As a category of garden furniture, seat could refer to either the object upon which one sat [Fig. 3] or the structure housing such objects [Fig. 4]. Accounts found in foreign treatises available in America (such as those by A.-J. Dézallier D’Argenville, Isaac Ware, William Marshall, Humphry Repton, and John
Abercrombie) focused on seats as places of rest, terminations to walks[[walk]]s, or vantage points from which to contemplate views[[view]]s. Like other garden structures, such as [[pavilion]]s or summerhouses[[summerhouse]]s, seats influenced the viewer’s experience of the garden by providing points of rest that framed vistas [[vista]]s in the garden and views [[view]]s beyond. The use of seats to direct one’s route through a garden was demonstrated by A. J. Downing in his 1847 description of Montgomery Place, Dutchess County, N.Y. Downing noted the placement of various seats and related views [[view]]s that he encountered on the course of his [[walk ]] through the grounds. Many other garden observers, including Henry Wansey (1794), John Cosens Ogden (1800), and Eliza Caroline Burgwin Clitherall (active 1801), alsocommented upon the interrelationships between seats, walks[[walk]]s, and [[views]]. Populargardening journals likewise recommended placing seats along walks[[walk]]s. For example, in 1841 Alexander Walsh proposed a number of seats in a garden design published in ''The New England Farmer''. Two seats were situated at cross-walks and another two were ensconced in an arched [[arbor]], placed alongside the main axial [[walk]].
Garden seats took on a variety of forms. In the eighteenth century, European and
* Rush, Dr. Benjamin, 15 July 1782, describing the country seat of John Dickinsen, near Philadelphia, Pa. (quoted in Caemmerer 1950: 87) <ref name="Caemmerer 1950"> H. Paul Caemmerer, ''The Life of Pierre-Charles L’Enfant, Planner of the City Beautiful, The City of Washington'' (Washington, D.C.: National Republic Publishing Company, 1950). [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/PHWTAERT view on Zotero]</ref>
:“The ground contiguous to this shed was cut into beautiful walks [[walk]]s and divided with cedar and pine branches into artificial [[grove]]s. The whole, both the buildings and walks[[walk]]s, were accommodated with '''seats'''.”
* Cutler, Rev. Manasseh, 13 July 1787, describing The Hills (later Lemon Hill), estate of Robert Morris, Philadelphia, Pa. (1987: 1:256–57) <ref> William Parker Cutler, ''Life, Journals, and Correspondence of Rev. Manasseh Cutler, LL. D'' (Athens, Ohio: Ohio University Press, 1987). [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/3PBNT7H9 view on Zotero]</ref>
:“We continued our route, in [[view ]] of the Schuylkill, and up the river several miles, and took a [[view ]] of a number of Country-'''seats''', one belonging to Mr. R. Morris, the American financier, and who is said to be possessed of the greatest fortune in America. His country-'''seat''' is not yet completed, but it will be superb. It is planned on a large scale, the gardens and walks [[walk]]s are extensive, and the villa, situated on an [[eminence]], has a commanding [[prospect]] down the Schuylkill to the Delaware.”
[https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/K567H4M4 view on Zotero]</ref>
:“[The walks [[walk]]s were] planted on each side with the most beautiful & curious flowers & shrubs. They are in some parts enclosed with the Lombardy poplar except here & there openings are left to give you a [[view ]] of some fine trees or beautiful [[prospect]] beyond, & in others, shaded by [[arbour]]s of the wild grape, or [[clump]]s of large trees under which are placed '''seats''' where you may rest yourself & enjoy the cool air.”
* Wansey, Henry, 1794, describing Worcester, Mass. ([1794] 1970: 64) <ref>Henry Wansey, ''Henry Wansey and His American Journal'', ed. by David John Jeremy (Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society, 1970)[https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/UQTHRX3W view on Zotero]</ref>
:“Most of the houses have a large court before them, full of lilacs and other shrubs, with a '''seat''' under them, and a paved [[walk ]] up the middle.”
* Ogden, John Cosens, 1800, describing Bethlehem, Pa. (pp. 18, 27) <ref>John C. Ogden, ''An Excursion into Bethlehem & Nazareth, in Pennsylvania, in the Year 1799''(Philadelphia: Charles Cist, 1800). [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/U5CTTBGB view on Zotero]</ref>
:“'''Seats''' are placed for rest, and to enable the visitors to [[view ]] the river at leisure. . . .:“The island is not large, but affords fine walks [[walk]]s and an area for exercise, as well as '''seats''' and shelters for visitors.”
* Clitherall, Eliza Caroline Burgwin (Caroline Elizabeth Burgwin), active 1801, describing the Hermitage, seat of John Burgwin, Wilmington, N.C. (quoted in Flowers 1983: 126) <ref>John Flowers, ‘People and Plants: North Carolina’s Garden History Revisited’, ''Eighteenth Century Life'', 8 (1983), 117–29. [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/FCVW8GHV view on Zotero]</ref>
:“These [gardens] were extensive and beautifully laid out. There was [''sic'''''Bold text'''] [[alcove]]s and summer houses at the termination of each [[walk]], '''seats''' under trees in the more shady recesses of the Big Garden, as it was called, in distinction from the [[flower garden]] in front of the house.”
*Jefferson, Thomas, 1804, describing Monticello, plantation of Thomas Jefferson, Charlottesville, Va. (Massachusetts Historical Society, Jefferson Papers)
:“Temples “[[Temple]]s or '''seats''' at those spots on the walks [[walk]]s most interesting either for [[prospect]] or the immediate scenery.”
* Martin, William Dickinson, 1809, describing the pleasure grounds at Salem Academy, Salem, N.C. (quoted in Bynum 1979: 29) <ref name="Bynum 1979">Flora Ann L. Bynum, ''Old Salem Garden Guide'' (Winston-Salem, N.C.: Old Salem, 1979). [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/TJB9XNMF view on Zotero]</ref>
:“Next, I visited a [[flower garden]] belonging to the female department. . . . But it is situated on a hill, the East end of which is high & abrupt; some distance down this, they had dug down right in the earth, & drawing the dirt forward threw it on rock, etc., thereby forming a horizontal plane of about thirty feet in circumference; & on the back, rose a perpendicular [[terrace ]] of some height, which was entirely covered over with a grass peculiar to that vicinage. At the bottom of this [[terrace ]] were arranged circular '''seats''', which, from the height of the hill in the rear were protected from the sun in an early hour in the afternoon.”
* Smith, Margaret Bayard, 1 August 1809, describing Monticello, plantation of Thomas Jefferson, Charlottesville, Va. (1906: 73) <ref>Margaret Bayard Smith, ''The First Forty Years of Washington Society'', ed. by Gaillard Hunt (New York: Charles Scribner’s, 1906). [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/FTDFHRFH view on Zotero]</ref>
:“Mr. J. explained to me all his plans for improvement, where the roads, the walks[[walk]]s, the '''seats''', the little temples [[temple]]s were to be placed.”
* Lambert, John, 1816, describing Boston, Mass. (2:328) <ref>John Lambert, ''Travels through Canada, and the United States of North America in the Years 1806, 1807, and 1808'', 2 vols. (London: Baldwin, Cradock, and Joy, 1816). [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/T9KUEDWH view on Zotero]</ref>
:“From an elevated part of the town the spectator enjoys a succession of the most beautiful views [[view]]s that imagination can conceive. Around him, as far as the eye can reach, are to be seen towns, villages, country '''seats''', rich farms, and pleasure-grounds, seated upon the summits of small hills, hanging on the brows of gentle slopes[[slope]]s, or reclining in the laps of spacious valleys, whose shores are watered by a beautiful river, across which are thrown several [[bridge]]s and causeways.”
Lillian B. Miller and et al, eds., ''The Selected Papers of Charles Willson Peale and His Family: The Autobiography of Charles Willson Peale. Vol. 5.'' (New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1983–2000). [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/IZAKPCBG view on Zotero]</ref>
:“He wanted a place to keep the garden seeds & Tools, and in a part of the Garden where a '''seat''' in the shade was often wanted, he built a shed or small room, and to hide that Salt-like-box, and to try his art of Painting, he made the front like [a] [[Gate]] Way with a step to form a '''seat''', and above, steps painted as representing a passage through an [[Arch]] beyond which was represented a western sky, and to ornament the upper part over the [[arch]], he painted several figures on boards cut to the outlines of said figures as representing statues [[statue]]s in sculpture.”
* Sheldon, John P., 10 December 1825, describing Fairmount Waterworks, Philadelphia, Pa. (quoted in Gibson 1988: 5) <ref>Jane Mork Gibson, ‘The Fairmount Waterworks’, ''Bulletin, Philadelphia Museum of Art'', 84 (1988), 5–40. [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/RZEZDDEN view on Zotero]</ref>
:“Delightful '''seats''', surrounded by various kinds of trees and [[shrubbery]], with gardens containing summer houses, vistas[[vista]]s, embowered walks[[walk]]s, &c meet your [[view ]] in almost every direction, woods [[wood]]s sloping gently to the river’s edge, by the side of smooth [[lawn]]s, add to the pleasing variety of the scene; and the Schuylkill, with its noble dam and [[bridge]]s serves as a most beautiful finish to the foreground.”
* Wailes, Benjamin L. C., 29 December 1829, describing Lemon Hill, estate of Henry Pratt, Philadelphia, Pa. (quoted in Moore 1954: 359) <ref>John Hebron Moore, ‘A View of Philadelphia in 1829: Selections from the Journal of B.L.C. Wailes of Natchez’, ''Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography'', 78 (July) (1954), 353–60. [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/Z9IBV7A4 view on Zotero]</ref>
:“But the most enchanting [[prospect]] is towards the grand pleasure grove & [[green house]] of a Mr. Prat[t], a gentleman of fortune, and to this we next proceeded by a circutous [''sic''] rout, passing in [[view ]] of the fish ponds, [[bower]]s, rustic retreats, summer houses, [[fountain]]s, [[grotto]], &c., &c. The [[grotto]] is dug in a bank [and] is of a circular form, the side built up of rock and arched over head, and a number of Shells [?]. A dog of natural size carved out of marble sits just within the entrance, the guardian of the place. A narrow aperture lined with a [[hedge]] of [[arbor]] vitae leads to it. Next is a round fish pond with a small [[fountain]] playing in the [[pond]]. An Oval & several oblong fish ponds of larger size follow, & between the two last is an artificial [[cascade]]. Several summer houses in [[rustic style ]] are made by nailing bark on the outside & thaching the roof. There is also a rustic '''seat''' built in the branches of a tree, & to which a flight of steps ascend. In one of the summer houses is a Spring with '''seats''' arrond it. The houses are all embelished [''sic''] with marble busts of Venus, Appollo, Diana and a Bacanti. One sits on an Island on the fish pond. All the [[pond]]s filled with handsome coloured fish.” [See Fig. 1]
* Trollope, Frances Milton, 1830, describing Philadelphia, Pa. (1832: 2:48–49; 152) <ref>Frances Trollope, ''Domestic Manners of the Americans'', 3rd edn, 2 vols. (London: Wittaker, Treacher, 1832). [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/T5RXDF7G view on Zotero]</ref>
:“Near this enclosure [at the State House] is another of much the same description, called [[Washington Square]]. Here there was an excellent crop of clover; but as the trees are numerous, and highly beautiful, and several commodious '''seats''' are placed beneath their shade, it is, spite of the long grass, a very agreeable retreat from heat and dust. It was rarely, however, that I saw any of these '''seats''' occupied; the Americans have either no leisure, or no inclination for those moments of ''delassement'' that all other people, I believe, indulge in. . . . it is nevertheless the nearest approach to a London square that is to be found in Philadelphia. . . . “The Delaware river, above Philadelphia, still flows through a landscape too level for beauty, but it is rendered interesting by a succession of gentlemen’s '''seats''', which, if less elaborately finished in architecture, and garden grounds, than the lovely villas on the Thames, are still beautiful objects to gaze upon as you float rapidly past on the broad silvery stream that washes their [[lawn]]s.”
* Hovey, C. M., September 1840, “Notes on Gardens and Gardening, in New Bedford, Mass,” describing the estate of James Arnold, New Bedford, Mass. (''Magazine of Horticulture'' 6: 364)
:“Continuing through the winding walks[[walk]]s, shady [[bower]]s, and umbrageous retreats, through which rustic '''seats''' were placed, we arrived at the shell [[grotto]].”
* Buckingham, James Silk, 1842, describing Red Sulphur Springs, Va. (CWF)
:“In the centre of the valley, is a triangular [[plot]] of grass, which has been enclosed with wellfinished rails, painted white, and laid out in walks [[walk]]s like a [[lawn]], having also several large and fine trees, under which '''seats''' are placed for enjoying the shade.”
* Anonymous, 6 December 1842, “Letter from Ministry at New Lebanon to Ministry at Graveland” (Western Reserve Historical Society Library, Shaker Manuscript Collection)
:“And it is my will that your '''seats''' be prepared after the following order. Ye may take boards of sufficient width & thickness to form a '''seat'''. These may be planed. Place these upon square blocks of sufficient bigness to elevate the '''seat''' of a suitable height; and these are sufficient for '''seats''', upon my holy ground. And if ye desire to build a shed, near by the meeting ground under which you can place these '''seats''', at such parts of the year as they are not wanted, ye may freely do it; but if my feast ground is located near your dwellings, you had better carry them there to place under shelter.”
* Downing, A. J., 26 July 1847, describing Montgomery Place, country home of Mrs. Edward (Louise) Livingston, Dutchess County, N.Y. (quoted in Haley 1988: 20, 47, 50) <ref>Jacquetta M. Haley, ed., ''Pleasure Grounds: Andrew Jackson Downing and Montgomery Place'' (Tarrytown, N.Y.: Sleepy Hollow Press, 1988). [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/SSZXJFSC/ view on Zotero]</ref>
:“I forgot to beg you before you leave Montgomery Place to sketch the [[view ]] from the bold rustic '''seat''' with rustic balustrade in front* on the high west river [[walk]]. It seems to me one of the very finest things I have seen anywhere.
:<nowiki>*</nowiki> that '''seat''' about half way between the steps & the south terminus. . . .
:“A path on the left of the broad [[lawn]] leads one to the fanciful rustic-gabled '''seat''', among a growth of locusts at the bottom of the [[slope]]. . . Half-way along this morning ramble, a rustic '''seat''', placed on a bold little plateau, at the base of a large tree, eighty feet above the water, and fenced about with a rustic barrier, invites you to linger and gaze at the fascinating river landscape here presented. . . .
:“A little farther on, we reach a flight of rocky steps, leading up to the [[border]] of the [[lawn]]. At the top of these is a rustic '''seat''' with a thatched canopy, curiously built round the trunk of an aged pine. . . .
:“This part of the grounds [the [[lake]]] is seen to the most advantage, either toward evening, or in moonlight. Then the effect of contrast in light and shadow is most striking, and the seclusion and beauty of the spot are more fully enjoyable than at any hour. Then you will most certainly be tempted to leave the curious rustic '''seat''', with its roof wrapped round with a rude entablature like Pluto’s crown.”
* Kirkbride, Thomas S., April 1848, describing the pleasure grounds and farm of the Pennsylvania Hospital for the Insane, Philadelphia, Pa. (''American Journal of Insanity'' 4: 349)
:“The summer-houses, rustic-'''seats''', exercisingswings &c., in this division are all in particularly pleasant positions. The cottage fronts the woods[[wood]]s, and in every part this portion of the grounds is completely protected from intrusion and observation.”
* Loudon, J. C., 1850, describing the public gardens in Philadelphia, Pa. (pp. 332–33)
:“856. ''[[Public Gardens]]''. . . .:“''[[Promenade]] at Philadelphia''. There is a very pretty enclosure before the walnut tree entrance to the state-house, with good well-kept gravel walks[[walk]]s, and many beautiful flowering trees. It is laid down in grass, not in turf; which, indeed, Mrs. Trollope observes, ‘is a luxury she never saw in America. Near this enclosure is another of a similar description, called [[Washington Square]], which has numerous trees, with commodious '''seats''' placed beneath their shade.’ (''Ibid''. [''D. M. &c''.] vol. ii. p. 48.) . . .
:“''Waterworks at Fair Mount, near Philadelphia''. ‘. . . On the farther side of the river is a gentleman’s '''seat''', the beautiful [[lawn]] of which slopes down to the water’s edge; and groups of weeping willows and other trees throw their shadows on the stream.’ (''Domestic Manners of the Americans'', vol. ii. p. 44.)”
* [Dézallier d’Argenville, A.-J.], 1712, ''The Theory and Practice of Gardening'' ([1712] 1969: 78) <ref> A.-J. (Antoine Joseph) Dézallier d’Argenville, ''The Theory and Practice of Gardening; Wherein Is Fully Handled All That Relates to Fine Gardens, ... Containing Divers Plans, and General Dispositions of Gardens; ...'', trans. by John James (London: Geo. James, 1712). [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/RNT8ZVZ8 view on Zotero]</ref>
: “'''SEATS''', or Benches, besides the Conveniency they constantly afford in great Gardens, where you can scarce ever have too many, there is such need of them in walking, look very well also in a Garden, when set in certain Places they are destin’d to, as in the Niches or Sinkings that face principal Walks [[Walk]]s and Vistas[[Vista]]s, and in the Halls and Galleries of [[Grove]]s.”
''
Isaac Ware, ''A Complete Body of Architecture'' (London: T. Osborne and J. Shipton, 1756). [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/2EK2USKV view on Zotero]</ref>
:“The first principle is here that there be space to [[walk]], and '''seats''' to rest. These must be proportioned also to one another: it would be absurd to terminate a vast [[walk ]] with a plain bench; nor less ridiculous to erect a pompous [[temple ]] where there was not the extent of a hundred yards from the building. . . .:“He who would know where to place his [[pavilion]], '''seat''', or [[temple]], in a garden, must first understand what the purpose of it is, and what the true beauty and excellence of the garden itself.”
* Anonymous, 1798, ''Encyclopaedia'' (7:561)
:“‘V. '''SEATS''' have a two-fold use; they are useful as places of rest and conversation, and as guides to the points of [[view ]] in which the beauties of the surrounding scene are disclosed. Every point of [[view ]] should be marked with a '''seat'''; and speaking generally, no '''seat''' ought to appear but in some favourable point of [[view]]. This rule may not be invariable, but it ought seldom to be deviated from.:“In the ruder scenes of neglected nature, the simple trunk, rough from the woodman’s hands, and the butts or stools of rooted trees, without any other marks of tools upon them than those of the saw which severed them from their stems, are '''seats''' in character; and in romantic or recluse situations, the cave or the [[grotto]] are admissible. But wherever human design has been executed upon the natural objects of the place, the '''seat''' and every other artificial accompaniment ought to be in unison; and whether the bench or the [[alcove]] be chosen, it ought to be formed and finished in such a manner as to unite with the [[wood]], the [[lawn]], and the [[walk]], which lie around it.:“The colour of '''seats''' should likewise be suited to situations: where uncultivated nature prevails, the natural brown of the [[wood ]] itself ought not to be altered; but where the rural art presides, white or stone colour has a much better effect.’ ''Practical Treatise on Planting and Gardening p. 593 &c.''”
* Repton, Humphry, 1803, ''Observations on the Theory and Practice of Landscape Gardening'' (pp. 69, 153) <ref>Humphry Repton, ''Observations on the Theory and Practice of Landscape Gardening'' (London: Printed by T. Bensley for J. Taylor, 1803). [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/VVQPC3BI view on Zotero]</ref>
:“This would be a proper place for a covered '''seat''', with a shed behind it for horses or open carriages; but it should be set so far back as to command the [[view ]] under the branches of trees, which are very happily situated for the purpose. . .:“Yet the summit of a naked brow, commanding views [[view]]s in every direction, may require a covered '''seat''' or [[pavilion]]; for such a situation, where an architectural building is proper, a circular [[temple ]] with a dome, such as the [[temple ]] of the Sybils, or that of Tivoli, is best calculated.”
* Abercrombie, John, with James Mean, 1817, ''Abercrombie’s Practical Gardener'' (p. 465) <ref>John Abercrombie, ''Abercrombie’s Practical Gardener Or, Improved System of Modern Horticulture'' (London: T. Cadell and W. Davies, 1817). [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/TH54TADZ/ view on Zotero]</ref>
:“Fine points of [[view ]] claim, in the first place, to be distinguished by '''seats'''. '''Seats''' merely serving as places of rest might announce an intrinsic object by some difference in their construction; and if there be no distant [[prospect]] to engage attention, greater elegance in the accompaniments may create a pleasant resting-place. As to the manner of finishing a '''seat'''; where the house is in sight, a correct taste will expect the bench or [[alcove]] to correspond with the style of the house, so far at least as to be avowedly artificial, neat in the workmanship, and painted. In neglected or wild scenes, withdrawn from the polished [[lawn]], pleasing illusions may be induced by a rough block of timber, the arms of a fantastic root, or forest fagots romantically interwoven, offering a '''seat''' under the canopy of a tree, or within a cave or [[grotto]]. This is admissible on principle, in proportion as every thing surrounding is in character. Not that it can be denied, that whimsical '''seats''' at variance with the situation sometimes afford a degree of amusement, and may do no harm in little gardens, or in a scene too tame to be spoiled: but the effect terminates with the oddity; a place destitute of character can excite no romantic interest.”
:“1819. ''Elegant structures'' of the '''seat''' kind for summer use, may be constructed of iron rods and wires, and painted canvas; the iron forming the supporting skeleton, and the canvass the protecting tegument. . . .
:“1820. ''Exposed '''seats''''' include a great variety, rising in gradation from the turf bank to the carved couch. Intermediate forms are stone benches, root stools, sections of trunks of trees, wooden, stone, or cast-iron mushrooms painted or covered with moss, or mat, or heath; the Chinese barrel-'''seat''', the rustic stool, chair, tripod, sofa, the cast-iron couch or sofa, the wheeling-chair, and many subvarieties. . . .
:“6157. . . Light [[bower]]s formed of lattice-work, and covered with climbers, are in general most suitable to [[parterre]]s; plain covered '''seats''' suit the general walks [[walk]]s of the [[shrubbery]].”
* Anonymous, 26 April 1826, “On Landscapes and Picturesque Gardens” (''New England Farmer'' 4: 316)
:“A few fabrics, rustic [[bridge]]s, [[hermitage]]s, a [[Temple]], or a Chinese Kiosk or Pagoda, not expensive in their execution, would advantageously complete the embellishment of a country '''seat'''.”
* Bridgeman, Thomas, 1832, ''The Young Gardener’s Assistant'' (p. 111) <ref> Thomas Bridgeman, ''The Young Gardener’s Assistant'', 3rd edn (New York: Geo. Robertson, 1832). [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/9FU4SNZK view on Zotero]</ref>
:“In a retired part of the [flower] garden, a rustic '''seat''' may be formed, over and around which honey-suckles and other sweet and ornamental creepers and climbers may he [''sic''] trained on trellises[[trellis]]es, so as to afford a pleasant retirement.”
:“''From an article On the various form and character of [[Arbour]]s as objects of use or ornament either in gardens or wild scenery [from Paxton’s Horticultural Register''], we extract the following passages. . . .
:“‘The closely shaven turf comes about ten feet inside the [[arch]]es where its edge is cut, and between that and the [[basin]] is covered with a fine tawny sand, with an apparently confused but really symmetrical arrangement of marble pedestals, '''seats''' and vases [[vase]]s with flowering plants placed upon them. During summer a [[vase ]] with a rare flowering plant is placed under each of the external [[arch]]es except four which serve as entrances. The entire effect is good, and his may be considered as one of the best specimens of the artificial [[bower]] of the present day.’”
* Sayers, Edward, 1838, ''The American Flower Garden Companion''(pp. 14, 19, 131) <ref>Edward Sayers, ''The American Flower Garden Companion, Adapted to the Northern States'' (Boston: Joseph Breck, 1838). [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/GHTFN8B2 view on Zotero]</ref>
:“At country residences, where a large extent is appropriated to this department [the [[flower garden]]], many convenient and pleasing appendages can be judiciously introduced; as rustic [[arbor]]s, rustic '''seats''', and [[rockery]]; and if water can be connected, it always gives a good effect. All such appendages, I recommend to be constructed in as natural a manner as possible. . . .:“In extensive [[pleasure ground]]s the [[rockery ]] has a good effect when placed distinct from the [[flower garden]], and near a rustic [[arbor]] or ornamental [[bridge]], or '''seat'''; and if placed by the side of a retired [[walk]], near the [[lawn]] or grass [[plot]], it has an easy effect. . . .
:“the margin of the [[pond]] should be planted with drooping willows and trees of a pendulous habit for shade, under which rustic '''seat''' might be properly placed for the accommodation of those who desire to view the sporting fishes, and other interesting objects by which they are surrounded.”
:“The garden and [[pleasure ground]] I would describe, is of an oblong form, 165 feet by 120 feet, with one end next the north side of the house. . . .
:“X X two '''seats''', each occupying 2 ft. . . . T T two '''seats''' . . . surrounded by an arched [[arbor]] 10 ft. high, thrown over the [[walk]], ornamented on one side with honeysuckle, on the other by climbing Boursaut rose.” [Fig. 9]
* Loudon, Jane, 1845, ''Gardening for Ladies'' (pp. 369–70) <ref>Jane Loudon, ''Gardening for Ladies; and Companion to the Flower-Garden'', ed. by A. J. Downing (New York: Wiley & Putnam, 1845). [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/3Q5GCH4I view on Zotero]</ref>
:“'''SEATS''' for gardens are either open or covered; the latter being in the form of root-houses, huts, [[pavilion]]s, temples[[temple]]s, [[grotto]]es, &c., and the former being either fixed, temporary, or portable. Fixed '''seats''' are commonly of stone, either plain stone benches without backs, or stone supports to wooden benches. Sometimes, also, wooden '''seats''' are fixed, as when they are placed round a tree, or when boards are nailed to posts, or when '''seats''' are formed in imitation of mushrooms, as in the grounds at Redleaf. Fixed '''seats''' are also sometimes formed of turf. Portable '''seats''' are formed of [[wood]], sometimes contrived to have the back of the '''seat''' folded down when the '''seat''' is not in use; so as to exclude the weather, and avoid the dirt of birds which are apt to perch on them. Another kind of portable '''seat''', which is frequently formed in iron, as shown in ''fig.'' 49, is readily wheeled from one part of the grounds to another; and the back of which also folds down to protect the '''seat''' from the weather. There is a kind of camp-stool which serves as a portable '''seat''', imported from Norway, and sold at the low price of 2''s''. 6''d''. or 3''s''.; and there are also straw '''seats''', like half [[beehive]]s, which are, however, only used in garden-huts, or in any situation under cover, because in the open air they would be liable to be soaked with rain. There are a great variety of rustic '''seats''' formed of roots and crooked branches of trees, used both for the open garden and under cover; and there are also '''seats''' of cast and wrought iron, of great variety of form. There should always be some kind of analogy between the '''seat''' and the scene of which it forms a part; and for this reason rustic '''seats''' should be confined to rustic scenery; and the '''seats''' for a [[lawn]] or highly kept pleasure-ground ought to be of comparatively simple and architectural forms, and either of [[wood ]] or stone, those of [[wood ]] being frequently painted of a stone colour, and sprinkled over with silver sand before the paint is dry, to give them the appearance of stone. Iron '''seats''', generally speaking, are not sufficiently massive for effect; and the metal conveys the idea of cold in winter and heat in summer. [Fig. 10]:“When '''seats''' are placed along a [[walk]], a gravelled recess ought to be formed to receive them; and there ought, generally, to be a footboard to keep the feet from the moist ground, whether the '''seat''' is on gravel or on al awn [''sic'']. In a garden where there are several '''seats''', some ought to be in positions exposed to the sun, and others placed in the shade, and none ought to be put down in a situation where the back of the '''seat''' is seen by a person approaching it before the front. Indeed the backs of all fixed '''seats''' ought to be concealed by shrubs, or by some other means, unless they are circular '''seats''' placed round a tree. '''Seats''' ought not to be put down where there will be any temptation to the persons sitting on them to strain their eyes to the right or left, nor where the boundary of the garden forms a conspicuous object in the [[view]]. In general, all '''seats''' should be of a stone colour, as harmonizing best with vegetation. Noting can be more unartistical than '''seats''' painted a pea-green, and placed among the green of living plants.”
* Downing, A. J., 1849, ''A Treatise on the Theory and Practice of Landscape Gardening'' (pp. 454–56, 473–74) <ref>A. J. [Andrew Jackson] Downing, ''A Treatise on the Theory and Practice of Landscape Gardening, Adapted to North America; with a View to the Improvement of Country Residences. Comprising Historical Notices and General Principles of the Art, Directions for Laying out Grounds and Arranging Plantations, the Description and Cultivation of Hardy Trees, Decorative Accompaniments to the House and Grounds, the Formation of Pieces of Artificial Water, Flower Gardens, Etc.: With Remarks on Rural Architecture'', 4th edn (New York: G. P. Putnam, 1849). [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/5M4S2D64 view on Zotero]</ref>
:''“Open and covered '''seats''''', of various descriptions, are among the most convenient and useful decorations for the pleasure-grounds of a country residence. Situated in portions of the [[lawn]] or [[park]], somewhat distant from the house, they offer an agreeable place for rest or repose. If there are certain points from which are obtained agreeable [[prospect]]s or extensive views [[view]]s of the surrounding country, a '''seat''', by designating those points, and by affording us a convenient mode of enjoying them, has a double recommendation to our minds.:“Open and covered '''seats''' are of two distinct kinds; one ''architectural'', or formed after artist-like designs, of stone or [[wood]], in Grecian, Gothic, or other forms; which may, if they are intended to produce an elegant effect, have vases [[vase]]s on pedestals as accompaniments; the other, ''rustic'', as they are called, which are formed out of trucks and branches of trees, roots, etc., in their natural forms. . . .:“We consider rustic '''seats''' and structures as likely to be much preferred in the villa and cottage residences of the country. They have the merit of being tasteful and [[picturesque]] in their appearance, and are easily constructed by the amateur, at comparatively little or no expense. There is scarcely a prettier or more pleasant object for the termination of a long [[walk ]] in the [[pleasure-grounds ]] or [[park]], than a neatly thatched structure of rustic work, with its '''seat''' for repose, and a [[view ]] of the landscape beyond. . . . [Fig. 11]
:''“Unity of expression'' is the maxim and guide in this department of the art, as in every other. . . .
:“With regard to [[pavilion]]s, summer-houses, rustic '''seats''', and garden edifices of like character, they should, if possible, in all cases be introduced where they are manifestly appropriate or in harmony with the scene. Thus . . . a rustic covered '''seat''' may occupy a secluded, quiet portion of the grounds, where undisturbed meditation be enjoyed.”
:“All our country residences may readily be divided into two classes. The first and largest class, is the suburban place of from five to twenty or thirty acres; the second is the country-'''seat''', properly so called, which consists of from 30 to 500 or more acres. . . .
:“But in the larger country places, there are ten instances of failure for one of success. This is not owing to the want of natural beauty, for the sites are [[picturesque]], the surface varied, and the woods [[wood]]s and [[plantation]]s excellent. The failure consists, for the most part, in a certain incongruity and want of distinct character in the treatment of the place as a whole. They are too large to be kept in order as pleasure-grounds, while they are not laid out or treated as [[park]]s. The grass which stretches on all sides of the house, is partly mown for [[lawn]], and partly for hay; the lines of the farm and the ornamental portion of the grounds, meet in a confused and unsatisfactory manner, and the result is a residence pretending to be much superior to a common farm, and not yet rising to the dignity of a really tasteful country '''seat'''.”
* Jaques, George, January 1852, “Landscape Gardening in New-England” (''Horticulturist'' 7: 35)
:“Let woodbine, honey-suckle and climbing roses, here entwine themselves around a [[column]], and wreath themselves there over a window. Here place a rustic '''seat''', half hid among the [[shrubbery]]; there lead a short [[walk]], carelessly curving towards a little vine-clad [[arbor]].”
==Images==

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