==History==
[[File:0312.jpg|thumb|252px|Fig. 1, William Russell Birch, “Hampton, the Seat of Genl. Chas. Ridgely, Maryland,” in ''The Country Seats of the United States'' (2009), (1808), pl. 4.]]
In the discourse of landscape design, seat possessed two distinct yet equally prevalent meanings, as indicated by Thomas Sheridan’s 1789 dictionary entry. One sense referred to seat as a large estate, usually marked by a country house or mansion, for example, [[William Hamilton|William Hamilton’s]] [[The Woodlands]], near Philadelphia; or General Charles Ridgely’s Hampton, in Baltimore County, Maryland. A seat was also a garden structure for sitting.
In the discourse The meaning of landscape design, seat possessed two distinct yet equally prevalent meanings, as indicated estate was exemplified in colonial America by Thomas Sheridan’s 1789 dictionary entryWilliam Byrd II’s Westover, on the James River, Virginia, and [[Henry Pratt|Henry Pratt’s]] [[Lemon Hill]] in Philadelphia. One sense referred Such country houses were often featured in portraits that flattered the owner and signaled to the public that the colonies and new republic were home to seat as a large estatecultured elite rivaling that of Great Britain. These images typically located the house at the center of the property, with the landscape and various outbuildings extending beyond it. This placement, usually marked by a country which communicated the importance of the house or mansionas the base of operations for the landowner, was a visual shorthand for examplethe landowner’s affluence and power. Observers such as William Hugh Grove (1732) and Thomas Gwatkin (1770) often likened seats to small villages. By the mid 18th century, however, the community-like aspects of seats were downplayed in favor of their rural associations, which contrasted sharply with the increasingly crowded conditions of America’s cities. English emigré William Hamilton’s WoodlandsRussell Birch, in his series ''The Country Seats of the United States of America'' (1808), depicted the homes of the mid-Atlantic elite situated in naturalistic landscapes in emulation of British tableaux [Fig. 1].<ref>Emily Tyson Cooperman, near Philadelphia“William Russell Birch (1755–1834) and the Beginnings of the American Picturesque” (PhD diss., University of Pennsylvania, 1999), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/VSCXM9WR view on Zotero]. See also Emily T. Cooperman, introduction to ''The Country Seats of the United States of North America'', by William Russell Birch (1808; or Genrepr. Charles Ridgely’s Hampton, in Baltimore CountyPhiladelphia: University of Pennsylvania, 2009), Md[https://www. A seat was also a garden structure for sittingzotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/TNTZAF2Q view on Zotero].</ref>
The meaning of [[File:1680.jpg|thumb|left|252px|Fig. 2, Anonymous, Garden seat as estate was exemplified in colonial America by William Byrd II’s Westoverfrom Somerset County, on the James RiverMD, Va1780.]] [[File:0854.jpg|thumb|Fig. 3, and Henry Pratt’s [[Lemon HillAlexander Jackson Davis]] in Philadelphia , Shore Seat for [[FigMontgomery Place]], Annandale-on-Hudson, New York (elevation and plan), 1870—79. 1]. Such country houses were often featured in portraits that flattered the owner and signaled to the public that the colonies and new republic were home to ]As a cultured elite rivaling that of Great Britain. These images typically located the house at the center category of the propertygarden furniture, with seat could refer to either thelandscape and various outbuildings extending beyond itobject upon which one sat [Fig. This placement, which communicated 2] or the importance of the house as the base of operations for the landowner, was a visual shorthand for the landowner’s affluence and powerstructure housing such objects [Fig. 3]. Observers Accounts found in foreign treatises available in America (such as those by Antoine-Joseph Dezallier D’Argenville, Isaac Ware, William Hugh Grove (1732) Marshall, Humphry Repton, and Thomas Gwatkin (1770John Abercrombie) often likened focused on seats as places of rest, terminations to [[walk]]s, or vantage points from which to small villagescontemplate [[view]]s. By the mid-eighteenth centuryLike other garden structures, howeversuch as [[pavilion]]s or [[summerhouse]]s, seats influenced the community-like aspects viewer’s experience of the garden by providing points of seats were downplayed rest that framed [[vista]]s in favor of their rural associations, which contrasted sharply with the increasingly crowded conditions garden and [[view]]s beyond. The use of America’s citiesseats to direct one’s route through a garden was demonstrated by [[A. J. English emigré William Russell Birch, Downing]] in his series ''The Country Seats 1847 description of the United States of America'' (1808)[[Montgomery Place]], Dutchess County, depicted New York. [[Andrew Jackson Downing|Downing]] noted the homes placement of various seats and related [[view]]s that he encountered on the mid- Atlantic elite situated in naturalistic landscapes in emulation course of British tableaux his [Fig. 2[walk]]through the grounds.<ref>Emily Tyson CoopermanMany other garden observers, including Henry Wansey (1794), “William Russell Birch John Cosens Ogden (1755–18341800) , and Eliza Caroline Burgwin Clitherall (active 1801), also commented upon the Beginnings of the American Picturesque” (Ph.D. diss.interrelationships between seats, University of Pennsylvania[[walk]]s, 1999)and [[view]]s. See also Emily TPopular gardening journals likewise recommended placing seats along [[walk]]s. CoopermanFor example, introduction to in 1841 Alexander Walsh proposed a number of seats in a garden design published in the ''The Country Seats of the United States of North AmericaNew England Farmer''. Two seats were situated at cross-walks and another two were ensconced in an arched [[arbor]], by William Russell Birch (1808; reprint, Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania, 2009)placed alongside the main axial [[walk]].</ref>
As a category of garden furniture, seat could refer to either the object upon which one sat [[File:1723.jpg|thumb|Fig. 34, [[James Gibbs]] or , “Two other Seats for the same purpose [for the structure housing such objects ends of [[Fig. 4walk]]s]. Accounts found ,” in foreign treatises available in America ''A Book of Architecture'' (such as those by A1728), pl.-J83. Dézallier D’Argenville, Isaac Ware, William Marshall, Humphry Repton, and John]]Abercrombie) focused Garden seats took on seats as places a variety of rest, terminations to walks, or vantage points from which to contemplate viewsforms. Like other garden structuresIn the 18th century, European and British pattern books and design manuals such as pavilions or summerhouses, seats influenced the viewer’s experience [[James Gibbs|James Gibbs’s]] ''A Book of the garden Architecture'' (1728) were an important source for American seat designs [Fig. 4]. Drawings by providing points of rest that framed vistas in the garden [[Thomas Jefferson]] and views beyond. The use of seats to direct one’s route through a garden was demonstrated by A. J. Downing in his 1847 description of Montgomery Placegranddaughter, Dutchess CountyCornelia Jefferson Randolph [Fig. 5], N.Y. Downing noted demonstrate the placement influence of various seats and related views that he encountered William Kent’s designs on the course of his walk through the grounds. Many other garden observersfurniture, including Henry Wansey (1794)which appeared in William Chambers’s ''Plans, John Cosens Ogden (1800)Elevations, Sections and Perspective Views of the Gardens and Eliza Caroline Burgwin Clitherall Buildings at Kew in Surrey'' (active 18011763), alsocommented upon the interrelationships between seats, walks, and viewsa volume that [[Thomas Jefferson|Jefferson]] owned. Populargardening journals likewise recommended placing seats along walks. For example<ref> William Bainter O’Neal, in 1841 Alexander Walsh proposed a number of seats in a garden design published in ''The New England FarmerJefferson’s Fine Arts Library: His Selections for the University of Virginia Together with His Own Architectural Books''(Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1976), 57, [https://www. Two seats were situated at cross-walks and another two were ensconced in an arched arbor, placed alongside the main axial walkzotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/CUP9BNW2 view on Zotero].</ref>
[[File:0082.jpg|thumb|left|Fig. 5, Cornelia Jefferson Randolph, attr., “A Garden seats took on a variety of formsSeat by Mr. In the eighteenth centuryJones, From Chamber’s Kew, European and” c. 1820.]]British pattern books [[File:1737.jpg|thumb|Fig. 6, Batty and design manuals such as James Gibbs’s A Book of Thomas Langley, “An Umbrello, to a Seat, for to Terminate a [[walk]], [[View]], &c. in a Garden,” in ''Gothic Architecture '' (17281747) were an important source for American seat designs [Fig, pl. 31. 5]. Drawings ]Seat designs could be differentiated by Thomas Jefferson national and historical styles, as well as by his granddaughterplacement and function. Batty and Thomas Langley, Cornelia Jefferson Randolph for instance, proposed a seat in keeping with the Gothic style in their 1747 text about Gothic architecture [Fig. 6]. [[J. C. Loudon]], demonstrate the influence in ''An Encyclopaedia of William Kent’s designs on garden furniture, which appeared in William Chambers’s Gardening''Plans(1826), Elevationsdistinguished among seats found inside garden buildings, roofed seats that could be either fixed or portable, Sections and Perspective Views those lacking any sort of the Gardens and Buildings at Kew roof. [[J. C. Loudon|Loudon]] explained that in Surrey'' form, seats could be simple (1763like the trunk of a tree), or more complex (such as a volume that Jefferson ownedcast-iron couch with decorative treatment).<ref> William Bainter O’Neal, JThese distinctions were echoed by [[Jane Loudon]] in ''efferson’s Fine Arts Library: His Selections Gardening for the University of Virginia Together with His Own Architectural BooksLadies'' (Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 19761845), 57a book that was co-edited by [[Andrew Jackson Downing|Downing]] in America.</ref>
Seat designs could be differentiated by national In ''A Treatise on the Theory and historical Practice of Landscape Gardening'' (1849), [[Andrew Jackson Downing|Downing]] himself provided an extensive illustrated typology of seat styles, as well as by placement and functionemphasizing the propriety of certain styles for different landscapes. Batty and Thomas LangleyFor example, he believed that Grecian or Gothic seats were appropriate for instanceelegant grounds, proposed a seat in keeping with the Gothic whereas [[rustic style in their 1747 text about Gothic architecture [Fig. 7|rustic]]seats were more suited to the irregular aesthetic of the landscape garden. Such [[J. C. Loudonrustic style|rustic]]seats were quite popular in the 19th century, as suggested by the discussion of them in An Encyclopaedia of Gardening (1826)horticultural journals, distinguished among seats found inside garden buildings, roofed seats that could be either fixed or portablesuch as the ''Horticultural Register'', and those lacking any sort in descriptions by both treatise writers and observers of roofthe American landscape. Loudon explained that in formSee, for example, Thomas Bridgeman (1832), seats could be simple Edward Sayers (like the trunk of a tree1838) or more complex , Anna Cora Ogden Mowatt Ritchie (such as a cast-iron couch with decorative treatment1839), C. M. These distinctions were echoed by [[Jane Loudon]] in ''Gardening for Ladies'' Hovey (18451840), a book that was co-edited by Downing in Americaand Georges Jaques (1852).
In ''A Treatise on the Theory and Practice of Landscape Gardening'' (1849), Downing himself provided an extensive illustrated typology of seat styles, emphasizing the propriety of certain styles for different landscapesAnne L. For example, he believed that Grecian or Gothic seats were appropriate for elegant grounds, whereas rustic seats were more suited to the irregular aesthetic of the landscape garden. Such rustic seats were quite popular in the nineteenth century, as suggested by the discussion of them in horticultural journals, such as the Helmreich''Horticultural Register'', and in descriptions by both treatise writers and observers of the American landscape. See, for example, Thomas Bridgeman (1832), Edward Sayers (1838), Anna Cora Ogden Mowatt Ritchie (1839), C. M. Hovey (1840), and Georges Jaques (1852).
--- ''Anne L. Helmreich''<hr>
==Texts==
 
===Usage===
*Anonymous, n.d., advertising design and construction services for parks and gardens (quoted in Chase 1973: 37–39)<ref>David B. Chase, “The Beginnings of the Landscape Tradition in America,” ''Historic Preservation'' 25 (1973): 34–41, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/KJMNEZBX view on Zotero].</ref>
:“Designs all sorts of Buildings, well suited to both town and country, [[Pavilion]]s, Summer-Rooms, '''Seats''' for Gardens. . . also Water-houses for [[Park]]s. . . Eye Traps to represent a Building terminating a [[walk]], or to hide some disagreeable Object, Rotundas, Colonades, [[Arcade]]s, Studies in [[Park]]s or Gardens, [[greenhouse|Green House]]s for the Preservation of Herbs.”
*Anonymous, n.d., advertising design and construction services for parks and gardens (quoted in Chase 1973: 37–39): <ref>David B. Chase, ‘The Beginnings of the Landscape Tradition in America’, Historic Preservation, 25 (1973), 34–41 [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/KJMNEZBX view on Zotero] </ref>
*Strachey, William, 1612, describing the seats of Powhatan in Virginia (quoted in Wright and Freund 1967:“Designs all sorts 57)<ref> Louis B. Wright and Virginia Freund, eds., ''The Historie of Buildings, well suited to both town Travell into Virginia Britania (1612)'' (Nendeln and countryLiechtenstein: Kraus, Pavilions, Summer-Rooms1967), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/NUX26H7J view on Zotero].</ref>:“He hath divers '''Seatsseates''' for Gardens . . . also Water-houses for Parks . . . Eye Traps to represent a Building terminating a [[walk]], or to hide some disagreeable Objecthowses, Rotundashis Chief when we came into the Country was upon ''Pamunky''-River, Colonadeson the North side which we call Pembrook-side, [[Arcade]]scalled ''Werowocomaco'', Studies in [[Park]]s or Gardens, [[Green House]]s for the Preservation of Herbswhich by interpretacion signifyes Kings-howse.”
* StracheyByrd, William, 1612II, c. June 25, 1729, describing Westover, seat of William Byrd II, on the seats of Powhatan in Virginia James River, VA (quoted in Wright and Freund 1967Tinling 1977: 571:410) <ref> Louis B. Wright and Virginia FreundMarion Tinling, edsed., ''The Historie Correspondence of the Three William Byrds of Travell into Westover, Virginia Britania (1612), 1684–1776'' , 2 vols. (Nendeln and LiechtensteinCharlottesville: KrausUniversity Press of Virginia, 19671977) , [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/NUX26H7J J5UXEFHR view on Zotero].</ref>:“My habitation has the na[me of] the prettyest '''seat''' in this country.”
:“He hath divers '''seates''' or howses, his Chief when we came into the Country was upon ''Pamunky''-River, on the North side which we call Pembrook-side, called ''Werowocomaco'', which by interpretacion signifyes Kings-howse.”
*Grove, William Hugh, 1732, describing Williamsburg, VA (quoted in Stiverson and Butler 1977: 26)<ref>Gregory A. Stiverson and Patrick H. Butler III, eds., “Virginia in 1732: The Travel Journal of William Hugh Grove,” ''Virginia Magazine of History and Biography'' 85 (1977): 18–44, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/ACNK9DG9 view on Zotero].</ref>
:“I went by ship up the [York] river, which has pleasant '''Seats''' on the Bank which Shew Like little villages, for having Kitchins, Dayry houses, Barns, Stables, Store houses, and some of them 2 or 3 Negro Quarters all Seperate from Each other but near the mansion houses make a shew to the river of 7 or 8 distinct Tenements, tho all belong to one family.”
*Byrd, William, II, c. 25 June 1729, describing Westover, seat of William Byrd II, on the James River, Va. (quoted in Tinling 1977: 1:410) <ref> Marion Tinling, ed., ''The Correspondence of the Three William Byrds of Westover, Virginia, 1684-1776'', 2 vols. (Charlottesville, Va.: University Press of Virginia, 1977)[https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/J5UXEFHR view on Zotero]</ref>
*Anonymous, August 17, 1747, describing property for sale in Somerset County, NJ (''New York Gazette''):“My habitation has the na[me of] the prettyest “TO BE SOLD, A pleasant Country '''seatSeat''' in this country, fitting for a Gentleman or Store-keeper. . . a good [[Orchard]], containing about 200 Apple Trees, and may be extended at Pleasure.”
* GroveGwatkin, William HughProf. Thomas, 17321770, describing the appearance of seats in Williamsburg, Va. VA (quoted in Stiverson and Butler 1977: 26Colonial Williamsburg Foundation) <ref>Gregory A. Stiverson and Patrick H. Butler III, eds., ‘Virginia in 1732: The Travel Journal “And the huts of William Hugh Grove’, the Negroes which are situated round about give the '''seat'Virginia Magazine of History and Biography'', 85 (1977), 18–44[https://www.zoteroof a substantial planter something of the Air of a small village.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/ACNK9DG9 view on Zotero]</ref>
:“I went by ship up the [York] river, which has pleasant '''Seats''' on the Bank which Shew Like little villages, for having Kitchins, Dayry houses, Barns, Stables, Store houses, and some of them 2 or 3 Negro Quarters all Seperate from Each other but near the mansion houses make a shew to the river of 7 or 8 distinct Tenements, tho all belong to one family.”
[[File:0036.jpg|thumb|225px|Fig. 7, Thomas Lee Shippen, Plan of Westover, 1783.]]
*Rush, Dr. Benjamin, July 15, 1782, describing the country seat of John Dickinsen, near Philadelphia, PA (quoted in Caemmerer 1950: 87)<ref name="Caemmerer 1950"> H. Paul Caemmerer, ''The Life of Pierre-Charles L’Enfant, Planner of the City Beautiful, The City of Washington'' (Washington, DC: National Republic Publishing Company, 1950), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/PHWTAERT view on Zotero].</ref>
:“The ground contiguous to this shed was cut into beautiful [[walk]]s and divided with cedar and pine branches into artificial [[grove]]s. The whole, both the buildings and [[walk]]s, were accommodated with '''seats'''.”
* Anonymous, 17 August 1747, describing property for sale in Somerset County, N.J. (''New York Gazette'')
*Shippen, Thomas Lee, December 31, 1783, describing Westover, seat of William Byrd III, on the James River, VA (1952:“TO BE SOLDn.p.)<ref>Thomas Lee Shippen, ''Westover Described in 1783: A pleasant Country Letter and Drawing Sent by Thomas Lee Shippen, Student of Law in Williamsburg, to His Parents in Philadelphia'' (Richmond, VA: William Byrd Press, 1952), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/3IWWPMJ5 view on Zotero].</ref>:“I have markd some little crooked ugly figures for Gentlemen’s '''Seatseats''', fitting for a Gentleman or Store-keeper . . . a good Orchardwhich tho’ they do not beautify indeed the picture, add much to the [[prospect]], containing about 200 Apple Trees, and may as many '''Seats''' are to be extended at Pleasureseen on the other side.”[Fig. 7]
[[File:1983.jpg|thumb|225px|Fig. 8, Jeremiah Paul, “Robert Morris’ Seat on [[Schuylkill_River|Schuylkill]],” July 20, 1794.]]* Gwatkin[[Manasseh Cutler|Cutler, Manasseh]], July 13, 1787, describing [[The Hills]] (later [[Lemon Hill]]), estate of [[Robert Morris]], Philadelphia, PA (1987: 1:256–57)<ref> William Parker Cutler, ''Life, Journals, and Correspondence of Rev. Manasseh Cutler, LL.D.'' (Athens: Ohio University Press, 1987), Prof[https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/3PBNT7H9 view on Zotero]. Thomas</ref>:“We continued our route, 1770in [[view]] of the [[Schuylkill_River|Schuylkill]], describing and up the appearance river several miles, and took a [[view]] of a number of Country-'''seats ''', one belonging to [[Robert Morris|Mr. R. Morris]], the American financier, and who is said to be possessed of the greatest fortune in WilliamsburgAmerica. His country-'''seat''' is not yet completed, Vabut it will be superb. (Colonial Williamsburg Foundation; hereafter CWF)It is planned on a large scale, the gardens and [[walk]]s are extensive, and the villa, situated on an [[eminence]], has a commanding [[prospect]] down the [[Schuylkill_River|Schuylkill]] to the Delaware.” [Fig. 8]
:“And the huts of the Negroes which are situated round about give the '''seat''' of a substantial planter something of the Air of a small village.”
*G., L., June 15, [1788?], describing [[The Woodlands]], seat of [[William Hamilton]] near Philadelphia, PA (quoted in Madsen 1989: 19)<ref> Karen Madsen, “To Make His Country Smile: William Hamilton’s Woodlands,” ''Arnoldia'' 49 (1989): 14–23, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/K567H4M4 view on Zotero].</ref>
:“[The [[walk]]s were] planted on each side with the most beautiful & curious flowers & shrubs. They are in some parts enclosed with the Lombardy poplar except here & there openings are left to give you a [[view]] of some fine trees or beautiful [[prospect]] beyond, & in others, shaded by [[arbour]]s of the wild grape, or [[clump]]s of large trees under which are placed '''seats''' where you may rest yourself & enjoy the cool air.”
* Rush, Dr. Benjamin, 15 July 1782, describing the country seat of John Dickinsen, near Philadelphia, Pa. (quoted in Caemmerer 1950: 87) <ref name="Caemmerer 1950"> H. Paul Caemmerer, ''The Life of Pierre-Charles L’Enfant, Planner of the City Beautiful, The City of Washington'' (Washington, D.C.: National Republic Publishing Company, 1950). [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/PHWTAERT view on Zotero]</ref>
*Constantia [Judith Sargent Murray], June 24, 1790, “Description of Gray’s Gardens, Pennsylvania” (''Massachusetts Magazine'' 3:“The ground contiguous to this shed was cut into beautiful walks 415)<ref>Constantia [Judith Sargent Murray], “Description of Gray’s Gardens, Pennsylvania,” ''Massachusetts Magazine, or, Monthly Museum of Knowledge and divided with cedar and pine branches into artificial grovesRational Entertainment'' 7, no. The whole3 (July 1791): 413–17, both the buildings and walks, were accommodated with [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/keywords_in_early_american_landscape_design/items/itemKey/IAJKF9C4 view on Zotero].</ref>:“At every turn shaded '''seats'''are artfully contrived, and the ground abounds with [[arbour]]s, [[alcove]]s, and summer houses, which are handsomely adorned with odoriferous flowers.”
* Shippen[[Pierre-Charles L'Enfant|L’Enfant, Thomas LeePierre-Charles]], 31 December 17831791, describing Westover, seat of William Byrd III, on the James RiverWashington, Va. DC (1952quoted in Caemmerer 1950: n.p.136, 151) <ref name="Caemmerer 1950"></ref>:“[March 11, in a letter to Thomas Lee Shippen, Jefferson]. . . The remainder part of that ground towards Georgetown is more broken. It may afford pleasant '''seats'''Westover Described in 1783: A Letter and Drawing Sent by Thomas Lee Shippen, Student but, although the bank of Law in Williamsburgthe river between the two creeks can command as grand a [[prospect]] as any of the other spots, it seems to His Parents in Philadelphia'' (Richmondbe less commendable for the establishment of a city, not only because the level surface it presents is but small, Vabut because the hights from beyond Georgetown absolutely command the whole.. .: William Byrd Press“[June 22, 1952)in a report to George Washington]. [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/3IWWPMJ5 view I next made the distribution regular with streets at right angle ''north-south'' and ''east west'' but afterwards I opened others on Zoterovarious directions as [[avenue]]s to and from every principal places, wishing by this not merely to contrast with the general regularity nor to afford a greater variety of pleasant '''seats''' and [[prospect]</ref>] as will be obtained from the advantageous ground over the which the [[avenue]]s are mostly directed but principally to connect each part of the city with more efficacy.”
:“I have markd some little crooked ugly figures for Gentlemen’s '''seats''', which tho’ they do not beautify indeed the picture, add much to the prospect, about as many '''Seats''' are to be seen on the other side.” [Fig. 8]
*Wansey, Henry, 1794, describing Worcester, MA (1794; repr., 1970: 64)<ref>Henry Wansey, ''Henry Wansey and His American Journal'', ed. David John Jeremy (1794; repr., Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society, 1970), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/UQTHRX3W view on Zotero].</ref>
:“Most of the houses have a large court before them, full of lilacs and other shrubs, with a '''seat''' under them, and a paved [[walk]] up the middle.”
* Cutler, Rev. Manasseh, 13 July 1787, describing The Hills (later Lemon Hill), estate of Robert Morris, Philadelphia, Pa. (1987: 1:256–57) <ref> William Parker Cutler, ''Life, Journals, and Correspondence of Rev. Manasseh Cutler, LL. D'' (Athens, Ohio: Ohio University Press, 1987). [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/3PBNT7H9 view on Zotero]</ref>
*Blandulus [pseud.], November 1794, describing Pleasant Hill, seat of Joseph Barrell, Charlestown, MA (quoted in Hammond 1982:“We continued our route95)<ref>Charles Arthur Hammond, in view of “‘Where the Schuylkill, Arts and up the river several milesVirtues Unite’: Country Life Near Boston, 1637–1864” ( PhD diss., Boston University, and took a view of a number of Country-'''seats'''1982), one belonging to Mr[https://www. Rzotero. Morrisorg/groups/54737/items/itemKey/VVFZVIKT view on Zotero].</ref>:“Whereonce the breastwork mark’d the scenes of::blood, :While Freedom’s sons inclosed the American financierhaughty foe, and who is said to be possessed of the greatest fortune in America. His country-:Rearing its head majestic from afar:The venerable '''seat''' is not yet completed, but it will be superb. It is planned on a large scale, the gardens and walks are extensive, and the villa, situated on an eminence, has a commanding prospect down the Schuylkill to the Delawareof Barrell stands:Like some strong English Castle.”
* G.[[Timothy Dwight|Dwight, L.Timothy]], 15 June [1788?]1796, describing the Woodlands, '''seat''' of William Hamilton near Philadelphia, Pa. mill seats in Massachusetts (quoted in Madsen 19891821: 2: 19352) <refname="Dwight"> Karen Madsen, ‘To Make His Country Smile: William Hamilton’s Woodlands’Timothy Dwight, ''ArnoldiaTravels; in New-England and New-York'', 49 4 vols. (1989New Haven: The Author, 1821–22), 14–23[https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/K567H4M4 VHBP7TH2 view on Zotero].</ref>:“Immediately below the [[bridge]] [over Miller’s River] is a [[Fall/Falling_garden|fall]], furnishing excellent mill-'''seats''', which are occupied by several mills. These are uniformly supplied with an abundance of water, and wear the aspect of great activity, and business, particularly in the sawing of timber.”
:“[The walks were] planted on each side with the most beautiful & curious flowers & shrubs. They are in some parts enclosed with the Lombardy poplar except here & there openings are left to give you a view of some fine trees or beautiful prospect beyond, & in others, shaded by arbours of the wild grape, or clumps of large trees under which are placed '''seats''' where you may rest yourself & enjoy the cool air.”
*[[Timothy Dwight|Dwight, Timothy]], 1799, describing New York, NY (1822: 3:481–82)<ref name="Dwight"></ref>
:“the heights, and many of the lower grounds, contain a rich display of gentlemen’s country '''seats''', connected with a great variety of handsome appendages.”
* Constantia [pseud.], 24 June 1790, “Description of Gray’s Gardens, Pennsylvania” (Massachusetts Magazine 3: 415)
*La Rochefoucauld Liancourt, François-Alexandre-Frédéric, duc de, 1799, describing a house in Charleston, SC (1800: 2:“At every turn shaded 437–38)<ref> François-Alexandre-Frédéric, duc de La Rochefoucauld Liancourt, '''seats'Travels through the United States of North America, the Country of the Iroquois, and Upper Canada, in the Years 1795, 1796, and 1797'' are artfully contrived, ed. Brisson Dupont and Charles Ponges, trans. H. Newman, 2nd ed., 4 vols. (London: R. Philips, 1800), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/SRMDWJ2M view on Zotero].</ref>:“Half a mile from Batavia. . . stands Middletonhouse, the ground abounds with arboursproperty of Mrs. MIDDLETON, mother-in-law to young Mr. Isard, alcoveswhich is esteemed the most beautiful house in this part of the country. The out-buildings, such as kitchen, wash-house, and summer housesoffices, which are handsomely adorned with odoriferous flowersvery capacious. The ensemble of these buildings calls to recollection the ancient English country-'''seats'''.”
[[File:0304.jpg|thumb|225px|Fig. 9, William Russell Birch, “[[The Woodlands|Woodlands]], the Seat of Mr. Wm. Hamilton, Pennsylva.,” in ''The Country Seats of the United States'' (1808), pl. 14.]]* L’EnfantLa Rochefoucauld Liancourt, PierreFrançois-CharlesAlexandre-Frédéric, 1791duc de, 1799, describing Washington[[The Woodlands]], seat of [[William Hamilton]], near Philadelphia, D.C. PA (quoted in Caemmerer 1950Madsen 1988: 136, 151B3) <ref name="Caemmerer 1950">Karen Madsen, “William Hamilton’s Woodlands,” (paper presented for seminar in American Landscape, 1790–1900, instructed by E. McPeck, Radcliffe Institute for Advanced Study, Harvard University, 1988), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/XN8NN9QN view on Zotero].</ref>:“You pass the Schuylkill at [[Gray’s Garden|Gray’s-Ferry]], the road to which runs below [[The Woodlands|Woodlands]], the '''seat''' of Mr. William Hamilton: it stands high, and is seen upon an [[eminence]] from the opposite side of the river.” [Fig. 9]
:“[11 March, in a letter to Thomas Jefferson] . . . The remainder part of that ground towards Georgetown is more broken. It may afford pleasant '''seats''', but, although the bank of the river between the two creeks can command as grand a prospect as any of the other spots, it seems to be less commendable for the establishment of a city, not only because the level surface it presents is but small, but because the hights from beyond Georgetown absolutely command the whole. . . .
:“[22 June, in a report to George Washington] . . . I next made the distribution regular with streets at right angle north-south and east west but afterwards I opened others on various directions as avenues to and from every principal places, wishing by this not merely to contrast with the general regularity nor to afford a greater variety of pleasant '''seats''' and prospect as will be obtained from the advantageous ground over the which the avenues are mostly directed but principally to connect each part of the city with more efficacy.”
*Ogden, John Cosens, 1800, describing Bethlehem, PA (1800: 18, 27)<ref>John C. Ogden, ''An Excursion into Bethlehem & Nazareth, in Pennsylvania, in the Year 1799'' (Philadelphia: Charles Cist, 1800), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/U5CTTBGB view on Zotero].</ref>
:“'''Seats''' are placed for rest, and to enable the visitors to [[view]] the river at leisure. . .
:“The island is not large, but affords fine [[walk]]s and an area for exercise, as well as '''seats''' and shelters for visitors.”
* Wansey, Henry, 1794, describing Worcester, Mass. ([1794] 1970: 64) <ref>Henry Wansey, ''Henry Wansey and His American Journal'', ed. by David John Jeremy (Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society, 1970)[https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/UQTHRX3W view on Zotero]</ref>
:“Most of *Clitherall, Eliza Caroline Burgwin (Caroline Elizabeth Burgwin), active 1801, describing the houses have a large court before themHermitage, full seat of lilacs John Burgwin, Wilmington, NC (quoted in Flowers 1983: 126)<ref>John Flowers, “People and Plants: North Carolina’s Garden History Revisited,” ''Eighteenth Century Life'' 8 (1983): 117–29, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/FCVW8GHV view on Zotero].</ref>:“These [gardens] were extensive and beautifully laid out. There was [''sic''] [[alcove]]s and other shrubs[[summerhouse|summer houses]] at the termination of each [[walk]], with a '''seatseats''' under themtrees in the more shady recesses of the Big Garden, as it was called, and a paved walk up in distinction from the [[flower garden]] in front of the middlehouse.”
* Blandulus [pseud.[Thomas Jefferson|Jefferson, Thomas]], November 17941804, describing Pleasant Hill[[Monticello]], [[plantation]] of [[Thomas Jefferson]], Charlottesville, VA (Massachusetts Historical Society, Jefferson Papers):“[[Temple]]s or '''seatseats''' of Joseph Barrell, Charlestown, Mass. (quoted in Hammond 1982: 95) <ref>Charles Arthur Hammond, ‘“Where at those spots on the Arts and [[walk]]s most interesting either for [[prospect]] or the Virtues Unite”: Country Life Near Boston, 1637-1864’ (unpublished Ph.D. diss., Boston University, 1982). [https://wwwimmediate scenery.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/VVFZVIKT view on Zotero]</ref>
:“Whereonce the breastwork mark’d the scenes of
::blood,
:While Freedom’s sons inclosed the haughty foe,
:Rearing its head majestic from afar
:The venerable '''seat''' of Barrell stands
:Like some strong English Castle.”
*Scott, Joseph, 1806, describing the Schuylkill River in Pennsylvania (1806: 53)<ref>Joseph Scott, ''A Geographical Description of Pennsylvania'' (Philadelphia: Printed by R. Cochran, 1806), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/55XKIWPN/ view on Zotero].</ref>
:“The banks of the river are, in many places, adorned with beautiful country '''seats''', belonging to the wealthy citizens of Philadelphia. To these their families usually retire, in the summer months, from the bustle, and noise of the city, and to enjoy the salubrity of the country air.”
* Dwight, Timothy, 1796, describing mill seats in Massachusetts (1821: 2:352)<ref name="Dwight">Timothy Dwight, ''Travels; in New-England and New-York'', 4 vols. (New Haven: The Author, 1821-22). [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/VHBP7TH2 view on Zotero]</ref>
*Martin, William Dickinson, 1809, describing the pleasure grounds at Salem Academy, Salem, NC (quoted in Bynum 1979: 29)<ref name="Bynum 1979">Flora Ann L. Bynum, ''Old Salem Garden Guide'' (Winston-Salem, NC: Old Salem, 1979), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/TJB9XNMF view on Zotero].</ref>:“Immediately below the bridge “Next, I visited a [[over Miller’s Riverflower garden]] belonging to the female department. . . But it is situated on a hill, the East end of which is high & abrupt; some distance down this, they had dug down right in the earth, & drawing the dirt forward threw it on rock, etc., thereby forming a fallhorizontal plane of about thirty feet in circumference; & on the back, furnishing excellent mill-rose a perpendicular [[Terrace/Slope|terrace]] of some height, which was entirely covered over with a grass peculiar to that vicinage. At the bottom of this [[Terrace/Slope|terrace]] were arranged circular '''seats''', which are occupied by several mills. These are uniformly supplied with an abundance of water, and wear from the aspect height of great activity, and business, particularly the hill in the rear were protected from the sun in an early hour in the sawing of timberafternoon.”
* DwightMartin, TimothyWilliam Dickinson, 1799May 20, 1809, describing New York[[The Woodlands]], seat of [[William Hamilton]], near Philadelphia, N.Y. PA (1822Colonial Williamsburg Foundation): 3:481–82) <ref name="Dwight"></ref>“Altho’ much has been done to beautify this delightful '''seat''', much still remains to be done, for the perfecting it in all the capabilities which nature in her boundless profusion has bestowed.”
:“the heights, and many of the lower grounds, contain a rich display of gentlemen’s country '''seats''', connected with a great variety of handsome appendages.”
*Smith, Margaret Bayard, August 1, 1809, describing [[Monticello]], [[plantation]] of [[Thomas Jefferson]], Charlottesville, VA (1906: 73)<ref>Margaret Bayard Smith, ''The First Forty Years of Washington Society'', ed. Gaillard Hunt (New York: Charles Scribner’s, 1906), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/FTDFHRFH view on Zotero].</ref>
:“Mr. J. explained to me all his plans for improvement, where the roads, the [[walk]]s, the '''seats''', the little [[temple]]s were to be placed.”
* La Rochefoucauld Liancourt, François-Alexandre-Frédéric, duc de, 1799, describing a house in Charleston, S.C. (1800: 2:437–38) <ref> François-Alexandre-Frédéric, duc de La Rochefoucauld Liancourt, ''Travels through the United States of North America, the Country of the Iroquois, and Upper Canada, in the Years 1795, 1796, and 1797'', ed. by Brisson Dupont and Charles Ponges, trans. by H. Newman, 2nd edn, 4 vols. (London: R. Philips, 1800). [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/SRMDWJ2M view on Zotero]</ref>
:“Half a mile from Batavia . . . stands Middletonhouse*Foster, Sir Augustus John, 1812, describing [[Monticello]], the property [[plantation]] of Mrs. MIDDLETON[[Thomas Jefferson]], Charlottesville, mother-in-law to young Mr. IsardVA (1954: 143)<ref>Sir Augustus John Foster, which is esteemed ''Jeffersonian America: Notes on the most beautiful house United States of America Collected in this part of the countryYears 1805–1806–1807 and 1811–1812'', ed. The out-buildingsRichard Beale Davis (San Marino, such as kitchenCA: Huntington Library, wash-house1954), and offices, are [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/7FU8NDF4 view on Zotero].</ref>:“It is a very capacious. The ensemble delightful ride of these buildings calls twenty-eight miles from Montpellier to recollection the ancient English country-late President [[Thomas Jefferson|Mr. Jefferson’s]] '''seatsseat'''at [[Monticello]].”
*La Rochefoucauld LiancourtWarden, François-Alexandre-FrédéricDavid Bailie, duc de, 17991816, describing the WoodlandsAnalostan Island, seat of William HamiltonGen. John Mason, near PhiladelphiaWashington, Pa. DC (quoted in Madsen 1988Phillips 1917: B349) <ref>Karen MadsenPhilip Lee Phillips, ''The Beginnings of Washington: As Described in Books, ‘William Hamilton’s Woodlands’Maps, and Views'' (Washington, DC: The author, 1917), 1988. [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/XN8NN9QN QXZXNN8N view on Zotero].</ref>
:“You pass "ANNALOSTAN ISLAND: . . . Annalostan Island is evidently of modern formation. . . The highest [[eminence]], on which the house stands, is fifty feet above the level of the river. The common tide rises to the Schuylkill height of three feet. I can never forget how de-lighted I was with my first visit to this island. The amiable ladies whom I had the pleasure to accompany, left their carriage at Gray’sGeorgetown, and we walked to the mansion-Ferryhouse under a delicious shade. The blossoms of the cherry, apple, and peach trees, of the road to hawthorn and aromatic [[shrub]]s, filled the air with their fragrance. . . The house, of a simple and neat form, is situated near that side of the island which runs below Woodlandscommands a [[view]] of the Potomac, the President'''seat''' s House, Capitol, and other buildings. The garden, the sides of which are washed by the waters of the river, is ornamented with a variety of trees and [[shrub]]s, and, in the midst, there is a [[lawn]] covered with a beautiful verdure. The [[Summerhouse|summer-house]] is shaded by oak and lin-den-trees, the coolness and tranquility of Mrwhich invite to contemplation. William Hamilton: it stands highThe refresh-ing breezes of the Potomac, and the gentle murmuring of its waters against the rocks, the warbling of birds, and is seen upon an eminence from the opposite side mournful as-pect of the riverweeping-willows, inspire a thousand various sensations.What a delicious shade-
:"Ducere sol[l]icitae jucunda oblivia vitae"
* Ogden:The [[view]] from this spot is delightful. It embraces the [[picturesque]] banks of the Po-tomac, John Cosensa portion of the city, 1800and an expanse of water, describing Bethlehem, Paof which the bridge terminates the [[view]]. (pp. 18, 27) <ref>John C. Ogden, A few feet below the [[Summerhouse|sum-mer-house]] the rocks afford the '''seats'''An Excursion into Bethlehem & Nazareth, where those who are fond of fishing may indulge in Pennsylvaniathis amusement. From the [[portico]] on the oppo-site [139] side of the house, Georgetown, Calorama, in the Year 1799beautiful '''seat'''(Philadelphia: Charles Cistof Joel Barlow, 1800)Esq. and the adjacent finely-wooded hills, appear a [[https://www.zoterovista]].org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/U5CTTBGB view on Zotero]</ref>"
:“'''Seats''' are placed for rest, and to enable the visitors to view the river at leisure. . . .
:“The island is not large, but affords fine walks and an area for exercise, as well as '''seats''' and shelters for visitors.”
*Lambert, John, 1816, describing Boston, MA (1816: 2:328)<ref>John Lambert, ''Travels through Canada, and the United States of North America in the Years 1806, 1807, and 1808'', 2 vols. (London: Baldwin, Cradock, and Joy, 1816), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/T9KUEDWH view on Zotero].</ref>
:“From an elevated part of the town the spectator enjoys a succession of the most beautiful [[view]]s that imagination can conceive. Around him, as far as the eye can reach, are to be seen towns, villages, country '''seats''', rich farms, and [[pleasure ground|pleasure-grounds]], seated upon the summits of small hills, hanging on the brows of gentle [[Terrace/Slope|slopes]], or reclining in the laps of spacious valleys, whose shores are watered by a beautiful river, across which are thrown several [[bridge]]s and causeways.”
* Clitherall, Eliza Caroline Burgwin (Caroline Elizabeth Burgwin), active 1801, describing the Hermitage, seat of John Burgwin, Wilmington, N.C. (quoted in Flowers 1983: 126) <ref>John Flowers, ‘People and Plants: North Carolina’s Garden History Revisited’, ''Eighteenth Century Life'', 8 (1983), 117–29. [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/FCVW8GHV view on Zotero]</ref>
*Randolph, John, 1820s, describing an estate in Roanoke, VA (quoted in Martin 1991:“These 223n. 46)<ref>Peter Martin, ''The Pleasure Gardens of Virginia: From Jamestown to Jefferson'' (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1991), [gardenshttps://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/6TAHS88N view on Zotero] were extensive and beautifully laid out. There was </ref>:“From my earliest childhood I have delighted in the [[sicgrove]] alcoves s and summer houses at the termination solitudes of poor old Matoax. I now recall several of each walk, my favorite '''seats''' under trees in where I used to ruminate, ‘chewing the more shady recesses cud of the Big Garden, as it was calledsweet and bitter fancies, in distinction from the flower garden in front of the house’ all bitter now.”
*Jefferson[[Charles Willson Peale|Peale, ThomasCharles Willson]], 1804c. 1825, describing Monticello[[Belfield]], plantation estate of Thomas JeffersonCharles Willson Peale, Germantown, PA (Miller et al., eds., 2000: 5:381)<ref>Lillian B. Miller and et al., Charlottesvilleeds., Va''The Selected Papers of Charles Willson Peale and His Family'', vol. 5, ''The Autobiography of Charles Willson Peale'' (Massachusetts Historical SocietyNew Haven, CT: Yale University Press, Jefferson Papers2000), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/IZAKPCBG view on Zotero].</ref>:“He wanted a place to keep the garden seeds & Tools, and in a part of the Garden where a '''seat''' in the shade was often wanted, he built a shed or small room, and to hide that Salt-like-box, and to try his art of Painting, he made the front like [a] [[gateway|Gate Way]] with a step to form a '''seat''', and above, steps painted as representing a passage through an [[Arch]] beyond which was represented a western sky, and to ornament the upper part over the [[arch]], he painted several figures on boards cut to the outlines of said figures as representing [[statue]]s in sculpture.”
:“Temples or '''seats''' at those spots on the walks most interesting either for prospect or the immediate scenery.”
[[File:0300.jpg|thumb|225px|Fig. 10, Thomas Birch, ''Fairmount Water Works'', 1821.]]
*Sheldon, John P., December 10, 1825, describing Fairmount Waterworks, Philadelphia, PA (quoted in Gibson 1988: 5)<ref>Jane Mork Gibson, “The Fairmount Waterworks,” ''Philadelphia Museum of Art Bulletin'' 84 (1988): 5–40, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/RZEZDDEN view on Zotero].</ref>
:“Delightful '''seats''', surrounded by various kinds of trees and [[shrubbery]], with gardens containing [[summerhouse|summer houses]], [[vista]]s, embowered [[walk]]s, &c meet your [[view]] in almost every direction, [[wood]]s sloping gently to the river’s edge, by the side of smooth [[lawn]]s, add to the pleasing variety of the scene; and the Schuylkill, with its noble dam and [[bridge]]s serves as a most beautiful finish to the foreground.” [Fig. 10]
* Scott, Joseph, 1806, describing the Schuylkill River in Pennsylvania (p. 53) <ref>Scott, Joseph, ''A Geographical Description of Pennsylvania'' (Philadelphia: Printed by R. Cochran, 1806). [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/55XKIWPN/]</ref>
:“The banks of *Connor, Juliana Margaret, 1827, describing the garden at the river arepottery (Lot 48) on Main Street, Salem, NC (quoted in many places, adorned with beautiful country '''seats''', Bynum 1979: 28)<ref name="Bynum 1979"></ref>:“Afterwards walked into the garden belonging to the wealthy citizens establishment where we saw what I conceived to be a curiosity and in itself extremely beautiful. It was a large [[summerhouse|summer house]] formed of Philadelphia. To these their families usually retireeight cedar trees planted in a circle, the tops whilst young were chained together in the summer monthscenter forming a cone. The immense branches were all cut, so that there was not a leaf, from the bustleoutside is beautifully trimmed perfectly even and very thick within, were '''seats''' placed around and noise of doors or openings were cut, through the citybranches, and to enjoy the salubrity of the country airit had been planted 40 years.”
* MartinBernhard, William DickinsonDuke of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach, 18091828, describing the pleasure grounds at Salem AcademyBloomingdale Asylum for the Insane, SalemNew York, N.C. NY (quoted in Bynum 1979Little 1972: 2964) <ref name="Bynum 1979">Flora Ann L. BynumNina Fletcher Little, ''Old Salem Garden GuideEarly Years of the McLean Hospital, Recorded in the Journal of George William Folsom, Apothecary at the Asylum in Charlestown'' (Winston-Salem, NBoston: Francis A.C.: Old SalemCountway Library of Medicine, 19791972). , [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/TJB9XNMF Q8IX8NHN/ view on Zotero].</ref>:“The Lunatic Asylum is five miles from the city [New York] on a hill, in a very healthy situation, the road leads between country '''seats''' and handsome gardens and is one of the most pleasant I have seen in America.”
:“Next, I visited a flower garden belonging to the female department. . . . But it is situated on a hill, the East end of which is high & abrupt; some distance down this, they had dug down right in the earth, & drawing the dirt forward threw it on rock, etc., thereby forming a horizontal plane of about thirty feet in circumference; & on the back, rose a perpendicular terrace of some height, which was entirely covered over with a grass peculiar to that vicinage. At the bottom of this terrace were arranged circular '''seats''', which, from the height of the hill in the rear were protected from the sun in an early hour in the afternoon.”
*Wailes, Benjamin L. C., December 29, 1829, describing [[Lemon Hill]], estate of [[Henry Pratt]], Philadelphia, PA (quoted in Moore 1954: 359)<ref>John Hebron Moore, “A View of Philadelphia in 1829: Selections from the Journal of B. L. C. Wailes of Natchez,” ''Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography'' 78 (July 1954): 353–60, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/Z9IBV7A4 view on Zotero].</ref>
:“But the most enchanting [[prospect]] is towards the grand pleasure grove & [[green house]] of a [[Henry Pratt|Mr. Prat[t]]], a gentleman of fortune, and to this we next proceeded by a circutous [''sic''] rout, passing in [[view]] of the fish ponds, [[bower]]s, [[rustic style|rustic]] retreats, [[summerhouse|summer houses]], [[fountain]]s, [[grotto]], &c., &c. The [[grotto]] is dug in a bank [and] is of a circular form, the side built up of rock and arched over head, and a number of Shells [?]. A dog of natural size carved out of marble sits just within the entrance, the guardian of the place. A narrow aperture lined with a [[hedge]] of [[arbor]] vitae leads to it. Next is a round fish pond with a small [[fountain]] playing in the [[pond]]. An Oval & several oblong fish ponds of larger size follow, & between the two last is an artificial [[cascade]]. Several summer houses in [[rustic style]] are made by nailing bark on the outside & thaching the roof. There is also a [[rustic style|rustic]] '''seat''' built in the branches of a tree, & to which a flight of steps ascend. In one of the [[summerhouse|summer houses]] is a Spring with '''seats''' arrond it. The houses are all embelished [''sic''] with marble busts of Venus, Appollo, Diana and a Bacanti. One sits on an Island on the fish pond. All the [[pond]]s filled with handsome coloured fish.”
* Martin, William Dickinson, 20 May 1809, describing the Woodlands, seat of William Hamilton, near Philadelphia, Pa. (CWF)
*Trollope, Frances Milton, 1830, describing Philadelphia, PA (1832: 2:48–49; 152)<ref>Frances Trollope, ''Domestic Manners of the Americans'', 3rd ed., 2 vols. (London: Wittaker, Treacher, 1832), [https:“Altho’ //www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/T5RXDF7G view on Zotero].</ref>:“Near this enclosure [at the State House] is another of much has been done to beautify this delightful the same description, called [[Washington Square (Philadelphia)|Washington Square]]. Here there was an excellent crop of clover; but as the trees are numerous, and highly beautiful, and several commodious '''seats''' are placed beneath their shade, it is, spite of the long grass, a very agreeable retreat from heat and dust. It was rarely, however, that I saw any of these '''seats'''occupied; the Americans have either no leisure, or no inclination for those moments of 'seat'delassement''that all other people, I believe, much still remains indulge in. . . it is nevertheless the nearest approach to a London square that is to be donefound in Philadelphia. . . “The Delaware river, above Philadelphia, still flows through a landscape too level for the perfecting beauty, but it is rendered interesting by a succession of gentlemen’s '''seats''', which, if less elaborately finished in all architecture, and garden grounds, than the lovely villas on the Thames, are still beautiful objects to gaze upon as you float rapidly past on the capabilities which nature in her boundless profusion has bestowedbroad silvery stream that washes their [[lawn]]s.”
* Smith[[Andrew Jackson Downing|Downing, Margaret BayardAndrew Jackson]], 1 August 1809January 1837, “Notices on the State and Progress of Horticulture in the United States, describing Monticello[[Hyde Park]], plantation seat of Thomas Jefferson[[David Hosack]], Charlottesvilleon the Hudson, Va. NY (1906''Magazine of Horticulture'' 3: 735) <ref>Margaret Bayard SmithA. J. Downing, “Notices on the State and Progress of Horticulture in the United States,” ''The First Forty Years Magazine of Washington SocietyHorticulture, Botany, and All Useful Discoveries and Improvements in Rural Affairs''3, edno. by Gaillard Hunt 1 (New YorkJanuary 1837): Charles Scribner’s1–10, 1906). [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/keywords_in_early_american_landscape_design/items/itemKey/FTDFHRFH HPNHTESI/q/Notices%20on%20the%20State%20and%20Progress%20of%20Horticulture view on Zotero].</ref>:“The most distinguished amateur and patron of gardening, in every sense of the word, in this state, was the late [[Dr. Hosack]]. [[Hyde Park]], on the Hudson, the '''seat''' of this gentleman, has been probably the best specimen of a highly improved residence in the United States.”
:“Mr. J. explained to me all his plans for improvement, where the roads, the walks, the '''seats''', the little temples were to be placed.”
*Ritchie, Anna Cora Ogden Mowatt, 1839, describing Bonaparte’s Park at estate of Joseph Bonaparte (Count de Survilliers), Bordentown, NJ (quoted in Weber 1854: 186)<ref>Constance Weber, “A Sketch of Joseph Bonaparte,” in ''Godey’s Lady’s Book'' (Philadelphia: L. A. Godey, 1854), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/NEDC6TSD/ view on Zotero].</ref>
:“Equally rustic '''seats''' are scattered beneath the shade of the tall trees on its banks, and upon its clear surface a flock of snow-white swans were floating about.”
* Foster, Sir Augustus John, 1812, describing Monticello, plantation of Thomas Jefferson, Charlottesville, Va. (1954: 143) <ref>Sir Augustus John Foster, ''Jeffersonian America: Notes on the United States of America Collected in the Years 1805-1806-1807 and 1811-1812'', ed. by Richard Beale Davis (San Marino, Calif.: Huntington Library, 1954). [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/7FU8NDF4 view on Zotero]</ref>
*Hovey, C. M. (Charles Mason), September 1840, “Notes on Gardens and Gardening, in New Bedford, Mass.,” describing the estate of James Arnold, New Bedford, MA (''Magazine of Horticulture'' 6:“It is a very delightful ride 364)<ref>Charles Mason Hovey, “Notes on Gardens and Gardening, in New Bedford, Mass.,” ''Magazine of twenty-eight miles from Montpellier to Horticulture, Botany, and All Useful Discoveries and Improvements in Rural Affairs'' 6, no. 9 (September 1840): 361–66, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/QQC7WWZB view on Zotero].</ref>:“Continuing through the late President Mr. Jefferson’s winding [[walk]]s, shady [[bower]]s, and umbrageous retreats, through which rustic '''seatseats''' were placed, we arrived at Monticellothe shell [[grotto]].”
* LambertAdams, JohnNehemiah, 18161842, describing [[Boston Common]], Boston, Mass. MA (21842:32854) <ref>John LambertNehemiah Adams, ''Travels through Canada, and the United States of North America in the Years 1806, 1807, and 1808Boston Common'', 2 vols. (LondonBoston: Baldwin, Cradock, William D. Ticknor and JoyH. B. Williams, 18161842). , [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/T9KUEDWH VXTWGJ58 view on Zotero].</ref>:“One of the next improvements in the [[Boston Common|Common]] we suspect will be a suitable supply of proper '''seats''' in the [[mall]]. As a defence against our American propensity to whittle, the city government caused some of the wooden '''seats''' to be sheathed with sheet iron. Vain defence against the knife of an American whittler! . . . The city government thought that they would ‘try what virtue there is in stones.’ Blocks of granite have been deposited there for '''seats'''. . . The stone '''seats''' are smooth only on the upper side, and their rough look is not strictly in Boston taste, though it is excusable, considering the penitentiary object which led to their substitution for wooden '''seats'''. . . The idea of sitting on a natural, rough rock, to enjoy the beauties of nature, is poetical and in good keeping, but we have tried in vain to make those stone '''seats''' on the [[mall]] seem poetical.”
:“From an elevated part of the town the spectator enjoys a succession of the most beautiful views that imagination can conceive. Around him, as far as the eye can reach, are to be seen towns, villages, country '''seats''', rich farms, and pleasure-grounds, seated upon the summits of small hills, hanging on the brows of gentle slopes, or reclining in the laps of spacious valleys, whose shores are watered by a beautiful river, across which are thrown several bridges and causeways.”
*Buckingham, James Silk, 1842, describing Red Sulphur Springs, VA (Colonial Williamsburg Foundation)
:“In the centre of the valley, is a triangular [[plot]] of grass, which has been enclosed with well-finished rails, painted white, and laid out in [[walk]]s like a [[lawn]], having also several large and fine trees, under which '''seats''' are placed for enjoying the shade.”
* Randolph, John, 1820s, describing an estate in Roanoke, Va. (quoted in Martin 1991: 223n. 46) <ref>Peter Martin, ''The Pleasure Gardens of Virginia: From Jamestown to Jefferson'' (Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1991).
[https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/6TAHS88N]</ref>
*Anonymous, December 6, 1842, “Letter from Ministry at New Lebanon to Ministry at Graveland” (Western Reserve Historical Society Library, Shaker Manuscript Collection):“From “And it is my earliest childhood I have delighted in will that your '''seats''' be prepared after the groves and solitudes following order. Ye may take boards of poor old Matoaxsufficient width & thickness to form a '''seat'''. These may be planed. I now recall several Place these upon square blocks of my favorite sufficient bigness to elevate the '''seat''' of a suitable height; and these are sufficient for '''seats''' where I used , upon my holy ground. And if ye desire to ruminatebuild a shed, ‘chewing near by the cud meeting ground under which you can place these '''seats''', at such parts of sweet and bitter fanciesthe year as they are not wanted, ye may freely do it; but if my feast ground is located near your dwellings,’ all bitter nowyou had better carry them there to place under shelter.”
* PealeLongfellow, Charles WillsonHenry Wadsworth, c. 18251845, describing Belfieldthe Vassall-Craigie-Longfellow House, estate of Charles Willson PealeCambridge, Germantown, Pa. MA (Miller, Hart, and Ward, eds., 2000quoted in Evans 1993: 38141) <ref>Lillian B. Miller and et al, eds.Catherine Evans, ''The Selected Papers of Charles Willson Peale Cultural Landscape Report for Longfellow National Historic Site, History and His Family: The Autobiography of Charles Willson Peale. Vol. 5.Existing Conditions'' (New HavenBoston: National Park Service, Conn.: Yale University PressNorth Atlantic Region, 1983–20001993). , [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/IZAKPCBG 9TI9GUQN view on Zotero].</ref>:“Made the [[flower garden]]; laying it out in the form of a Lyre. Built also the [[rustic style|rustic]] '''seat''' in the Old Apple tree. Set out the roses under the Library windows.”
:“He wanted a place to keep the garden seeds & Tools, and in a part of the Garden where a '''seat''' in the shade was often wanted, he built a shed or small room, and to hide that Salt-like-box, and to try his art of Painting, he made the front like [a] Gate Way with a step to form a '''seat''', and above, steps painted as representing a passage through an Arch beyond which was represented a western sky, and to ornament the upper part over the arch, he painted several figures on boards cut to the outlines of said figures as representing statues in sculpture.”
[[Image:0359.jpg|thumb|225px|Fig. 11, Anonymous, “The [[Lake]],” [[Montgomery Place]], in [[A. J. Downing]], ed., ''Horticulturist'' 2, no. 4 (October 1847): 158, fig. 27.]]
*[[Andrew Jackson Downing|Downing, Andrew Jackson]], 1847, describing [[Montgomery Place]], country home of Mrs. Edward (Louise) Livingston, Dutchess County, NY (quoted in Haley 1988: 20, 47, 50)<ref>Jacquetta M. Haley, ed., ''Pleasure Grounds: Andrew Jackson Downing and Montgomery Place'' (Tarrytown, NY: Sleepy Hollow Press, 1988), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/SSZXJFSC/ view on Zotero].</ref>
:“I forgot to beg you before you leave [[Montgomery Place]] to sketch the [[view]] from the bold rustic '''seat''' with rustic balustrade in front*on the high west river [[walk]]. It seems to me one of the very finest things I have seen anywhere.
:<nowiki>*</nowiki> that '''seat''' about half way between the steps & the south terminus. . .
:“A path on the left of the broad [[lawn]] leads one to the fanciful rustic-gabled '''seat''', among a growth of locusts at the bottom of the [[Terrace/Slope|slope]]. . . Half-way along this morning ramble, a rustic '''seat''', placed on a bold little plateau, at the base of a large tree, eighty feet above the water, and fenced about with a rustic barrier, invites you to linger and gaze at the fascinating river landscape here presented. . .
:“A little farther on, we reach a flight of rocky steps, leading up to the [[border]] of the [[lawn]]. At the top of these is a rustic '''seat''' with a thatched canopy, curiously built round the trunk of an aged pine. . .
:“This part of the grounds [the [[lake]]] is seen to the most advantage, either toward evening, or in moonlight. Then the effect of contrast in light and shadow is most striking, and the seclusion and beauty of the spot are more fully enjoyable than at any hour. Then you will most certainly be tempted to leave the curious rustic '''seat''', with its roof wrapped round with a rude entablature like Pluto’s crown.” [Fig. 11]
* Sheldon, John P., 10 December 1825, describing Fairmount Waterworks, Philadelphia, Pa. (quoted in Gibson 1988: 5) <ref>Jane Mork Gibson, ‘The Fairmount Waterworks’, ''Bulletin, Philadelphia Museum of Art'', 84 (1988), 5–40. [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/RZEZDDEN view on Zotero]</ref>
[[File:“Delightful 1097.jpg|thumb|225px|Fig. 12, Thomas S. Sinclair, “Plan of the [[Pleasure Ground]]s and Farm of the [[Pennsylvania Hospital for the Insane]] at Philadelphia,” in Thomas S. Kirkbride, ''American Journal of Insanity'' 4 (April 1848): pl. opp. 280.]]*Kirkbride, Thomas S., April 1848, describing the [[pleasure ground|pleasure grounds]] and farm of the [[Pennsylvania Hospital for the Insane]], Philadelphia ('seats'American Journal of Insanity''4: 349)<ref>Thomas S. Kirkbride, surrounded by various kinds “Description of trees the Pleasure Grounds and shrubberyFarm of the Pennsylvania Hospital for the Insane, with gardens containing Remarks,” ''American Journal of Insanity'' 4, no. 4 (April 1848): 347–54, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/keywords_in_early_american_landscape_design/items/itemKey/9RWM2FH8/q/kirkbride view on Zotero].</ref>:“The [[summerhouse|summer -houses]], vistas, embowered walks[[rustic style|rustic]]-'''seats''', exercising-swings &c meet your view ., in this division are all in almost every direction, woods sloping gently to particularly pleasant positions. The cottage fronts the river’s edge[[wood]]s, by the side and in every part this portion of smooth lawns, add to the pleasing variety of the scene; and the Schuylkill, with its noble dam grounds is completely protected from intrusion and bridges serves as a most beautiful finish to the foregroundobservation.”[Fig. 12]
* Connor[[J. C. (John Claudius) Loudon|Loudon, Juliana MargaretJ. C. (John Claudius)]], 18271850, describing the public gardens in Philadelphia, PA (1850: 332–33):“856. ''[[public garden |Public Gardens]]''. . .:“''[[Promenade]] at Philadelphia''. There is a very pretty enclosure before the pottery walnut tree entrance to the state-house, with good well-kept gravel [[walk]]s, and many beautiful flowering trees. It is laid down in grass, not in turf; which, indeed, Mrs. Trollope observes, ‘is a luxury she never saw in America. Near this enclosure is another of a similar description, called [[Washington Square (Lot Philadelphia)|Washington Square]], which has numerous trees, with commodious '''seats''' placed beneath their shade.’ (''Ibid''. [''D. M. &c''.] vol. ii. p. 48.) . . .:“''Waterworks at Fair Mount, near Philadelphia''. ‘. . . On the farther side of the river is a gentleman’s '''seat''', the beautiful [[lawn]] of which slopes down to the water’s edge; and groups of weeping willows and other trees throw their shadows on Main Streetthe stream.’ (''Domestic Manners of the Americans'', Salem, Nvol. ii. p.C44. (quoted in Bynum 1979: 28) <ref name="Bynum 1979"></ref>
===Citations===*Dezallier d’Argenville, Antoine-Joseph, 1712, ''The Theory and Practice of Gardening'' (1712:“Afterwards walked into the garden belonging 78)<ref> A.-J. (Antoine Joseph) Dézallier d’Argenville, ''The Theory and Practice of Gardening; Wherein Is Fully Handled All That Relates to the establishment where we saw what I conceived to be a curiosity Fine Gardens, . . . Containing Divers Plans, and in itself extremely beautifulGeneral Dispositions of Gardens. . . It was a large summer house formed of eight cedar trees planted in a circle'', the tops whilst young were chained together in the center forming a conetrans. John James (London: Geo. The immense branches were all cutJames, so that there was not a leaf1712), the outside is beautifully trimmed perfectly even and very thick within, were [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/RNT8ZVZ8 view on Zotero].</ref>:“'''seatsSEATS''' placed around and doors , or openings were cutBenches, through besides the branchesConveniency they constantly afford in great Gardens, it had been planted 40 yearswhere you can scarce ever have too many, there is such need of them in walking, look very well also in a Garden, when set in certain Places they are destin’d to, as in the Niches or Sinkings that face principal [[Walk]]s and [[Vista]]s, and in the Halls and Galleries of [[Grove]]s.”
* BernhardWare, Duke of Saxe-Weimar-EisenachIsaac, 18281756, describing the Bloomingdale Asylum for the Insane, New York, N.Y. ''A Complete Body of Architecture'' (quoted in Little 19721756: 64636, 641) <ref>Nina Fletcher LittleIsaac Ware, ''Early Years A Complete Body of the McLean Hospital, Recorded in the Journal of George William Folsom, Apothecary at the Asylum in CharlestownArchitecture'' (BostonLondon: Francis AT. Osborne and J. Countway Library of MedicineShipton, 19721756). , [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/Q8IX8NHN/ 2EK2USKV view on Zotero].</ref>:“The first principle is here that there be space to [[walk]], and '''seats''' to rest. These must be proportioned also to one another: it would be absurd to terminate a vast [[walk]] with a plain bench; nor less ridiculous to erect a pompous [[temple]] where there was not the extent of a hundred yards from the building. . .:“He who would know where to place his [[pavilion]], '''seat''', or [[temple]], in a garden, must first understand what the purpose of it is, and what the true beauty and excellence of the garden itself.”
:“The Lunatic Asylum is five miles from the city [New York] on a hill, in a very healthy situation, the road leads between country '''seats''' and handsome gardens and is one of the most pleasant I have seen in America.”
*Sheridan, Thomas, 1789, ''A Complete Dictionary of the English Language'' (1789: n.p.)<ref>Thomas A. Sheridan, ''A Complete Dictionary of the English Language, Carefully Revised and Corrected by John Andrews. . . '', 5th ed. (Philadelphia: William Young, 1789), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/T5GU4CBQ view on Zotero].</ref>
:“'''SEAT''', se’t. s. A chair, bench, or any thing on which one may sit; chair of state; tribunal; mansion, abode; situation, site.”
* Wailes, Benjamin L. C., 29 December 1829, describing Lemon Hill, estate of Henry Pratt, Philadelphia, Pa. (quoted in Moore 1954: 359) <ref>John Hebron Moore, ‘A View of Philadelphia in 1829: Selections from the Journal of B.L.C. Wailes of Natchez’, ''Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography'', 78 (July) (1954), 353–60. [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/Z9IBV7A4 view on Zotero]</ref>
*Anonymous, 1798, ''Encyclopaedia'' (1798: 7:561):“But the most enchanting prospect is towards the grand pleasure grove & green house of a Mr“‘V. Prat[t], '''SEATS''' have a gentleman two-fold use; they are useful as places of fortunerest and conversation, and as guides to this we next proceeded by a circutous the points of [[sicview]] rout, passing in view which the beauties of the fish ponds, bowers, rustic retreats, summer houses, fountains, grotto, &csurrounding scene are disclosed.Every point of [[view]] should be marked with a '''seat'''; and speaking generally, &c. The grotto is dug no '''seat''' ought to appear but in a bank some favourable point of [[andview]] is . This rule may not be invariable, but it ought seldom to be deviated from.:“In the ruder scenes of a circular formneglected nature, the simple trunk, rough from the side built up of rock and arched over headwoodman’s hands, and a number the butts or stools of Shells [?]. A dog rooted trees, without any other marks of natural size carved out tools upon them than those of marble sits just within the entrancesaw which severed them from their stems, are '''seats''' in character; and in romantic or recluse situations, the guardian of cave or the place[[grotto]] are admissible. A narrow aperture lined with a hedge But wherever human design has been executed upon the natural objects of arbor vitae leads to it. Next is a round fish pond with a small fountain playing in the pond. An Oval & several oblong fish ponds of larger size followplace, & between the two last is an artificial cascade. Several summer houses in rustic style are made by nailing bark on the outside & thaching the roof. There is also a rustic '''seat''' built and every other artificial accompaniment ought to be in unison; and whether the branches of bench or the [[alcove]] be chosen, it ought to be formed and finished in such a treemanner as to unite with the [[wood]], the [[lawn]], and the [[walk]], & to which a flight of steps ascendlie around it. In one :“The colour of the summer houses is a Spring with '''seats''' arrond it. The houses are all embelished should likewise be suited to situations: where uncultivated nature prevails, the natural brown of the [[sicwood]] with marble busts of Venusitself ought not to be altered; but where the rural art presides, Appollo, Diana and white or stone colour has a Bacantimuch better effect. One sits ’ ''Practical Treatise on an Island on the fish pondPlanting and Gardening p. All the ponds filled with handsome coloured fish593 &c.''[See Fig. 1]
* TrollopeRepton, Frances MiltonHumphry, 18301803, describing Philadelphia, Pa. ''Observations on the Theory and Practice of Landscape Gardening'' (18321803: 2:48–49; 15269, 153) <ref>Frances TrollopeHumphry Repton, ''Domestic Manners Observations on the Theory and Practice of the AmericansLandscape Gardening'', 3rd edn, 2 vols. (London: WittakerPrinted by T. Bensley for J. Taylor, Treacher1803), 1832). [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/T5RXDF7G VVQPC3BI view on Zotero].</ref>:“This would be a proper place for a covered '''seat''', with a shed behind it for horses or open carriages; but it should be set so far back as to command the [[view]] under the branches of trees, which are very happily situated for the purpose. . .:“Yet the summit of a naked brow, commanding [[view]]s in every direction, may require a covered '''seat''' or [[pavilion]]; for such a situation, where an architectural building is proper, a circular [[temple]] with a dome, such as the [[temple]] of the Sybils, or that of Tivoli, is best calculated.”
:“Near this enclosure [at the State House] is another of much the same description, called Washington Square. Here there was an excellent crop of clover; but as the trees are numerous, and highly beautiful, and several commodious '''seats''' are placed beneath their shade, it is, spite of the long grass, a very agreeable retreat from heat and dust. It was rarely, however, that I saw any of these '''seats''' occupied; the Americans have either no leisure, or no inclination for those moments of delassement that all other people, I believe, indulge in. . . . it is nevertheless the nearest approach to a London square that is to be found in Philadelphia. . . . “The Delaware river, above Philadelphia, still flows through a landscape too level for beauty, but it is rendered interesting by a succession of gentlemen’s '''seats''', which, if less elaborately finished in architecture, and garden grounds, than the lovely villas on the Thames, are still beautiful objects to gaze upon as you float rapidly past on the broad silvery stream that washes their lawns.”
*Abercrombie, John, with James Mean, 1817, ''Abercrombie’s Practical Gardener'' (1817: 465)<ref>John Abercrombie, ''Abercrombie’s Practical Gardener Or, Improved System of Modern Horticulture'' (London: T. Cadell and W. Davies, 1817), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/TH54TADZ/ view on Zotero].</ref>
:“Fine points of [[view]] claim, in the first place, to be distinguished by '''seats'''. '''Seats''' merely serving as places of rest might announce an intrinsic object by some difference in their construction; and if there be no distant [[prospect]] to engage attention, greater elegance in the accompaniments may create a pleasant resting-place. As to the manner of finishing a '''seat'''; where the house is in sight, a correct taste will expect the bench or [[alcove]] to correspond with the style of the house, so far at least as to be avowedly artificial, neat in the workmanship, and painted. In neglected or wild scenes, withdrawn from the polished [[lawn]], pleasing illusions may be induced by a rough block of timber, the arms of a fantastic root, or forest fagots romantically interwoven, offering a '''seat''' under the canopy of a tree, or within a cave or [[grotto]]. This is admissible on principle, in proportion as every thing surrounding is in character. Not that it can be denied, that whimsical '''seats''' at variance with the situation sometimes afford a degree of amusement, and may do no harm in little gardens, or in a scene too tame to be spoiled: but the effect terminates with the oddity; a place destitute of character can excite no romantic interest.”
* Downing, A. J., January 1837, “Notices on the State and Progress of Horticulture in the United States,” describing Hyde Park, seat of Dr. David Hosack, on the Hudson, N.Y. (Magazine of Horticulture 3: 5)
[[File:“The most distinguished amateur 1334.jpg|thumb|225px|Fig. 13, [[J. C. Loudon]], Covered seats of the [[Rustic_style|rustic]] kind, in ''An Encyclopædia of Gardening'', 4th ed. (1826), 357, fig. 336.]] *[[J. C. (John Claudius) Loudon|Loudon, J. C. (John Claudius)]], 1826, ''An Encyclopaedia of Gardening'' (1826: 355, 357, 809)<ref>J. C. (John Claudius) Loudon, ''An Encyclopaedia of Gardening; Comprising the Theory and Practice of Horticulture, Floriculture, Arboriculture, and Landscape-Gardening'', 4th ed. (London: Longman et al., 1826),[https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/KNKTCA4W view on Zotero].</ref>:“1805. ''Of convenient decorations'' the variety is almost endless, from the prospect-tower to the rustic '''seat'''; besides aquatic decorations, agreeable to the eye and patron convenient for the purposes of recreations or culture. Their emplacement, as in the former section, belongs to gardening, and their construction to architecture and engineering. . .:“1816. ''Roofed '''seats''', boat-houses, moss houses, flint houses, bark huts'', and similar constructions, are different modes of forming resting-places containing '''seats''', and sometimes other furniture or conveniences in or near them. . . [Fig. 13]:“1817. ''Roofed '''seats''' of a more polished description'' are boarded structures generally semi-octagonal, and placed so as to be open to the south. Sometimes they are portable, moving on wheels, so as to be placed in every sense different positions, according to the hour of the day, or season of the wordyear, which, in confined spots, is a desirable circumstance. Sometimes they turn on rollers, or on a central pivot, for the same object, and this stateis very common in what are called barrel-'''seats'''. In general they are opaque, but occasionally their sides are glazed, to admit the sun to the interior in winter.[[File:1335.jpg|thumb|225px|Fig. 14, was [[J. C. Loudon]], Elegant structures of the late Drseat kind, in ''An Encyclopædia of Gardening'' 4th ed. (1826), 357, figs. 337 and 338.]] :“1818. Hosack''Folding chairs''. Hyde ParkA sort of medium '''seat''', between the roofed and the exposed, on is formed by constructing the Hudsonbacks of chairs, benches, or sofas with hinges, so as they may fold down over the '''seat''', and so protect it from rain. . .:“1819. ''Elegant structures'' of this gentlemanthe '''seat''' kind for summer use, may be constructed of iron rods and wires, and painted canvas; the iron forming the supporting skeleton, and the canvass the protecting tegument. . . [Fig. 14]:“1820. ''Exposed '''seats''''' include a great variety, rising in gradation from the turf bank to the carved couch. Intermediate forms are stone benches, root stools, sections of trunks of trees, wooden, stone, or cast-iron mushrooms painted or covered with moss, or mat, or heath; the Chinese barrel-'''seat''', the rustic stool, chair, tripod, sofa, the cast-iron couch or sofa, has been probably the best specimen wheeling-chair, and many subvarieties. . .:“6157. . . Light [[bower]]s formed of a highly improved residence lattice-work, and covered with climbers, are in general most suitable to [[parterre]]s; plain covered '''seats''' suit the general [[walk]]s of the United States[[shrubbery]].”
* RitchieAnonymous, Anna Cora Ogden MowattApril 26, 18391826, describing Bonaparte’s Park at estate of Joseph Bonaparte “On Landscapes and Picturesque Gardens” (Count de Survilliers), Bordentown, N.J. (quoted in Weber 1854''New England Farmer'' 4: 186316) <ref>Constance WeberAnonymous, ‘A Sketch of Joseph Bonaparte’“On Landscape and Picturesque Gardens, in ''Godey’s Lady's BookNew England Farmer'' 4, no. 40 (PhiladelphiaApril 28, 1826): L. A. Godey316, 1854). [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/keywords_in_early_american_landscape_design/items/itemKey/NEDC6TSD/ I3K5QGBZ? view on Zotero].</ref>:“A few fabrics, rustic [[bridge]]s, [[hermitage]]s, a [[Temple]], or a Chinese Kiosk or Pagoda, not expensive in their execution, would advantageously complete the embellishment of a country '''seat'''.”
:“Equally rustic '''seats''' are scattered beneath the shade of the tall trees on its banks, and upon its clear surface a flock of snow-white swans were floating about.”
*[[Noah Webster|Webster, Noah]], 1828, ''An American Dictionary of the English Language'' (1828: 2:n.p.)<ref>Noah Webster, ''An American Dictionary of the English Language'', 2 vols. (New York: S. Converse, 1828), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/N7BSU467 view on Zotero].</ref>
:“'''SEAT''', ''n.'' [It. ''sedia''; Sp. s''ede, sitio'', from L. ''sedes, situs''; Sw. ''sate''; Dan. ''soede''; G. ''sitz''; D. ''zetel'', ''zitplaats''; W. ''sez''; Ir. ''saidh''; W. with a prefix, ''gosod'', whence ''gosodi'', to ''set''. See ''Set'' and ''Sit''. . .]
:“1. That on which one sits. . .
:“3. Mansion; residence; dwelling; abode; as Italy the '''''seat''''' of empire. The Greeks sent colonies to seek a new '''''seat''''' in Gaul.
:“In Alba he shall fix his royal '''''seat'''''. Dryden.
:“4. Site; situation. The '''''seat''''' of Eden has never been incontrovertibly ascertained. . .
:“8. The place where a thing is settled or established. London is the '''''seat''''' of business and opulence. So we say, the '''''seat''''' of the muses, the '''''seat''''' of arts, the '''''seat''''' of commerce.”
* Hovey, C. M., September 1840, “Notes on Gardens and Gardening, in New Bedford, Mass,” describing the estate of James Arnold, New Bedford, Mass. (Magazine of Horticulture 6: 364)
*Bridgeman, Thomas, 1832, ''The Young Gardener’s Assistant'' (1832: 111)<ref> Thomas Bridgeman, ''The Young Gardener’s Assistant'', 3rd ed. (New York:“Continuing through the winding walksGeo. Robertson, shady bowers1832), and umbrageous retreats[https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/9FU4SNZK view on Zotero].</ref>:“In a retired part of the [flower] garden, through which a rustic '''seatsseat''' were placedmay be formed, we arrived at the shell grottoover and around which honey-suckles and other sweet and ornamental creepers and climbers may he [''sic''] trained on [[trellis]]es, so as to afford a pleasant retirement.”
* AdamsTeschemacher, RevJames E. Nehemiah, 1842August 1, describing Boston Common1835, Boston, Mass. “Extracts from Foreign Publications” ([Adams] 1842''Horticultural Register'' 1: 54308–9) <ref>Nehemiah AdamsJames E. Teschemacher, “Extracts from Foreign Publications,” ''Boston CommonHorticultural Register, and Gardener’s Magazine'' 1 (BostonAugust 1, 1835): William D. Ticknor and H. B. Williams304–9, 1842). [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/keywords_in_early_american_landscape_design/items/itemKey/VXTWGJ58 CNPGMS5X/q/extracts%20from%20foreign%20publications view on Zotero].</ref>:“''From an article On the various form and character of [[Arbour]]s as objects of use or ornament either in gardens or wild scenery [from Paxton’s Horticultural Register''], we extract the following passages. . .:“‘The closely shaven turf comes about ten feet inside the [[arch]]es where its edge is cut, and between that and the [[basin]] is covered with a fine tawny sand, with an apparently confused but really symmetrical arrangement of marble pedestals, '''seats''' and [[vase]]s with flowering plants placed upon them. During summer a [[vase]] with a rare flowering plant is placed under each of the external [[arch]]es except four which serve as entrances. The entire effect is good, and his may be considered as one of the best specimens of the artificial [[bower]] of the present day.’”
:“One of the next improvements in the Common we suspect will be a suitable supply of proper '''seats''' in the mall. As a defence against our American propensity to whittle, the city government caused some of the wooden '''seats''' to be sheathed with sheet iron. Vain defence against the knife of an American whittler! . . . The city government thought that they would ‘try what virtue there is in stones.’ Blocks of granite have been deposited there for '''seats'''. . . . The stone '''seats''' are smooth only on the upper side, and their rough look is not strictly in Boston taste, though it is excusable, considering the penitentiary object which led to their substitution for wooden '''seats'''. . . . The idea of sitting on a natural, rough rock, to enjoy the beauties of nature, is poetical and in good keeping, but we have tried in vain to make those stone '''seats''' on the mall seem poetical.”
*Sayers, Edward, 1838, ''The American Flower Garden Companion'' (1838: 14, 19, 131)<ref>Edward Sayers, ''The American Flower Garden Companion, Adapted to the Northern States'' (Boston: Joseph Breck, 1838), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/GHTFN8B2 view on Zotero].</ref>
:“At country residences, where a large extent is appropriated to this department [the [[flower garden]]], many convenient and pleasing appendages can be judiciously introduced; as rustic [[arbor]]s, rustic '''seats''', and [[rockery]]; and if water can be connected, it always gives a good effect. All such appendages, I recommend to be constructed in as natural a manner as possible. . .
:“In extensive [[pleasure ground]]s the [[rockery]] has a good effect when placed distinct from the [[flower garden]], and near a rustic [[arbor]] or ornamental [[bridge]], or '''seat'''; and if placed by the side of a retired [[walk]], near the [[lawn]] or grass [[plot]], it has an easy effect. . . .
:“the margin of the [[pond]] should be planted with drooping willows and trees of a pendulous habit for shade, under which rustic '''seat''' might be properly placed for the accommodation of those who desire to view the sporting fishes, and other interesting objects by which they are surrounded.”
[[File:0936.jpg|thumb|225px|Fig. 15, Alexander Walsh, Two seats surrounded by an arched [[arbor]], in ''New England Farmer'' 19, no. 39 (March 31, 1841): 309, fig. 4.]]
* Buckingham, James Silk, 1842, describing Red Sulphur Springs, Va. (CWF)
*Walsh, Alexander, March 31, 1841, “Remarks on Ornamental Gardening” (''New England Farmer'' 19:“In the centre of the valley308–9)<ref>Alexander Walsh, “Remarks on Ornamental Gardening, is With a triangular plot Plan of grassa Fruit, which has been enclosed with wellfinished railsFlower and Vegetable Garden, painted white” ''New England Farmer, and laid out in walks like a lawnHorticultural Register'' 19, no. 39 (March 31, 1841): 308–9, having also several large [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/HD2AV62D view on Zotero.]</ref>:“The garden and fine trees[[pleasure ground]] I would describe, is of an oblong form, 165 feet by 120 feet, with one end next the north side of the house. . .:“X X two '''seats''', under which each occupying 2 ft. . . T T two '''seats''' are placed for enjoying . . . surrounded by an arched [[arbor]] 10 ft. high, thrown over the [[walk]], ornamented on one side with honeysuckle, on the shadeother by climbing Boursaut rose.”[Fig. 15]
[[File:1824.jpg|thumb|225px|Fig. 16, Anonymous, “Moveable Garden Seat,” in Jane Loudon, ''Gardening for Ladies'' (1843), 283, fig. 49.]] * Anonymous[[Jane Loudon|Loudon, Jane]], 1843, ''Gardening for Ladies'' (1843: 283–84)<ref>Jane Loudon, ''Gardening for Ladies; And Companion to the Flower-Garden,'' ed. A. J. Downing (New York: Wiley and Putnam, 1843), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/VJ3SM523 view on Zotero].</ref>:“'''SEATS''' for gardens are either open or covered; the latter being in the form of root-houses, huts, [[pavilion]]s, [[temple]]s, [[grotto]]es, &c., and the former being either fixed, temporary, or portable. Fixed '''seats''' are commonly of stone, either plain stone benches without backs, or stone supports to wooden benches. Sometimes, also, wooden '''seats''' are fixed, as when they are placed round a tree, or when boards are nailed to posts, or when '''seats''' are formed in imitation of mushrooms, as in the grounds at Redleaf. Fixed '''seats''' are also sometimes formed of turf. Portable '''seats''' are formed of [[wood]], sometimes contrived to have the back of the '''seat''' folded down when the '''seat''' is not in use; so as to exclude the weather, and avoid the dirt of birds which are apt to perch on them. Another kind of portable '''seat''', which is frequently formed in iron, as shown in ''fig.'' 49, is readily wheeled from one part of the grounds to another; and the back of which also folds down to protect the '''seat''' from the weather. There is a kind of camp-stool which serves as a portable '''seat''', imported from Norway, and sold at the low price of 2''s''. 6 December 1842''d''. or 3''s''.; and there are also straw '''seats''', like half [[beehive]]s, which are, however, only used in garden-huts, or in any situation under cover, because in the open air they would be liable to be soaked with rain. There are a great variety of rustic '''seats''' formed of roots and crooked branches of trees, used both for the open garden and under cover; and there are also '''seats''' of cast and wrought iron, of great variety of form. There should always be some kind of analogy between the '''seat''' and the scene of which it forms a part; and for this reason rustic '''seats''' should be confined to rustic scenery; and the '''seats''' for a [[lawn]] or highly kept pleasure-ground ought to be of comparatively simple and architectural forms, “Letter and either of [[wood]] or stone, those of [[wood]] being frequently painted of a stone colour, and sprinkled over with silver sand before the paint is dry, to give them the appearance of stone. Iron '''seats''', generally speaking, are not sufficiently massive for effect; and the metal conveys the idea of cold in winter and heat in summer. [Fig. 16]:“When '''seats''' are placed along a [[walk]], a gravelled recess ought to be formed to receive them; and there ought, generally, to be a footboard to keep the feet from Ministry at New Lebanon the moist ground, whether the '''seat''' is on gravel or on al awn [''sic'']. In a garden where there are several '''seats''', some ought to be in positions exposed to the sun, and others placed in the shade, and none ought to be put down in a situation where the back of the '''seat''' is seen by a person approaching it before the front. Indeed the backs of all fixed '''seats''' ought to be concealed by shrubs, or by some other means, unless they are circular '''seats''' placed round a tree. '''Seats''' ought not to be put down where there will be any temptation to the persons sitting on them to strain their eyes to Ministry at Graveland” (Western Reserve Historical Society Librarythe right or left, nor where the boundary of the garden forms a conspicuous object in the [[view]]. In general, all '''seats''' should be of a stone colour, as harmonizing best with vegetation. Noting can be more unartistical than '''seats''' painted a pea-green, Shaker Manuscript Collection)and placed among the green of living plants.”
:“And it is my will that your '''seats''' be prepared after the following order. Ye may take boards of sufficient width & thickness to form a '''seat'''. These may be planed. Place these upon square blocks of sufficient bigness to elevate the '''seat''' of a suitable height; and these are sufficient for '''seats''', upon my holy ground. And if ye desire to build a shed, near by the meeting ground under which you can place these '''seats''', at such parts of the year as they are not wanted, ye may freely do it; but if my feast ground is located near your dwellings, you had better carry them there to place under shelter.”
[[File:0398.jpg|thumb|225px|Fig. 17, Anonymous, “[[Rustic_style|Rustic]] Covered Seat,” in [[A. J. Downing]], ''A Treatise on the Theory and Practice of Landscape Gardening'', 4th ed. (1849), 458, fig. 86.]]
*[[Andrew Jackson Downing|Downing, Andrew Jackson]], 1849, ''A Treatise on the Theory and Practice of Landscape Gardening'' (1849: 454–56, 473–74)<ref>A. J. [Andrew Jackson] Downing, ''A Treatise on the Theory and Practice of Landscape Gardening, Adapted to North America. . . '', 4th ed. (New York: G. P. Putnam, 1849), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/5M4S2D64 view on Zotero].</ref>
:''“Open and covered '''seats''''', of various descriptions, are among the most convenient and useful decorations for the pleasure-grounds of a country residence. Situated in portions of the [[lawn]] or [[park]], somewhat distant from the house, they offer an agreeable place for rest or repose. If there are certain points from which are obtained agreeable [[prospect]]s or extensive [[view]]s of the surrounding country, a '''seat''', by designating those points, and by affording us a convenient mode of enjoying them, has a double recommendation to our minds.
:“Open and covered '''seats''' are of two distinct kinds; one ''architectural'', or formed after artist-like designs, of stone or [[wood]], in Grecian, Gothic, or other forms; which may, if they are intended to produce an elegant effect, have [[vase]]s on pedestals as accompaniments; the other, ''rustic'', as they are called, which are formed out of trucks and branches of trees, roots, etc., in their natural forms. . .
:“We consider rustic '''seats''' and structures as likely to be much preferred in the villa and cottage residences of the country. They have the merit of being tasteful and [[picturesque]] in their appearance, and are easily constructed by the amateur, at comparatively little or no expense. There is scarcely a prettier or more pleasant object for the termination of a long [[walk]] in the [[Pleasure_ground|pleasure-grounds]] or [[park]], than a neatly thatched structure of rustic work, with its '''seat''' for repose, and a [[view]] of the landscape beyond. . . [Fig. 17]
:''“Unity of expression'' is the maxim and guide in this department of the art, as in every other. . .
:“With regard to [[pavilion]]s, summer-houses, rustic '''seats''', and garden edifices of like character, they should, if possible, in all cases be introduced where they are manifestly appropriate or in harmony with the scene. Thus. . . a rustic covered '''seat''' may occupy a secluded, quiet portion of the grounds, where undisturbed meditation be enjoyed.”
* Longfellow, Henry Wadsworth, c. 1845, describing the Vassall-Craigie-Longfellow House, Cambridge, Mass. (quoted in Evans 1993: 41) <ref>Catherine Evans, ''Cultural Landscape Report for Longfellow National Historic Site, History and Existing Conditions'' (Boston: National Park Service, North Atlantic Region, 1993), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/9TI9GUQN view on Zotero]</ref>
*Ranlett, William H., 1849, ''The Architect'' (1849; repr., 1976:“Made the flower garden1:19)<ref>William H. Ranlett, ''The Architect'', 2 vols. (1849–51; laying it out in repr., New York: Da Capo, 1976), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/QGQPCB5J view on Zotero].</ref>:“Probably no portion of the form globe, offers a greater variety of a Lyre. Built also the rustic beautiful country '''seatseats''' in than the Old Apple treevicinity of New-York. Set out No man who has any taste for the roses under retired tranquillity of a suburban retreat, or the lovely beauty of a [[picturesque]] scene, or the romantic grandeur of an enchanting landscape of cities, towns and country; rivers, bays and ocean, could fail to be suited with some of the numerous situations on the undulated shores, gentle declivities or towering heights of Staten Island, Long Island or the banks of the Library windowsnoble Hudson.”
* Downing[[File:0920.jpg|thumb|225px|Fig. 18, Anonymous, “Small Bracketed Cottage, ” in [[A. J.Downing]], 26 July 1847, describing Montgomery Place, country home ''The Architecture of Mrs. Edward Country Houses'' (Louise1850) Livingston, Dutchess Countypl. opp. 78, Nfig.Y9. ]]*[[Andrew Jackson Downing|Downing, Andrew Jackson]], 1850, ''The Architecture of Country Houses'' (quoted in Haley 19881850; repr., 1968: 20, 47, 5080–81) <ref>Jacquetta MA. Haley, edJ.[Andrew Jackson] Downing, ''Pleasure Grounds: Andrew Jackson Downing The Architecture of Country Houses; Including Designs for Cottages, Farm-Houses, and Montgomery PlaceVillas'' (Tarrytown1850; repr., N.YNew York: D.: Sleepy Hollow PressAppleton; Da Capo, 19881968). , [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/SSZXJFSC/ GRZPQXQI view on Zotero].</ref>:“The little rustic [[arbor]]s or covered '''seats''' on the outside of the bay window may be supposed to answer in some measure in the place of a [[veranda]], and convey at the first glance, an impression of refinement and taste attained in that simple manner so appropriate to a small cottage.” [Fig. 18]
:“I forgot to beg you before you leave Montgomery Place to sketch the view from the bold rustic '''seat''' with rustic balustrade in front* on the high west river walk. It seems to me one of the very finest things I have seen anywhere.
:<nowiki>*</nowiki> that '''seat''' about half way between the steps & the south terminus. . . .
:“A path on the left of the broad lawn leads one to the fanciful rustic-gabled '''seat''', among a growth of locusts at the bottom of the slope. . . Half-way along this morning ramble, a rustic '''seat''', placed on a bold little plateau, at the base of a large tree, eighty feet above the water, and fenced about with a rustic barrier, invites you to linger and gaze at the fascinating river landscape here presented. . . .
:“A little farther on, we reach a flight of rocky steps, leading up to the border of the lawn. At the top of these is a rustic '''seat''' with a thatched canopy, curiously built round the trunk of an aged pine. . . .
:“This part of the grounds [the lake] is seen to the most advantage, either toward evening, or in moonlight. Then the effect of contrast in light and shadow is most striking, and the seclusion and beauty of the spot are more fully enjoyable than at any hour. Then you will most certainly be tempted to leave the curious rustic '''seat''', with its roof wrapped round with a rude entablature like Pluto’s crown.”
*[[Andrew Jackson Downing|Downing, Andrew Jackson]], June 1850, “Our Country Villages” (''Horticulturist'' 4: 540–41)<ref>A. J. Downing, “Our Country Villages,” ''Horticulturist and Journal of Rural Art and Rural Taste'' 4, no. 12 (June 1850): 537–41, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/keywords_in_early_american_landscape_design/items/itemKey/2DJ27X4W/q/our%20country%20villages view on Zotero].</ref>
:“The next step, after the possession of such public pleasure-grounds, would be the social and common enjoyment of them. Upon the well-mown glades of [[lawn]], and beneath the shade of the forest trees, would be formed rustic '''seats'''. Little [[arbor]]s would be placed near, where in midsummer evenings ices would be served to all who wished them.”
* Kirkbride, Thomas S., April 1848, describing the pleasure grounds and farm of the Pennsylvania Hospital for the Insane, Philadelphia, Pa. (American Journal of Insanity 4: 349)
*[[Andrew Jackson Downing|Downing, Andrew Jackson]], March 1851, “The Management of Large Country Places” (''Horticulturist'' 6:105–6)<ref>A. J. Downing, “The summer-housesManagement of Large Country Places,” ''Horticulturist and Journal of Rural Art and Rural Taste'' 6, no. 3 (March 1851): 105–8, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/keywords_in_early_american_landscape_design/items/itemKey/HKQH76RW/q/management%20of%20large%20country%20places view on Zotero].</ref>:“All our country residences may readily be divided into two classes. The first and largest class, rusticis the suburban place of from five to twenty or thirty acres; the second is the country-'''seatsseat''', exercisingswings &cproperly so called, which consists of from 30 to 500 or more acres. . .:“But in the larger country places, there are ten instances of failure for one of success. This is not owing to the want of natural beauty, for the sites are [[picturesque]], the surface varied, and the [[wood]]s and [[plantation]]s excellent.The failure consists, for the most part, in this division a certain incongruity and want of distinct character in the treatment of the place as a whole. They are all too large to be kept in particularly pleasant positionsorder as pleasure-grounds, while they are not laid out or treated as [[park]]s. The cottage fronts grass which stretches on all sides of the woodshouse, is partly mown for [[lawn]], and in every part this partly for hay; the lines of the farm and the ornamental portion of the grounds , meet in a confused and unsatisfactory manner, and the result is completely protected from intrusion a residence pretending to be much superior to a common farm, and observationnot yet rising to the dignity of a really tasteful country '''seat'''.”
* LoudonJaques, JGeorge, January 1852, “Landscape Gardening in New-England” (''Horticulturist'' 7: 35)<ref> George Jacques, “Landscape Gardening in New-England,” ''Horticulturist and Journal of Rural Art and Rural Taste'' 7, no. C1 (January 1852): 33–36, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/keywords_in_early_american_landscape_design/items/itemKey/WMEDJ9XX/q/landscape%20gardening%20in%20new-england view on Zotero].</ref>:“Let woodbine, honey-suckle and climbing roses, here entwine themselves around a [[column]], 1850and wreath themselves there over a window. Here place a rustic '''seat''', describing half hid among the public gardens in Philadelphia[[shrubbery]]; there lead a short [[walk]], Pacarelessly curving towards a little vine-clad [[arbor]]. (pp. 332–33)
:“856. Public Gardens. . . .
:“Promenade at Philadelphia. There is a very pretty enclosure before the walnut tree entrance to the state-house, with good well-kept gravel walks, and many beautiful flowering trees. It is laid down in grass, not in turf; which, indeed, Mrs. Trollope observes, ‘is a luxury she never saw in America. Near this enclosure is another of a similar description, called Washington Square, which has numerous trees, with commodious '''seats''' placed beneath their shade.’ (Ibid. [D. M. &c.] vol. ii. p. 48.) . . .
:“Waterworks at Fair Mount, near Philadelphia. ‘. . . On the farther side of the river is a gentleman’s '''seat''', the beautiful lawn of which slopes down to the water’s edge; and groups of weeping willows and other trees throw their shadows on the stream.’ (Domestic Manners of the Americans, vol. ii. p. 44.)”
===Citations===<hr>
* [Dézallier d’Argenville, A.-J.], 1712, The Theory and Practice of Gardening ([1712] 1969: 78) ==Images=====Inscribed===<refspan id="roundabout_img"> A.-J. (Antoine Joseph) Dézallier d’Argenville, ''The Theory and Practice of Gardening; Wherein Is Fully Handled All That Relates to Fine Gardens, ... Containing Divers Plans, and General Dispositions of Gardens; ...'', trans. by John James (London: Geo. James, 1712). [https:<//www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/RNT8ZVZ8 view on Zotero]span></refgallery widths="170px" heights="170px" perrow="7">
Image: 1722.jpg|[[James Gibbs]], “Two '''SEATSSeats''', or Benches, besides for the Conveniency they constantly afford in great Gardens, where you can scarce ever have too many, there is such need ends of them in walking[[Walk]]s, look very well also in a Garden''A Book of Architecture'' (1728), when set in certain Places they are destin’d to, as in the Niches or Sinkings that face principal Walks and Vistas, and in the Halls and Galleries of Grovespl. 82.
Image:1723.jpg|[[James Gibbs]], “Two other '''Seats''' for the same purpose [for the ends of [[walk]]s],” in ''A Book of Architecture'' (1728), pl. 83.
* Ware, Isaac, 1756, A Complete Body of Architecture (ppImage:0925. 636, 641) <ref>Isaac Warejpg|William Burgis, ''A Complete Body South East [[View]] of ye Great Town of ArchitectureBoston in New England in America'' (London: T, 1743. Osborne and J“Capt. Shipton, 1756). [https:/Cunningham’s '''Seat'''” is inscribed over a grand house with beds/www.zoteroparterres in front.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/2EK2USKV view on Zotero]</ref>
Image:“The first principle is here that there be space 1737.jpg|Batty and Thomas Langley, “An Umbrello, to walk, and a '''seatsSeat''' , for to rest. These must be proportioned also to one another: it would be absurd to terminate Terminate a vast [[walk with ]], [[View]], &c. in a plain bench; nor less ridiculous to erect a pompous temple where there was not the extent of a hundred yards from the building. . . .:“He who would know where to place his pavilionGarden, ” in '''seat'Gothic Architecture''(1747), or temple, in a garden, must first understand what the purpose of it is, and what the true beauty and excellence of the garden itselfpl. 31.
image:1688.jpg|William and John Halfpenny, “A [[Chinese_manner|Chinese]] [[Alcove]] '''Seat''' Fronting Four Ways,” in ''Rural Architecture in the Chinese Taste'' (1755), pl. 8.
* Sheridan, Thomas, 1789, A Complete Dictionary of the English Language (n.p.) <ref>Thomas AFile:2262. Sheridanjpg|Anonymous, ''A Complete Dictionary The South West [[Prospect]] of the English Language, Carefully Revised and Corrected by John Andrews....'''Seat''' of Colonel George Boyd of Portsmouth, New Hampshire, 5th edn (Philadelphia: William YoungNew England, 1789). [https://www.zotero1774''.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/T5GU4CBQ view on Zotero]</ref>
Image:“'''SEAT''', se’t0587. s. A chairjpg|Anonymous, bench, or any thing on which one may sit; chair Plan of the Harbour and City of state; tribunal; mansion, abode; situationAnnapolis, site1781.
Image:0461.jpg|[[Samuel Vaughan]], Plan of Bath [[Berkeley Springs|[Berkeley Springs]]], VA, 1787, from the diary of [[Samuel Vaughan]], June–September 1787. Plan lists “bb” as “two [[Piazza]]s with '''seats'''.”
* Image:0338.jpg|Anonymous, 1798''A [[View]] of [[Mount Vernon]]'', Encyclopaedia (7:561)c. 1790.
Image:“‘V0021. jpg|Cornelius Tiebout, '''SEATS''' have a two-fold use; they are useful as places of rest and conversation, and as guides to the points of view in which the beauties A [[View]] of the surrounding scene are disclosed. Every point of view should be marked with a '''seat'present ''; and speaking generally, no 'Seat''seat''' ought to appear but in some favourable point of view. This rule may not be invariable, but it ought seldom to be deviated from.:“In the ruder scenes of neglected nature, the simple trunk, rough from the woodman’s hands, and the butts or stools of rooted trees, without any other marks of tools upon them than those of the saw which severed them from their stems, are '''seats''' in character; and in romantic or recluse situations, the cave or the grotto are admissiblehis Excel. But wherever human design has been executed upon the natural objects Vice President of the place, the ''United States'seat''' and every other artificial accompaniment ought to be in unison; and whether the bench or the alcove be chosen, it ought to be formed and finished in such a manner as to unite with the wood, the lawn, and the walk, which lie around it.:“The colour of '''seats''' should likewise be suited to situations: where uncultivated nature prevails, the natural brown of the wood itself ought not to be altered; but where the rural art presides, white or stone colour has a much better effect.’ Practical Treatise on Planting and Gardening p. 593 &c1790.
Image:1983.jpg|Jeremiah Paul, “[[Robert Morris]]’ '''Seat''' on [[Schuylkill_River|Schuylkill]],” July 20, 1794.
* Repton, HumphryImage:1925.jpg|Alexander Robertson, 1803, Observations on Cleremont the Theory and Practice of Landscape Gardening (pp. 69, 153) <ref>Humphry Repton, ''Observations on the Theory and Practice of Landscape Gardening'seat''' (London: Printed by TR. Bensley for JR. TaylorLivingston, 1803). [https://www.zotero1796.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/VVQPC3BI view on Zotero]</ref>
Image:“This would be a proper place for a covered '''seat'0939.jpg|[[Charles Fraser]], '', with a shed behind it for horses or open carriages; but it should be set so far back as to command the view under the branches of trees, which are very happily situated for the purpose. . .Rice Hope:“Yet the summit of a naked brow, commanding views in every direction, may require a covered The '''seatSeat''' or pavilion; for such a situation, where an architectural building is proper, a circular temple with a domeof Dr. William Read, such as the temple Taken from One of the SybilsRice Fields'', or that of Tivoli, is best calculatedc. 1800.
Image:0141.jpg|Thomas Coram, ''The [[Grove]], '''Seat''' of G.A. Hall, Esquire'', c. 1800.
* Abercrombie, John, with James Mean, 1817, Abercrombie’s Practical Gardener Image:0345.jpg|Alexander Robertson (p. 465artist) <ref>John Abercrombie, ''Abercrombie’s Practical Gardener Or, Improved System of Modern Horticulture'' Francis Jukes (London: T. Cadell and W. Daviesengraver), 1817). “[[https://wwwMount Vernon]] in Virginia,” 1800.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/TH54TADZ/ view on Zotero]</ref>
Image:“Fine points of view claim, in the first place, to be distinguished by '''seats'''2259. '''Seats''' merely serving as places of rest might announce an intrinsic object by some difference in their construction; and if there be no distant prospect to engage attentionjpg|Anonymous, greater elegance in the accompaniments may create a pleasant resting-place. As to the manner Plan of finishing a '''seat'''; where the house is in sight, a correct taste will expect the bench or alcove to correspond with the style of the house, so far at least as to be avowedly artificial, neat in the workmanshipHarvard [[Botanic Garden]], and paintedc. In neglected or wild scenes, withdrawn from the polished lawn, pleasing illusions may be induced by a rough block of timber, the arms of a fantastic root, or forest fagots romantically interwoven, offering a '''seat''' under the canopy of a tree, or within a cave or grotto1807. This is admissible on principle, in proportion as every thing surrounding is in character“N. Not that it can be denied, that whimsical Green-'''seats''' at variance with the situation sometimes afford a degree of amusement, and may do no harm in little gardens, or in a scene too tame to be spoiled: but the effect terminates with the oddity; a place destitute of character can excite no romantic interestturf banks.”
Image:0601.jpg|Anonymous, A plan of the section of land on which the Believers live in the state of Ohio, November 7, 1807. "'''Seat'''" inscribed on top center left.
* Loudon, JImage:1924. Cjpg|P.Lodet, 1826''Clermont, ''An Encyclopaedia of Gardening'Seat' (pp. 355, 357, 809) <ref>J. C. (John Claudius) Loudon, ''An Encyclopaedia of Gardening; Comprising the Theory and Practice of Horticulture, Floriculture, Arboriculture, and LandscapeChancellor Livingston -GardeningNorth River 1807'', 4th edn (London: Longman et al, 1826). [https://www.zotero1807.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/KNKTCA4W view on Zotero]</ref>
Image:“18050317. Of convenient decorations the variety is almost endlessjpg|William Russell Birch, from the prospect-tower to the rustic ''Montebello—The 'seat'''; besides aquatic decorations, agreeable to the eye and convenient for the purposes of recreations or culture. Their emplacement, as in the former section, belongs to gardening, and their construction to architecture and engineering. . . .:“1816. Roofed '''seatsSeat''', boat-houses, moss houses, flint houses, bark huts, and similar constructions, are different modes of forming resting-places containing '''seats''', and sometimes other furniture or conveniences in or near them. . . .:“1817. Roofed 'General Smith''seats''' of a more polished description are boarded structures generally semi-octagonal, and placed so as to be open to the southc. Sometimes they are portable, moving on wheels, so as to be placed in different positions, according to the hour of the day, or season of the year, which, in confined spots, is a desirable circumstance. Sometimes they turn on rollers, or on a central pivot, for the same object, and this is very common in what are called barrel-'''seats'''. In general they are opaque, but occasionally their sides are glazed, to admit the sun to the interior in winter.:“1818. Folding chairs. A sort of medium '''seat''', between the roofed and the exposed, is formed by constructing the backs of chairs, benches, or sofas with hinges, so as they may fold down over the '''seat''', and so protect it from rain. . . .:“1819. Elegant structures of the '''seat''' kind for summer use, may be constructed of iron rods and wires, and painted canvas; the iron forming the supporting skeleton, and the canvass the protecting tegument. . . .:“1820. Exposed '''seats''' include a great variety, rising in gradation from the turf bank to the carved couch. Intermediate forms are stone benches, root stools, sections of trunks of trees, wooden, stone, or cast-iron mushrooms painted or covered with moss, or mat, or heath; the Chinese barrel-'''seat''', the rustic stool, chair, tripod, sofa, the cast-iron couch or sofa, the wheeling-chair, and many subvarieties. . . .:“6157. . . Light bowers formed of lattice-work, and covered with climbers, are in general most suitable to parterres; plain covered '''seats''' suit the general walks of the shrubbery1808.
Image:0326.jpg|William Russell Birch, “The [[View]] from Springland,” in ''The Country '''Seats''' of the United States'' (1808), pl. 2.
* AnonymousImage:0311.jpg|William Russell Birch, “Hoboken in New Jersey, 26 April 1826the '''Seat''' of Mr. John Stevens, “On Landscapes and Picturesque Gardens” ” in ''The Country '''Seats''' of the United States'' (New England Farmer 4: 3161808), pl. 3.
Image:“A few fabrics0312.jpg|William Russell Birch, rustic bridges“Hampton, hermitagesthe '''Seat''' of Genl. Chas. Ridgely, a TempleMaryland, or a Chinese Kiosk or Pagoda, not expensive in their execution, would advantageously complete the embellishment of a country ''The Country '''Seats''seat'of the United States''(1808), pl. 4.
Image:0303.jpg|William Russell Birch, “Landsdown, the '''Seat''' of the late Wm. Bingham Esq., Pennsylvania,” in ''The Country '''Seats''' of the United States'' (1808), pl. 5.
* WebsterImage:0314.jpg|William Russell Birch, Noah“[[Mount Vernon]], 1828Virginia, An American Dictionary the '''Seat''' of the English Language (nlate Genl.pG.) <ref>Noah WebsterWashington, ” in ''The Country '''Seats'''An American Dictionary of the English LanguageUnited States'', 2 vols. (New York: S. Converse1808), 1828)pl. [https://www7.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/N7BSU467 view on Zotero]</ref>
Image:0302.jpg|William Russell Birch, '''SEAT''', n. [It. sedia; Sp. sede, sitio, from L. sedes[Fountain]] Green, situs; SwPennsylv. sate; Dan. soede; G. sitz; D. zetel, zitplaats; W. sez; Ir. saidh; W. with a prefix, gosod, whence gosodi, to set. See Set and Sit. . . .]:“1. That on which one sits. . . .:“3. Mansion; residence; dwelling; abode; as Italy the '''seatSeat''' of empireMr. S. The Greeks sent colonies to seek a new '''seat''' Meeker,” in Gaul.:“In Alba he shall fix his royal '''seat'''. Dryden. :“4. Site; situation. The Country '''seatSeats''' of Eden has never been incontrovertibly ascertained. . . .:“8. The place where a thing is settled or established. London is the United States'''seat''' of business and opulence(1808), pl. So we say, the '''seat''' of the muses, the '''seat''' of arts, the '''seat''' of commerce8.
Image:0316.jpg|William Russell Birch, “Devon in Pennsylv.a the '''Seat''' of Mr. Dallas,” in ''The Country '''Seats''' of the United States'' (1808), pl.10.
* BridgemanImage:0327.jpg|William Russell Birch, Thomas“[[Mount]] Sidney, 1832the '''Seat''' of Genl. John Baker, Pennsylv.a,” in ''The Young Gardener’s Assistant Country '''Seats''' of the United States'' (p1808), pl. 11. 111) <ref> Thomas BridgemanThe inscription reads "[[Mount]] Sidney, the '''Seat'The Young Gardener’s Assistant'', 3rd edn (New York: Geoof Gen. Robertsonl John Baker, 1832)Pennsylv. [https:a //wwwDrawn, Engraved & Published by W.zoteroBirch Springland, near Bristol, Pennsylvania.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/9FU4SNZK view on Zotero]</ref>"
Image:“In a retired part of 0318.jpg|William Russell Birch, “Montibello the [flower] garden, a rustic '''seat''' may be formedof Genl. S. Smith Maryland, over and around which honey-suckles and other sweet and ornamental creepers and climbers may he [sic] trained on trellises” in ''The Country Seats of the United States'' (1808), so as to afford a pleasant retirementpl. 13.
Image:0304.jpg|William Russell Birch, “[[The Woodlands|Woodlands]], the '''Seat''' of Mr. Wm. Hamilton, Pennsylva.,” in ''The Country '''Seats''' of the United States'' (1808), pl. 14.
* TeschemacherImage:0319.jpg|William Russell Birch, James E“Sedgley '''seat''' of Mr. Wm.Crammond Pennsylva, 1 August 1835, “Extracts from Foreign Publications” ” in ''The Country '''Seats''' of the United States'' (Horticultural Register 1: 308–91808), pl. 15.
Image:“From an article On the various form and character of Arbours as objects of use or ornament either in gardens or wild scenery 0301.jpg|William Russell Birch, “[[View]] from Paxton’s Horticultural Register[[Belmont_(Philadelphia,_PA)|Belmont], we extract the following passages] Pennsyla. . . .:“‘The closely shaven turf comes about ten feet inside the arches where its edge is cut, and between that and the basin is covered with a fine tawny sand, with an apparently confused but really symmetrical arrangement '''Seat''' of marble pedestalsJudge Peters, ” in ''The Country 'seats''Seats''' and vases with flowering plants placed upon them. During summer a vase with a rare flowering plant is placed under each of the external arches except four which serve as entrancesUnited States'' (1808), pl. The entire effect is good, and his may be considered as one of the best specimens of the artificial bower of the present day16.’”
Image:0320.jpg|William Russell Birch, “York-Island with a [[View]] of the '''Seats''' of Mr. A. Gracie, Mr. Church &c.,” in ''The Country '''Seats''' of the United States'' (1808), pl. 17.
* Sayers, Edward, 1838Image:0322.jpg|William Russell Birch, “China Retreat Pennsyl.<sup>a</sup> the '''Seat'The American Flower Garden Companion''(ppof M. 14, 19, 131) <refsup>r</sup>Edward SayersManigault, ” in ''The American Flower Garden Companion, Adapted to Country '''Seats''' of the Northern United States'' (Boston: Joseph Breck1808), 1838)pl. [https://www.zotero19.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/GHTFN8B2 view on Zotero]</ref>
Image:“At country residences, where a large extent is appropriated to this department 0009.jpg|[[the flower gardenCharles Willson Peale]], many convenient and pleasing appendages can be judiciously introduced; as rustic arbors, rustic '''seats''', and rockery; and if water can be connected, it always gives a good effect. All such appendages, I recommend Letter to be constructed in as natural a manner as possible. . . .:“In extensive pleasure grounds the rockery has a good effect when placed distinct from the flower Angelica Peale describing his gardenat [[Belfield]], and near a rustic arbor or ornamental bridge, or '''seat'''; and if placed by the side of a retired walk, near the lawn or grass plot, it has an easy effect. . . .:“the margin of the pond should be planted with drooping willows and trees of a pendulous habit for shade, under which rustic '''seat''' might be properly placed for the accommodation of those who desire to view the sporting fishesNovember 22, and other interesting objects by which they are surrounded1815.
Image:0164.jpg|Joshua H. Hayward, “A [[View]] of the '''Seat''' of Theodore Lyman, Esqr., in Waltham, taken on the principles of perspective,” Mathematical Thesis, 1818.
* WalshImage:0082.jpg|Cornelia Jefferson Randolph, Alexanderattr., 31 March 1841“A Garden '''Seat''' by Mr. Jones, “Remarks on Ornamental Gardening” (New England Farmer 19: 308–9)From Chamber’s Kew,” c. 1820.
Image:“The garden and pleasure ground I would describe1176.jpg|Eliza Susan Quincy, is ''View of an oblong form, 165 feet by 120 feet, with one end next the north side seat of the house. . . Edmund Quincy Esqr.:“X X two '''seats''', each occupying 2 ft1822. . . . T T two Inscribed on reverse: '''seats''' . . . surrounded by an arched arbor 10 ft. high, thrown over [[View]] / of the walk, ornamented on one side with honeysuckle, on the other by climbing Boursaut rose.” [Fig[seat]] of Edmund Quincy Esqr. 9]''
Image:1334.jpg|[[J. C. Loudon]], Covered '''seats''' of the [[Rustic_style|rustic]] kind, in ''An Encyclopædia of Gardening'', 4th ed/ (1826), 357, fig. 336.
* Image:1335.jpg|[[J. C. Loudon]], Jane, 1845, Elegant structures of the '''seat'Gardening for Ladies'' (pp. 369–70) <ref>Jane Loudonkind, in ''An Encyclopædia of Gardening for Ladies; and Companion to the Flower-Garden'', 4th ed. by A. J. Downing (New York: Wiley & Putnam1826), 357, 1845)figs. [https://www.zotero337 and 338.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/3Q5GCH4I view on Zotero]</ref>
Image:“'''SEATS''' for gardens are either open or covered; the latter being in the form of root-houses, huts, pavilions, temples, grottoes, &c1354., and the former being either fixed, temporary, or portablejpg|[[J. Fixed '''seats''' are commonly of stone, either plain stone benches without backs, or stone supports to wooden benchesC. Sometimes, alsoLoudon]], wooden '''seats''' are fixed, as when they are placed round a tree, or when boards are nailed to posts, or when '''seats''' are formed Rough bench in imitation of mushrooms, as in the grounds at Redleaf. Fixed '''seats''' are also sometimes formed of turf. Portable '''seats''' are formed of wood, sometimes contrived to have the back of the '''seat''' folded down when the '''seat''' is not in use; so as to exclude the weather, and avoid the dirt of birds which are apt to perch on them. Another kind of portable '''seat''', which is frequently formed in iron, as shown in fig. 49, is readily wheeled from one part of the grounds to another; and the back of which also folds down to protect the '''seat''' from the weather. There is a kind of camp-stool which serves as a portable '''seat''', imported from Norway, and sold at the low price of 2s. 6d. or 3s.; and there are also straw '''seats''', like half beehives, which are, however, only used in garden-huts, or in any situation under cover, because in the open air they would be liable to be soaked with rain. There are a great variety of [[Rustic_style|rustic '''seats''' formed of roots and crooked branches of trees, used both for the open garden and under cover; and there are also '''seats''' of cast and wrought iron, of great variety of form. There should always be some kind of analogy between the '''seat''' and the scene of which it forms a part; and for this reason rustic '''seats''' should be confined to rustic scenery; and the '''seats''' for a lawn or highly kept pleasure-ground ought to be of comparatively simple and architectural forms, and either of wood or stone, those of wood being frequently painted of a stone colour, and sprinkled over with silver sand before the paint is dry, to give them the appearance of stone. Iron '''seats''', generally speaking, are not sufficiently massive for effect; and the metal conveys the idea of cold ]] hut decorated in winter and heat in summer. [Fig. 10[Shrubbery|shrubberies]:“When '''seats''' are placed along a walk, a gravelled recess ought to be formed to receive them; and there ought, generally, to be a footboard to keep the feet from the moist ground, whether the '''seat''' is on gravel or on al awn [sic]. In a garden where there are several '''seats''', some ought to be in positions exposed to the sun, and others placed in the shade, and none ought to be put down in a situation where the back of the '''seat''' is seen by a person approaching it before the front. Indeed the backs An Encyclopædia of all fixed ''Gardening'seats''' ought to be concealed by shrubs, or by some other means, unless they are circular '''seats''' placed round a tree. '''Seats''' ought not to be put down where there will be any temptation to the persons sitting on them to strain their eyes to the right or left, nor where the boundary of the garden forms a conspicuous object in the view4th ed. In general(1826), all '''seats''' should be of a stone colour809, as harmonizing best with vegetationfig. Noting can be more unartistical than '''seats''' painted a pea-green, and placed among the green of living plants561.
Image:1792.jpg|Thomas Cole, ''[[View]] of Monte Video, the '''Seat''' of Daniel Wadsworth, Esq.'', 1828.
* Downing, AImage:1707. jpg|[[J.C. Loudon]], 1849, “'''Seat'A Treatise on the Theory and Practice of Landscape Gardening'' (pp. 454–56, 473–74) <ref>A. J. formed of moss and hazel rods" and "[[Trellis|Trellised]] [[Andrew Jacksonarch] Downing]es for climbers, ” in ''A Treatise on the Theory and Practice An Encyclopædia of Landscape Gardening, Adapted to North America; with a View to the Improvement of Country Residences. Comprising Historical Notices and General Principles of the Art, Directions for Laying out Grounds and Arranging Plantations, the Description and Cultivation of Hardy Trees, Decorative Accompaniments to the House and Grounds, the Formation of Pieces of Artificial Water, Flower Gardens, Etc.: With Remarks on Rural Architecture'', 4th edn new ed. (New York: G. P. Putnam1834), 1196, 1849)figs. [https://www960–62.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/5M4S2D64 view on Zotero]</ref>
Image:“Open and covered '''seats''', of various descriptions, are among the most convenient and useful decorations for the pleasure-grounds of a country residence1764. Situated in portions of the lawn or park, somewhat distant from the house, they offer an agreeable place for rest or reposejpg|[[J. If there are certain points from which are obtained agreeable prospects or extensive views of the surrounding country, a '''seat''', by designating those points, and by affording us a convenient mode of enjoying them, has a double recommendation to our mindsC.:“Open and covered '''seats''' are of two distinct kinds; one architectural, or formed after artist-like designs, of stone or wood, in Grecian, Gothic, or other forms; which may, if they are intended to produce an elegant effect, have vases on pedestals as accompaniments; the otherLoudon]], A [[Rustic_style|rustic, as they are called, which are formed out of trucks and branches of trees, roots, etc., in their natural forms. . . .:“We consider rustic '''seats''' and structures as likely to be much preferred in the villa and cottage residences of the country. They have the merit of being tasteful and picturesque in their appearance, and are easily constructed by the amateur, at comparatively little or no expense. There is scarcely a prettier or more pleasant object for the termination of a long walk in the pleasure-grounds or park, than a neatly thatched structure of rustic work, with its ]] '''seat''' for repose, and a view of the landscape beyond. . . . [Fig. 11]:“Unity of expression is the maxim and guide in this department of the art, as in every other. . . .:“With regard to pavilions, summer-houses, rustic '''seats'The Suburban Gardener''(1838), and garden edifices of like character467, they should, if possible, in all cases be introduced where they are manifestly appropriate or in harmony with the scenefig. Thus . . . a rustic covered '''seat''' may occupy a secluded, quiet portion of the grounds, where undisturbed meditation be enjoyed173.
Image:0679.jpg|James W. Steel, Beech Hill, The Country '''Seat''' of R. Gilmor, Esq., in W. H. Carpenter and T. S. Arthur, eds., ''The Baltimore Book: A Christmas and New Year’s Present'' (1838), pl. opp. 184.
* Ranlett, William HImage:1420.jpg|[[J. C.Loudon]], 1849, “Covered '''Seat'The Architect'' (, of grotesque and [[1849Rustic_style|rustic]] 1976: 1:19) <ref>William H. RanlettMasonry,” Cheshunt Cottage, in ''The ArchitectGardener’s Magazine''15, 2 volsno. 117 (New YorkDecember 1839): Da Capo656, 1976). [https://wwwfig.zotero168.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/QGQPCB5J view on Zotero]</ref>
Image:“Probably no portion 1904.jpg|[[J. C. Loudon]], Elevation of the globe, offers Back Woodwork of a greater variety of beautiful country [[Rustic_style|Rustic]] Covered '''seatsSeat''' than the vicinity of New-York. No man who has any taste for the retired tranquillity of a suburban retreat, or the lovely beauty of a picturesque sceneCheshunt Cottage, or the romantic grandeur of an enchanting landscape of citiesin ''The Gardener’s Magazine'' 15, towns and country; riversno. 117 (December 1839): 660, bays and ocean, could fail to be suited with some of the numerous situations on the undulated shores, gentle declivities or towering heights of Staten Island, Long Island or the banks of the noble Hudsonfig. 168.
Image:0936.jpg|Alexander Walsh, Two '''seats''' surrounded by an arched [[arbor]], in ''New England Farmer'' 19, no. 39 (March 31, 1841): 309, fig. 4.
* Downing, A. JImage:1824.jpg|Anonymous, 1850, “Moveable Garden '''Seat'The Architecture of Country Houses'' (,” in [[1850Jane Loudon] 1968: 80–81) <ref>A. J. [Andrew Jackson] Downing, ''The Architecture of Country HousesGardening for Ladies; Including Designs for Cottages, Farmand Companion to the Flower-Houses, and VillasGarden'' (Originally published New York; Reprint1845), New York: D. Appleton; Da Capo369, 1968)fig. [https://www49.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/GRZPQXQI view on Zotero]</ref>
Image:“The little rustic arbors or covered 0844.jpg|[[Alexander Jackson Davis]], ''[[Montgomery Place]]—Shore '''Seat''seats''' on the outside of the bay window may be supposed to answer in some measure in the place of a veranda, and convey at the first glance, an impression of refinement and taste attained in that simple manner so appropriate to a small cottagec.” [Fig1847. 12]
Image:0358.jpg|Anonymous, “[[Rustic_style|Rustic]] '''Seat''',” [[Montgomery Place]], in [[A. J. Downing]], ed., ''Horticulturist'' 2, no. 4 (October 1847): 157, fig. 26.
* DowningImage:0361.jpg|Anonymous, “Beaverwyck, the '''Seat''' of Wm. P. Van Rensselaer, Esq., ” in [[A. J.Downing]], June 1850''A Treatise on the Theory and Practice of Landscape Gardening'', “Our Country Villages” 4th ed. (Horticulturist 4: 540–411849), pl. opp. 51, fig. 7.
Image:0368.jpg|Anonymous, “The next step, after the possession '''Seat''' of such public pleasure-groundsGeorge Sheaff, would be the social and common enjoyment of themEsq. Upon the well-mown glades of lawn, and beneath the shade of the forest trees” in [[A. J. Downing]], would be formed rustic '''seats'A Treatise on the Theory and Practice of Landscape Gardening'', 4th ed. (1849), pl. Little arbors would be placed nearbetween 58 and 59, where in midsummer evenings ices would be served to all who wished themfig. 12.
Image:1891.jpg|Anonymous, “Simple [[Rustic_style|rustic]] '''seat''',” in [[A. J. Downing]], ''A Treatise on the Theory and Practice of Landscape Gardening'', 4th ed. (1849), 456, fig. 82.
* DowningImage:1892.jpg|Anonymous, Simple [[Rustic_style|rustic]] '''seat''' made at the foot of a tree, in [[A. J.Downing]], March 1851''A Treatise on the Theory and Practice of Landscape Gardening'', “The Management of Large Country Places” 4th ed. (Horticulturist 6: 105–61849), 456, fig. 83.
Image:“All our country residences may readily be divided into two classes0397. The first and largest classjpg|Anonymous, is the suburban place of from five to twenty or thirty acres; the second is the country-“Covered '''seat'''or [[Rustic_style|rustic]] [[arbor]], properly so called, which consists of from 30 to 500 or more acres. . . .:“But in the larger country places, there are ten instances of failure for one of success[[A. This is not owing to the want of natural beauty, for the sites are picturesque, the surface varied, and the woods and plantations excellentJ. The failure consistsDowning]], for ''A Treatise on the most part, in a certain incongruity Theory and want Practice of distinct character in the treatment of the place as a whole. They are too large to be kept in order as pleasure-groundsLandscape Gardening'', while they are not laid out or treated as parks4th ed. The grass which stretches on all sides of the house(1849), is partly mown for lawn457, and partly for hay; the lines of the farm and the ornamental portion of the grounds, meet in a confused and unsatisfactory manner, and the result is a residence pretending to be much superior to a common farm, and not yet rising to the dignity of a really tasteful country '''seat'''fig. 84.
Image:1893.jpg|Anonymous, Covered '''Seat''' for a mineral, shell, or geological collection, in [[A. J. Downing]], ''A Treatise on the Theory and Practice of Landscape Gardening'', 4th ed. (1849), 457, fig. 85.
* JaquesImage:0398.jpg|Anonymous, George“[[Rustic_style|Rustic]] Covered '''Seat''', January 1852” in [[A. J. Downing]], “Landscape ''A Treatise on the Theory and Practice of Landscape Gardening in New-England” '', 4th ed. (Horticulturist 7: 351849), 458, fig. 86.
Image:“Let woodbine, honey-suckle and climbing roses, here entwine themselves around a column1660.jpg|Robert B. Leuchars, and wreath themselves there over a window. Here place a rustic Ground plan of [[conservatory]] designed for gentleman’s country '''seat''', half hid among in ''A Practical Treatise on the shrubbery; there lead a short walkConstruction, Heating, and Ventilation of Hothouses'' (1850), 95, carelessly curving towards a little vine-clad arborfig. 32.
==Images==Image:0854.jpg|[[Alexander Jackson Davis]], Shore '''Seat''' for [[Montgomery Place]], Annandale-on-Hudson, New York (elevation and plan), 1870—79.</gallery>
===InscribedAssociated===<span id="roundabout_img"></span>
<gallery widths="170px" heights="170px" perrow="7">
Image:03381055.jpg|cMichael van der Gucht, “Four Designs for Cloisters,” in A.-J. Dezallier d’Argenville, ''The Theory and Practice of Gardening'' (1712), pl. 9. 1790
Image:00210036.jpg|1790Thomas Lee Shippen, Plan of Westover, 1783. The '''seat''' can be seen at the top of the image, referencing the houses across the river from Westover.
Image:03450043_2.jpg|1800John Archibald Woodside, ''[[Lemon Hill]]'', 1807.
Image:03010313.jpg|William Russell Birch, “The Sun Reflecting on the Dew, a Garden scene, Echo, Pennsylv.a A Place Belonging to Mr. D. Bavarage,” in ''The Country '''Seats''' of the United States'' (1808), pl. 6.
Image:03020315.jpg|William Russell Birch, “Solitude in Pennsyla. belonging to Mr. Penn,” in ''The Country '''Seats''' of the United States'' (1808), pl. 9.
Image:03030321.jpg|William Russell Birch, “Mendenhall Ferry, [[Schuylkill_River|Schuylkill]], Pennsylvania,” ''The Country '''Seats''' of the United States'' (1808), pl. 18.
Image:03040323.jpg|William Russell Birch, “[[View]] from the Elysian Bower, Springland, Pennsylv,a the residence of Mr W. Birch,” ''The Country '''Seats''' of the United States'' (1808), pl. 20.
Image:03110051.jpg|1808William Strickland, “[[The Woodlands]],” 1809, in ''Casket'' 5, no. 10 (October 1830): pl. opp. 432.
Image:03120300.jpg|1808Thomas Birch, ''Fairmount Water Works'', 1821.
Image:03140541.jpg|1808John T. Bowen, ''A [[View]] of Fairmount Water-Works with [[Schuylkill_River|Schuylkill]] in the distance, taken from the [[Mount]]'', 1838.
Image:03160843.jpg|1808[[Alexander Jackson Davis]], [[Montgomery Place]], 1844.
Image:03181049.jpg|1808N. Vautin, [[View]] of North Side (Rear) of Longfellow House, June 1845.
Image:03190357.jpg|1808[[Alexander Jackson Davis]], “[[Montgomery Place]],” in [[A. J. Downing]], ed., ''Horticulturist'' 2, no. 4 (October 1847): pl. opp. 153.
Image:03200359.jpg|1808Anonymous, “The [[Lake]],” [[Montgomery Place]], in [[A. J. Downing]], ed., ''Horticulturist'' 2, no. 4 (October 1847): 158, fig. 27.
Image:03221097.jpg|1808Thomas S. Sinclair, “Plan of the [[Pleasure_ground|Pleasure Grounds]] and Farm of the [[Pennsylvania Hospital for the Insane]] at Philadelphia,” in Thomas S. Kirkbride, ''American Journal of Insanity'' 4, no. 4 (April 1848): pl. opp. 280.
Image:03260363.jpg|1808Anonymous, “[[View]] in the [[Meadow]] [[Park]] at Geneseo,” in [[A. J. Downing]], ed., ''Horticulturist'' 3, no. 4 (October 1848): pl. opp. 153.
Image:03270350.jpg|1808[[Alexander Jackson Davis]], “View in the Grounds at Blithewood,” in [[A. J. Downing]], ''A Treatise on the Theory and Practice of Landscape Gardening'', 4th ed. (1849), frontispiece.
Image:03170355.jpg|cAnonymous, “[[View]] in the Grounds at Hyde Park,” in [[A. J. Downing]], ''A Treatise on the Theory and Practice of Landscape Gardening'', 4th ed. (1849), pl. opp. 45, fig. 1. 1808
Image:00090367.jpg|Anonymous, “[[Charles Willson PealeView]]in the Grounds of James Arnold, Esp., Letter to Angelica Peale describing his garden at ” in [[BelfieldA. J. Downing]], Nov''A Treatise on the Theory and Practice of Landscape Gardening'', 4th ed. 22(1849), 1815pl. opp. 57.
Image:01640378.jpg|1818Anonymous, “Plan of a Suburban Villa Residence,” in [[A. J. Downing]], ''A Treatise on the Theory and Practice of Landscape Gardening'', 4th ed. (1849), 118, fig. 26.
Image:00820920.jpg|cAnonymous, “Small Bracketed Cottage,” in [[A. 1820J. Downing]], ''The Architecture of Country Houses'' (1850), pl. opp. 78, fig. 9.</gallery>
Image:0358.jpg|October 1847===Attributed===<gallery widths="170px" heights="170px" perrow="7">
Image:03630673.jpg|October 1848Archibald L. Dick, ''The Battle Ground at Germantown, Cliveden or Chew’s House'', n.d.
Image:03611680.jpg|1849Anonymous, Garden '''seat''' from Somerset County, MD, 1780.
</gallery>Image:0477.jpg|John Scoles, “Government House,” January 1795. Image:0324.jpg|William Russell Birch, “Back of the State House, Philadelphia,” 1800. Image:0509.jpg|[[Charles Fraser]], Rice Hope, c. 1803. Image:0330.jpg|[[Anne-Marguerite-Henriette Rouillé de Marigny Hyde de Neuville]], attr., ''Tomb du grande Washington au [[Mount Vernon]]'', 1818. Image:0120.jpg|Anonymous, ''By the Sea'', c. 1820. Image:1949.jpg|Mary Ann Lucy Gries, Needlework sampler with garden bench, 1826. Image:0675.jpg|[[Alexander Jackson Davis]], “[[View]] of the Battery and Castle Garden,” 1826–28. Image:1948.jpg|Mrs. G. W. Whitney, The Adams '''Seat''' in Quincy, 1828. Image:0811.jpg|[[Alexander Jackson Davis]], ''[[View]] of St. John’s Chapel, From the [[Park]]'', 1829.
===Associated===<gallery widths="170px" heights="170px" perrow="7">Image:1043.jpg|Sidney Mason Stone, House for Roger Sherman Baldwin, New Haven, CT, c. 1830–40.
Image:00360490.jpg|1783Archibald L. Dick, “Elysian Fields, Hoboken (New York in the distance),” in ''[[View]]s in New-York and its Environs'' (1831—34).
Image:00431025.jpg|1807Anonymous, “Entrance to [[Mount Auburn Cemetery|Mount Auburn]],” in ''American Magazine of Useful and Entertaining Knowledge'' 1, no. 1 (September 1834): 9.
Image:03130486.jpg|1808James Smillie, “Bay and Harbour of New York, From the Battery,” 1831.
Image:03150424.jpg|1808[[Alexander Jackson Davis]], Ithiel Town, and James Dakin, ''New York University, Washington Square'', 1833.
Image:03210464.jpg|1808Nicolino Calyo, ''Harlem, the Country House of Dr. Edmondson'', 1834.
Image:03230252.jpg|1808Henry Walton, Three Sisters in a Landscape, 1838.
Image:00511033.jpg|1809Anonymous, “Forest [[Pond]],” in ''The [[Picturesque]] Pocket Companion, and Visitor’s Guide, through Mount Auburn'' (1839), 171.
Image:03001477.jpg|1821Anonymous, Honorary membership certificate for Nicholas Biddle in “The Horticultural Association of the Valley of the Hudson” [detail], June 1839.
Imageimage:03570525.jpg|October 1847William E. Winner, ''Garden Scene Near Philadelphia'', c. 1840.
Image:03501103.jpg|1849W. Mason, “[[Pennsylvania Hospital for the Insane]],” c. 1841, in Thomas S. Kirkbride, ''Reports of the Pennsylvania Hospital for the Insane: for the Year 1841'' (1841), frontispiece.
Image:03550895.jpg|1849</gallery>Edwin Whitefield, Sketch of Pokahoe, 1841–44. A seat is located on the lawn, nestled in the trees, seen left of center of the view.
Image:0448.jpg|Anonymous, ''Brother and Sister'', c. 1845.
===Attributed===<gallery widths="170px" heights="170px" perrow="7">Image:2283.jpg|Anonymous (artist), Nathaniel Currier (lithographer), “[[View]] of the Great Conflagration at New York,” 1845. The seats are located around the fountain.
Image:03301063.jpg|nJames Smillie, “[[Mount Auburn Cemetery]],” in Cornelia W.dWalter, ''Mount Auburn Illustrated'' (1847; repr., 1850), frontispiece.
Image:03240110.jpg|1799Joseph Goldsborough Bruff (artist), Edward Weber & Co. (lithographer), ''Elements of National Thrift and Empire'', c. 1847.
Image:01240487.jpg|1806William Wade, ''Castle Garden: From the Battery'', 1848.
Image:01200384.jpg|cAnonymous, “The Bracketed Mode,” in [[A. J. Downing]], ''A Treatise on the Theory and Practice of Landscape Gardening'', 4th ed. (1849), 393, fig. 52. 1820
Image:02520547.jpg|1838Ernst Georg Fischer, ''Dr. Edmondson and Family'', c. 1850.
Image:01100442.jpg|Anonymous, ''Memorial to Nicholas M.S. Catlin'', c. 18471852.
Image:03590218.jpg|October 1847Augustus Weidenbach, ''[[Belvedere]]'', c. 1858.
Image:02180396.jpg|cAnonymous, “A circular [[pavilion]],” in [[A. J. Downing]], ''A Treatise on the Theory and Practice of Landscape Gardening'', 4th ed. (1849), 456, fig. 81. 1858
Image:1001.jpg|Anonymous, “Mount Fordham—the Country '''Seat''' of Lewis G. Morris, Esq.,” in [[A. J. Downing]], ed., ''Horticulturist'' 6, no. 8 (August 1851): pl. opp. 345.
</gallery>
 
<hr>
==Notes==
[[Category: Keywords]]
[[Category: Garden Ornaments/Embellishments]]
[[Category: Architecture]]

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Changes - History of Early American Landscape Design
A Project of the Center for Advanced Study in the Visual Arts, National Gallery of Art
History of Early American Landscape Design
HEALD will be upgrading in spring 2021. New features and content will be available this summer. Thank you for your patience!

Changes

[http://www.nga.gov/content/ngaweb/research/casva/research-projects.html A Project of the National Gallery of Art, Center for Advanced Study in the Visual Arts ]
A Project of the Center for Advanced Study in the Visual Arts

National Gallery of Art, Washington


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