84 (1988): 5–40, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/RZEZDDEN view on Zotero].</ref>:“Delightful '''seats''' at those spots on , surrounded by various kinds of trees and [[shrubbery]], with gardens containing [[summerhouse|summer houses]], [[vista]]s, embowered [[walk]]s, &c meet your [[view]] in almost every direction, [[wood]]s sloping gently to the river’s edge, by the side of smooth [[walklawn]]s most interesting either for , add to the pleasing variety of the scene; and the Schuylkill, with its noble dam and [[prospectbridge]] or s serves as a most beautiful finish to the immediate sceneryforeground.”[Fig. 10]
* ScottConnor, JosephJuliana Margaret, 18061827, describing the Schuylkill River garden at the pottery (Lot 48) on Main Street, Salem, NC (quoted in Pennsylvania (p. 53Bynum 1979: 28) <refname="Bynum 1979">Scott</ref>:“Afterwards walked into the garden belonging to the establishment where we saw what I conceived to be a curiosity and in itself extremely beautiful. It was a large [[summerhouse|summer house]] formed of eight cedar trees planted in a circle, Josephthe tops whilst young were chained together in the center forming a cone. The immense branches were all cut, so that there was not a leaf, the outside is beautifully trimmed perfectly even and very thick within, were '''A Geographical Description of Pennsylvaniaseats''' (Philadelphia: Printed by R. Cochranplaced around and doors or openings were cut, through the branches, 1806). [https://www.zoteroit had been planted 40 years.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/55XKIWPN/]</ref>
:“The banks of the river are, in many places, adorned with beautiful country '''seats''', belonging to the wealthy citizens of Philadelphia. To these their families usually retire, in the summer months, from the bustle, and noise of the city, and to enjoy the salubrity of the country air.”
*Bernhard, Duke of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach, 1828, describing the Bloomingdale Asylum for the Insane, New York, NY (quoted in Little 1972: 64)<ref>Nina Fletcher Little, ''Early Years of the McLean Hospital, Recorded in the Journal of George William Folsom, Apothecary at the Asylum in Charlestown'' (Boston: Francis A. Countway Library of Medicine, 1972), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/Q8IX8NHN/ view on Zotero].</ref>
:“The Lunatic Asylum is five miles from the city [New York] on a hill, in a very healthy situation, the road leads between country '''seats''' and handsome gardens and is one of the most pleasant I have seen in America.”
* Martin, William Dickinson, 1809, describing the pleasure grounds at Salem Academy, Salem, N.C. (quoted in Bynum 1979: 29) <ref name="Bynum 1979">Flora Ann L. Bynum, ''Old Salem Garden Guide'' (Winston-Salem, N.C.: Old Salem, 1979). [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/TJB9XNMF view on Zotero]</ref>
:“Next*Wailes, Benjamin L. C., December 29, 1829, describing [[Lemon Hill]], I visited a estate of [[flower gardenHenry Pratt]] belonging to , Philadelphia, PA (quoted in Moore 1954: 359)<ref>John Hebron Moore, “A View of Philadelphia in 1829: Selections from the female departmentJournal of B. L. C. Wailes of Natchez,” ''Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography'' 78 (July 1954): 353–60, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/Z9IBV7A4 view on Zotero]. But it </ref>:“But the most enchanting [[prospect]] is situated on towards the grand pleasure grove & [[green house]] of a hill[[Henry Pratt|Mr. Prat[t]]], the East end a gentleman of which is high & abrupt; some distance down fortune, and to thiswe next proceeded by a circutous [''sic''] rout, they had dug down right passing in [[view]] of the earthfish ponds, [[bower]]s, [[rustic style|rustic]] retreats, [[summerhouse|summer houses]], [[fountain]]s, [[grotto]], &c., & drawing c. The [[grotto]] is dug in a bank [and] is of a circular form, the dirt forward threw it on side built up of rockand arched over head, etcand a number of Shells [?].A dog of natural size carved out of marble sits just within the entrance, thereby forming the guardian of the place. A narrow aperture lined with a horizontal plane [[hedge]] of about thirty feet [[arbor]] vitae leads to it. Next is a round fish pond with a small [[fountain]] playing in circumference; the [[pond]]. An Oval & several oblong fish ponds of larger size follow, & between the two last is an artificial [[cascade]]. Several summer houses in [[rustic style]] are made by nailing bark on the back, rose outside & thaching the roof. There is also a perpendicular [[terracerustic style|rustic]] '''seat''' built in the branches of some heighta tree, & to which was entirely covered over with a grass peculiar to that vicinageflight of steps ascend. At In one of the bottom of this [[terracesummerhouse|summer houses]] were arranged circular is a Spring with '''seats'''arrond it. The houses are all embelished [''sic''] with marble busts of Venus, whichAppollo, from Diana and a Bacanti. One sits on an Island on the height of fish pond. All the hill in the rear were protected from the sun in an early hour in the afternoon[[pond]]s filled with handsome coloured fish.”
* MartinTrollope, William DickinsonFrances Milton, 20 May 18091830, describing Philadelphia, PA (1832: 2:48–49; 152)<ref>Frances Trollope, ''Domestic Manners of the Americans'', 3rd ed., 2 vols. (London: Wittaker, Treacher, 1832), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/T5RXDF7G view on Zotero].</ref>:“Near this enclosure [at the State House] is another of much the same description, called [[Washington Square (Philadelphia)|Washington Square]]. Here there was an excellent crop of clover; but as the trees are numerous, and highly beautiful, and several commodious '''seats''' are placed beneath their shade, it is, spite of the long grass, a very agreeable retreat from heat and dust. It was rarely, however, that I saw any of these '''seats''' occupied; the WoodlandsAmericans have either no leisure, seat or no inclination for those moments of William Hamilton''delassement'' that all other people, I believe, near indulge in. . . it is nevertheless the nearest approach to a London square that is to be found in Philadelphia. . . “The Delaware river, above Philadelphia, still flows through a landscape too level for beauty, but it is rendered interesting by a succession of gentlemen’s '''seats''', which, Paif less elaborately finished in architecture, and garden grounds, than the lovely villas on the Thames, are still beautiful objects to gaze upon as you float rapidly past on the broad silvery stream that washes their [[lawn]]s. (CWF)
:“Altho’ much has been done to beautify this delightful '''seat''', much still remains to be done, for the perfecting it in all the capabilities which nature in her boundless profusion has bestowed.”
*[[Andrew Jackson Downing|Downing, Andrew Jackson]], January 1837, “Notices on the State and Progress of Horticulture in the United States,” describing [[Hyde Park]], seat of [[David Hosack]], on the Hudson, NY (''Magazine of Horticulture'' 3: 5)<ref>A. J. Downing, “Notices on the State and Progress of Horticulture in the United States,” ''Magazine of Horticulture, Botany, and All Useful Discoveries and Improvements in Rural Affairs'' 3, no. 1 (January 1837): 1–10, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/keywords_in_early_american_landscape_design/items/itemKey/HPNHTESI/q/Notices%20on%20the%20State%20and%20Progress%20of%20Horticulture view on Zotero].</ref>
:“The most distinguished amateur and patron of gardening, in every sense of the word, in this state, was the late [[Dr. Hosack]]. [[Hyde Park]], on the Hudson, the '''seat''' of this gentleman, has been probably the best specimen of a highly improved residence in the United States.”
* Smith, Margaret Bayard, 1 August 1809, describing Monticello, plantation of Thomas Jefferson, Charlottesville, Va. (1906: 73) <ref>Margaret Bayard Smith, ''The First Forty Years of Washington Society'', ed. by Gaillard Hunt (New York: Charles Scribner’s, 1906). [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/FTDFHRFH view on Zotero]</ref>
*Ritchie, Anna Cora Ogden Mowatt, 1839, describing Bonaparte’s Park at estate of Joseph Bonaparte (Count de Survilliers), Bordentown, NJ (quoted in Weber 1854:“Mr186)<ref>Constance Weber, “A Sketch of Joseph Bonaparte,” in ''Godey’s Lady’s Book'' (Philadelphia: L. JA. explained to me all his plans for improvementGodey, where the roads1854), the [[walkhttps://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/NEDC6TSD/ view on Zotero]]s, the .</ref>:“Equally rustic '''seats'''are scattered beneath the shade of the tall trees on its banks, the little [[temple]]s and upon its clear surface a flock of snow-white swans were to be placedfloating about.”
* FosterHovey, Sir Augustus JohnC. M. (Charles Mason), 1812September 1840, “Notes on Gardens and Gardening, in New Bedford, Mass.,” describing Monticello, plantation the estate of Thomas JeffersonJames Arnold, CharlottesvilleNew Bedford, Va. MA (1954''Magazine of Horticulture'' 6: 143364) <ref>Sir Augustus John FosterCharles Mason Hovey, “Notes on Gardens and Gardening, in New Bedford, Mass.,” ''Jeffersonian America: Notes on the United States Magazine of America Collected Horticulture, Botany, and All Useful Discoveries and Improvements in the Years 1805-1806-1807 and 1811-1812Rural Affairs''6, edno. by Richard Beale Davis 9 (San Marino, Calif.September 1840): Huntington Library361–66, 1954). [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/7FU8NDF4 QQC7WWZB view on Zotero].</ref>:“Continuing through the winding [[walk]]s, shady [[bower]]s, and umbrageous retreats, through which rustic '''seats''' were placed, we arrived at the shell [[grotto]].”
:“It is a very delightful ride of twenty-eight miles from Montpellier to the late President Mr. Jefferson’s '''seat''' at Monticello.”
*Adams, Nehemiah, 1842, describing [[Boston Common]], Boston, MA (1842: 54)<ref>Nehemiah Adams, ''Boston Common'' (Boston: William D. Ticknor and H. B. Williams, 1842), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/VXTWGJ58 view on Zotero].</ref>
:“One of the next improvements in the [[Boston Common|Common]] we suspect will be a suitable supply of proper '''seats''' in the [[mall]]. As a defence against our American propensity to whittle, the city government caused some of the wooden '''seats''' to be sheathed with sheet iron. Vain defence against the knife of an American whittler! . . . The city government thought that they would ‘try what virtue there is in stones.’ Blocks of granite have been deposited there for '''seats'''. . . The stone '''seats''' are smooth only on the upper side, and their rough look is not strictly in Boston taste, though it is excusable, considering the penitentiary object which led to their substitution for wooden '''seats'''. . . The idea of sitting on a natural, rough rock, to enjoy the beauties of nature, is poetical and in good keeping, but we have tried in vain to make those stone '''seats''' on the [[mall]] seem poetical.”
* Lambert, John, 1816, describing Boston, Mass. (2:328) <ref>John Lambert, ''Travels through Canada, and the United States of North America in the Years 1806, 1807, and 1808'', 2 vols. (London: Baldwin, Cradock, and Joy, 1816). [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/T9KUEDWH view on Zotero]</ref>
*Buckingham, James Silk, 1842, describing Red Sulphur Springs, VA (Colonial Williamsburg Foundation):“From an elevated part “In the centre of the town the spectator enjoys valley, is a succession of the most beautiful triangular [[viewplot]]s that imagination can conceive. Around himof grass, as far as the eye can reachwhich has been enclosed with well-finished rails, are to be seen towns, villages, country '''seats''', rich farmspainted white, and pleasure-grounds, seated upon the summits of small hills, hanging on the brows of gentle laid out in [[slopewalk]]s, or reclining in the laps of spacious valleys, whose shores are watered by like a beautiful river, across which are thrown several [[bridgelawn]]s , having also several large and causewaysfine trees, under which '''seats''' are placed for enjoying the shade.”
* RandolphAnonymous, JohnDecember 6, 1820s1842, describing an estate in Roanoke“Letter from Ministry at New Lebanon to Ministry at Graveland” (Western Reserve Historical Society Library, Va. (quoted in Martin 1991Shaker Manuscript Collection): 223n“And it is my will that your '''seats''' be prepared after the following order. 46) <ref>Peter Martin, Ye may take boards of sufficient width & thickness to form a '''seat'''The Pleasure Gardens . These may be planed. Place these upon square blocks of Virginia: From Jamestown sufficient bigness to Jeffersonelevate the '''seat''' of a suitable height; and these are sufficient for '''seats''' (Princeton, Nupon my holy ground.J.: Princeton University PressAnd if ye desire to build a shed, near by the meeting ground under which you can place these '''seats''', at such parts of the year as they are not wanted, ye may freely do it; but if my feast ground is located near your dwellings, 1991).[https://www.zoteroyou had better carry them there to place under shelter.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/6TAHS88N]</ref>
:“From my earliest childhood I have delighted in the [[grove]]s and solitudes of poor old Matoax. I now recall several of my favorite '''seats''' where I used to ruminate, ‘chewing the cud of sweet and bitter fancies,’ all bitter now.”
*Longfellow, Henry Wadsworth, c. 1845, describing the Vassall-Craigie-Longfellow House, Cambridge, MA (quoted in Evans 1993: 41)<ref>Catherine Evans, ''Cultural Landscape Report for Longfellow National Historic Site, History and Existing Conditions'' (Boston: National Park Service, North Atlantic Region, 1993), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/9TI9GUQN view on Zotero].</ref>
:“Made the [[flower garden]]; laying it out in the form of a Lyre. Built also the [[rustic style|rustic]] '''seat''' in the Old Apple tree. Set out the roses under the Library windows.”
* Peale, Charles Willson, c. 1825, describing Belfield, estate of Charles Willson Peale, Germantown, Pa. (Miller, Hart, and Ward, eds., 2000: 381) <ref>
Lillian B. Miller and et al, eds., ''The Selected Papers of Charles Willson Peale and His Family: The Autobiography of Charles Willson Peale. Vol. 5.'' (New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1983–2000). [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/IZAKPCBG view on Zotero]</ref>
[[Image:“He wanted a place to keep the garden seeds & Tools0359.jpg|thumb|225px|Fig. 11, Anonymous, “The [[Lake]],” [[Montgomery Place]], and in a part [[A. J. Downing]], ed., ''Horticulturist'' 2, no. 4 (October 1847): 158, fig. 27.]]*[[Andrew Jackson Downing|Downing, Andrew Jackson]], 1847, describing [[Montgomery Place]], country home of Mrs. Edward (Louise) Livingston, Dutchess County, NY (quoted in Haley 1988: 20, 47, 50)<ref>Jacquetta M. Haley, ed., ''Pleasure Grounds: Andrew Jackson Downing and Montgomery Place'' (Tarrytown, NY: Sleepy Hollow Press, 1988), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/SSZXJFSC/ view on Zotero].</ref>:“I forgot to beg you before you leave [[Montgomery Place]] to sketch the [[view]] from the Garden where a bold rustic '''seat''' with rustic balustrade in front*on the shade was often wanted, he built a shed or small room, and high west river [[walk]]. It seems to hide me one of the very finest things I have seen anywhere.:<nowiki>*</nowiki> that Salt-like-box, and to try his art '''seat''' about half way between the steps & the south terminus. . .:“A path on the left of Painting, he made the front like [a] broad [[Gatelawn]] Way with a step leads one to form a the fanciful rustic-gabled '''seat''', and above, steps painted as representing among a passage through an growth of locusts at the bottom of the [[ArchTerrace/Slope|slope]] beyond which was represented . . . Half-way along this morning ramble, a rustic '''seat''', placed on a western skybold little plateau, at the base of a large tree, eighty feet above the water, and fenced about with a rustic barrier, invites you to linger and gaze at the fascinating river landscape here presented. . .:“A little farther on, we reach a flight of rocky steps, leading up to ornament the upper part over [[border]] of the [[archlawn]]. At the top of these is a rustic '''seat''' with a thatched canopy, he painted several figures on boards cut to curiously built round the outlines trunk of an aged pine. . .:“This part of said figures as representing the grounds [the [[statuelake]]]s is seen to the most advantage, either toward evening, or in moonlight. Then the effect of contrast in sculpturelight and shadow is most striking, and the seclusion and beauty of the spot are more fully enjoyable than at any hour. Then you will most certainly be tempted to leave the curious rustic '''seat''', with its roof wrapped round with a rude entablature like Pluto’s crown.”[Fig. 11]
[[File:1097.jpg|thumb|225px|Fig. 12, Thomas S. Sinclair, “Plan of the [[Pleasure Ground]]s and Farm of the [[Pennsylvania Hospital for the Insane]] at Philadelphia,” in Thomas S. Kirkbride, ''American Journal of Insanity'' 4 (April 1848): pl. opp. 280.]]* SheldonKirkbride, John PThomas S., 10 December 1825April 1848, describing Fairmount Waterworksthe [[pleasure ground|pleasure grounds]] and farm of the [[Pennsylvania Hospital for the Insane]], Philadelphia, Pa. (quoted in Gibson 1988''American Journal of Insanity'' 4: 5349) <ref>Jane Mork GibsonThomas S. Kirkbride, ‘The Fairmount Waterworks’“Description of the Pleasure Grounds and Farm of the Pennsylvania Hospital for the Insane, with Remarks,” ''Bulletin, Philadelphia Museum American Journal of ArtInsanity''4, 84 no. 4 (1988April 1848): 347–54, 5–40. [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/keywords_in_early_american_landscape_design/items/itemKey/RZEZDDEN 9RWM2FH8/q/kirkbride view on Zotero].</ref>:“The [[summerhouse|summer-houses]], [[rustic style|rustic]]-'''seats''', exercising-swings &c., in this division are all in particularly pleasant positions. The cottage fronts the [[wood]]s, and in every part this portion of the grounds is completely protected from intrusion and observation.” [Fig. 12]
:“Delightful '''seats''', surrounded by various kinds of trees and [[shrubbery]], with gardens containing summer houses, [[vista]]s, embowered [[walk]]s, &c meet your [[view]] in almost every direction, [[wood]]s sloping gently to the river’s edge, by the side of smooth [[lawn]]s, add to the pleasing variety of the scene; and the Schuylkill, with its noble dam and [[bridge]]s serves as a most beautiful finish to the foreground.”
*[[J. C. (John Claudius) Loudon|Loudon, J. C. (John Claudius)]], 1850, describing the public gardens in Philadelphia, PA (1850: 332–33)
:“856. ''[[public garden|Public Gardens]]''. . .
:“''[[Promenade]] at Philadelphia''. There is a very pretty enclosure before the walnut tree entrance to the state-house, with good well-kept gravel [[walk]]s, and many beautiful flowering trees. It is laid down in grass, not in turf; which, indeed, Mrs. Trollope observes, ‘is a luxury she never saw in America. Near this enclosure is another of a similar description, called [[Washington Square (Philadelphia)|Washington Square]], which has numerous trees, with commodious '''seats''' placed beneath their shade.’ (''Ibid''. [''D. M. &c''.] vol. ii. p. 48.) . . .
:“''Waterworks at Fair Mount, near Philadelphia''. ‘. . . On the farther side of the river is a gentleman’s '''seat''', the beautiful [[lawn]] of which slopes down to the water’s edge; and groups of weeping willows and other trees throw their shadows on the stream.’ (''Domestic Manners of the Americans'', vol. ii. p. 44.)”
===Citations===* ConnorDezallier d’Argenville, Juliana MargaretAntoine-Joseph, 18271712, describing the garden at the pottery ''The Theory and Practice of Gardening'' (1712: 78)<ref> A.-J. (Lot 48Antoine Joseph) on Main StreetDézallier d’Argenville, ''The Theory and Practice of Gardening; Wherein Is Fully Handled All That Relates to Fine Gardens, Salem. . . Containing Divers Plans, Nand General Dispositions of Gardens. . .C'', trans. John James (quoted in Bynum 1979London: 28Geo. James, 1712) <ref name="Bynum 1979">, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/RNT8ZVZ8 view on Zotero].</ref>:“'''SEATS''', or Benches, besides the Conveniency they constantly afford in great Gardens, where you can scarce ever have too many, there is such need of them in walking, look very well also in a Garden, when set in certain Places they are destin’d to, as in the Niches or Sinkings that face principal [[Walk]]s and [[Vista]]s, and in the Halls and Galleries of [[Grove]]s.”
:“Afterwards walked into the garden belonging to the establishment where we saw what I conceived to be a curiosity and in itself extremely beautiful. It was a large summer house formed of eight cedar trees planted in a circle, the tops whilst young were chained together in the center forming a cone. The immense branches were all cut, so that there was not a leaf, the outside is beautifully trimmed perfectly even and very thick within, were '''seats''' placed around and doors or openings were cut, through the branches, it had been planted 40 years.”
*Ware, Isaac, 1756, ''A Complete Body of Architecture'' (1756: 636, 641)<ref>Isaac Ware, ''A Complete Body of Architecture'' (London: T. Osborne and J. Shipton, 1756), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/2EK2USKV view on Zotero].</ref>
:“The first principle is here that there be space to [[walk]], and '''seats''' to rest. These must be proportioned also to one another: it would be absurd to terminate a vast [[walk]] with a plain bench; nor less ridiculous to erect a pompous [[temple]] where there was not the extent of a hundred yards from the building. . .
:“He who would know where to place his [[pavilion]], '''seat''', or [[temple]], in a garden, must first understand what the purpose of it is, and what the true beauty and excellence of the garden itself.”
* Bernhard, Duke of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach, 1828, describing the Bloomingdale Asylum for the Insane, New York, N.Y. (quoted in Little 1972: 64) <ref>Nina Fletcher Little, ''Early Years of the McLean Hospital, Recorded in the Journal of George William Folsom, Apothecary at the Asylum in Charlestown'' (Boston: Francis A. Countway Library of Medicine, 1972). [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/Q8IX8NHN/ view on Zotero]</ref>
*Sheridan, Thomas, 1789, ''A Complete Dictionary of the English Language'' (1789:“The Lunatic Asylum is five miles from n.p.)<ref>Thomas A. Sheridan, ''A Complete Dictionary of the city English Language, Carefully Revised and Corrected by John Andrews. . . '', 5th ed. (Philadelphia: William Young, 1789), [New Yorkhttps://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/T5GU4CBQ view on Zotero] on a hill, in a very healthy situation, the road leads between country .</ref>:“'''seatsSEAT''' and handsome gardens and is , se’t. s. A chair, bench, or any thing on which one may sit; chair of the most pleasant I have seen in Americastate; tribunal; mansion, abode; situation, site.”
* WailesAnonymous, Benjamin L. C.1798, 29 December 1829, describing Lemon Hill, estate of Henry Pratt, Philadelphia, Pa. ''Encyclopaedia'' (quoted in Moore 19541798: 7: 359561) <ref>John Hebron Moore:“‘V. '''SEATS''' have a two-fold use; they are useful as places of rest and conversation, ‘A View and as guides to the points of Philadelphia [[view]] in 1829: Selections from which the Journal beauties of Bthe surrounding scene are disclosed.LEvery point of [[view]] should be marked with a '''seat'''; and speaking generally, no '''seat''' ought to appear but in some favourable point of [[view]].CThis rule may not be invariable, but it ought seldom to be deviated from. Wailes :“In the ruder scenes of neglected nature, the simple trunk, rough from the woodman’s hands, and the butts or stools of Natchez’rooted trees, without any other marks of tools upon them than those of the saw which severed them from their stems, are ''Pennsylvania Magazine 'seats''' in character; and in romantic or recluse situations, the cave or the [[grotto]] are admissible. But wherever human design has been executed upon the natural objects of History the place, the '''seat''' and every other artificial accompaniment ought to be in unison; and whether the bench or the [[alcove]] be chosen, it ought to be formed and finished in such a manner as to unite with the [[wood]], the [[lawn]], and Biographythe [[walk]], which lie around it.:“The colour of '''seats'''should likewise be suited to situations: where uncultivated nature prevails, 78 (July) (1954)the natural brown of the [[wood]] itself ought not to be altered; but where the rural art presides, 353–60white or stone colour has a much better effect. [https://www’ ''Practical Treatise on Planting and Gardening p.zotero593 &c.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/Z9IBV7A4 view on Zotero]</ref>''”
:“But the most enchanting [[prospect]] is towards the grand pleasure grove & [[green house]] of a Mr. Prat[t], a gentleman of fortune, and to this we next proceeded by a circutous [''sic''] rout, passing in [[view]] of the fish ponds, [[bower]]s, rustic retreats, summer houses, [[fountain]]s, [[grotto]], &c., &c. The [[grotto]] is dug in a bank [and] is of a circular form, the side built up of rock and arched over head, and a number of Shells [?]. A dog of natural size carved out of marble sits just within the entrance, the guardian of the place. A narrow aperture lined with a [[hedge]] of [[arbor]] vitae leads to it. Next is a round fish pond with a small [[fountain]] playing in the [[pond]]. An Oval & several oblong fish ponds of larger size follow, & between the two last is an artificial [[cascade]]. Several summer houses in [[rustic style]] are made by nailing bark on the outside & thaching the roof. There is also a rustic '''seat''' built in the branches of a tree, & to which a flight of steps ascend. In one of the summer houses is a Spring with '''seats''' arrond it. The houses are all embelished [''sic''] with marble busts of Venus, Appollo, Diana and a Bacanti. One sits on an Island on the fish pond. All the [[pond]]s filled with handsome coloured fish.” [See Fig. 1]
*Repton, Humphry, 1803, ''Observations on the Theory and Practice of Landscape Gardening'' (1803: 69, 153)<ref>Humphry Repton, ''Observations on the Theory and Practice of Landscape Gardening'' (London: Printed by T. Bensley for J. Taylor, 1803), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/VVQPC3BI view on Zotero].</ref>
:“This would be a proper place for a covered '''seat''', with a shed behind it for horses or open carriages; but it should be set so far back as to command the [[view]] under the branches of trees, which are very happily situated for the purpose. . .
:“Yet the summit of a naked brow, commanding [[view]]s in every direction, may require a covered '''seat''' or [[pavilion]]; for such a situation, where an architectural building is proper, a circular [[temple]] with a dome, such as the [[temple]] of the Sybils, or that of Tivoli, is best calculated.”
* Trollope, Frances Milton, 1830, describing Philadelphia, Pa. (1832: 2:48–49; 152) <ref>Frances Trollope, ''Domestic Manners of the Americans'', 3rd edn, 2 vols. (London: Wittaker, Treacher, 1832). [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/T5RXDF7G view on Zotero]</ref>
*Abercrombie, John, with James Mean, 1817, ''Abercrombie’s Practical Gardener'' (1817:“Near this enclosure 465)<ref>John Abercrombie, ''Abercrombie’s Practical Gardener Or, Improved System of Modern Horticulture'' (London: T. Cadell and W. Davies, 1817), [at the State Househttps://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/TH54TADZ/ view on Zotero] is another .</ref>:“Fine points of much the same description, called [[Washington Squareview]]. Here there was an excellent crop of clover; but as claim, in the trees are numerousfirst place, and highly beautiful, and several commodious to be distinguished by '''seats''' are placed beneath . '''Seats''' merely serving as places of rest might announce an intrinsic object by some difference in their shadeconstruction; and if there be no distant [[prospect]] to engage attention, it is, spite of greater elegance in the long grass, accompaniments may create a very agreeable retreat from heat and dustpleasant resting-place. It was rarely, however, that I saw any As to the manner of these finishing a '''seatsseat''' occupied; where the Americans have either no leisurehouse is in sight, a correct taste will expect the bench or no inclination for those moments [[alcove]] to correspond with the style of ''delassement'' that all other peoplethe house, I believeso far at least as to be avowedly artificial, indulge neat inthe workmanship, and painted. . . . it is nevertheless In neglected or wild scenes, withdrawn from the nearest approach to polished [[lawn]], pleasing illusions may be induced by a London square that is to be found in Philadelphia. . . . “The Delaware riverrough block of timber, above Philadelphiathe arms of a fantastic root, still flows through a landscape too level for beautyor forest fagots romantically interwoven, but it is rendered interesting by offering a succession of gentlemen’s '''seatsseat'''under the canopy of a tree, whichor within a cave or [[grotto]]. This is admissible on principle, if less elaborately finished in architectureproportion as every thing surrounding is in character. Not that it can be denied, that whimsical '''seats''' at variance with the situation sometimes afford a degree of amusement, and garden groundsmay do no harm in little gardens, than or in a scene too tame to be spoiled: but the lovely villas on effect terminates with the Thames, are still beautiful objects to gaze upon as you float rapidly past on the broad silvery stream that washes their [[lawn]]soddity; a place destitute of character can excite no romantic interest.”
[[File:1334.jpg|thumb|225px|Fig. 13, [[J. C. Loudon]], Covered seats of the [[Rustic_style|rustic]] kind, in ''An Encyclopædia of Gardening'', 4th ed. (1826), 357, fig. 336.]] * Downing[[J. C. (John Claudius) Loudon|Loudon, AJ. C. (John Claudius)]], 1826, ''An Encyclopaedia of Gardening'' (1826: 355, 357, 809)<ref>J. C. (John Claudius) Loudon, ''An Encyclopaedia of Gardening; Comprising the Theory and Practice of Horticulture, Floriculture, Arboriculture, and Landscape-Gardening'', 4th ed. (London: Longman et al., January 18371826), “Notices [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/KNKTCA4W view on Zotero].</ref>:“1805. ''Of convenient decorations'' the variety is almost endless, from the prospect-tower to the rustic '''seat'''; besides aquatic decorations, agreeable to the State eye and Progress convenient for the purposes of Horticulture recreations or culture. Their emplacement, as in the former section, belongs to gardening, and their construction to architecture and engineering. . .:“1816. ''Roofed '''seats''', boat-houses, moss houses, flint houses, bark huts'', and similar constructions, are different modes of forming resting-places containing '''seats''', and sometimes other furniture or conveniences in or near them. . . [Fig. 13]:“1817. ''Roofed '''seats''' of a more polished description'' are boarded structures generally semi-octagonal, and placed so as to be open to the United Statessouth. Sometimes they are portable,” describing Hyde Parkmoving on wheels, so as to be placed in different positions, according to the hour of the day, seat or season of Drthe year, which, in confined spots, is a desirable circumstance. David HosackSometimes they turn on rollers, or on a central pivot, for the same object, and this is very common in what are called barrel-'''seats'''. In general they are opaque, but occasionally their sides are glazed, to admit the Hudsonsun to the interior in winter.[[File:1335.jpg|thumb|225px|Fig. 14, N[[J.YC. Loudon]], Elegant structures of the seat kind, in ''An Encyclopædia of Gardening'' 4th ed. (1826), 357, figs. 337 and 338.]] :“1818. ''Folding chairs''. A sort of medium '''seat''', between the roofed and the exposed, is formed by constructing the backs of chairs, benches, or sofas with hinges, so as they may fold down over the '''seat''', and so protect it from rain. . .:“1819. ''Elegant structures'' of the '''seat'''Magazine kind for summer use, may be constructed of Horticultureiron rods and wires, and painted canvas; the iron forming the supporting skeleton, and the canvass the protecting tegument. . . [Fig. 14]:“1820. ''Exposed '''seats''''' include a great variety, rising in gradation from the turf bank to the carved couch. Intermediate forms are stone benches, root stools, sections of trunks of trees, wooden, stone, or cast-iron mushrooms painted or covered with moss, or mat, or heath; the Chinese barrel-'''seat''' 3, the rustic stool, chair, tripod, sofa, the cast-iron couch or sofa, the wheeling-chair, and many subvarieties. . .: 5)“6157. . . Light [[bower]]s formed of lattice-work, and covered with climbers, are in general most suitable to [[parterre]]s; plain covered '''seats''' suit the general [[walk]]s of the [[shrubbery]].”
:“The most distinguished amateur and patron of gardening, in every sense of the word, in this state, was the late Dr. Hosack. Hyde Park, on the Hudson, the '''seat''' of this gentleman, has been probably the best specimen of a highly improved residence in the United States.”
*Anonymous, April 26, 1826, “On Landscapes and Picturesque Gardens” (''New England Farmer'' 4: 316)<ref>Anonymous, “On Landscape and Picturesque Gardens,” ''New England Farmer'' 4, no. 40 (April 28, 1826): 316, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/keywords_in_early_american_landscape_design/items/itemKey/I3K5QGBZ? view on Zotero].</ref>
:“A few fabrics, rustic [[bridge]]s, [[hermitage]]s, a [[Temple]], or a Chinese Kiosk or Pagoda, not expensive in their execution, would advantageously complete the embellishment of a country '''seat'''.”
* Ritchie, Anna Cora Ogden Mowatt, 1839, describing Bonaparte’s Park at estate of Joseph Bonaparte (Count de Survilliers), Bordentown, N.J. (quoted in Weber 1854: 186) <ref>Constance Weber, ‘A Sketch of Joseph Bonaparte’, in ''Godey’s Lady's Book'' (Philadelphia: L. A. Godey, 1854). [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/NEDC6TSD/ view on Zotero]</ref>
:“Equally rustic *[[Noah Webster|Webster, Noah]], 1828, ''An American Dictionary of the English Language'seats'(1828: 2:n.p.)<ref>Noah Webster, '' are scattered beneath the shade An American Dictionary of the tall trees English Language'', 2 vols. (New York: S. Converse, 1828), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/N7BSU467 view on its banksZotero].</ref>:“'''SEAT''', ''n.'' [It. ''sedia''; Sp. s''ede, sitio'', from L. ''sedes, situs''; Sw. ''sate''; Dan. ''soede''; G. ''sitz''; D. ''zetel'', ''zitplaats''; W. ''sez''; Ir. ''saidh''; W. with a prefix, ''gosod'', whence ''gosodi'', to ''set''. See ''Set'' and upon its clear surface ''Sit''. . .]:“1. That on which one sits. . .:“3. Mansion; residence; dwelling; abode; as Italy the '''''seat''''' of empire. The Greeks sent colonies to seek a new '''''seat''''' in Gaul.:“In Alba he shall fix his royal '''''seat'''''. Dryden. :“4. Site; situation. The '''''seat''''' of Eden has never been incontrovertibly ascertained. . .:“8. The place where a flock thing is settled or established. London is the '''''seat''''' of business and opulence. So we say, the '''''seat''''' of the muses, the '''''seat''''' of arts, the '''''seat''''' of snow-white swans were floating aboutcommerce.”
* HoveyBridgeman, C. M.Thomas, September 18401832, “Notes on Gardens and Gardening''The Young Gardener’s Assistant'' (1832: 111)<ref> Thomas Bridgeman, ''The Young Gardener’s Assistant'', in 3rd ed. (New BedfordYork: Geo. Robertson, Mass1832),” describing [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/9FU4SNZK view on Zotero].</ref>:“In a retired part of the estate of James Arnold[flower] garden, New Bedforda rustic '''seat''' may be formed, Mass. (over and around which honey-suckles and other sweet and ornamental creepers and climbers may he [''Magazine of Horticulturesic'' 6: 364)] trained on [[trellis]]es, so as to afford a pleasant retirement.”
:“Continuing through the winding [[walk]]s, shady [[bower]]s, and umbrageous retreats, through which rustic '''seats''' were placed, we arrived at the shell [[grotto]].”
*Teschemacher, James E., August 1, 1835, “Extracts from Foreign Publications” (''Horticultural Register'' 1: 308–9)<ref>James E. Teschemacher, “Extracts from Foreign Publications,” ''Horticultural Register, and Gardener’s Magazine'' 1 (August 1, 1835): 304–9, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/keywords_in_early_american_landscape_design/items/itemKey/CNPGMS5X/q/extracts%20from%20foreign%20publications view on Zotero].</ref>
:“''From an article On the various form and character of [[Arbour]]s as objects of use or ornament either in gardens or wild scenery [from Paxton’s Horticultural Register''], we extract the following passages. . .
:“‘The closely shaven turf comes about ten feet inside the [[arch]]es where its edge is cut, and between that and the [[basin]] is covered with a fine tawny sand, with an apparently confused but really symmetrical arrangement of marble pedestals, '''seats''' and [[vase]]s with flowering plants placed upon them. During summer a [[vase]] with a rare flowering plant is placed under each of the external [[arch]]es except four which serve as entrances. The entire effect is good, and his may be considered as one of the best specimens of the artificial [[bower]] of the present day.’”
* Adams, Rev. Nehemiah, 1842, describing Boston Common, Boston, Mass. ([Adams] 1842: 54) <ref>Nehemiah Adams, ''Boston Common'' (Boston: William D. Ticknor and H. B. Williams, 1842). [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/VXTWGJ58 view on Zotero]</ref>
*Sayers, Edward, 1838, ''The American Flower Garden Companion'' (1838:“One of 14, 19, 131)<ref>Edward Sayers, ''The American Flower Garden Companion, Adapted to the next improvements in Northern States'' (Boston: Joseph Breck, 1838), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/GHTFN8B2 view on Zotero].</ref>:“At country residences, where a large extent is appropriated to this department [the [[Commonflower garden]] we suspect will ], many convenient and pleasing appendages can be a suitable supply of proper judiciously introduced; as rustic [[arbor]]s, rustic '''seats''' , and [[rockery]]; and if water can be connected, it always gives a good effect. All such appendages, I recommend to be constructed in as natural a manner as possible. . .:“In extensive [[pleasure ground]]s the [[rockery]] has a good effect when placed distinct from the [[mallflower garden]]. As , and near a defence against our American propensity to whittlerustic [[arbor]] or ornamental [[bridge]], the city government caused some of the wooden or '''seatsseat''' to be sheathed with sheet iron. Vain defence against ; and if placed by the knife side of a retired [[walk]], near the [[lawn]] or grass [[plot]], it has an American whittler! easy effect. . . The city government thought that they would ‘try what virtue there is in stones.’ Blocks :“the margin of the [[pond]] should be planted with drooping willows and trees of granite have been deposited there a pendulous habit for shade, under which rustic '''seatsseat'''. . . . The stone '''seats''' are smooth only on might be properly placed for the accommodation of those who desire to view the upper sidesporting fishes, and their rough look is not strictly in Boston taste, though it is excusable, considering the penitentiary object other interesting objects by which led to their substitution for wooden '''seats'''they are surrounded. [[File:0936. jpg|thumb|225px|Fig. . The idea of sitting on a natural15, rough rockAlexander Walsh, to enjoy the beauties of nature, is poetical and in good keepingTwo seats surrounded by an arched [[arbor]], but we have tried in vain to make those stone ''New England Farmer'seats''' on the [[mall19, no. 39 (March 31, 1841): 309, fig. 4.]] seem poetical.”
* BuckinghamWalsh, James SilkAlexander, 1842March 31, describing Red Sulphur Springs1841, Va“Remarks on Ornamental Gardening” (''New England Farmer'' 19: 308–9)<ref>Alexander Walsh, “Remarks on Ornamental Gardening, With a Plan of a Fruit, Flower and Vegetable Garden,” ''New England Farmer, and Horticultural Register'' 19, no. 39 (CWFMarch 31, 1841): 308–9, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/HD2AV62D view on Zotero.]</ref>:“The garden and [[pleasure ground]] I would describe, is of an oblong form, 165 feet by 120 feet, with one end next the north side of the house. . .:“X X two '''seats''', each occupying 2 ft. . . T T two '''seats'''. . . surrounded by an arched [[arbor]] 10 ft. high, thrown over the [[walk]], ornamented on one side with honeysuckle, on the other by climbing Boursaut rose.” [Fig. 15]
:“In the centre of the valley, is a triangular [[plot]] of grass, which has been enclosed with wellfinished rails, painted white, and laid out in [[walk]]s like a [[lawn]], having also several large and fine trees, under which '''seats''' are placed for enjoying the shade.”
[[File:1824.jpg|thumb|225px|Fig. 16, Anonymous, “Moveable Garden Seat,” in Jane Loudon, ''Gardening for Ladies'' (1843), 283, fig. 49.]]
*[[Jane Loudon|Loudon, Jane]], 1843, ''Gardening for Ladies'' (1843: 283–84)<ref>Jane Loudon, ''Gardening for Ladies; And Companion to the Flower-Garden,'' ed. A. J. Downing (New York: Wiley and Putnam, 1843), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/VJ3SM523 view on Zotero].</ref>
:“'''SEATS''' for gardens are either open or covered; the latter being in the form of root-houses, huts, [[pavilion]]s, [[temple]]s, [[grotto]]es, &c., and the former being either fixed, temporary, or portable. Fixed '''seats''' are commonly of stone, either plain stone benches without backs, or stone supports to wooden benches. Sometimes, also, wooden '''seats''' are fixed, as when they are placed round a tree, or when boards are nailed to posts, or when '''seats''' are formed in imitation of mushrooms, as in the grounds at Redleaf. Fixed '''seats''' are also sometimes formed of turf. Portable '''seats''' are formed of [[wood]], sometimes contrived to have the back of the '''seat''' folded down when the '''seat''' is not in use; so as to exclude the weather, and avoid the dirt of birds which are apt to perch on them. Another kind of portable '''seat''', which is frequently formed in iron, as shown in ''fig.'' 49, is readily wheeled from one part of the grounds to another; and the back of which also folds down to protect the '''seat''' from the weather. There is a kind of camp-stool which serves as a portable '''seat''', imported from Norway, and sold at the low price of 2''s''. 6''d''. or 3''s''.; and there are also straw '''seats''', like half [[beehive]]s, which are, however, only used in garden-huts, or in any situation under cover, because in the open air they would be liable to be soaked with rain. There are a great variety of rustic '''seats''' formed of roots and crooked branches of trees, used both for the open garden and under cover; and there are also '''seats''' of cast and wrought iron, of great variety of form. There should always be some kind of analogy between the '''seat''' and the scene of which it forms a part; and for this reason rustic '''seats''' should be confined to rustic scenery; and the '''seats''' for a [[lawn]] or highly kept pleasure-ground ought to be of comparatively simple and architectural forms, and either of [[wood]] or stone, those of [[wood]] being frequently painted of a stone colour, and sprinkled over with silver sand before the paint is dry, to give them the appearance of stone. Iron '''seats''', generally speaking, are not sufficiently massive for effect; and the metal conveys the idea of cold in winter and heat in summer. [Fig. 16]
:“When '''seats''' are placed along a [[walk]], a gravelled recess ought to be formed to receive them; and there ought, generally, to be a footboard to keep the feet from the moist ground, whether the '''seat''' is on gravel or on al awn [''sic'']. In a garden where there are several '''seats''', some ought to be in positions exposed to the sun, and others placed in the shade, and none ought to be put down in a situation where the back of the '''seat''' is seen by a person approaching it before the front. Indeed the backs of all fixed '''seats''' ought to be concealed by shrubs, or by some other means, unless they are circular '''seats''' placed round a tree. '''Seats''' ought not to be put down where there will be any temptation to the persons sitting on them to strain their eyes to the right or left, nor where the boundary of the garden forms a conspicuous object in the [[view]]. In general, all '''seats''' should be of a stone colour, as harmonizing best with vegetation. Noting can be more unartistical than '''seats''' painted a pea-green, and placed among the green of living plants.”
* Anonymous, 6 December 1842, “Letter from Ministry at New Lebanon to Ministry at Graveland” (Western Reserve Historical Society Library, Shaker Manuscript Collection)
[[File:“And it is my will that your 0398.jpg|thumb|225px|Fig. 17, Anonymous, “[[Rustic_style|Rustic]] Covered Seat,” in [[A. J. Downing]], ''A Treatise on the Theory and Practice of Landscape Gardening'seats', 4th ed. (1849), 458, fig. 86.]]*[[Andrew Jackson Downing|Downing, Andrew Jackson]], 1849, '' be prepared after A Treatise on the following orderTheory and Practice of Landscape Gardening'' (1849: 454–56, 473–74)<ref>A. J. Ye may take boards [Andrew Jackson] Downing, ''A Treatise on the Theory and Practice of sufficient width & thickness Landscape Gardening, Adapted to form a North America. . . '', 4th ed. (New York: G. P. Putnam, 1849), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/5M4S2D64 view on Zotero].</ref>:''“Open and covered '''seats''seat''', of various descriptions, are among the most convenient and useful decorations for the pleasure-grounds of a country residence. These may be planedSituated in portions of the [[lawn]] or [[park]], somewhat distant from the house, they offer an agreeable place for rest or repose. Place these upon square blocks If there are certain points from which are obtained agreeable [[prospect]]s or extensive [[view]]s of sufficient bigness to elevate the surrounding country, a '''seat''' , by designating those points, and by affording us a convenient mode of enjoying them, has a suitable height; double recommendation to our minds.:“Open and these are sufficient for covered '''seats'''are of two distinct kinds; one ''architectural'', or formed after artist-like designs, of stone or [[wood]], in Grecian, Gothic, or other forms; which may, upon my holy ground. And if ye desire they are intended to build a shedproduce an elegant effect, near by have [[vase]]s on pedestals as accompaniments; the meeting ground under other, ''rustic'', as they are called, which you can place these are formed out of trucks and branches of trees, roots, etc., in their natural forms. . .:“We consider rustic '''seats'''and structures as likely to be much preferred in the villa and cottage residences of the country. They have the merit of being tasteful and [[picturesque]] in their appearance, and are easily constructed by the amateur, at such parts comparatively little or no expense. There is scarcely a prettier or more pleasant object for the termination of a long [[walk]] in the [[Pleasure_ground|pleasure-grounds]] or [[park]], than a neatly thatched structure of rustic work, with its '''seat''' for repose, and a [[view]] of the landscape beyond. . . [Fig. 17]:''“Unity of expression'' is the maxim and guide in this department of the year art, as in every other. . .:“With regard to [[pavilion]]s, summer-houses, rustic '''seats''', and garden edifices of like character, they should, if possible, in all cases be introduced where they are not wantedmanifestly appropriate or in harmony with the scene. Thus. . . a rustic covered '''seat''' may occupy a secluded, ye may freely do it; but if my feast ground is located near your dwellingsquiet portion of the grounds, you had better carry them there to place under shelterwhere undisturbed meditation be enjoyed.”
* LongfellowRanlett, Henry Wadsworth, cWilliam H. 1845, describing the Vassall-Craigie-Longfellow House1849, Cambridge''The Architect'' (1849; repr., Mass. (quoted in Evans 19931976: 1: 4119) <ref>Catherine EvansWilliam H. Ranlett, ''Cultural Landscape Report for Longfellow National Historic Site, History and Existing ConditionsThe Architect'' , 2 vols. (Boston1849–51; repr., New York: National Park Service, North Atlantic RegionDa Capo, 19931976), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/9TI9GUQN QGQPCB5J view on Zotero].</ref>:“Probably no portion of the globe, offers a greater variety of beautiful country '''seats''' than the vicinity of New-York. No man who has any taste for the retired tranquillity of a suburban retreat, or the lovely beauty of a [[picturesque]] scene, or the romantic grandeur of an enchanting landscape of cities, towns and country; rivers, bays and ocean, could fail to be suited with some of the numerous situations on the undulated shores, gentle declivities or towering heights of Staten Island, Long Island or the banks of the noble Hudson.”
:“Made the [[flower garden]]; laying it out in the form of a Lyre. Built also the rustic '''seat''' in the Old Apple tree. Set out the roses under the Library windows.”
[[File:0920.jpg|thumb|225px|Fig. 18, Anonymous, “Small Bracketed Cottage,” in [[A. J. Downing]], ''The Architecture of Country Houses'' (1850), pl. opp. 78, fig. 9.]]
*[[Andrew Jackson Downing|Downing, Andrew Jackson]], 1850, ''The Architecture of Country Houses'' (1850; repr., 1968: 80–81)<ref>A. J. [Andrew Jackson] Downing, ''The Architecture of Country Houses; Including Designs for Cottages, Farm-Houses, and Villas'' (1850; repr., New York: D. Appleton; Da Capo, 1968), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/GRZPQXQI view on Zotero].</ref>
:“The little rustic [[arbor]]s or covered '''seats''' on the outside of the bay window may be supposed to answer in some measure in the place of a [[veranda]], and convey at the first glance, an impression of refinement and taste attained in that simple manner so appropriate to a small cottage.” [Fig. 18]
* Downing, A. J., 26 July 1847, describing Montgomery Place, country home of Mrs. Edward (Louise) Livingston, Dutchess County, N.Y. (quoted in Haley 1988: 20, 47, 50) <ref>Jacquetta M. Haley, ed., ''Pleasure Grounds: Andrew Jackson Downing and Montgomery Place'' (Tarrytown, N.Y.: Sleepy Hollow Press, 1988). [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/SSZXJFSC/ view on Zotero]</ref>
:“I forgot to beg you before you leave Montgomery Place to sketch the *[[viewAndrew Jackson Downing|Downing, Andrew Jackson]] from the bold rustic ', June 1850, “Our Country Villages” (''seatHorticulturist''' with rustic balustrade in front* on the high west river [[walk]]. It seems to me one of the very finest things I have seen anywhere.4:540–41)<nowikiref>*</nowiki> that '''seat''' about half way between the steps & the south terminusA. J. . .:“A path on the left of the broad [[lawn]] leads one to the fanciful rustic-gabled '''seat'''Downing, among a growth of locusts at the bottom of the [[slope]]. . . Half-way along this morning ramble“Our Country Villages, a rustic '''seat'Horticulturist and Journal of Rural Art and Rural Taste''4, placed on a bold little plateauno. 12 (June 1850): 537–41, at the base of a large tree, eighty feet above the water, and fenced about with a rustic barrier, invites you to linger and gaze at the fascinating river landscape here presented. [https://www. zotero. org/groups/54737/keywords_in_early_american_landscape_design/items/itemKey/2DJ27X4W/q/our%20country%20villages view on Zotero].</ref>:“A little farther on“The next step, we reach a flight after the possession of rocky stepssuch public pleasure-grounds, leading up to would be the [[border]] social and common enjoyment of them. Upon the well-mown glades of [[lawn]]. At , and beneath the top shade of these is a the forest trees, would be formed rustic '''seatseats''' with a thatched canopy, curiously built round the trunk of an aged pine. . . .:“This part of the grounds [the Little [[lakearbor]]] is seen to the most advantages would be placed near, either toward evening, or where in moonlight. Then the effect of contrast in light and shadow is most striking, and the seclusion and beauty of the spot are more fully enjoyable than at any hour. Then you will most certainly midsummer evenings ices would be tempted served to leave the curious rustic '''seat''', with its roof wrapped round with a rude entablature like Pluto’s crownall who wished them.”
* Kirkbride[[Andrew Jackson Downing|Downing, Thomas SAndrew Jackson]], March 1851, “The Management of Large Country Places” (''Horticulturist'' 6: 105–6)<ref>A. J. Downing, “The Management of Large Country Places,” ''Horticulturist and Journal of Rural Art and Rural Taste'' 6, no. 3 (March 1851): 105–8, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/keywords_in_early_american_landscape_design/items/itemKey/HKQH76RW/q/management%20of%20large%20country%20places view on Zotero].</ref>:“All our country residences may readily be divided into two classes. The first and largest class, is the suburban place of from five to twenty or thirty acres; the second is the country-'''seat''', April 1848properly so called, describing which consists of from 30 to 500 or more acres. . .:“But in the larger country places, there are ten instances of failure for one of success. This is not owing to the want of natural beauty, for the sites are [[picturesque]], the surface varied, and the [[wood]]s and [[plantation]]s excellent. The failure consists, for the most part, in a certain incongruity and want of distinct character in the treatment of the place as a whole. They are too large to be kept in order as pleasure -grounds , while they are not laid out or treated as [[park]]s. The grass which stretches on all sides of the house, is partly mown for [[lawn]], and partly for hay; the lines of the farm and the ornamental portion of the Pennsylvania Hospital for grounds, meet in a confused and unsatisfactory manner, and the Insaneresult is a residence pretending to be much superior to a common farm, Philadelphia, Pa. (and not yet rising to the dignity of a really tasteful country '''seat'American Journal of Insanity'' 4: 349).”
:“The summer-houses, rustic-'''seats''', exercisingswings &c., in this division are all in particularly pleasant positions. The cottage fronts the [[wood]]s, and in every part this portion of the grounds is completely protected from intrusion and observation.”
*Jaques, George, January 1852, “Landscape Gardening in New-England” (''Horticulturist'' 7: 35)<ref> George Jacques, “Landscape Gardening in New-England,” ''Horticulturist and Journal of Rural Art and Rural Taste'' 7, no. 1 (January 1852): 33–36, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/keywords_in_early_american_landscape_design/items/itemKey/WMEDJ9XX/q/landscape%20gardening%20in%20new-england view on Zotero].</ref>
:“Let woodbine, honey-suckle and climbing roses, here entwine themselves around a [[column]], and wreath themselves there over a window. Here place a rustic '''seat''', half hid among the [[shrubbery]]; there lead a short [[walk]], carelessly curving towards a little vine-clad [[arbor]].”
* Loudon, J. C., 1850, describing the public gardens in Philadelphia, Pa. (pp. 332–33)
:“856. ''[[Public Gardens]]''. . . .:“''[[Promenade]] at Philadelphia''. There is a very pretty enclosure before the walnut tree entrance to the state-house, with good well-kept gravel [[walk]]s, and many beautiful flowering trees. It is laid down in grass, not in turf; which, indeed, Mrs. Trollope observes, ‘is a luxury she never saw in America. Near this enclosure is another of a similar description, called [[Washington Square]], which has numerous trees, with commodious '''seats''' placed beneath their shade.’ (''Ibid''. [''D. M. &c''.] vol. ii. p. 48.) . . .:“''Waterworks at Fair Mount, near Philadelphia''. ‘. . . On the farther side of the river is a gentleman’s '''seat''', the beautiful [[lawn]] of which slopes down to the water’s edge; and groups of weeping willows and other trees throw their shadows on the stream.’ (''Domestic Manners of the Americans'', vol. ii. p. 44.)”<hr>
==Images=Citations====Inscribed===<span id="roundabout_img"></span><gallery widths="170px" heights="170px" perrow="7">
* Image:1722.jpg|[[Dézallier d’Argenville, A.-J.James Gibbs]], 1712, “Two '''Seats'The Theory and Practice of Gardening'' (for the ends of [[1712Walk] 1969: 78) <ref> A.-J. (Antoine Joseph) Dézallier d’Argenville]s, ” in ''The Theory and Practice of Gardening; Wherein Is Fully Handled All That Relates to Fine Gardens, ... Containing Divers Plans, and General Dispositions A Book of Gardens; ...Architecture'', trans. by John James (London: Geo. James1728), 1712)pl. [https://www82.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/RNT8ZVZ8 view on Zotero]</ref>
Image: 1723.jpg|[[James Gibbs]], “Two other '''SEATSSeats''', or Benches, besides for the same purpose [for the Conveniency they constantly afford in great Gardens, where you can scarce ever have too many, there is such need ends of them in walking, look very well also in a Garden, when set in certain Places they are destin’d to, as in the Niches or Sinkings that face principal [[Walkwalk]]s and [[Vista]]s, and in the Halls and Galleries ''A Book of [[Grove]]sArchitecture'' (1728), pl. 83.
''* Ware, Isaac, 1756Image:0925.jpg|William Burgis, ''A Complete Body South East [[View]] of Architectureye Great Town of Boston in New England in America'' (pp, 1743. 636, 641) <ref>Isaac Ware, “Capt. Cunningham’s '''Seat'A Complete Body of Architecture'' (London: T. Osborne and J. Shipton, 1756). [https:” is inscribed over a grand house with beds//wwwparterres in front.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/2EK2USKV view on Zotero]</ref>
Image:“The first principle is here that there be space 1737.jpg|Batty and Thomas Langley, “An Umbrello, to [[walk]], and a '''seatsSeat''' , for to rest. These must be proportioned also to one another: it would be absurd to terminate Terminate a vast [[walk]] with a plain bench; nor less ridiculous to erect a pompous , [[templeView]] where there was not the extent of , &c. in a hundred yards from the building. . . .:“He who would know where to place his [[pavilion]]Garden, ” in '''seat'Gothic Architecture''(1747), or [[temple]], in a garden, must first understand what the purpose of it is, and what the true beauty and excellence of the garden itselfpl. 31.
image:1688.jpg|William and John Halfpenny, “A [[Chinese_manner|Chinese]] [[Alcove]] '''Seat''' Fronting Four Ways,” in ''Rural Architecture in the Chinese Taste'' (1755), pl. 8.
* Sheridan, Thomas, 1789File:2262.jpg|Anonymous, ''A Complete Dictionary The South West [[Prospect]] of the English Language'' (n.p.) <ref>Thomas A. Sheridan, 'Seat'''A Complete Dictionary of the English LanguageColonel George Boyd of Portsmouth, New Hampshire, New England, Carefully Revised and Corrected by John Andrews....1774'', 5th edn (Philadelphia: William Young, 1789). [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/T5GU4CBQ view on Zotero]</ref>
Image:“'''SEAT''', se’t0587. s. A chairjpg|Anonymous, bench, or any thing on which one may sit; chair Plan of the Harbour and City of state; tribunal; mansion, abode; situationAnnapolis, site1781.
Image:0461.jpg|[[Samuel Vaughan]], Plan of Bath [[Berkeley Springs|[Berkeley Springs]]], VA, 1787, from the diary of [[Samuel Vaughan]], June–September 1787. Plan lists “bb” as “two [[Piazza]]s with '''seats'''.”
* Image:0338.jpg|Anonymous, 1798, ''EncyclopaediaA [[View]] of [[Mount Vernon]]'' (7:561), c. 1790.
Image:“‘V0021. jpg|Cornelius Tiebout, '''SEATS''' have a two-fold use; they are useful as places of rest and conversation, and as guides to the points of A [[viewView]] in which the beauties of the surrounding scene are disclosed. Every point of [[view]] should be marked with a '''seat'''; and speaking generally, no present '''seatSeat''' ought to appear but in some favourable point of [[view]]. This rule may not be invariable, but it ought seldom to be deviated from.:“In the ruder scenes of neglected nature, the simple trunk, rough from the woodman’s hands, and the butts or stools of rooted trees, without any other marks of tools upon them than those of the saw which severed them from their stems, are '''seats''' in character; and in romantic or recluse situations, the cave or the [[grotto]] are admissiblehis Excel. But wherever human design has been executed upon the natural objects Vice President of the place, the '''seat'United States'' and every other artificial accompaniment ought to be in unison; and whether the bench or the [[alcove]] be chosen, it ought to be formed and finished in such a manner as to unite with the [[wood]], the [[lawn]], and the [[walk]], which lie around it.:“The colour of '''seats''' should likewise be suited to situations: where uncultivated nature prevails, the natural brown of the [[wood]] itself ought not to be altered; but where the rural art presides, white or stone colour has a much better effect.’ ''Practical Treatise on Planting and Gardening p1790. 593 &c.''”
Image:1983.jpg|Jeremiah Paul, “[[Robert Morris]]’ '''Seat''' on [[Schuylkill_River|Schuylkill]],” July 20, 1794.
* Repton, HumphryImage:1925.jpg|Alexander Robertson, 1803, ''Observations on Cleremont the Theory and Practice of Landscape Gardening'' (pp. 69, 153) <ref>Humphry Repton, 'seat'Observations on the Theory and Practice of Landscape Gardening'' (London: Printed by TR. Bensley for JR. TaylorLivingston, 1803). [https://www.zotero1796.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/VVQPC3BI view on Zotero]</ref>
Image:“This would be a proper place for a covered '''seat''', with a shed behind it for horses or open carriages; but it should be set so far back as to command the 0939.jpg|[[viewCharles Fraser]] under the branches of trees, which are very happily situated for the purpose. . .''Rice Hope:“Yet the summit of a naked brow, commanding [[view]]s in every direction, may require a covered The '''seatSeat''' or [[pavilion]]; for such a situationof Dr. William Read, where an architectural building is proper, a circular [[temple]] with a dome, such as the [[temple]] Taken from One of the SybilsRice Fields'', or that of Tivoli, is best calculatedc. 1800.
Image:0141.jpg|Thomas Coram, ''The [[Grove]], '''Seat''' of G.A. Hall, Esquire'', c. 1800.
* Abercrombie, John, with James Mean, 1817, ''Abercrombie’s Practical Gardener'' Image:0345.jpg|Alexander Robertson (p. 465artist) <ref>John Abercrombie, ''Abercrombie’s Practical Gardener Or, Improved System of Modern Horticulture'' Francis Jukes (London: T. Cadell and W. Daviesengraver), 1817). “[[https://wwwMount Vernon]] in Virginia,” 1800.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/TH54TADZ/ view on Zotero]</ref>
Image:“Fine points of [[view]] claim, in the first place, to be distinguished by '''seats'''2259. '''Seats''' merely serving as places of rest might announce an intrinsic object by some difference in their construction; and if there be no distant [[prospect]] to engage attentionjpg|Anonymous, greater elegance in the accompaniments may create a pleasant resting-place. As to the manner Plan of finishing a '''seat'''; where the house is in sight, a correct taste will expect the bench or Harvard [[alcoveBotanic Garden]] to correspond with the style of the house, so far at least as to be avowedly artificial, neat in the workmanship, and paintedc. In neglected or wild scenes, withdrawn from the polished [[lawn]], pleasing illusions may be induced by a rough block of timber, the arms of a fantastic root, or forest fagots romantically interwoven, offering a '''seat''' under the canopy of a tree, or within a cave or [[grotto]]1807. This is admissible on principle, in proportion as every thing surrounding is in character“N. Not that it can be denied, that whimsical Green-'''seats''' at variance with the situation sometimes afford a degree of amusement, and may do no harm in little gardens, or in a scene too tame to be spoiled: but the effect terminates with the oddity; a place destitute of character can excite no romantic interestturf banks.”
Image:0601.jpg|Anonymous, A plan of the section of land on which the Believers live in the state of Ohio, November 7, 1807. "'''Seat'''" inscribed on top center left.
* Loudon, JImage:1924. Cjpg|P.Lodet, 1826''Clermont, ''An Encyclopaedia of Gardening'Seat' (pp. 355, 357, 809) <ref>J. C. (John Claudius) Loudon, ''An Encyclopaedia of Gardening; Comprising the Theory and Practice of Horticulture, Floriculture, Arboriculture, and LandscapeChancellor Livingston -GardeningNorth River 1807'', 4th edn (London: Longman et al, 1826). [https://www.zotero1807.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/KNKTCA4W view on Zotero]</ref>
Image:“18050317. ''Of convenient decorations'' the variety is almost endless, from the prospect-tower to the rustic '''seat'''; besides aquatic decorations, agreeable to the eye and convenient for the purposes of recreations or culture. Their emplacement, as in the former section, belongs to gardening, and their construction to architecture and engineering. . . .:“1816. ''Roofed '''seats''', boat-houses, moss houses, flint houses, bark huts'', and similar constructions, are different modes of forming resting-places containing '''seats'''jpg|William Russell Birch, and sometimes other furniture or conveniences in or near them. . . .:“1817. ''Roofed Montebello—The '''seatsSeat''' of a more polished description'' are boarded structures generally semi-octagonal, and placed so as to be open to the south. Sometimes they are portable, moving on wheels, so as to be placed in different positions, according to the hour of the day, or season of the year, which, in confined spots, is a desirable circumstance. Sometimes they turn on rollers, or on a central pivot, for the same object, and this is very common in what are called barrel-'''seats'General Smith''. In general they are opaque, but occasionally their sides are glazed, to admit the sun to the interior in winter.:“1818c. ''Folding chairs''. A sort of medium '''seat''', between the roofed and the exposed, is formed by constructing the backs of chairs, benches, or sofas with hinges, so as they may fold down over the '''seat''', and so protect it from rain. . . .'':“1819. ''Elegant structures'' of the '''seat''' kind for summer use, may be constructed of iron rods and wires, and painted canvas; the iron forming the supporting skeleton, and the canvass the protecting tegument. . . .:“1820. ''Exposed '''seats''''' include a great variety, rising in gradation from the turf bank to the carved couch. Intermediate forms are stone benches, root stools, sections of trunks of trees, wooden, stone, or cast-iron mushrooms painted or covered with moss, or mat, or heath; the Chinese barrel-'''seat''', the rustic stool, chair, tripod, sofa, the cast-iron couch or sofa, the wheeling-chair, and many subvarieties. . . .:“6157. . . Light [[bower]]s formed of lattice-work, and covered with climbers, are in general most suitable to [[parterre]]s; plain covered '''seats''' suit the general [[walk]]s of the [[shrubbery]]1808.
Image:0326.jpg|William Russell Birch, “The [[View]] from Springland,” in ''The Country '''Seats''' of the United States'' (1808), pl. 2.
* AnonymousImage:0311.jpg|William Russell Birch, 26 April 1826“Hoboken in New Jersey, the '''Seat''' of Mr. John Stevens, “On Landscapes and Picturesque Gardens” (” in ''The Country '''Seats'''New England Farmerof the United States'' 4: 316(1808), pl. 3.
Image:“A few fabrics0312.jpg|William Russell Birch, rustic [[bridge]]s“Hampton, [[hermitage]]sthe '''Seat''' of Genl. Chas. Ridgely, a [[Temple]]Maryland, or a Chinese Kiosk or Pagoda, not expensive in their execution, would advantageously complete the embellishment of a country ''The Country '''Seats''seat'of the United States''(1808), pl. 4.
Image:0303.jpg|William Russell Birch, “Landsdown, the '''Seat''' of the late Wm. Bingham Esq., Pennsylvania,” in ''The Country '''Seats''' of the United States'' (1808), pl. 5.
* WebsterImage:0314.jpg|William Russell Birch, Noah“[[Mount Vernon]], 1828Virginia, the '''Seat'''An American Dictionary of the English Language'' (nlate Genl.pG.) <ref>Noah WebsterWashington, ” in ''The Country '''Seats'''An American Dictionary of the English LanguageUnited States'', 2 vols. (New York: S. Converse1808), 1828)pl. [https://www7.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/N7BSU467 view on Zotero]</ref>
Image:0302.jpg|William Russell Birch, '''SEAT''', ''n.'' [It. ''sedia''; Sp. s''ede, sitio'', from L. ''sedes, situs''; Sw. ''sate''; Dan. ''soede''; G. ''sitz''; D. ''zetel''[Fountain]] Green, ''zitplaats''; W. ''sez''; IrPennsylv. ''saidh''; W. with a prefix, ''gosod'', whence ''gosodi'', to ''set''. See ''Set'' and ''Sit''. . . .]:“1. That on which one sits. . . .:“3. Mansion; residence; dwelling; abode; as Italy the '''''seat''Seat''' of empireMr. The Greeks sent colonies to seek a new '''''seat''''' S. Meeker,” in Gaul.:“In Alba he shall fix his royal '''''seat'''''. Dryden. :“4. Site; situation. The '''''seat''''' of Eden has never been incontrovertibly ascertained. . . .:“8. The place where a thing is settled or established. London is the '''Country ''seat''Seats''' of business and opulence. So we say, the United States'''''seat''''' of the muses(1808), the '''''seat''''' of arts, the '''''seat''''' of commercepl. 8.
Image:0316.jpg|William Russell Birch, “Devon in Pennsylv.a the '''Seat''' of Mr. Dallas,” in ''The Country '''Seats''' of the United States'' (1808), pl.10.
* BridgemanImage:0327.jpg|William Russell Birch, Thomas“[[Mount]] Sidney, 1832the '''Seat''' of Genl. John Baker, Pennsylv.a,” in ''The Young Gardener’s AssistantCountry '''Seats''' of the United States'' (p1808), pl. 111) <ref> Thomas Bridgeman11. The inscription reads "[[Mount]] Sidney, the ''The Young Gardener’s Assistant'Seat''', 3rd edn (New York: Geoof Gen. Robertsonl John Baker, 1832)Pennsylv. [https:a //wwwDrawn, Engraved & Published by W.zoteroBirch Springland, near Bristol, Pennsylvania.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/9FU4SNZK view on Zotero]</ref>"
Image:“In a retired part of 0318.jpg|William Russell Birch, “Montibello the [flower] garden, a rustic '''seat''' may be formedof Genl. S. Smith Maryland, over and around which honey-suckles and other sweet and ornamental creepers and climbers may he [” in ''sicThe Country Seats of the United States''] trained on [[trellis]]es(1808), so as to afford a pleasant retirementpl. 13.
Image:0304.jpg|William Russell Birch, “[[The Woodlands|Woodlands]], the '''Seat''' of Mr. Wm. Hamilton, Pennsylva.,” in ''The Country '''Seats''' of the United States'' (1808), pl. 14.
* TeschemacherImage:0319.jpg|William Russell Birch, James E“Sedgley '''seat''' of Mr.Wm. Crammond Pennsylva, 1 August 1835, “Extracts from Foreign Publications” (” in ''The Country '''Seats'''Horticultural Registerof the United States'' 1: 308–9(1808), pl. 15.
Image:0301.jpg|William Russell Birch, ''From an article On the various form and character of [[ArbourView]]s as objects of use or ornament either in gardens or wild scenery [from Paxton’s Horticultural Register''], we extract the following passages. . . .:“‘The closely shaven turf comes about ten feet inside the [[archBelmont_(Philadelphia,_PA)|Belmont]]es where its edge is cut, and between that and Pennsyla. the [[basin]] is covered with a fine tawny sand, with an apparently confused but really symmetrical arrangement '''Seat''' of marble pedestalsJudge Peters, ” in ''The Country 'seats''Seats''' and [[vase]]s with flowering plants placed upon them. During summer a [[vase]] with a rare flowering plant is placed under each of the external [[arch]]es except four which serve as entrancesUnited States'' (1808), pl. The entire effect is good, and his may be considered as one of the best specimens of the artificial [[bower]] of the present day16.’”
Image:0320.jpg|William Russell Birch, “York-Island with a [[View]] of the '''Seats''' of Mr. A. Gracie, Mr. Church &c.,” in ''The Country '''Seats''' of the United States'' (1808), pl. 17.
* Sayers, Edward, 1838Image:0322.jpg|William Russell Birch, “China Retreat Pennsyl.<sup>a</sup> the '''Seat'The American Flower Garden Companion''(ppof M. 14, 19, 131) <refsup>r</sup>Edward SayersManigault, ” in ''The American Flower Garden Companion, Adapted to Country '''Seats''' of the Northern United States'' (Boston: Joseph Breck1808), 1838)pl. [https://www.zotero19.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/GHTFN8B2 view on Zotero]</ref>
Image:“At country residences, where a large extent is appropriated to this department 0009.jpg|[the [[flower garden]Charles Willson Peale]], many convenient and pleasing appendages can be judiciously introduced; as rustic [[arbor]]s, rustic '''seats''', and [[rockery]]; and if water can be connected, it always gives a good effect. All such appendages, I recommend Letter to be constructed in as natural a manner as possible. . . .:“In extensive [[pleasure ground]]s the [[rockery]] has a good effect when placed distinct from the [[flower Angelica Peale describing his garden]], and near a rustic at [[arbor]] or ornamental [[bridgeBelfield]], or '''seat'''; and if placed by the side of a retired [[walk]], near the [[lawn]] or grass [[plot]], it has an easy effect. . . .:“the margin of the [[pond]] should be planted with drooping willows and trees of a pendulous habit for shade, under which rustic '''seat''' might be properly placed for the accommodation of those who desire to view the sporting fishesNovember 22, and other interesting objects by which they are surrounded1815.
Image:0164.jpg|Joshua H. Hayward, “A [[View]] of the '''Seat''' of Theodore Lyman, Esqr., in Waltham, taken on the principles of perspective,” Mathematical Thesis, 1818.
* WalshImage:0082.jpg|Cornelia Jefferson Randolph, Alexanderattr., 31 March 1841, “Remarks on Ornamental Gardening” (“A Garden '''Seat'New England Farmer'' 19: 308–9)by Mr. Jones, From Chamber’s Kew,” c. 1820.
Image:“The garden and [[pleasure ground]] I would describe1176.jpg|Eliza Susan Quincy, is ''View of an oblong form, 165 feet by 120 feet, with one end next the north side seat of the house. . Edmund Quincy Esqr. .:“X X two '''seats''', each occupying 2 ft1822. . . . T T two '''seatsInscribed on reverse: ''' . . . surrounded by an arched [[arborView]] 10 ft. high, thrown over / of the [[walkseat]], ornamented on one side with honeysuckle, on the other by climbing Boursaut roseof Edmund Quincy Esqr.” [Fig. 9]''
Image:1334.jpg|[[J. C. Loudon]], Covered '''seats''' of the [[Rustic_style|rustic]] kind, in ''An Encyclopædia of Gardening'', 4th ed/ (1826), 357, fig. 336.
* Image:1335.jpg|[[J. C. Loudon]], Jane, 1845, Elegant structures of the '''seat'Gardening for Ladies'' (pp. 369–70) <ref>Jane Loudonkind, in ''An Encyclopædia of Gardening for Ladies; and Companion to the Flower-Garden'', 4th ed. by A. J. Downing (New York: Wiley & Putnam1826), 357, 1845)figs. [https://www.zotero337 and 338.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/3Q5GCH4I view on Zotero]</ref>
Image:“'''SEATS''' for gardens are either open or covered; the latter being in the form of root-houses, huts, [[pavilion]]s, [[temple]]s, 1354.jpg|[[grotto]]es, &c., and the former being either fixed, temporary, or portable. Fixed '''seats''' are commonly of stone, either plain stone benches without backs, or stone supports to wooden benches. Sometimes, also, wooden '''seats''' are fixed, as when they are placed round a tree, or when boards are nailed to posts, or when '''seats''' are formed in imitation of mushrooms, as in the grounds at RedleafJ. Fixed '''seats''' are also sometimes formed of turfC. Portable '''seats''' are formed of [[woodLoudon]], sometimes contrived to have the back of the '''seat''' folded down when the '''seat''' is not in use; so as to exclude the weather, and avoid the dirt of birds which are apt to perch on them. Another kind of portable '''seat''', which is frequently formed Rough bench in iron, as shown in ''fig.'' 49, is readily wheeled from one part of the grounds to another; and the back of which also folds down to protect the '''seat''' from the weather. There is a kind of camp-stool which serves as a portable '''seat''', imported from Norway, and sold at the low price of 2''s''. 6''d''. or 3''s''.; and there are also straw '''seats''', like half [[beehive]]s, which are, however, only used in garden-huts, or in any situation under cover, because in the open air they would be liable to be soaked with rain. There are a great variety of rustic '''seats''' formed of roots and crooked branches of trees, used both for the open garden and under cover; and there are also '''seats''' of cast and wrought iron, of great variety of form. There should always be some kind of analogy between the '''seat''' and the scene of which it forms a part; and for this reason rustic '''seats''' should be confined to Rustic_style|rustic scenery; and the '''seats''' for a [[lawn]] or highly kept pleasure-ground ought to be of comparatively simple and architectural forms, and either of [[wood]] or stone, those of [[wood]] being frequently painted of a stone colour, and sprinkled over with silver sand before the paint is dry, to give them the appearance of stone. Iron '''seats''', generally speaking, are not sufficiently massive for effect; and the metal conveys the idea of cold in winter and heat hut decorated in summer. [Fig. 10]:“When '''seats''' are placed along a [[walkShrubbery|shrubberies]], a gravelled recess ought to be formed to receive them; and there ought, generally, to be a footboard to keep the feet from the moist ground, whether the '''seat''' is on gravel or on al awn [''sic'']. In a garden where there are several '''seats''', some ought to be in positions exposed to the sun, and others placed in the shade, and none ought to be put down in a situation where the back of the '''seat''' is seen by a person approaching it before the front. Indeed the backs An Encyclopædia of all fixed '''seats''' ought to be concealed by shrubs, or by some other means, unless they are circular '''seats''' placed round a tree. ''Gardening'Seats''' ought not to be put down where there will be any temptation to the persons sitting on them to strain their eyes to the right or left, nor where the boundary of the garden forms a conspicuous object in the [[view]]4th ed. In general(1826), all '''seats''' should be of a stone colour809, as harmonizing best with vegetationfig. Noting can be more unartistical than '''seats''' painted a pea-green, and placed among the green of living plants561.
Image:1792.jpg|Thomas Cole, ''[[View]] of Monte Video, the '''Seat''' of Daniel Wadsworth, Esq.'', 1828.
* Downing, AImage:1707. jpg|[[J.C. Loudon]], 1849, “'''Seat'A Treatise on the Theory and Practice of Landscape Gardening'' (pp. 454–56, 473–74) <ref>A. J. formed of moss and hazel rods" and "[[Trellis|Trellised]] [[Andrew Jacksonarch] Downing]es for climbers, ” in ''A Treatise on the Theory and Practice An Encyclopædia of Landscape Gardening, Adapted to North America; with a View to the Improvement of Country Residences. Comprising Historical Notices and General Principles of the Art, Directions for Laying out Grounds and Arranging Plantations, the Description and Cultivation of Hardy Trees, Decorative Accompaniments to the House and Grounds, the Formation of Pieces of Artificial Water, Flower Gardens, Etc.: With Remarks on Rural Architecture'', 4th edn new ed. (New York: G. P. Putnam1834), 1196, 1849)figs. [https://www960–62.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/5M4S2D64 view on Zotero]</ref>
Image:''“Open and covered '''seats''''', of various descriptions, are among the most convenient and useful decorations for the pleasure-grounds of a country residence1764. Situated in portions of the [[lawn]] or jpg|[[park]], somewhat distant from the house, they offer an agreeable place for rest or reposeJ. If there are certain points from which are obtained agreeable [[prospect]]s or extensive [[view]]s of the surrounding country, a '''seat''', by designating those points, and by affording us a convenient mode of enjoying them, has a double recommendation to our mindsC.:“Open and covered '''seats''' are of two distinct kinds; one ''architectural'', or formed after artist-like designs, of stone or [[woodLoudon]], in Grecian, Gothic, or other forms; which may, if they are intended to produce an elegant effect, have A [[vase]]s on pedestals as accompaniments; the other, ''rustic'', as they are called, which are formed out of trucks and branches of trees, roots, etc., in their natural forms. . . .:“We consider Rustic_style|rustic '''seats''' and structures as likely to be much preferred in the villa and cottage residences of the country. They have the merit of being tasteful and [[picturesque]] in their appearance, and are easily constructed by the amateur, at comparatively little or no expense. There is scarcely a prettier or more pleasant object for the termination of a long [[walk]] in the [[pleasure-grounds]] or [[park]], than a neatly thatched structure of rustic work, with its '''seat''' for repose, and a [[view]] of the landscape beyond. . . . [Fig. 11]:''“Unity of expression'' is the maxim and guide in this department of the art, as in every other. . . .:“With regard to [[pavilion]]s, summer-houses, rustic '''seats'The Suburban Gardener''(1838), and garden edifices of like character467, they should, if possible, in all cases be introduced where they are manifestly appropriate or in harmony with the scenefig. Thus . . . a rustic covered '''seat''' may occupy a secluded, quiet portion of the grounds, where undisturbed meditation be enjoyed173.
Image:0679.jpg|James W. Steel, Beech Hill, The Country '''Seat''' of R. Gilmor, Esq., in W. H. Carpenter and T. S. Arthur, eds., ''The Baltimore Book: A Christmas and New Year’s Present'' (1838), pl. opp. 184.
* Ranlett, William HImage:1420.jpg|[[J. C.Loudon]], 1849, “Covered '''Seat'The Architect'' (, of grotesque and [[1849Rustic_style|rustic]] 1976: 1:19) <ref>William H. RanlettMasonry,” Cheshunt Cottage, in ''The ArchitectGardener’s Magazine''15, 2 volsno. 117 (New YorkDecember 1839): Da Capo656, 1976). [https://wwwfig.zotero168.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/QGQPCB5J view on Zotero]</ref>
Image:“Probably no portion 1904.jpg|[[J. C. Loudon]], Elevation of the globe, offers Back Woodwork of a greater variety of beautiful country [[Rustic_style|Rustic]] Covered '''seatsSeat''' than the vicinity of New-York. No man who has any taste for the retired tranquillity of a suburban retreat, or the lovely beauty of a [[picturesque]] scene, or the romantic grandeur of an enchanting landscape of citiesCheshunt Cottage, towns and country; riversin ''The Gardener’s Magazine'' 15, bays and oceanno. 117 (December 1839): 660, could fail to be suited with some of the numerous situations on the undulated shores, gentle declivities or towering heights of Staten Island, Long Island or the banks of the noble Hudsonfig. 168.
Image:0936.jpg|Alexander Walsh, Two '''seats''' surrounded by an arched [[arbor]], in ''New England Farmer'' 19, no. 39 (March 31, 1841): 309, fig. 4.
* Downing, A. JImage:1824.jpg|Anonymous, 1850, “Moveable Garden '''Seat'The Architecture of Country Houses'' (,” in [[1850Jane Loudon] 1968: 80–81) <ref>A. J. [Andrew Jackson] Downing, ''The Architecture of Country HousesGardening for Ladies; Including Designs for Cottages, Farmand Companion to the Flower-Houses, and VillasGarden'' (Originally published New York; Reprint1845), New York: D. Appleton; Da Capo369, 1968)fig. [https://www49.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/GRZPQXQI view on Zotero]</ref>
Image:“The little rustic 0844.jpg|[[arborAlexander Jackson Davis]]s or covered , ''[[Montgomery Place]]—Shore '''seatsSeat''''' on the outside of the bay window may be supposed to answer in some measure in the place of a [[veranda]], and convey at the first glance, an impression of refinement and taste attained in that simple manner so appropriate to a small cottagec.” [Fig1847. 12]
Image:0358.jpg|Anonymous, “[[Rustic_style|Rustic]] '''Seat''',” [[Montgomery Place]], in [[A. J. Downing]], ed., ''Horticulturist'' 2, no. 4 (October 1847): 157, fig. 26.
* DowningImage:0361.jpg|Anonymous, “Beaverwyck, the '''Seat''' of Wm. P. Van Rensselaer, Esq., ” in [[A. J.Downing]], June 1850, “Our Country Villages” (''HorticulturistA Treatise on the Theory and Practice of Landscape Gardening'' 4: 540–41, 4th ed. (1849), pl. opp. 51, fig. 7.
Image:0368.jpg|Anonymous, “The next step, after the possession '''Seat''' of such public pleasure-groundsGeorge Sheaff, would be the social and common enjoyment of themEsq. Upon the well-mown glades of ,” in [[lawnA. J. Downing]], ''A Treatise on the Theory and beneath the shade Practice of the forest trees, would be formed rustic '''seats'Landscape Gardening'', 4th ed. (1849), pl. Little [[arbor]]s would be placed nearbetween 58 and 59, where in midsummer evenings ices would be served to all who wished themfig. 12.
Image:1891.jpg|Anonymous, “Simple [[Rustic_style|rustic]] '''seat''',” in [[A. J. Downing]], ''A Treatise on the Theory and Practice of Landscape Gardening'', 4th ed. (1849), 456, fig. 82.
* DowningImage:1892.jpg|Anonymous, Simple [[Rustic_style|rustic]] '''seat''' made at the foot of a tree, in [[A. J.Downing]], March 1851, “The Management of Large Country Places” (''HorticulturistA Treatise on the Theory and Practice of Landscape Gardening'' 6: 105–6, 4th ed. (1849), 456, fig. 83.
Image:“All our country residences may readily be divided into two classes0397. The first and largest classjpg|Anonymous, is the suburban place of from five to twenty or thirty acres; the second is the country-“Covered '''seat''', properly so called, which consists of from 30 to 500 or more acres. . . .:“But in the larger country places, there are ten instances of failure for one of success. This is not owing to the want of natural beauty, for the sites are [[picturesqueRustic_style|rustic]], the surface varied, and the [[woodarbor]]s and [[plantation]]s excellent. The failure consists, for the most part, in a certain incongruity and want of distinct character in the treatment of the place as a whole. They are too large to be kept in order as pleasure-grounds, while they are not laid out or treated as [[park]]sA. J. The grass which stretches on all sides of the house, is partly mown for [[lawnDowning]], and partly for hay; the lines of ''A Treatise on the farm Theory and the ornamental portion Practice of the groundsLandscape Gardening'', meet in a confused and unsatisfactory manner4th ed. (1849), and the result is a residence pretending to be much superior to a common farm457, and not yet rising to the dignity of a really tasteful country '''seat'''fig. 84.
Image:1893.jpg|Anonymous, Covered '''Seat''' for a mineral, shell, or geological collection, in [[A. J. Downing]], ''A Treatise on the Theory and Practice of Landscape Gardening'', 4th ed. (1849), 457, fig. 85.
* JaquesImage:0398.jpg|Anonymous, George“[[Rustic_style|Rustic]] Covered '''Seat''', January 1852” in [[A. J. Downing]], “Landscape Gardening in New-England” (''HorticulturistA Treatise on the Theory and Practice of Landscape Gardening'' 7: 35, 4th ed. (1849), 458, fig. 86.
Image:“Let woodbine, honey-suckle and climbing roses1660.jpg|Robert B. Leuchars, here entwine themselves around a Ground plan of [[columnconservatory]], and wreath themselves there over a window. Here place a rustic designed for gentleman’s country '''seat''', half hid among in ''A Practical Treatise on the [[shrubbery]]; there lead a short [[walk]]Construction, Heating, and Ventilation of Hothouses'' (1850), 95, carelessly curving towards a little vine-clad [[arbor]]fig. 32.
==Images==Image:0854.jpg|[[Alexander Jackson Davis]], Shore '''Seat''' for [[Montgomery Place]], Annandale-on-Hudson, New York (elevation and plan), 1870—79.</gallery>
===InscribedAssociated===<span id="roundabout_img"></span>
<gallery widths="170px" heights="170px" perrow="7">
Image:17221055.jpg|James GibbsMichael van der Gucht, "Two Seats “Four Designs for the ends of WalksCloisters," in A.-J. Dezallier d’Argenville, ''A Book The Theory and Practice of ArchitectureGardening'' (17281712), pl. 829. Image:0036.jpg|Thomas Lee Shippen, Plan of Westover, 1783. The '''seat''' can be seen at the top of the image, referencing the houses across the river from Westover.
Image:17230043_2.jpg|James GibbsJohn Archibald Woodside, "Two other Seats for the same purpose ''[[for the ends of walksLemon Hill]]," in ''A Book of Architecture'' (1728), pl. 831807.
Image:17370313.jpg|Batty and Thomas LangleyWilliam Russell Birch, "An Umbrello“The Sun Reflecting on the Dew, to a Seat, for to Terminate a walkGarden scene, ViewEcho, &cPennsylv. in a GardenA Place Belonging to Mr. D. Bavarage," in ''Gothic ArchitectureThe Country '''Seats''' of the United States'' (17471808), pl. 316.
Image:03380315.jpg|cWilliam Russell Birch, “Solitude in Pennsyla. belonging to Mr. Penn,” in ''The Country '''Seats''' of the United States'' (1808), pl. 9. 1790
Image:00210321.jpg|1790William Russell Birch, “Mendenhall Ferry, [[Schuylkill_River|Schuylkill]], Pennsylvania,” ''The Country '''Seats''' of the United States'' (1808), pl. 18.
Image:19830323.jpg|William Russell Birch, “[[Jeremiah PaulView]]from the Elysian Bower, Springland, Pennsylv, "Robert Morris’ Seat on Schuylkilla the residence of Mr W. Birch," July ” ''The Country '''Seats''' of the United States'' (1808), pl. 20, 1794.
Image:03450051.jpg|1800William Strickland, “[[The Woodlands]],” 1809, in ''Casket'' 5, no. 10 (October 1830): pl. opp. 432.
Image:03010300.jpg|1808Thomas Birch, ''Fairmount Water Works'', 1821.
Image:03020541.jpg|1808John T. Bowen, ''A [[View]] of Fairmount Water-Works with [[Schuylkill_River|Schuylkill]] in the distance, taken from the [[Mount]]'', 1838.
Image:03030843.jpg|1808[[Alexander Jackson Davis]], [[Montgomery Place]], 1844.
Image:03041049.jpg|1808N. Vautin, [[View]] of North Side (Rear) of Longfellow House, June 1845.
Image:03110357.jpg|1808[[Alexander Jackson Davis]], “[[Montgomery Place]],” in [[A. J. Downing]], ed., ''Horticulturist'' 2, no. 4 (October 1847): pl. opp. 153.
Image:03120359.jpg|1808Anonymous, “The [[Lake]],” [[Montgomery Place]], in [[A. J. Downing]], ed., ''Horticulturist'' 2, no. 4 (October 1847): 158, fig. 27.
Image:03141097.jpg|1808Thomas S. Sinclair, “Plan of the [[Pleasure_ground|Pleasure Grounds]] and Farm of the [[Pennsylvania Hospital for the Insane]] at Philadelphia,” in Thomas S. Kirkbride, ''American Journal of Insanity'' 4, no. 4 (April 1848): pl. opp. 280.
Image:03160363.jpg|1808Anonymous, “[[View]] in the [[Meadow]] [[Park]] at Geneseo,” in [[A. J. Downing]], ed., ''Horticulturist'' 3, no. 4 (October 1848): pl. opp. 153.
Image:03180350.jpg|1808[[Alexander Jackson Davis]], “View in the Grounds at Blithewood,” in [[A. J. Downing]], ''A Treatise on the Theory and Practice of Landscape Gardening'', 4th ed. (1849), frontispiece.
Image:03190355.jpg|1808Anonymous, “[[View]] in the Grounds at Hyde Park,” in [[A. J. Downing]], ''A Treatise on the Theory and Practice of Landscape Gardening'', 4th ed. (1849), pl. opp. 45, fig. 1.
Image:03200367.jpg|1808Anonymous, “[[View]] in the Grounds of James Arnold, Esp.,” in [[A. J. Downing]], ''A Treatise on the Theory and Practice of Landscape Gardening'', 4th ed. (1849), pl. opp. 57.
Image:03220378.jpg|1808Anonymous, “Plan of a Suburban Villa Residence,” in [[A. J. Downing]], ''A Treatise on the Theory and Practice of Landscape Gardening'', 4th ed. (1849), 118, fig. 26.
Image:03260920.jpg|1808Anonymous, “Small Bracketed Cottage,” in [[A. J. Downing]], ''The Architecture of Country Houses'' (1850), pl. opp. 78, fig. 9.</gallery>
Image:0327.jpg|1808===Attributed===<gallery widths="170px" heights="170px" perrow="7">
Image:03170673.jpg|cArchibald L. Dick, ''The Battle Ground at Germantown, Cliveden or Chew’s House'', n.d. 1808
Image:00091680.jpg|[[Charles Willson Peale]]Anonymous, Letter to Angelica Peale describing his garden at [[Belfield]]Garden '''seat''' from Somerset County, Nov. 22MD, 18151780.
Image:01640477.jpg|1818John Scoles, “Government House,” January 1795.
Image:00820324.jpg|cWilliam Russell Birch, “Back of the State House, Philadelphia,” 1800. 1820
Image:17070509.jpg|1834[[Charles Fraser]], Rice Hope, c. 1803.
Image:18240330.jpg|Anonymous, “Moveable Garden Seat,” in [[Jane LoudonAnne-Marguerite-Henriette Rouillé de Marigny Hyde de Neuville]], attr., ''Gardening for Ladies; and Companion to the Flower-GardenTomb du grande Washington au [[Mount Vernon]]'' (1845), p. 369, fig. 491818.
Image:03580120.jpg|October 1847Anonymous, ''By the Sea'', c. 1820.
Image:03631949.jpg|October 1848Mary Ann Lucy Gries, Needlework sampler with garden bench, 1826.
Image:03610675.jpg|1849[[Alexander Jackson Davis]], “[[View]] of the Battery and Castle Garden,” 1826–28.
</gallery>Image:1948.jpg|Mrs. G. W. Whitney, The Adams '''Seat''' in Quincy, 1828.
===Associated===<gallery widths="170px" heights="170px" perrow="7">Image:0811.jpg|[[Alexander Jackson Davis]], ''[[View]] of St. John’s Chapel, From the [[Park]]'', 1829.
Image:00361043.jpg|1783Sidney Mason Stone, House for Roger Sherman Baldwin, New Haven, CT, c. 1830–40.
Image:00430490.jpg|1807Archibald L. Dick, “Elysian Fields, Hoboken (New York in the distance),” in ''[[View]]s in New-York and its Environs'' (1831—34).
Image:03131025.jpg|1808Anonymous, “Entrance to [[Mount Auburn Cemetery|Mount Auburn]],” in ''American Magazine of Useful and Entertaining Knowledge'' 1, no. 1 (September 1834): 9.
Image:03150486.jpg|1808James Smillie, “Bay and Harbour of New York, From the Battery,” 1831.
Image:03210424.jpg|1808[[Alexander Jackson Davis]], Ithiel Town, and James Dakin, ''New York University, Washington Square'', 1833.
Image:03230464.jpg|1808Nicolino Calyo, ''Harlem, the Country House of Dr. Edmondson'', 1834.
Image:00510252.jpg|1809Henry Walton, Three Sisters in a Landscape, 1838.
Image:03001033.jpg|1821Anonymous, “Forest [[Pond]],” in ''The [[Picturesque]] Pocket Companion, and Visitor’s Guide, through Mount Auburn'' (1839), 171.
Image:03571477.jpg|October 1847Anonymous, Honorary membership certificate for Nicholas Biddle in “The Horticultural Association of the Valley of the Hudson” [detail], June 1839.
Imageimage:03500525.jpg|1849William E. Winner, ''Garden Scene Near Philadelphia'', c. 1840.
Image:03551103.jpg|1849</gallery>W. Mason, “[[Pennsylvania Hospital for the Insane]],” c. 1841, in Thomas S. Kirkbride, ''Reports of the Pennsylvania Hospital for the Insane: for the Year 1841'' (1841), frontispiece.
Image:0895.jpg|Edwin Whitefield, Sketch of Pokahoe, 1841–44. A seat is located on the lawn, nestled in the trees, seen left of center of the view.
===Attributed===<gallery widths="170px" heights="170px" perrow="7">Image:0448.jpg|Anonymous, ''Brother and Sister'', c. 1845.
Image:03302283.jpg|nAnonymous (artist), Nathaniel Currier (lithographer), “[[View]] of the Great Conflagration at New York,” 1845.dThe seats are located around the fountain.
Image:03241063.jpg|1799James Smillie, “[[Mount Auburn Cemetery]],” in Cornelia W. Walter, ''Mount Auburn Illustrated'' (1847; repr., 1850), frontispiece.
Image:01240110.jpg|1806Joseph Goldsborough Bruff (artist), Edward Weber & Co. (lithographer), ''Elements of National Thrift and Empire'', c. 1847.
Image:01200487.jpg|cWilliam Wade, ''Castle Garden: From the Battery'', 1848. 1820
Image:19490384.jpg|Mary Ann Lucy GriesAnonymous, Needlework sampler with garden bench“The Bracketed Mode, 1826” in [[A. J. Downing]], ''A Treatise on the Theory and Practice of Landscape Gardening'', 4th ed. (1849), 393, fig. 52.
Image:02520547.jpg|1838Ernst Georg Fischer, ''Dr. Edmondson and Family'', c. 1850.
Image:01100442.jpg|Anonymous, ''Memorial to Nicholas M.S. Catlin'', c. 18471852.
Image:03590218.jpg|October 1847Augustus Weidenbach, ''[[Belvedere]]'', c. 1858.
Image:02180396.jpg|cAnonymous, “A circular [[pavilion]],” in [[A. J. Downing]], ''A Treatise on the Theory and Practice of Landscape Gardening'', 4th ed. (1849), 456, fig. 81. 1858
Image:1001.jpg|Anonymous, “Mount Fordham—the Country '''Seat''' of Lewis G. Morris, Esq.,” in [[A. J. Downing]], ed., ''Horticulturist'' 6, no. 8 (August 1851): pl. opp. 345.
</gallery>
 
<hr>
==Notes==
[[Category: Keywords]]
[[Category: Garden Ornaments/Embellishments]]
[[Category: Architecture]]

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Changes - History of Early American Landscape Design
A Project of the Center for Advanced Study in the Visual Arts, National Gallery of Art
History of Early American Landscape Design
HEALD will be upgrading in spring 2021. New features and content will be available this summer. Thank you for your patience!

Changes

[http://www.nga.gov/content/ngaweb/research/casva/research-projects.html A Project of the National Gallery of Art, Center for Advanced Study in the Visual Arts ]
A Project of the Center for Advanced Study in the Visual Arts

National Gallery of Art, Washington


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