'''Noah Webster''' (October 16, 1758 &ndash; May 28, 1843), a lexicographer, editor, political writer, and author, is considered one of made important contributions to the founding fathers articulation of the United States. <ref> Joshua Kendall, ''The Forgotten Founding Father: Noah Webster’s Obsession and the Creation of an American Culture'' (New York: G. P. Putnam’s Sons, 2010), [https://www.zoteroa distinctive national culture in post-Revolutionary America.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/Q9UNXXKS view on Zotero]. </ref> He is best known as the creator of the first comprehensive American dictionary, which provided a cornerstone in documented many of the intellectual foundation differences between American and British usage of American nationalismthe English language.  
==History==
[[File:2285.jpg|thumb|350px|Fig. 1, James Herring, Noah Webster, 1833.]]Following an unsatisfactory early education, Noah Webster studied Latin and Greek privately and , at the age of 15 fifteen, entered Yale College, where he came under the influence of [[Ezra Stiles]] and [[Timothy Dwight]]. <ref> David Micklethwait, ''Noah Webster and the American Dictionary'' (Jefferson, N.C.: McFarland & Company, 2005), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/T756K4GR view on Zotero]. </ref> He went on to study law and teach school before turning his attention to writing a series of newspaper articles promoting the American revolution Revolution and urging a permanent separation from Britain. After founding a private school in Goshen, New York, he produced a three-volume compendium, ''A Grammatical Institute of the English Language'', consisting of a speller (1783), a grammar (1784), and a reader (1785). <ref> David Micklethwait, ''Noah Webster and the American Dictionary'' (Jefferson, N.C.NC: McFarland & Company, 2005), 21-&ndash;22, 54-&ndash;73, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/T756K4GR view on Zotero]. </ref> These works provided alternatives to imported English textbooks and established a uniquely American approach to teaching children how to read, spell, and pronounce words. Webster’s speller was the most popular American book of its time, with 15 million copies sold by 1837. <ref> Catherine Reef, Catherine, ''Education and Learning in America '' (New York: Infobase Publishing, 2009), 22, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/B3D537IS view on Zotero]. </ref> In 1787 Webster founded the ''The American Magazine'' with the intention of promoting an American cultural identity distinct from that of Britain. <ref> Edward E. Chielens, "Periodicals “Periodicals and the Development of an American Literature," in ''Making America, Making American Literature'', ed. by A. Robert Lee and W. M. Verhoeven (Amsterdam and Atlanta, Ga.: Rodopi, 1996), 95-&ndash;96, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/G25NKMA3 view on Zotero]. </ref>
Proceeds from the speller funded Webster’s work on a dictionary through which he intended to promote an American language with its own idioms, pronunciation, and style. In 1806 Webster published ''A Compendious Dictionary of the English Language'', the first truly American dictionary. He immediately began work on a more ambitious work, ''An American Dictionary of the English Language'' (1828). His research on word origins necessitated learning twenty-eight languages, including Anglo-Saxon, Aramaic, Russian, and Sanskrit.<ref>Joshua Kendall, ''The Forgotten Founding Father: Noah Webster’s Obsession and the Creation of an American Culture'' (New York: G. P. Putnam’s Sons, 2010), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/Q9UNXXKS view on Zotero].</ref> Webster also documented unique American words that had not yet appeared in British dictionaries. Comprising 70,000 words&mdash;12,000 of which had never been published before&mdash;the ''American Dictionary'' surpassed the scope and authority of Samuel Johnson’s magisterial ''Dictionary of the English Language'', published in London in 1755.<ref>Joshua Lawrence Eason, “Dictionary-Making in the English Language,” ''Peabody Journal of Education'' 5 (May 1928): 349, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/JX6ARZAD view on Zotero]; Joseph W. Reed Jr., “Noah Webster’s Debt to Samuel Johnson,” ''American Speech'' 37 (1962): 95–105, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/DI5ACAS9 view on Zotero].</ref> Although British examples predominate, <span id="WebsterAvenue_cite"></span>Webster also referred to the American context for words such as [[avenue]] (“A wide street, as in Washington, Columbia”) ([[#WebsterAvenue|view text]]); differentiated American usage from British in the case of words such as [[meadow]], [[orchard]], [[plantation]], and [[wood]]; <span id="WebsterCataract_cite"></span>and included quotations from American authors who imbued the English language with New World associations, as in the phrase attributed to Washington Irving, “The tremendous [[cataract]]s of America thundering in their solitudes [''sic'']” ([[#WebsterCataract|view text]]). Despite his monumental achievement, Webster made little money from his dictionary and he went deeply into debt in order to finance a revised and expanded second edition, which was published in 1841, two years before his death.
Proceeds from the speller funded Webster’s work on a dictionary through which he intended to promote a distinctive American language with its own idiom, pronunciation, and style. In 1806 Webster published ''A Compendious Dictionary of the English Language'', the first truly American dictionary. He immediately began work on a more ambitious work, ''An American Dictionary of the English Language'' (1828). His research on word origins necessitated learning 28 languages, including Anglo-Saxon, Aramaic, Russian, and Sanskrit. Webster also documented unique American words that had not yet appeared in British dictionaries. Comprising 70,000 words &mdash; 12,000 of which had never been published before &mdash; the ''American Dictionary'' surpassed the scope and authority of [[Samuel Johnson]]’s magisterial ''Dictionary of the English Language'', published in 1755. <ref> Joshua Lawrence Eason, "Dictionary-Making in the English Language," ''Peabody Journal of EducationRobyn Asleson'', 5 (May 1928): 349, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/JX6ARZAD view on Zotero]. </ref> Despite its monumental achievement, Webster’s dictionary sold only 2,500 copies and he went deeply into debt in order to finance a revised and expanded second edition, which was published in 1841, two years before his death.
--''Robyn Asleson''<hr>
==Texts==
===''An American Dictionary of the English Language'' (1828)===
'''Noah Webster, ''An American Dictionary of the English Language'', vol. 1 (New York: S. Converse, 1828) <ref>Noah Webster, ''An American Dictionary of the English Language'', vol2 vols. 1 (New York: S. Converse, 1828) , vol. 1, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/R6R883RR view on Zotero].</ref>''' *1828, ''An American Dictionary of the English Language'' (1: n.p.)
*:“[[alley|AL’LEYAL'LEY]], ''n. al’lyal'ly'' [Fr. ''allée'', a passage, from ''aller'' to go; Ir. ''alladh''. Literally, a passing or going.]
:“1. A [[walk]] in a garden; a narrow passage.
*1828, ''An American Dictionary of the English Language'' (1: n.p.) :“[[arbor|ARBOR]], ''n''. [The French express the sense by ''berceau'', a cradle, an ''[[arbor]]'', or [[bower]]; Sp. ''emparrade'', from ''parra'', a vine raised on stakes, and nailed to a [[wall]]. Qu. L. ''[[arbor]]'', a tree, and the primary sense.]
:“1. A frame of lattice work, covered with vines, branches of trees or other plants, for shade; a [[bower]].”
*“[[arcade|ARCA’DE]]1828, ''n''. [Fr. from ''arcus''; Sp. ''arcadaAn American Dictionary of the English Language''(1: n.] A long or continued arch; a walk arched above. ''Johnson''p.)
:“[[arcade|ARCA'DE]], ''n''. [Fr. from ''arcus''; Sp. ''arcada''.] A long or continued [[arch]]; a [[walk]] arched above. ''Johnson''.”
 *1828, ''An American Dictionary of the English Language'' (1: n.p.) :“[[arch|ARCH]], ''n''. [See ''Arc''.] A segment or part of a circle. A concave or hollow structure of stone or brick, supported by its own curve. It may be constructed of wood, and supported by the mechanism of the work. This species of structure is much used in [[bridge]]s.
:“A vault is properly a broad [[arch]]. ''Encyc''.
*<div id="WebsterAvenue"></div>1828, ''An American Dictionary of the English Language'' (1: n.p.) :“[[avenue|AV’ENUEAV'ENUE]], ''n''. [Fr. from ''venir'', to come or go; L. ''venio''.]
:“1. A passage; a way or opening for entrance into a place; any opening or passage by which a thing is or may be introduced.
:“3. A wide street, as in Washington, Columbia.”
: [[#WebsterAvenue_cite|back up to History]]
 
*1828, ''An American Dictionary of the English Language'' (1: n.p.)
*:“[[aviary|A’VIARYA'VIARY]], ''n''. [L. ''aviarium'', from ''avis'', a fowl.]
:“A [[bird cage]]; an inclosure for keeping birds confined. ''Wotton''.”
*1828, ''An American Dictionary of the English Language'' (1: n.p.) :“[[basin|BAS’INBAS'IN]], ''n''. ''básn''. [Fr. ''bassin''; Ir. ''baisin''; Arm. ''baçzin''; It. ''bacino'', or ''bacile''; Port. ''bacia''. . . .]
:“1. A hollow vessel or dish, to hold water for washing, and for various other uses.
*1828, ''An American Dictionary of the English Language'' (1: n.p.) :“[[bath|B`ATH]], ''n''. [Sax. ''baeth'', ''batho'', a [[bath]]; ''bathian'', to bathe; W. ''badh'', or ''baz''; D. G. Sw. Dan. ''bad'', a ''[[bath]]''; Ir. ''[[bath]]'', the sea; Old Phrygian ''bedu'', water. Qu. W. ''bozi'', to immerse.]
:“1. A place for bathing; a convenient vat or receptacle of water for persons to plunge or wash their bodies in. [[Bath]]s are warm or tepid, hot or cold, more generally called ''warm'' and ''cold''. They are also ''natural'' or ''artificial''. ''Natural'' [[bath]]s are those which consist of spring water, either hot or cold, which is often impregnated with iron, and called chalybeate, or with sulphur, carbonic acid, and other mineral qualities. These waters are often very efficacious in scorbutic, bilious, dyspeptic and other complaints.
:“A ''vapor'' [[bath]] is formed by filling an apartment with hot steam or vapor, in which the body sweats copiously, as in Russia; or the term is used, for the application of hot steam to a diseased part of the body. ''Encyc. Tooke''.
:“A ''metalline'' [[bath]] is water impregnated with iron or other metallic substance, and applied to a diseased part. ''Encyc''. . . .
:“3. A house for bathing. In some eastern countries, [[bath]]s are very magnificent edifices.”
*“[[bed|BED]]1828, ''nAn American Dictionary of the English Language''(1: n. [Sax. ''[[bed]]''; D. ''[[bed]]''; G. ''bett'' or ''beet''; Goth. ''badi''. The sense is a lay or spread, from laying or setting.] . . p.)
:“4“[[bed|BED]], ''n''. [Sax. ''[[bed]]''; D. ''[[bed]]''; G. A ''platbett'' or level piece of ground in a garden, usually a little raised above the adjoining ground''beet''; Goth. ''Baconbadi''.The sense is a lay or spread, from laying or setting.] . . .
:“4. A ''[[plat]]'' or level piece of ground in a garden, usually a little raised above the adjoining ground. ''Bacon''.”
*“BEE’-GARDEN, ''n''. [''bee'' and ''garden''.] A garden, or inclosure to set [[beehive|bee-hives]] in. ''Johnson''. . . .
*1828, ''An American Dictionary of the English Language'' (1: n.p.)
:“BEE'-GARDEN, ''n''. [''bee'' and ''garden''.] A garden, or inclosure to set [[beehive|bee-hives]] in. ''Johnson''. . .”  *1828, ''An American Dictionary of the English Language'' (1: n.p.) :“[[belvedere|BEL’VIDEREBEL'VIDERE]], ''n''. [L. ''bellus'', fine, and ''video'', to see.] . . .
:“2. In ''Italian architecture'', a [[pavilion]] on the top of an edifice; an artificial [[eminence]] in a garden. ''Encyc''.”
*1828, ''An American Dictionary of the English Language'' (1: n.p.) :“[[border|BORD’ERBORD'ER]], ''n''. [Fr. ''bord''; Arm. ''id''; Sp. ''bordo''; Port. ''borda''; It. ''bordo''. See ''Board''.]
:“The exterior part of a garden, and hence a bank raised at the side of a garden, for the cultivation of flowers, and a row of plants.”
*“BOTAN’IC1828, BOTAN’ICAL, ''a''. [See ''BotanyAn American Dictionary of the English Language''(1: n.] Pertaining to botany; relating to plants in general; also, containing plants, as a [[botanic garden|''botanic'' garden]]p.)
:“BOTAN'IC, BOTAN'ICAL, ''a''. [See ''Botany''.] Pertaining to botany; relating to plants in general; also, containing plants, as a [[botanic garden|''botanic'' garden]].”
 *1828, ''An American Dictionary of the English Language'' (1: n.p.) :“[[bower|BOW’ERBOW'ER]], ''n''. [Sax. ''bur'', a chamber or private apartment, a hut, a cottage; W. ''bwr'', an inclosure.]
:“1. A shelter or covered place in a garden, made with boughs of trees bent and twined together. It differs from ''[[arbor]]'' in that it may be round or square, whereas an [[arbor]] is long and arched. ''Milton. Encyc.''
:“3. A country [[seat]]; a cottage. ''Shenston., B. Johnson.''
:“4. A shady recess; a [[plantation]] for shade. ''W. Brown''. . .  :“[[bower|BOW'ERY]], ''a''.Covering; shading as a [[bower]]; also, containing [[bower]]s. ''Thomson''.”
:“[[bower|BOW’ERY]], ''a''. Covering; shading as a [[bower]]; also, containing [[bower]]s. ''Thomson''.”
*1828, ''An American Dictionary of the English Language'' (1: n.p.)
*:“[[bowling green|BOWLING-GREEN]], ''n''. [''bowl'' and ''green''.]
:“A level piece of ground kept smooth for bowling.
:“2. In ''gardening'', a [[parterre]] in a [[grove]], laid with fine turf, with compartments of divers figures, with dwarf trees and other decorations. It may be used for bowling; but the French and Italians have such greens for ornament. ''Encyc.''"
*“[[bridge|BRIDGE]]1828, ''nAn American Dictionary of the English Language''(1: n. [Sax. ''bric, brieg, brigg'', or ''brye, bryeg''; Dan. ''broe''; Sw. ''bryggia, bro''; D. ''brug''; Ger. ''brücke''; Prus. ''brigge''p.])
:“1. Any structure of wood, stone, brick, or iron, raised over a river, [[pondbridge|BRIDGE]], or ''n''. [[lake]]Sax. ''bric, for the passage of men and other animals. Among rude nationsbrieg, [[bridge]]s are sometimes formed of other materials; and sometimes they are formed of boatsbrigg'', or logs of wood lying on the water''brye, fastened together, covered with planks, and called floating [[bridge]]sbryeg''; Dan. A [[bridge]] over a marsh is made of logs or other materials laid upon the surface of the earth''broe''; Sw. ''bryggia, bro''; D. ''brug''; Ger. ''brücke''; Prus. ''Encycbrigge''.]
:“1. Any structure of wood, stone, brick, or iron, raised over a river, [[pond]], or [[lake]], for the passage of men and other animals. Among rude nations, [[bridge]]s are sometimes formed of other materials; and sometimes they are formed of boats, or logs of wood lying on the water, fastened together, covered with planks, and called floating [[bridge]]s. A [[bridge]] over a marsh is made of logs or other materials laid upon the surface of the earth. . . ''Encyc''.”
 *1828, ''An American Dictionary of the English Language'' (1: n.p.) :“[[canal|CANAL’CANAL']], ''n''. [L. ''canalis'', a channel or kennel; these being the same word differently written; Fr. ''canal''; Arm. ''can'', or ''canol''; Sp. Port. ''canal''; It. ''canale''. See. ''Cane''. It denotes a passage, from shooting, or passing.]
:“1. A passage for water; a water course; properly, a long trench or excavation in the earth for conducting water, and confining it to narrow limits; but the term may be applied to other water courses. It is chiefly applied to artificial cuts or passages for water, used for transportation; whereas channel is applicable to a natural water course.”
*“[[cascade|CASCA’DE]]1828, ''nAn American Dictionary of the English Language''(1: n. [Fr. ''cascade''; Sp. ''cascada''; It. ''cascata'', from ''cascare'', to fallp.])
:“A [[waterfallcascade|CASCA'DE]]; a steep fall or flowing of water over a precipice, in a river or natural stream; or an artificial fall in a garden''n''. The word is applied to falls that are less than a [[cataract]]Fr. ''cascade''; Sp. ''cascada''; It. ''cascata'', from ''cascare'', to fall.]
:“A [[waterfall]]; a steep fall or flowing of water over a precipice, in a river or natural stream; or an artificial fall in a garden. The word is applied to falls that are less than a [[cataract]]. . . .”
 *<div id="WebsterCataract"></div>1828, ''An American Dictionary of the English Language'' (1: n.p.) :“[[cataract|CAT’ARACTCAT'ARACT]], ''n''. [L. ''cataracta''; . . . ]
:“1. A great fall of water over a precipice; as that of Niagara, of the Rhine, Danube and Nile. It is a [[cascade]] up on a great scale.
:“The tremendous cataracts of America thundering in their solitudes. ''Irving''. . . .:[[#WebsterCataract_cite|back up to History]]
*1828, ''An American Dictionary of the English Language'' (1: n.p.) :“[[clump|CLUMP]], ''n''. [Ger. ''klump''; D. ''klomp''; Sw. ''klimp''; Dan. ''klump'', a ''lump''; W. ''clamp''. It is ''lump'' with a prefix. It coincides with ''plump'', and L. ''plumbum'', lead; as the D. ''lood'', G. ''loth'', Dan. ''lod''., Eng. ''lead'', coincide with ''clod''. It signifies a mass or collection. . . .]
:“1. A thick, short piece of wood, or other solid substance; a shapeless mass. Hence ''clumper'', a clot or clod.
:“2. A cluster of trees or [[shrubs]]; formerly written ''plump''. In some parts of England, it is an adjective signifying lazy, unhandy. ''Bailey.''"
*1828, ''An American Dictionary of the English Language'' (1: n.p.) :“[[column|COL’UMNCOL'UMN]], ''n. col’umcol'um.'' [L. ''columna, columen''; W. ''colov'', a stalk or stem, a prop; ''colovyn'', Arm. ''coulouenn''; Fr. ''colonne''; It. ''colonna''; Sp. ''columna''; Port. ''columna'' or ''coluna''. This word is from the Celtic, signifying the stem of a tree, such stems being the first [[column]]s used. The primary sense is a shoot, or that which is set.]
:“1. In ''architecture'', a long round body of wood or stone, used to support or adorn a building, composed of a base, a shaft and a capital. The shaft tapers from the base, in imitation of the stem of a tree. There are five kinds or orders of [[column]]s. 1. The Tuscan, rude, simple and massy; the highth [''sic''] of which is fourteen semidiameters or modules, and the diminution at the top from one sixth to one eighth of inferior diameter. 2. The Doric, which is next in strength to the Tuscan, has a robust, masculine aspect; its highth [''sic''] is sixteen modules. 3. The Ionic is more slender than the Tuscan and Doric; its highth [''sic''] is eighteen modules. 4. The Corinthian is more delicate in its form and proportions, and enriched with ornaments; its highth [''sic''] should be twenty modules. 5. The Composite is a species of the Corinthian, and of the same highth [''sic'']. ''Encyc.''
*“COP’PICE1828, ''An American Dictionary of the English Language'' (1: n.p.) :“COP'PICE, [[copse|COPSE]], ''n''. [Norm. ''coupiz'', from ''couper'', to cut, Gr. . . .]
:“A [[wood]] of small growth, or consisting of underwood or brushwood; a [[wood]] cut at certain times for fuel.”
*1828, ''An American Dictionary of the English Language'' (1: n.p.) :“[[Dovecote|DOVE-COT]], ''n''. A small building or box in which domestic pigeons breed. . . .
:“[[Dovecote|DOVE-HOUSE]], ''n''. A house or shelter for doves. . . .
:“PIG’EON“PIG'EON, ''n''. . . .
:“The domestic pigeon breeds in a box, often attached to a building, called a ''[[dovecote|dovecot]]'' or ''[[pigeon house|pigeon-house]]''. The wild pigeon builds a nest on a tree in the forest.”
*1828, ''An American Dictionary of the English Language'' (1: n.p.) :“[[edging|EDG’INGEDG'ING]], ''n''. That which is added on the [[border]], or which forms the edge; as lace, fringe, trimming, added to a garment for ornament. . . .
:“2. A narrow lace.
*1828, ''An American Dictionary of the English Language'' (1: n.p.) :“[[eminence|EM’INENCEEM'INENCE]], EM’INENCYEM'INENCY, ''n''. [L. ''eminentia'', from ''eminens, emineo'', to stand or show itself above; ''e'' and ''minor'', to threaten, that is, to stand or push forward. . . .]
:“1. Elevation, highth [''sic''], in a literal sense; but usually, a rising ground; a hill of moderate elevation above the adjacent ground.
*"FISH-[[pond|POND]]1828, ''nAn American Dictionary of the English Language''(1: n. A [[pond]] in which fishes are bred and keptp.")
:“FISH-[[pond|POND]], ''n''. A [[pond]] in which fishes are bred and kept.”
 *“FOUNT’1828, ''An American Dictionary of the English Language'' (1: n.p.) :“FOUNT', [[fountain|FOUNT’AINFOUNT'AIN]], ''n''. [L. ''fons''; Fr. ''fontaine''; Sp. ''fuente'', It. ''fonte, fontana''; W. ''fynnon'', a [[fountain]] or source; ''fyniaw, fynu'', to produce, to generate, to abound; ''fwn'', a source, breath, puff; ''fwnt'', produce.]
:“1. A spring, or source of water; properly, a spring or issuing of water from the earth. This word accords in sense with ''well'', in our mother tongue; but we now distinguish them, applying ''[[fountain]]'' to a natural spring of water, and ''well'' to an artificial pit of water, issuing from the interior of the earth.
*1828, ''An American Dictionary of the English Language'' (1: n.p.) :“[[gate|GATE]], ''n''. [Sax. ''gate, geat''; Ir. ''greata''; Scot. ''gait''; The Goth. ''gatwo'', Dan. ''gade'', Sw. ''gat''a, G. ''gasse'', Sans. ''gaut'', is a way or street. In D. ''gat'' is a gap or channel. . . .]
:“1. A large door which gives entrance into a walled city, a castle, a [[temple]], palace or other large edifice. It differs from ''door'' chiefly in being larger. ''[[Gate]]'' signifies both the opening or passage, and the frame of boards, planks or timber which closes the passage.
*1828, ''An American Dictionary of the English Language'' (1: n.p.) :“[[green|GREEN]], ''n''. The color of growing plants. . . .
:“2. A grassy plain or [[plat]]; a piece of ground covered with verdant herbage.
:“O’er “O'er the smooth enameled ''[[green]]''. ''Milton''.”
*1828, ''An American Dictionary of the English Language'' (1: n.p.) :“GROT, [[grotto|GROT’TOGROT'TO]], ''n''. [Fr. ''grotte'', It. ''grotta'', Sp. and Port. ''gruta''; G. and Dan. ''grotte''; D. ''grot''; Sax. ''grut''. ''Grotta'' is not used.]
:“1. A large cave or den; a subterraneous cavern, and primarily, a natural cave or rent in the earth, or such as is formed by a current of water, or an earthquake. ''Pope. Prior. Dryden.''
*1828, ''An American Dictionary of the English Language'' (1: n.p.) :“[[grove|GROVE]], ''n''. [Sax. ''groef, graf'', a ''grave'', a cave, a ''[[grove]]''; Goth. ''groba''; from cutting an [[avenue]], or from the resemblance of an [[avenue]] to a channel.]
:“1. In ''gardening'', a small [[wood]] or cluster of trees with a shaded [[avenue]], or a [[wood]] impervious to the rays of the sun. A [[grove]] is either open or close; open, when consisting of large trees whose branches shade the ground below; close, when consisting of trees and underwood, which defend the [[avenue]]s from the rays of the sun and from violent winds. ''Encyc''.
*“[[hedge|HEDGE]]1828, ''n. hej.An American Dictionary of the English Language'' [Sax. ''hege, heag, hoeg, hegge''; G. ''heck'', D. ''heg, haag''; Dan. ''hekke'' or ''hek''; Sw. ''hagn'', hedge, protection; Fr. ''haie''; W. ''cae''. Hence Eng. ''haw'', and ''Hague'' in Holland. . (1: n. p.])
:“Properly, a [[thickethedge|HEDGE]] of thorn-bushes or other , ''n. hej.'' [[shrubs]] Sax. ''hege, heag, hoeg, hegge''; G. ''heck'', D. ''heg, haag''; Dan. ''hekke'' or small trees''hek''; but appropriatelySw. ''hagn'', such a [[thicket]] planted round a field to [[fence]] ithedge, protection; Fr. ''haie''; W. ''cae''. Hence Eng. ''haw'', or and ''Hague'' in rows, to separate the parts of a gardenHolland. . . .]
:“Properly, a [[thicket]] of thorn-bushes or other shrubs or small trees; but appropriately, such a [[thicket]] planted round a field to [[fence]] it, or in rows, to separate the parts of a garden.”
 *1828, ''An American Dictionary of the English Language'' (1: n.p.) :“[[hermitage|HER’MITAGEHER'MITAGE]], ''n''. The habitation of a hermit; a house or hut with its appendages, in a solitary place, where a hermit dwells. ''Milton''.
:“2. The cell in a recluse place, but annexed to an abbey. ''Encyc''.
*“[[icehouse|ICEHOUSE]]1828, ''nAn American Dictionary of the English Language''(1: n. [''ice'' and ''house''.] A repository for the preservation of ice during warm weather; a pit with a drain for conveying off the water of the ice when dissolved, and usually covered with a roofp.)
:“[[icehouse|ICEHOUSE]], ''n''. [''ice'' and ''house''.] A repository for the preservation of ice during warm weather; a pit with a drain for conveying off the water of the ice when dissolved, and usually covered with a roof.”
<br/>'''Noah Webster, ''An American Dictionary of the English Language'', vol. 2 (New York: S. Converse, 1828) <ref>Noah Webster, ''An American Dictionary of the English Language'', vol2 vols. 2 (New York: S. Converse, 1828) , vol. 2 [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/7CI5MCGT view on Zotero].</ref>'''
*1828, ''An American Dictionary of the English Language'' (2: n.p.) :“[[labyrinth|LAB’YRINTHLAB'YRINTH]], ''n''. [L. ''labyrinthus''. . . .]
:“1. Among the ancients, an edifice or place full of intricacies, or formed with winding passages, which rendered it difficult to find the way from the interior to the entrance. The most remarkable of these edifices mentioned, are the Egyptian and the Cretan [[labyrinth]]s. ''Encyc. Lempriere''.
*1828, ''An American Dictionary of the English Language'' (2: n.p.) :“[[lake|LAKE]], ''n''. [G. ''lache'', a puddle; Fr. ''lac''; L. ''lacus''; Sp. It. ''lago''; Sax. ''luh''; Scot. ''loch''; Ir. ''lough''; Ice. ''laugh''. A [[lake]] is a stand of water, from the root of ''lay''. Hence L. ''lagena'', Eng. ''flagon'', and Sp. ''laguna'', lagoon.]
:“1. A large and extensive collection of water contained in a cavity or hollow of the earth. It differs from a ''[[pond]]'' in size, the latter being a collection of small extent; but sometimes a collection of water is called a [[pond]] or a [[lake]] indifferently.”
*1828, ''An American Dictionary of the English Language'' (2: n.p.) :“[[lawn|LAWN]], ''n''. [W. ''llan'', an open, clear place. It is the same word as ''land'', with an appropriate signification, and coincides with ''plain, planus'', Ir. ''cluain''.] :“A open space between [[wood]]s, or a plain in a [[park]] or adjoining a noble [[seat]]. :“Betwixt them ''[[lawn]]s'' or level downs, and flocks
:“A open space between [[woods]]“Grazing the tender herbs, or a plain in a [[park]] or adjoining a noble [[seat]]were interspers'd.''Milton''.”
:“Betwixt them ''[[lawns]]'' or level downs, and flocks
:“Grazing the tender herbs*1828, were interspers’d. ''MiltonAn American Dictionary of the English Language''(2: n.p.)
:“[[mall|MALL]], ''n. mal''. [Arm. ''mailh''. Qu. from a play with [[mall]] and ball, or a beaten [[walk]].]
*“:“A public [[mall|MALLwalk]]; a level shaded [[walk]], ''n. mal''Allée d’arbres battue et bordée. [Gregoire’s Arm. Dict. ''mailh''. Qu. from a play with [[mall]] and ball, or a beaten [[walk]].]"
:“A public [[walk]]; a level shaded [[walk]]. ''Allée d’arbres battue et bordée. Gregoire’s Arm. Dict.''”
*1828, ''An American Dictionary of the English Language'' (2: n.p.)
*:“MEAD, [[meadow|MEADOW]], ''n. meed, med’o.'' [Sax. ''moede, moedewe''; G. ''matte'', a mat, and a [[meadow]]; Ir. ''madh''. The sense is extended or flat depressed land. It is supposed that this word enters into the name ''Mediolanum'', now ''Milan'', in Italy; that is, ''mead-land''.]
:“A tract of low land. In America, the word is applied particularly to the low ground on the banks of rivers, consisting of a rich mold or an alluvial soil, whether grass land, pasture, tillage, or [[wood]] land; as the ''[[meadowsmeadow]]s'' on the banks of the Connecticut. The word with us does not necessarily imply wet land. This species of land is called, in the western states, ''bottoms'', or ''bottom land''. The word is also used for other low or flat lands, particularly lands appropriated to the culture of grass.
:“The word is said to be applied in Great Britain to land somewhat watery, but covered with grass. ''Johnson''.
:“[[Meadow]] means pasture or grass land, annually mown for hay; but more particularly, land too moist for cattle to graze on in winter, without spoiling the sward. ''Encyc. Cyc''.
:“[''Mead'' is used chiefly in poetry.]" 
*1828, ''An American Dictionary of the English Language'' (2: n.p.)
*:“[[mound|MOUND]], ''n''. [Sax. ''mund''; W. ''mwnt'', from ''mwn''; L. ''mons''. See ''Mount''.]
:“Something raised as a defense or fortification, usually a [[bank]] of earth or stone; a bulwark; a rampart or [[fence]].
:“God has thrown
:“That mountain as his garden ''[[mound]]'', high raised. ''Milton''.
:“To thrid the [[thicket]]s or to leap the ''[[moundsmound]]s''. ''Dryden''.” 
*1828, ''An American Dictionary of the English Language'' (2: n.p.)
*:“[[mount|MOUNT]], ''n''. [Fr. ''mont''; Sax. ''munt''; It. Port. Sp. ''monte''; Arm. ''menez, mene''; W. ''munt'', a [[mount]], mountain or [[mound]], a heap; L. ''mons'', literally a heap or an elevation. Ir. ''moin'' or ''muine''; Basque, ''mendia''. . . .]
:“1. A mass of earth, or earth and rock, rising considerably above the common surface of the surrounding land. ''[[Mount]]'' is used for an [[eminence]] or elevation of earth, indefinite in highth [''sic''] or size, and may be a hillock, hill or mountain. We apply it to ''[[Mount]]'' Blanc, in Switzerland, to ''[[Mount]]'' Tom and ''[[Mount]]'' Holyoke, in Massachusetts, and it is applied in Scripture to the small hillocks on which sacrifice was offered, as well as to ''[[Mount]]'' Sinai. Jacob offered sacrifice on the ''[[mount]]'' or heap of stones raised for a witness between him and Laban. Gen. xxxi.
*1828, ''An American Dictionary of the English Language'' (2: n.p.) :“[[nursery|NURS’ERYNURS'ERY]], ''n''. . . .
:“2. A place where young trees are propagated for the purpose of being transplanted; a [[plantation]] of young trees. ''Bacon''.
*1828, ''An American Dictionary of the English Language'' (2: n.p.) :“[[obelisk|OB’ELISKOB'ELISK]], ''n''. [L. ''obeliscus''; Gr. . . .]
:“1. A truncated, quadrangular and slender pyramid intended as an ornament, and often charged with inscriptions or hieroglyphics. Some ancient [[obelisk|obelisks]] appear to have been erected in honor of distinguished persons or their achievements. Ptolemy Philadelphus raised one of 88 cubits high in honor of Arsinee. Augustus erected one in the Campus Martius at Rome, which served to mark the hours on a horizontal dial drawn on the pavement. ''Encyc''.”
*1828, ''An American Dictionary of the English Language'' (2: n.p.) :“[[orchard|OR’CHARDOR'CHARD]], ''n''. [Sax. ''ortgeard''; Goth. ''aurtigards''; Dan. ''urtegaard''; Sw. ''ortegard''; that is, ''wort-yard'', a [[yard]] for herbs. The Germans call it ''baumgarten'', tree-garden, and the Dutch ''boomgaard'', tree-yard. See ''[[Yard]]''.]
:“An inclosure for fruit trees. In Great Britain, a department of the garden appropriated to fruit trees of all kinds, but chiefly to apples trees. In America, any piece of land set with apple trees, is called an [[orchard]]; and [[orchard]]s are usually cultivated land, being either grounds for mowing or tillage. In some parts of the country, a piece of ground planted with peach trees is called a peach-[[orchard]]. But in most cases, I believe the [[orchard]] in both countries is distinct from the garden.”
*“[[park|P`ARK]]1828, ''nAn American Dictionary of the English Language''(2: n. [Sax. ''parruc, pearruc''; Scot. ''parrok''; W. ''parc''; Fr. ''id''.; It. ''parco''; Sp. ''parque''; Ir. ''pairc''; G. Sw. ''park''; D. ''perk''. . . p.])
:“A large piece of ground inclosed and privileged for wild beasts of chase, in England, by the king’s grant or by prescription. To constitute a [[park|P`ARK]], three things are required''n''. [Sax. ''parruc, pearruc''; Scot. ''parrok''; W. ''parc''; Fr. ''id''.; a royal grant or licenseIt. ''parco''; inclosure by pales, a [[wall] or [[hedge]]Sp. ''parque''; Ir. ''pairc''; and beasts of chase, as [[deer G. Sw. ''park|deer]], &c''; D. ''Encyc.perk''. . . .]
:“A large piece of ground inclosed and privileged for wild beasts of chase, in England, by the king’s grant or by prescription. To constitute a [[park]], three things are required; a royal grant or license; inclosure by pales, a [[wall]] or [[hedge]]; and beasts of chase, as [[deer park|deer]], &c. ''Encyc.'' :“''[[Park]] of artillery'', or ''artillery [[park]]'', a place in the rear of both lines of an army for encamping the artillery, which is formed in lines, the guns in front, the ammunition-wagons behind the guns . . . ''Encyc''. . . .
:“''[[Park]] of provisions'', the place where the sutlers pitch their tents and sell provisions, and that where the bread wagons are stationed.”
*1828, ''An American Dictionary of the English Language'' (2: n.p.) :“[[pavilion|PAVILION]], ''n. pavil’yun'' [Fr. ''pavillon''; Sp. ''pabellon''; Port. ''pavilham''; Arm. ''pavihon''; W. ''pabell''; It. ''paviglione'' and ''padiglione''; L. ''papilio''; a butterfly, and a [[pavilion]]. According to Owen, the Welsh ''pabell'' signifies a moving habitation.]
:“1. A tent; a temporary movable habitation.
*1828, ''An American Dictionary of the English Language'' (2: n.p.) :“[[piazza|PIAZ’ZAPIAZ'ZA]], ''n''. [It. for ''plazza''; Sp. ''plaza''; Port. ''praça'', for ''plaça''; Fr. ''place''; Eng. ''id''.; D. ''plaats''; G. ''platz''; Dan. ''plads''; Sw. ''plats''.]
:“In ''building'', a [[portico]] or covered [[walk]] supported by [[arch|arches]] or [[column]]s. ''Encyc''.”
*1828, ''An American Dictionary of the English Language'' (2: n.p.) :“[[plantation|PLANTA’TIONPLANTA'TION]], ''n''. [L. ''plantatio'', from ''planto'', to plant.]
:“1. The act of planting or setting in the earth for growth.
:“3. In ''the United States'' and ''the West Indies'', a cultivated estate; a farm. In ''the United States'', this word is applied to an estate, a tract of land occupied and cultivated, in those states only where the labor is performed by slaves, and where the land is more or less appropriated to the culture of tobacco, rice, indigo and cotton, that is, from Maryland to Georgia inclusive, on the Atlantic, and in the western states where the land is appropriated to the same articles or to the culture of the sugar cane. From Maryland, northward and eastward, estates in land are called ''farms''.
:“4. An original settlement in a new country; a town or village planted. . . .
:“5. A colony.
*1828, ''An American Dictionary of the English Language'' (2: n.p.) :“[[pleasure ground|PLEAS’UREPLEAS'URE-GROUND]], ''n''. Ground laid out in an ornamental manner and appropriated to pleasure or amusement. ''Graves''.”
*1828, ''An American Dictionary of the English Language'' (2: n.p.) :“GARDEN-[[plot|PLOT]], ''n''. The [[plot]] or [[plantation]] of a garden. ''Milton''. . . .
:“[[plot|PLOT]], ''n''. [a different orthography of ''plat''.]
:“2. A [[plantation]] laid out. ''Sidney''.
:“3. A plan or scheme. . . . ''Spenser''.
:“4. In ''surveying'', a plan or draught of a field, farm or manor surveyed and delineated on paper.”
*1828, ''An American Dictionary of the English Language'' (2: n.p.) :“[[pond|POND]], ''n''. [Sp. ''Port''. It. ''pantano'', a pool of stagnant water, also in Sp. hinderance, obstacle, difficulty. The name imports standing water, from setting or confining. It may be allied to L. ''pono''; Sax. ''pyndan'', to pound, to pen, to restrain, and L. ''pontus'', the sea, may be of the same family.]
:“1. A body of stagnant water without an outlet, larger than a puddle, and smaller than a [[lake]]; or a like body of water with a small outlet. In the United States, we give this name to collections of water in the interior country, which are fed by springs, and from which issues a small stream. These [[pond]]s are often a mile or two or even more in length, and the current issuing from them is used to drive the wheels of mills and furnaces.
:“2. A collection of water raised in a river by a dam, for the purpose of propelling mill-wheels. These artificial [[pond]]s are called ''mill-[[pondspond]]s''.” 
*1828, ''An American Dictionary of the English Language'' (2: n.p.)
*:“[[porch|PORCH]], ''n''. [Fr. ''porche'', from L. ''porticus'', from ''porta'', a [[gate]], entrance or passage, or from ''portus'', a shelter.]
:“1. In ''architecture'', a kind of vestibule supported by [[column]]s at the entrance of [[temple]]s, halls, churches or other buildings. ''Encyc''.
*1828, ''An American Dictionary of the English Language'' (2: n.p.) :“[[portico|PORTICO]], ''n''. [It. ''portico''; L. ''porticus'', from ''porta'' or ''portus''.]
:“In ''architecture'', a kind of gallery on the ground, or a [[piazza]] encompassed with [[arch|arches]] supported by [[column]]s; a covered [[walk]]. The roof is sometimes flat; sometimes vaulted. ''Encyc''.”
*1828, ''An American Dictionary of the English Language'' (2: n.p.) :“[[pot|POT]], ''n''. [Fr. ''pot''; Arm. ''pod''; Ir. ''pota''; Sw. ''potta''; Dan. ''potte''; W. ''pot'', a [[pot]], and ''potel'', a bottle; ''poten'', a pudding, the paunch, something bulging; D. ''pot''; a [[pot]], a stake, a hoard; ''potten'', to hoard.]
:“1. A vessel more deep than broad, made of earth, or iron or other metal, used for several domestic purposes; as an iron ''[[pot]]'', for boiling meat or vegetables; a ''[[pot]]'' for holding liquors; a cup, as a ''[[pot]]'' of ale; and earthern ''[[pot]]'' for plants, called a ''flower'' ''[[pot]]'', &c.”
*1828, ''An American Dictionary of the English Language'' (2: n.p.) :“[[promenade|PROMENA’DEPROMENA'DE]], ''n''. [Fr. from ''promener''; ''pro'' and ''mener'', to lead.]
:“1. A walk for amusement or exercise.
*1828, ''An American Dictionary of the English Language'' (2: n.p.) :“[[prospect|PROS’PECTPROS'PECT]], ''n''. [L. ''prospectus'', ''prospicio'', to look forward; ''pro'' and ''specio'', to see.]
:“1. View of things within the reach of the eye.
:“Eden and all the coast in ''[[prospect]]'' lay. ''Milton''.
:“2. View of things to come; intellectual sight; expectation. . . .
:“3. That which is presented to the eye; the place and the objects seen. There is a noble ''[[prospect]]'' from the dome of the state house in Boston, a ''[[prospect]]'' diversified with land and water, and every thing that can please the eye.
*1828, ''An American Dictionary of the English Language'' (2: n.p.) :“[[quarter|QUARTER]], ''n''. ''quort’erquort'er''. [Fr. ''quart'', ''quartier''; It. ''quartiere''; Sp. ''quartel''; D. ''kwartier''; G. ''quartier''; Sw. ''quart'', ''quartal''; Dan. ''quart'', ''quartal'', ''quarteer''; L. ''quartus'', the fourth part; from W. ''cwar'', a square.] . . .
:“6. A particular region of a town, city or country; as all ''[[quarter|quarters]]'' of the city; in every ''[[quarter]]'' of the country or of the continent. Hence,
*1828, ''An American Dictionary of the English Language'' (2: n.p.) :“[[rockwork|ROCK’ROCK'-WORK]], ''n''. Stones fixed in mortar in imitation of the asperities of rocks, forming a [[wall]].
:“2. A natural [[wall]] of rock. ''Addison''.”
*"1828, ''An American Dictionary of the English Language'' (2: n.p.) :“[[rustic style|RUST’ICRUST'IC]], RUST’ICALRUST'ICAL, ''a''. [L. ''rusticus'', from ''rus'', the country.]
:“1. Pertaining to the country; rural; as the ''[[rustic style|rustic]]'' gods of antiquity. ''Encyc''.
:“4. Simple; artless; unadorned. ''Pope''.
:“''[[rustic style|Rustic]]'' ''work'', in a building, is when the stones, &c. in the face of it, are hacked or pecked so as to be rough. ''Encyc''. . .  :“[[rustic style|RUSTIC]], ''n''.An inhabitant of the country; a clown.”
:“[[rustic style|RUSTIC]]'', ''n''. An inhabitant of the country; a clown.”
*1828, ''An American Dictionary of the English Language'' (2: n.p.)
*:“[[seat|SEAT]], ''n''. [It. ''sedia''; Sp. ''sede'', ''sitio'', from L. ''sedes'', ''situs''; Sw. ''sate''; Dan. ''soede''; G. ''sitz''; D. ''zetel'', ''zitplaats''; W. ''sez''; Ir. ''saidh''; W. with a prefix, ''gosod'', whence ''gosodi'', to ''set''. See ''Set'' and ''Sit''. . . .]
:“1. That on which one sits. . . .
:“3. Mansion; residence; dwelling; abode; as Italy the ''[[seat]]'' of empire. The Greeks sent colonies to seek a new ''[[seat]]'' in Gaul.
:“In Alba he shall fix his royal ''[[seat]]''. ''Dryden''.
:“4. Site; situation. The ''[[seat]]'' of Eden has never been incontrovertibly ascertained. . .  :“8.The place where a thing is settled or established. London is the ''[[seat]]'' of business and opulence. So we say, the ''[[seat]]'' of the muses, the ''[[seat]]'' of ''arts'', the seat of commerce.”
:“8. The place where a thing is settled or established. London is the ''[[seat]]'' of business and opulence. So we say, the ''[[seat]]'' of the muses, the ''[[seat]]'' of ''[[arts]]'', the seat of commerce.”
*1828, ''An American Dictionary of the English Language'' (2: n.p.)
*:“[[shrubbery|SHRUB’BERYSHRUB'BERY]], ''n''. [[Shrubs]] in general.
:“2. A [[plantation]] of [[shrubs]].”
*1828, ''An American Dictionary of the English Language'' (2: n.p.) :“[[square|SQUARE]], ''n''. . . .
:“2. An area of four sides, with houses on each side.
:“The [[statue ]] of Alexander VII. stands in the large ''[[square]]'' of the town. ''Addison''.”
*1828, ''An American Dictionary of the English Language'' (2: n.p.) :“[[statue|STAT’UESTAT'UE]], ''n''. [L. ''statua''; ''statuo'', to set; that which is set or fixed.]
:“An image; a solid substance formed by carving into the likeness of a whole living being; as a ''[[statue]]'' of Hercules or of a lion.”
*1828, ''An American Dictionary of the English Language'' (2: n.p.) :“[[summerhouse|SUM’MERSUM'MER-HOUSE]], ''n''. 1. A house or apartment in a garden to be used in summer. ''Pope, Watts''.
:“2. A house for summer’s residence.”
 
*1828, ''An American Dictionary of the English Language'' (2: n.p.)
*“[[sundial|SUN'DIAL]], ''n''. [''sun'' and ''dial''], An instrument to show the time of day, by means of the shadow of a gnomon or style on a plate. ''Locke''.”
*1828, ''An American Dictionary of the English Language'' (2: n.p.) :“[[temple|TEM’PLETEM'PLE]], ''n''. [Fr.; L. ''templum''; It. ''tempio''; Sp. ''templo''; W. ''temyl'', [[temple]], that is extended, a [[seat]]; ''temlu'', for form a [[seat]], expanse or [[temple]]; Gaelic, ''teampul''.]
:“1. A public edifice erected in honor of some deity. Among pagans, a building erected to some pretended deity, and in which the people assembled to worship.”
*1828, ''An American Dictionary of the English Language'' (2: n.p.) :“TREILLAGE, ''n. trel’lagetrel'lage''. [Fr. from ''treillis'', [[trellis]].] :“In ''gardening'', a sort of rail-work, consisting of light posts and rails for supporting [[espalier]]s, and sometimes for [[wall]] trees. ''Cyc''. . .
:“In “[[trellis|TREL'LIS]], ''n''. [Fr. ''treillis'', grated work.] In ''gardening'', a sort structure or frame of railcross-barred work, or lattice work, consisting of light posts and rails used like the treillage for supporting [[espaliers]], and sometimes for [[wall]] trees. ''Cyc''. . . plants.
:“[[trellis|TREL’LIS]], ''n''. [Fr. ''treillis'', grated work.] In ''gardening'', a structure or frame of cross-barred work, or lattice work, used like the treillage for supporting plants.”
*1828, ''An American Dictionary of the English Language'' (2: n.p.)
*:“[[urn|URN]] . . . A kind of [[vase]] of a roundish form, largest in the middle; used as an ornament. ''Cyc''. . . .
:“[[vase|VASE]], ''n''. [Fr. from L. ''vas'', ''vasa'', a vessel; It. ''vaso''.]
:“2. An ancient vessel dug out of the ground or from rubbish, and kept as a curiosity.
:“3. In ''architecture'', an ornament of [[sculpture]], placed on socles or pedestals, representing the vessels of the ancients, as incense-[[potspot]]s, flower-[[potspot]]s, &c. They usually crown or finish facades or frontispieces. ''Cyc''.
:“4. The body of the Corinthian and Composite capital; called also the tambor or drum.”
*“[[veranda|VERAN’DA]]1828, ''n''. An oriental word denoting a kind American Dictionary of open [[portico]], formed by extending a sloping roof beyond the main building. ''ToddEnglish Language''(2: n.p.)
:“[[veranda|VERAN'DA]], ''n''. An oriental word denoting a kind of open [[portico]], formed by extending a sloping roof beyond the main building. ''Todd''.”
*“[[view|VIEW]], ''n. vu''. [[Prospect]]; sight; reach of the eye. . . .
*1828, ''An American Dictionary of the English Language'' (2:“2. The whole extent seen. . n. p.)
:“[[view|VIEW]], ''n. vu''. [[Prospect]]; sight; reach of the eye. . . :“2. The whole extent seen. . . :“3. Sight; power of seeing, or limit of sight. . . .
:“4. Intellectual or mental sight. . . .
:“5. Act of seeing. . . .
:“6. Sight; eye. . . .
:“7. Survey; inspection; . . .
:“9. Appearance; show. . . .
:“10. Display; . . .
*“GRAV’EL-[[walk|WALK]]1828, ''nAn American Dictionary of the English Language''(2: n. A [[walk]] or [[alley]] covered with gravel, which makes a hard and dry bottom; ''used in gardens and [[mall|malls]]''. . . p.)
:“GRAV'EL-[[walk|WALK]], ''n''. A [[walk]] or [[alley]] covered with gravel, which makes a hard and dry bottom; ''used in gardens and [[mall|malls]]''. . . :“WALK, ''n. wauk''. The act of walking; the act of moving on the feet with a slow pace.
:“2. The act of walking for air or exercise; as a morning ''walk''; an evening ''walk''. ''Pope''.
*“[[wall|WALL]]1828, ''n''. [L. ''vallum''; Sax. ''weal''; D. ''wal''; Ir. Gaelic, ''balla'' and ''fal''; Russ. ''val''; W. ''gwal''. In L. ''vallus'' is a stake or post, and probably ''vallum'' was originally a [[fence]] of stakes, a palisade or stockade; the first rude fortification of uncivilized men. The primary sense An American Dictionary of ''vallus'' is a shoot, or that which is set, and the latter may be the sense of English Language''[[wall]]'', whether it is from ''vallus'', or from some other root(2: n.]p.)
:“1“[[wall|WALL]], ''n''. A work or structure of stone, brick or other materials, raised to some highth [L. ''sicvallum'']; Sax. ''weal''; D. ''wal''; Ir. Gaelic, ''balla'' and intended for a defense or security''fal''; Russ. ''val''; W. ''gwal''. In L. ''[[Walls]]vallus'' of stone, with is a stake or without cementpost, are much used in America for and probably ''vallum'' was originally a [[fence]]s on farmsof stakes, a palisade or stockade; the first rude fortification of uncivilized men. The primary sense of ''[[walls]]vallus'' are laid as is a shoot, or that which is set, and the foundation of houses and latter may be the security sense of cellars. ''[[Wallswall]]'' of stone , whether it is from ''vallus'', or brick from the exterior of buildings, and they are often raised round cities and forts as a defense against enemiessome other root.].
:“1. A work or structure of stone, brick or other materials, raised to some highth [''sic''], and intended for a defense or security. ''[[Wall]]s'' of stone, with or without cement, are much used in America for [[fence]]s on farms; ''[[wall]]s'' are laid as the foundation of houses and the security of cellars. ''[[Wall]]s'' of stone or brick from the exterior of buildings, and they are often raised round cities and forts as a defense against enemies.”
*“[[waterfall|WATERFALL]], ''n''. [''water'' and ''fall''.] A fall or perpendicular descent of the water of a river or stream, or a descent nearly perpendicular; a [[cascade]]; a [[cataract]]. But the word is generally used of the fall of a small river or rivulet. It is particularly used to express a [[cascade]] in a garden, or an artificial descent of water, designed as an ornament. ''Cyc''.”
*1828, ''An American Dictionary of the English Language'' (2: n.p.)
*:“[[wildernesswaterfall|WIL’DERNESSWATERFALL]], ''n''.['' [from water'' and ''wildfall''.] A desert; fall or perpendicular descent of the water of a tract of land river or region uncultivated and uninhabited by human beingsstream, whether or a descent nearly perpendicular; a forest or [[cascade]]; a wide barren plain[[cataract]]. In But the United States, it word is applied only to generally used of the fall of a forestsmall river or rivulet. In Scripture, it It is applied frequently particularly used to the deserts express a [[cascade]] in a garden, or an artificial descent of Arabiawater, designed as an ornament. The Israelites wandered in the ''[[wilderness]]Cyc'' forty years.
:“2. The ocean. . . .
*1828, ''An American Dictionary of the English Language'' (2: n.p.) :“[[wilderness|WIL'DERNESS]], ''n.'' [from ''wild''.] A desert; a tract of land or region uncultivated and uninhabited by human beings, whether a forest or a wide barren plain. In the United States, it is applied only to a forest. In Scripture, it is applied frequently to the deserts of Arabia. The Israelites wandered in the ''[[wilderness]]'' forty years. :“2. The ocean. . . :“3. A state of disorder. . . .
:“4. A [[wood]] in a garden, resembling a forest.”
*1828, ''An American Dictionary of the English Language'' (2: n.p.) :“[[wood|WOOD]], ''n''. [Sax. ''wuda'', ''wudu''; D. ''woud''; W. ''gwyz''.]
:“1. A large and thick collection of trees; a forest.”
*1828, ''An American Dictionary of the English Language'' (2: n.p.) :“[[yard|YARD]], ''n''. [Sax. ''geard, gerd, gyrd'', a rod, that is, a shoot.] . . .
:“2. [Sax. ''gyrdan'', to inclose; Dan. ''gierde'', a [[hedge]], an inclosure; ''gierder'', to hedge in, Sw. ''garda''.] An inclosure; usually, a small inclosed place in front of or around a house or barn. The [[yard]] in front of a house is called a ''court'', and sometimes a ''court-[[yard]]''. In the United States, a small [[yard]] is fenced round a barn for confining cattle, and called ''barn-[[yard]]'', or ''cow-[[yard]]''.”
===''An American Dictionary of the English Language'' (1848)===
'''Noah Webster, ''An American Dictionary of the English Language... Revised and Enlarged by Chauncey A. Goodrich....'' (Springfield, Mass.MA: George and Charles Merriam, 1848) <ref name="Webster_1848">Noah Webster, ''An American Dictionary of the English Language... Revised and Enlarged by Chauncey A. Goodrich....'' (Springfield, Mass.MA: George and Charles Merriam, 1848) , [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/EBZ5Z7ET view on Zotero].</ref>'''
* p. 32:"[[alcove|AL'COVE]], AL-COVE1848, n. [Sp. ''alcoba'', composed An American Dictionary of al, with the ArEnglish Language. . . . ''kabba'', to [[arch]], to construct with an [[arch]], Revised and its derivatives, an [[arch]], a rounded house; Eng. ''cubbyEnlarged''(p.] . . . 32)
:"3“[[alcove|AL'COVE]], AL-COVE, n. [Sp. ''alcoba'', composed of al, with the Ar. . . . A covered building''kabba'', to [[arch]], to construct with an [[arch]], and its derivatives, or recessan [[arch]], in a gardenrounded house; Eng. ''cubby''.] . . .
:"4“3. A covered building, or recess , in a [[grove]]garden."
:“4. A recess in a [[grove]].”
 
 
* 1848, ''An American Dictionary of the English Language. . . Revised and Enlarged'' (p. 65)
* p. 65
:“[[arboretum|ARBORETUM]], ''n''. A place in a park, nursery, &C, in which a collection of trees, consisting of one of each kind, is cultivated. ''Brande''.”
* p. 363:“[[dovecote|DOVE’-COT]], (duv’-kot1848,) ''n''An American Dictionary of the English Language. . . A small building or box, raised to a considerable hight [ Revised and Enlarged''sic''] above the ground, in which domestic pigeons breed(p.363)
:“[[dovecote|DOVE'-COT]], (duv’-kot,) ''n''. A small building or box, raised to a considerable hight [''sic''] above the ground, in which domestic pigeons breed.”
 * 1848, ''An American Dictionary of the English Language . . . Revised and Enlarged'' (p. 776) :“[[orangery|OR’ANOR'AN-GER-Y]], ''n''. [Fr. ''orangerie''.]
:“A place for raising oranges; a [[plantation]] of orange-trees.”
* 1848, ''An American Dictionary of the English Language. . . Revised and Enlarged'' (p. 806) :“[[pavilion|PAVILION]], ''n. pavil’yunpavil'yun'' [Fr. ''pavillon''; Sp. ''pabellon''; Port. ''pavilham''; Arm. ''pavihon''; W. ''pabell''; It. ''paviglione'' and ''padiglione''; L. ''papilio''; a butterfly, and a [[pavilion]]. According to Owen, the Welsh ''pabell'' signifies a moving habitation.]
:“1. A tent; a temporary movable habitation.
:“2. In ''architecture'', a kind of turret or building,...''Gwilt''.
:“The name is sometimes, though improperly, given to a [[summerhouse|summer-house]] in a garden. ''Brande''.”
* 1848, ''An American Dictionary of the English Language. . . Revised and Enlarged'' (p. 824) :“[[piazza|PIAZ’ZAPIAZ'ZA]], ''n''. [It. for ''plazza''; Sp. ''plaza''; Port. ''praça'', for ''plaça''; Fr. ''place''; Eng. ''id''.; D. ''plaats''; G. ''platz''; Dan. ''plads''; Sw. ''plats''.]
:“1. In ''building'', a [[portico]] or covered [[walk]] supported by [[arch|arches]] or [[column]]s. ''P. Cyc''.
* 1848, ''An American Dictionary of the English Language. . . Revised and Enlarged'' (p. 848) :“[[portico|POR’TIPOR'TI-CO]], ''n''. [It. ''portico''; L. ''porticus'', from ''porta'' or ''portus''.]
:“In ''architecture'', originally, a colonnade or covered ambulatory; but at present, a covered space, inclosed by [[column]]s at the entrance of a building. ''P. Cyc''.”
* 1848, ''An American Dictionary of the English Language. . . Revised and Enlarged'' (p. 961) :“[[rockwork|ROCK’ROCK'-WORK]], (-wurk,) ''n''. 1. Stones fixed in mortar in imitation of the asperities of rocks, forming a [[wall]].
:“2. In ''gardening'', a pile of stones or rocks, . . . for growing plants adapted for such a situation. ''P. Cyc''.”
* 1848, ''An American Dictionary of the English Language. . . Revised and Enlarged'' (p. 972) :“[[rustic style|RUST’ICRUST'IC]], RUST’ICALRUST'ICAL, ''a''. [L. ''rusticus'', from ''rus'', the country.]. . .
:“5. In ''architecture'', a term denoting a species of masonry, the joints of which are worked with grooves, or channels, to render them conspicuous. The surface of the work is sometimes left or purposely made rough, and sometimes even or smooth. ''Gloss. of Archit''.”
* 1848, ''An American Dictionary of the English Language. . . Revised and Enlarged'' (p. 1139) :“[[terrace|TER’RACETER'RACE]], ''n''. [Fr. ''terrasse''; It. ''terrazzo''; Sp. ''terrado''; from L. ''terra'', the earth.]
:“1. A raised level space or platform of earth, supported on one or more sides by a [[wall]] or bank of turf, &c., used either for cultivation or for a [[promenade]].
<br />
 
===''An American Dictionary of the English Language'' (1850)===
'''Noah Webster, ''An American Dictionary of the English Language'' (Springfield, Mass.MA: George and Charles Merriam, 1850) <ref name="Webster_1850">Noah Webster, ''An American Dictionary of the English Language'' (Springfield, Mass.MA: George and Charles Merriam, 1850) , [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/9Z9HAK7E view on Zotero].</ref>''' * 1850, ''An American Dictionary of the English Language'' (p. 252)
* p. 252:“[[conservatory|CON-SERV’ASERV'A-TO-RY]], ''n''. A place for preserving any thing in a state desired, as from loss, decay, waste, or injury. . . .
:“2. A [[greenhouse]] for exotics, often attached to a dwelling-house as an ornament. In large ''[[conservatory|conservatories]]'', properly so called, the plants are reared on the free soil, and not in pots. ''Brande''.”
* 1850, ''An American Dictionary of the English Language'' (p. 409) :“[[espalier|ES-PAL’IERPAL'IER]], (es-pal’yer,) ''n''. [Fr. ''espalier''; Sp. ''espalera''; H. ''spalliera''; from L. ''palus'', a stake or ''pole''.]
:“1. A row of trees planted about a garden or in [[hedge]]s, so as to inclose [[quarter]]s or separate parts, and trained up to a lattice of wood-work, or fastened to stakes, forming a close [[hedge]] or shelter to protect plants against injuries from wind or weather. ''Ency''.
:“2. A lattice-work of wood, on which to train fruit-trees and ornamental [[shrubs]]. ''Brande''.” 
* 1850, ''An American Dictionary of the English Language'' (p. 1239)
* p. 1239:“[[vista|VIS’TAVIS'TA]], ''n''. [It., ''sight''; from L. ''visus, video''.]
:“A [[view]] or [[prospect]] through an [[avenue]], as between rows of trees; hence, the trees or other things that form the [[avenue]].
:“Its ''[[vista|vistas]]'' opens and its [[alley]]s green. ''Thomson''.”
==Images==<gallery widths="170px" heights="170px" perrow="7"hr>
==Other Resources==
[http://id.loc.gov/authorities/names/n78094002.html Library of Congress Name Authority File]
<[http:/gallery>/www.oxforddnb.com/view/article/68670 Dictionary of National Biography]
[http://www.anb.org/articles/01/01-00943.html?a=1&n=noah%20webster&d=10&ss=0&q=1 American National Biography]
[https://noahwebsterhouse.org/noahwebsterhistory/ Noah Webster House and West Hartford Historical Society]
==References==[http://id.loc.gov/authorities/names/n78094002.html Library of Congress Authorities]<hr>
[http://www.oxforddnb.com/view/article/68670 Dictionary of National Biography]==Images==<gallery widths="170px" heights="170px" perrow="7">
[httpFile://www2189.anbjpg|Samuel Finley Breese Morse, ''Portrait of Noah Webster'', [1823].org/articles/01/01-00943.html?a=1&n=noah%20webster&d=10&ss=0&q=1 American National Biography]
[httpsFile://www2285.noahwebsterhouse.org/discover/noah-webster-history.htm jpg|James Herring, Noah Webster House and West Hartford Historical Society], 1833.
 American Spelling Book (7th ed., 1793), full text: http:<//books.google.com/books?id=NTRcAAAAQAAJ&pg=PA4&lpg=PA4&dq=A+Grammatical+Institute+of+the+English+Language+2nd+edition&source=bl&ots=EQX-77ecTX&sig=aaGoYjhuzyJb87sB7HaWrUegYrQ&hl=en&sa=X&ei=Fcw6U5iUBffJsQTH14JY&ved=0CFgQ6AEwATgK#v=onepage&q=A%20Grammatical%20Institute%20of%20the%20English%20Language%202nd%20edition&f=false Webster’s Dictionary (1828 ed.) ARTFL searchable database: http://machaut.uchicago.edu/webstersgallery>
==Notes==
<references/>
 
<hr>
[[Category: People|Webster, Noah]]

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