==History==
[[File:0312.jpg|thumb|252px|Fig. 1, William Russell Birch, “Hampton, the Seat of Genl. Chas. Ridgely, Maryland,” in ''The Country Seats of the United States'' (2009), (1808), pl. 4.]]
In the discourse of landscape design, seat possessed two distinct yet equally prevalent meanings, as indicated by Thomas Sheridan’s 1789 dictionary entry. One sense referred to seat as a large estate, usually marked by a country house or mansion, for example, [[William Hamilton|William Hamilton’s]] [[The Woodlands]], near Philadelphia; or General Charles Ridgely’s Hampton, in Baltimore County, Maryland. A seat was also a garden structure for sitting.
In the discourse The meaning of landscape design, seat possessed two distinct yet equally prevalent meanings, as indicated estate was exemplified in colonial America by Thomas Sheridan’s 1789 dictionary entryWilliam Byrd II’s Westover, on the James River, Virginia, and [[Henry Pratt|Henry Pratt’s]] [[Lemon Hill]] in Philadelphia. One sense referred Such country houses were often featured in portraits that flattered the owner and signaled to the public that the colonies and new republic were home to seat as a large estatecultured elite rivaling that of Great Britain. These images typically located the house at the center of the property, with the landscape and various outbuildings extending beyond it. This placement, usually marked by a country which communicated the importance of the house or mansionas the base of operations for the landowner, was a visual shorthand for examplethe landowner’s affluence and power. Observers such as William Hugh Grove (1732) and Thomas Gwatkin (1770) often likened seats to small villages. By the mid 18th century, however, the community-like aspects of seats were downplayed in favor of their rural associations, which contrasted sharply with the increasingly crowded conditions of America’s cities. English emigré William Hamilton’s WoodlandsRussell Birch, in his series ''The Country Seats of the United States of America'' (1808), depicted the homes of the mid-Atlantic elite situated in naturalistic landscapes in emulation of British tableaux [Fig. 1].<ref>Emily Tyson Cooperman, near Philadelphia“William Russell Birch (1755–1834) and the Beginnings of the American Picturesque” (PhD diss., University of Pennsylvania, 1999), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/VSCXM9WR view on Zotero]. See also Emily T. Cooperman, introduction to ''The Country Seats of the United States of North America'', by William Russell Birch (1808; or Genrepr. Charles Ridgely’s Hampton, in Baltimore CountyPhiladelphia: University of Pennsylvania, 2009), Md[https://www. A seat was also a garden structure for sittingzotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/TNTZAF2Q view on Zotero].</ref>
The meaning of [[File:1680.jpg|thumb|left|252px|Fig. 2, Anonymous, Garden seat as estate was exemplified in colonial America by William Byrd II’s Westoverfrom Somerset County, on the James RiverMD, Va1780.]] [[File:0854.jpg|thumb|Fig. 3, and Henry Pratt’s [[Lemon HillAlexander Jackson Davis]] in Philadelphia , Shore Seat for [[FigMontgomery Place]], Annandale-on-Hudson, New York (elevation and plan), 1870—79. 1]. Such country houses were often featured in portraits that flattered the owner and signaled to the public that the colonies and new republic were home to ]As a cultured elite rivaling that of Great Britain. These images typically located the house at the center category of the propertygarden furniture, with seat could refer to either thelandscape and various outbuildings extending beyond itobject upon which one sat [Fig. This placement, which communicated 2] or the importance of the house as the base of operations for the landowner, was a visual shorthand for the landowner’s affluence and powerstructure housing such objects [Fig. 3]. Observers Accounts found in foreign treatises available in America (such as those by Antoine-Joseph Dezallier D’Argenville, Isaac Ware, William Hugh Grove (1732) Marshall, Humphry Repton, and Thomas Gwatkin (1770John Abercrombie) often likened focused on seats as places of rest, terminations to [[walk]]s, or vantage points from which to small villagescontemplate [[view]]s. By the mid-eighteenth centuryLike other garden structures, howeversuch as [[pavilion]]s or [[summerhouse]]s, seats influenced the community-like aspects viewer’s experience of the garden by providing points of seats were downplayed rest that framed [[vista]]s in favor of their rural associations, which contrasted sharply with the increasingly crowded conditions garden and [[view]]s beyond. The use of America’s citiesseats to direct one’s route through a garden was demonstrated by [[A. J. English emigré William Russell Birch, Downing]] in his series ''The Country Seats 1847 description of the United States of America'' (1808)[[Montgomery Place]], Dutchess County, depicted New York. [[Andrew Jackson Downing|Downing]] noted the homes placement of various seats and related [[view]]s that he encountered on the mid- Atlantic elite situated in naturalistic landscapes in emulation course of British tableaux his [Fig. 2[walk]]through the grounds.<ref>Emily Tyson CoopermanMany other garden observers, including Henry Wansey (1794), “William Russell Birch John Cosens Ogden (1755–18341800) , and Eliza Caroline Burgwin Clitherall (active 1801), also commented upon the Beginnings of the American Picturesque” (Ph.D. diss.interrelationships between seats, University of Pennsylvania[[walk]]s, 1999)and [[view]]s. See also Emily TPopular gardening journals likewise recommended placing seats along [[walk]]s. CoopermanFor example, introduction to in 1841 Alexander Walsh proposed a number of seats in a garden design published in the ''The Country Seats of the United States of North AmericaNew England Farmer''. Two seats were situated at cross-walks and another two were ensconced in an arched [[arbor]], by William Russell Birch (1808; reprint, Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania, 2009)placed alongside the main axial [[walk]].</ref>
As a category of garden furniture, seat could refer to either the object upon which one sat [[File:1723.jpg|thumb|Fig. 34, [[James Gibbs]] or , “Two other Seats for the same purpose [for the structure housing such objects ends of [[Fig. 4walk]]s]. Accounts found ,” in foreign treatises available in America ''A Book of Architecture'' (such as those by A1728), pl.-J83. Dézallier D’Argenville, Isaac Ware, William Marshall, Humphry Repton, and John]]Abercrombie) focused Garden seats took on seats as places a variety of rest, terminations to walks, or vantage points from which to contemplate viewsforms. Like other garden structuresIn the 18th century, European and British pattern books and design manuals such as pavilions or summerhouses, seats influenced the viewer’s experience [[James Gibbs|James Gibbs’s]] ''A Book of the garden Architecture'' (1728) were an important source for American seat designs [Fig. 4]. Drawings by providing points of rest that framed vistas in the garden [[Thomas Jefferson]] and views beyond. The use of seats to direct one’s route through a garden was demonstrated by A. J. Downing in his 1847 description of Montgomery Placegranddaughter, Dutchess CountyCornelia Jefferson Randolph [Fig. 5], N.Y. Downing noted demonstrate the placement influence of various seats and related views that he encountered William Kent’s designs on the course of his walk through the grounds. Many other garden observersfurniture, including Henry Wansey (1794)which appeared in William Chambers’s ''Plans, John Cosens Ogden (1800)Elevations, Sections and Perspective Views of the Gardens and Eliza Caroline Burgwin Clitherall Buildings at Kew in Surrey'' (active 18011763), alsocommented upon the interrelationships between seats, walks, and viewsa volume that [[Thomas Jefferson|Jefferson]] owned. Populargardening journals likewise recommended placing seats along walks. For example<ref> William Bainter O’Neal, in 1841 Alexander Walsh proposed a number of seats in a garden design published in ''The New England FarmerJefferson’s Fine Arts Library: His Selections for the University of Virginia Together with His Own Architectural Books''(Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1976), 57, [https://www. Two seats were situated at cross-walks and another two were ensconced in an arched arbor, placed alongside the main axial walkzotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/CUP9BNW2 view on Zotero].</ref>
[[File:0082.jpg|thumb|left|Fig. 5, Cornelia Jefferson Randolph, attr., “A Garden seats took on a variety of formsSeat by Mr. In the eighteenth centuryJones, From Chamber’s Kew, European and” c. 1820.]]British pattern books [[File:1737.jpg|thumb|Fig. 6, Batty and design manuals such as James Gibbs’s A Book of Thomas Langley, “An Umbrello, to a Seat, for to Terminate a [[walk]], [[View]], &c. in a Garden,” in ''Gothic Architecture '' (17281747) were an important source for American seat designs [Fig, pl. 31. 5]. Drawings ]Seat designs could be differentiated by Thomas Jefferson national and historical styles, as well as by his granddaughterplacement and function. Batty and Thomas Langley, Cornelia Jefferson Randolph for instance, proposed a seat in keeping with the Gothic style in their 1747 text about Gothic architecture [Fig. 6]. [[J. C. Loudon]], demonstrate the influence in ''An Encyclopaedia of William Kent’s designs on garden furniture, which appeared in William Chambers’s Gardening''Plans(1826), Elevationsdistinguished among seats found inside garden buildings, roofed seats that could be either fixed or portable, Sections and Perspective Views those lacking any sort of the Gardens and Buildings at Kew roof. [[J. C. Loudon|Loudon]] explained that in Surrey'' form, seats could be simple (1763like the trunk of a tree), or more complex (such as a volume that Jefferson ownedcast-iron couch with decorative treatment).<ref> William Bainter O’Neal, JThese distinctions were echoed by [[Jane Loudon]] in ''efferson’s Fine Arts Library: His Selections Gardening for the University of Virginia Together with His Own Architectural BooksLadies'' (Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 19761845), 57a book that was co-edited by [[Andrew Jackson Downing|Downing]] in America.</ref>
Seat designs could be differentiated by national In ''A Treatise on the Theory and historical Practice of Landscape Gardening'' (1849), [[Andrew Jackson Downing|Downing]] himself provided an extensive illustrated typology of seat styles, as well as by placement and functionemphasizing the propriety of certain styles for different landscapes. Batty and Thomas LangleyFor example, he believed that Grecian or Gothic seats were appropriate for instanceelegant grounds, proposed a seat in keeping with the Gothic whereas [[rustic style in their 1747 text about Gothic architecture [Fig. 7|rustic]]seats were more suited to the irregular aesthetic of the landscape garden. Such [[J. C. Loudonrustic style|rustic]]seats were quite popular in the 19th century, as suggested by the discussion of them in An Encyclopaedia of Gardening (1826)horticultural journals, distinguished among seats found inside garden buildings, roofed seats that could be either fixed or portablesuch as the ''Horticultural Register'', and those lacking any sort in descriptions by both treatise writers and observers of roofthe American landscape. Loudon explained that in formSee, for example, Thomas Bridgeman (1832), seats could be simple Edward Sayers (like the trunk of a tree1838) or more complex , Anna Cora Ogden Mowatt Ritchie (such as a cast-iron couch with decorative treatment1839), C. M. These distinctions were echoed by [[Jane Loudon]] in ''Gardening for Ladies'' Hovey (18451840), a book that was co-edited by Downing in Americaand Georges Jaques (1852).
In ''A Treatise on the Theory and Practice of Landscape Gardening'' (1849), Downing himself provided an extensive illustrated typology of seat styles, emphasizing the propriety of certain styles for different landscapesAnne L. For example, he believed that Grecian or Gothic seats were appropriate for elegant grounds, whereas rustic seats were more suited to the irregular aesthetic of the landscape garden. Such rustic seats were quite popular in the nineteenth century, as suggested by the discussion of them in horticultural journals, such as the Helmreich''Horticultural Register'', and in descriptions by both treatise writers and observers of the American landscape. See, for example, Thomas Bridgeman (1832), Edward Sayers (1838), Anna Cora Ogden Mowatt Ritchie (1839), C. M. Hovey (1840), and Georges Jaques (1852).
--- ''Anne L. Helmreich''<hr>
==Texts==
===Usage===
*Anonymous, n.d., advertising design and construction services for parks and gardens (quoted in Chase 1973: 37–39)<ref>David B. Chase, “The Beginnings of the Landscape Tradition in America,” ''Historic Preservation'' 25 (1973): 34–41, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/KJMNEZBX view on Zotero].</ref>
:“Designs all sorts of Buildings, well suited to both town and country, [[Pavilion]]s, Summer-Rooms, '''Seats''' for Gardens. . . also Water-houses for [[Park]]s. . . Eye Traps to represent a Building terminating a [[walk]], or to hide some disagreeable Object, Rotundas, Colonades, [[Arcade]]s, Studies in [[Park]]s or Gardens, [[greenhouse|Green House]]s for the Preservation of Herbs.”
 
 
*Strachey, William, 1612, describing the seats of Powhatan in Virginia (quoted in Wright and Freund 1967: 57)<ref> Louis B. Wright and Virginia Freund, eds., ''The Historie of Travell into Virginia Britania (1612)'' (Nendeln and Liechtenstein: Kraus, 1967), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/NUX26H7J view on Zotero].</ref>
:“He hath divers '''seates''' or howses, his Chief when we came into the Country was upon ''Pamunky''-River, on the North side which we call Pembrook-side, called ''Werowocomaco'', which by interpretacion signifyes Kings-howse.”
 
 
*Byrd, William, II, c. June 25, 1729, describing Westover, seat of William Byrd II, on the James River, VA (quoted in Tinling 1977: 1:410)<ref> Marion Tinling, ed., ''The Correspondence of the Three William Byrds of Westover, Virginia, 1684–1776'', 2 vols. (Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1977), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/J5UXEFHR view on Zotero].</ref>
:“My habitation has the na[me of] the prettyest '''seat''' in this country.”
 
 
*Grove, William Hugh, 1732, describing Williamsburg, VA (quoted in Stiverson and Butler 1977: 26)<ref>Gregory A. Stiverson and Patrick H. Butler III, eds., “Virginia in 1732: The Travel Journal of William Hugh Grove,” ''Virginia Magazine of History and Biography'' 85 (1977): 18–44, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/ACNK9DG9 view on Zotero].</ref>
:“I went by ship up the [York] river, which has pleasant '''Seats''' on the Bank which Shew Like little villages, for having Kitchins, Dayry houses, Barns, Stables, Store houses, and some of them 2 or 3 Negro Quarters all Seperate from Each other but near the mansion houses make a shew to the river of 7 or 8 distinct Tenements, tho all belong to one family.”
 
 
*Anonymous, August 17, 1747, describing property for sale in Somerset County, NJ (''New York Gazette'')
:“TO BE SOLD, A pleasant Country '''Seat''', fitting for a Gentleman or Store-keeper. . . a good [[Orchard]], containing about 200 Apple Trees, and may be extended at Pleasure.”
 
 
*Gwatkin, Prof. Thomas, 1770, describing the appearance of seats in Williamsburg, VA (Colonial Williamsburg Foundation)
:“And the huts of the Negroes which are situated round about give the '''seat''' of a substantial planter something of the Air of a small village.”
 
 
[[File:0036.jpg|thumb|225px|Fig. 7, Thomas Lee Shippen, Plan of Westover, 1783.]]
*Rush, Dr. Benjamin, July 15, 1782, describing the country seat of John Dickinsen, near Philadelphia, PA (quoted in Caemmerer 1950: 87)<ref name="Caemmerer 1950"> H. Paul Caemmerer, ''The Life of Pierre-Charles L’Enfant, Planner of the City Beautiful, The City of Washington'' (Washington, DC: National Republic Publishing Company, 1950), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/PHWTAERT view on Zotero].</ref>
:“The ground contiguous to this shed was cut into beautiful [[walk]]s and divided with cedar and pine branches into artificial [[grove]]s. The whole, both the buildings and [[walk]]s, were accommodated with '''seats'''.”
 
 
*Shippen, Thomas Lee, December 31, 1783, describing Westover, seat of William Byrd III, on the James River, VA (1952: n.p.)<ref>Thomas Lee Shippen, ''Westover Described in 1783: A Letter and Drawing Sent by Thomas Lee Shippen, Student of Law in Williamsburg, to His Parents in Philadelphia'' (Richmond, VA: William Byrd Press, 1952), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/3IWWPMJ5 view on Zotero].</ref>
:“I have markd some little crooked ugly figures for Gentlemen’s '''seats''', which tho’ they do not beautify indeed the picture, add much to the [[prospect]], about as many '''Seats''' are to be seen on the other side.” [Fig. 7]
 
[[File:1983.jpg|thumb|225px|Fig. 8, Jeremiah Paul, “Robert Morris’ Seat on [[Schuylkill_River|Schuylkill]],” July 20, 1794.]]*[[Manasseh Cutler|Cutler, Manasseh]], July 13, 1787, describing [[The Hills]] (later [[Lemon Hill]]), estate of [[Robert Morris]], Philadelphia, PA (1987: 1:256–57)<ref> William Parker Cutler, ''Life, Journals, and Correspondence of Rev. Manasseh Cutler, LL.D.'' (Athens: Ohio University Press, 1987), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/3PBNT7H9 view on Zotero].</ref>:“We continued our route, in [[view]] of the [[Schuylkill_River|Schuylkill]], and up the river several miles, and took a [[view]] of a number of Country-'''seats''', one belonging to [[Robert Morris|Mr. R. Morris]], the American financier, and who is said to be possessed of the greatest fortune in America. His country-'''seat''' is not yet completed, but it will be superb. It is planned on a large scale, the gardens and [[walk]]s are extensive, and the villa, situated on an [[eminence]], has a commanding [[prospect]] down the [[Schuylkill_River|Schuylkill]] to the Delaware.” [Fig. 8]  *G., L., June 15, [1788?], describing [[The Woodlands]], seat of [[William Hamilton]] near Philadelphia, PA (quoted in Madsen 1989: 19)<ref> Karen Madsen, “To Make His Country Smile: William Hamilton’s Woodlands,” ''Arnoldia'' 49 (1989): 14–23, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/K567H4M4 view on Zotero].</ref>:“[The [[walk]]s were] planted on each side with the most beautiful & curious flowers & shrubs. They are in some parts enclosed with the Lombardy poplar except here & there openings are left to give you a [[view]] of some fine trees or beautiful [[prospect]] beyond, & in others, shaded by [[arbour]]s of the wild grape, or [[clump]]s of large trees under which are placed '''seats''' where you may rest yourself & enjoy the cool air.”  *Constantia [Judith Sargent Murray], June 24, 1790, “Description of Gray’s Gardens, Pennsylvania” (''Massachusetts Magazine'' 3: 415)<ref>Constantia [Judith Sargent Murray], “Description of Gray’s Gardens, Pennsylvania,” ''Massachusetts Magazine, or, Monthly Museum of Knowledge and Rational Entertainment'' 7, no. 3 (July 1791): 413–17, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/keywords_in_early_american_landscape_design/items/itemKey/IAJKF9C4 view on Zotero].</ref>:“At every turn shaded '''seats''' are artfully contrived, and the ground abounds with [[arbour]]s, [[alcove]]s, and summer houses, which are handsomely adorned with odoriferous flowers.”  *[[Pierre-Charles L'Enfant|L’Enfant, Pierre-Charles]], 1791, describing Washington, DC (quoted in Caemmerer 1950: 136, 151)<ref name===Usage==="Caemmerer 1950"></ref>:“[March 11, in a letter to Thomas Jefferson]. . . The remainder part of that ground towards Georgetown is more broken. It may afford pleasant '''seats''', but, although the bank of the river between the two creeks can command as grand a [[prospect]] as any of the other spots, it seems to be less commendable for the establishment of a city, not only because the level surface it presents is but small, but because the hights from beyond Georgetown absolutely command the whole. . .:“[June 22, in a report to George Washington]. . . I next made the distribution regular with streets at right angle ''north-south'' and ''east west'' but afterwards I opened others on various directions as [[avenue]]s to and from every principal places, wishing by this not merely to contrast with the general regularity nor to afford a greater variety of pleasant '''seats''' and [[prospect]] as will be obtained from the advantageous ground over the which the [[avenue]]s are mostly directed but principally to connect each part of the city with more efficacy.”  *Wansey, Henry, 1794, describing Worcester, MA (1794; repr., 1970: 64)<ref>Henry Wansey, ''Henry Wansey and His American Journal'', ed. David John Jeremy (1794; repr., Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society, 1970), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/UQTHRX3W view on Zotero].</ref>:“Most of the houses have a large court before them, full of lilacs and other shrubs, with a '''seat''' under them, and a paved [[walk]] up the middle.”  *Blandulus [pseud.], November 1794, describing Pleasant Hill, seat of Joseph Barrell, Charlestown, MA (quoted in Hammond 1982: 95)<ref>Charles Arthur Hammond, “‘Where the Arts and the Virtues Unite’: Country Life Near Boston, 1637–1864” ( PhD diss., Boston University, 1982), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/VVFZVIKT view on Zotero].</ref>:“Whereonce the breastwork mark’d the scenes of::blood,:While Freedom’s sons inclosed the haughty foe,:Rearing its head majestic from afar:The venerable '''seat''' of Barrell stands:Like some strong English Castle.”
*Anonymous, n.d., advertising design and construction services for parks and gardens (quoted in Chase 1973: 37–39): <ref>David B. Chase, ‘The Beginnings of the Landscape Tradition in America’, Historic Preservation, 25 (1973), 34–41 [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/KJMNEZBX view on Zotero] </ref>
*[[Timothy Dwight|Dwight, Timothy]], 1796, describing mill seats in Massachusetts (1821:“Designs all sorts of Buildings2:352)<ref name="Dwight">Timothy Dwight, well suited to both town ''Travels; in New-England and countryNew-York'', Pavilions4 vols. (New Haven: The Author, Summer-Rooms1821–22), Seats for Gardens [https://www. zotero. org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/VHBP7TH2 view on Zotero]. also Water-houses for Parks . . . Eye Traps to represent a Building terminating </ref>:“Immediately below the [[bridge]] [over Miller’s River] is a [[walkFall/Falling_garden|fall]], or to hide some disagreeable Objectfurnishing excellent mill-'''seats''', Rotundaswhich are occupied by several mills. These are uniformly supplied with an abundance of water, Colonadesand wear the aspect of great activity, [[Arcade]]sand business, Studies particularly in [[Park]]s or Gardens, [[Green House]]s for the Preservation sawing of Herbstimber.”
* Strachey[[Timothy Dwight|Dwight, WilliamTimothy]], 16121799, describing the seats of Powhatan in Virginia New York, NY (quoted in Wright and Freund 19671822: 3: 57481–82) <ref name="Dwight"></ref> Louis B. Wright :“the heights, and Virginia Freund, eds.many of the lower grounds, contain a rich display of gentlemen’s country '''seats'The Historie of Travell into Virginia Britania (1612)'' (Nendeln and Liechtenstein: Kraus, 1967) [https://wwwconnected with a great variety of handsome appendages.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/NUX26H7J view on Zotero]</ref>
:“He hath divers seates or howses, his Chief when we came into the Country was upon seat ''Pamunky''-River, on the North side which we call Pembrook-side, called ''Werowocomaco'', which by interpretacion signifyes Kings-howse.”
*La Rochefoucauld Liancourt, François-Alexandre-Frédéric, duc de, 1799, describing a house in Charleston, SC (1800: 2:437–38)<ref> François-Alexandre-Frédéric, duc de La Rochefoucauld Liancourt, ''Travels through the United States of North America, the Country of the Iroquois, and Upper Canada, in the Years 1795, 1796, and 1797'', ed. Brisson Dupont and Charles Ponges, trans. H. Newman, 2nd ed., 4 vols. (London: R. Philips, 1800), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/SRMDWJ2M view on Zotero].</ref>
:“Half a mile from Batavia. . . stands Middletonhouse, the property of Mrs. MIDDLETON, mother-in-law to young Mr. Isard, which is esteemed the most beautiful house in this part of the country. The out-buildings, such as kitchen, wash-house, and offices, are very capacious. The ensemble of these buildings calls to recollection the ancient English country-'''seats'''.”
*Byrd, William, II, c. 25 June 1729, describing Westover, seat of William Byrd II, on the James River, Va. (quoted in Tinling 1977: 1:410) <ref> Marion Tinling, ed., ''The Correspondence of the Three William Byrds of Westover, Virginia, 1684-1776'', 2 vols. (Charlottesville, Va.: University Press of Virginia, 1977)[https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/J5UXEFHR view on Zotero]</ref>
[[File:“My habitation has 0304.jpg|thumb|225px|Fig. 9, William Russell Birch, “[[The Woodlands|Woodlands]], the Seat of Mr. Wm. Hamilton, Pennsylva.,” in ''The Country Seats of the naUnited States'' (1808), pl. 14.]]*La Rochefoucauld Liancourt, François-Alexandre-Frédéric, duc de, 1799, describing [[me The Woodlands]], seat of[[William Hamilton]] , near Philadelphia, PA (quoted in Madsen 1988: B3)<ref>Karen Madsen, “William Hamilton’s Woodlands,” (paper presented for seminar in American Landscape, 1790–1900, instructed by E. McPeck, Radcliffe Institute for Advanced Study, Harvard University, 1988), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/XN8NN9QN view on Zotero].</ref>:“You pass the Schuylkill at [[Gray’s Garden|Gray’s-Ferry]], the prettyest road to which runs below [[The Woodlands|Woodlands]], the '''seat in this country''' of Mr. William Hamilton: it stands high, and is seen upon an [[eminence]] from the opposite side of the river.”[Fig. 9]
* GroveOgden, William HughJohn Cosens, 17321800, describing WilliamsburgBethlehem, Va. PA (quoted in Stiverson and Butler 19771800: 2618, 27) <ref>Gregory AJohn C. Stiverson and Patrick H. Butler IIIOgden, eds.''An Excursion into Bethlehem & Nazareth, ‘Virginia in 1732: The Travel Journal of William Hugh Grove’Pennsylvania, in the Year 1799''Virginia Magazine of History and Biography''(Philadelphia: Charles Cist, 85 (19771800), 18–44[https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/ACNK9DG9 U5CTTBGB view on Zotero].</ref>:“'''Seats''' are placed for rest, and to enable the visitors to [[view]] the river at leisure. . .:“The island is not large, but affords fine [[walk]]s and an area for exercise, as well as '''seats''' and shelters for visitors.”
:“I went by ship up the [York] river, which has pleasant Seats on the Bank which Shew Like little villages, for having Kitchins, Dayry houses, Barns, Stables, Store houses, and some of them 2 or 3 Negro Quarters all Seperate from Each other but near the mansion houses make a shew to the river of 7 or 8 distinct Tenements, tho all belong to one family.”
*Clitherall, Eliza Caroline Burgwin (Caroline Elizabeth Burgwin), active 1801, describing the Hermitage, seat of John Burgwin, Wilmington, NC (quoted in Flowers 1983: 126)<ref>John Flowers, “People and Plants: North Carolina’s Garden History Revisited,” ''Eighteenth Century Life'' 8 (1983): 117–29, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/FCVW8GHV view on Zotero].</ref>
:“These [gardens] were extensive and beautifully laid out. There was [''sic''] [[alcove]]s and [[summerhouse|summer houses]] at the termination of each [[walk]], '''seats''' under trees in the more shady recesses of the Big Garden, as it was called, in distinction from the [[flower garden]] in front of the house.”
* Anonymous, 17 August 1747, describing property for sale in Somerset County, N.J. (''New York Gazette'')
:“TO BE SOLD*[[Thomas Jefferson|Jefferson, Thomas]], 1804, describing [[Monticello]], A pleasant Country Seat[[plantation]] of [[Thomas Jefferson]], fitting for a Gentleman or Store-keeper . . . a good OrchardCharlottesville, containing about 200 Apple TreesVA (Massachusetts Historical Society, and may be extended Jefferson Papers):“[[Temple]]s or '''seats''' at Pleasurethose spots on the [[walk]]s most interesting either for [[prospect]] or the immediate scenery.”
* GwatkinScott, Prof. ThomasJoseph, 17701806, describing the appearance Schuylkill River in Pennsylvania (1806: 53)<ref>Joseph Scott, ''A Geographical Description of Pennsylvania'' (Philadelphia: Printed by R. Cochran, 1806), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/55XKIWPN/ view on Zotero].</ref>:“The banks of the river are, in many places, adorned with beautiful country '''seats ''', belonging to the wealthy citizens of Philadelphia. To these their families usually retire, in Williamsburgthe summer months, from the bustle, Vaand noise of the city, and to enjoy the salubrity of the country air. (Colonial Williamsburg Foundation; hereafter CWF)
:“And the huts of the Negroes which are situated round about give the seat of a substantial planter something of the Air of a small village.”
*Martin, William Dickinson, 1809, describing the pleasure grounds at Salem Academy, Salem, NC (quoted in Bynum 1979: 29)<ref name="Bynum 1979">Flora Ann L. Bynum, ''Old Salem Garden Guide'' (Winston-Salem, NC: Old Salem, 1979), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/TJB9XNMF view on Zotero].</ref>
:“Next, I visited a [[flower garden]] belonging to the female department. . . But it is situated on a hill, the East end of which is high & abrupt; some distance down this, they had dug down right in the earth, & drawing the dirt forward threw it on rock, etc., thereby forming a horizontal plane of about thirty feet in circumference; & on the back, rose a perpendicular [[Terrace/Slope|terrace]] of some height, which was entirely covered over with a grass peculiar to that vicinage. At the bottom of this [[Terrace/Slope|terrace]] were arranged circular '''seats''', which, from the height of the hill in the rear were protected from the sun in an early hour in the afternoon.”
* Rush, Dr. Benjamin, 15 July 1782, describing the country seat of John Dickinsen, near Philadelphia, Pa. (quoted in Caemmerer 1950: 87) <ref name="Caemmerer 1950"> H. Paul Caemmerer, ''The Life of Pierre-Charles L’Enfant, Planner of the City Beautiful, The City of Washington'' (Washington, D.C.: National Republic Publishing Company, 1950). [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/PHWTAERT view on Zotero]</ref>
*Martin, William Dickinson, May 20, 1809, describing [[The Woodlands]], seat of [[William Hamilton]], near Philadelphia, PA (Colonial Williamsburg Foundation):“The ground contiguous “Altho’ much has been done to beautify this shed was cut into beautiful walks and divided with cedar and pine branches into artificial groves. The wholedelightful '''seat''', much still remains to be done, both for the buildings and walks, were accommodated with seatsperfecting it in all the capabilities which nature in her boundless profusion has bestowed.”
* ShippenSmith, Thomas LeeMargaret Bayard, August 1, 31 December 17831809, describing Westover[[Monticello]], seat [[plantation]] of William Byrd III[[Thomas Jefferson]], on the James RiverCharlottesville, Va. VA (19521906: n.p.73) <ref>Thomas Lee ShippenMargaret Bayard Smith, ''Westover Described in 1783: A Letter and Drawing Sent by Thomas Lee Shippen, Student The First Forty Years of Law in Williamsburg, to His Parents in PhiladelphiaWashington Society'' (Richmond, Vaed.Gaillard Hunt (New York: William Byrd PressCharles Scribner’s, 19521906). , [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/3IWWPMJ5 FTDFHRFH view on Zotero].</ref>:“Mr. J. explained to me all his plans for improvement, where the roads, the [[walk]]s, the '''seats''', the little [[temple]]s were to be placed.”
:“I have markd some little crooked ugly figures for Gentlemen’s seats, which tho’ they do not beautify indeed the picture, add much to the prospect, about as many Seats are to be seen on the other side.” [Fig. 8]
*Foster, Sir Augustus John, 1812, describing [[Monticello]], [[plantation]] of [[Thomas Jefferson]], Charlottesville, VA (1954: 143)<ref>Sir Augustus John Foster, ''Jeffersonian America: Notes on the United States of America Collected in the Years 1805–1806–1807 and 1811–1812'', ed. Richard Beale Davis (San Marino, CA: Huntington Library, 1954), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/7FU8NDF4 view on Zotero].</ref>
:“It is a very delightful ride of twenty-eight miles from Montpellier to the late President [[Thomas Jefferson|Mr. Jefferson’s]] '''seat''' at [[Monticello]].”
* Cutler, Rev. Manasseh, 13 July 1787, describing The Hills (later Lemon Hill), estate of Robert Morris, Philadelphia, Pa. (1987: 1:256–57) <ref> William Parker Cutler, ''Life, Journals, and Correspondence of Rev. Manasseh Cutler, LL. D'' (Athens, Ohio: Ohio University Press, 1987). [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/3PBNT7H9 view on Zotero]</ref>
:“We continued our route*Warden, David Bailie, in view of the Schuylkill1816, and up the river several milesdescribing Analostan Island, and took a view seat of a number of Country-seatsGen. John Mason, one belonging to Mr. R. MorrisWashington, the American financierDC (quoted in Phillips 1917: 49)<ref>Philip Lee Phillips, and who is said to be possessed ''The Beginnings of the greatest fortune Washington: As Described in America. His country-seat is not yet completedBooks, but it will be superb. It is planned on a large scaleMaps, the gardens and walks are extensiveViews'' (Washington, DC: The author, and the villa1917), situated [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/QXZXNN8N view on an eminence, has a commanding prospect down the Schuylkill to the DelawareZotero].</ref>
:"ANNALOSTAN ISLAND
: . . . Annalostan Island is evidently of modern formation. . . The highest [[eminence]], on which the house stands, is fifty feet above the level of the river. The common tide rises to the height of three feet. I can never forget how de-lighted I was with my first visit to this island. The amiable ladies whom I had the pleasure to accompany, left their carriage at Georgetown, and we walked to the mansion-house under a delicious shade. The blossoms of the cherry, apple, and peach trees, of the hawthorn and aromatic [[shrub]]s, filled the air with their fragrance. . . The house, of a simple and neat form, is situated near that side of the island which commands a [[view]] of the Potomac, the President's House, Capitol, and other buildings. The garden, the sides of which are washed by the waters of the river, is ornamented with a variety of trees and [[shrub]]s, and, in the midst, there is a [[lawn]] covered with a beautiful verdure. The [[Summerhouse|summer-house]] is shaded by oak and lin-den-trees, the coolness and tranquility of which invite to contemplation. The refresh-ing breezes of the Potomac, and the gentle murmuring of its waters against the rocks, the warbling of birds, and the mournful as-pect of the weeping-willows, inspire a thousand various sensations. What a delicious shade-
* G., L., 15 June [1788?], describing the Woodlands, seat of William Hamilton near Philadelphia, Pa. (quoted in Madsen 1989: 19) <ref> Karen Madsen, ‘To Make His Country Smile: William Hamilton’s Woodlands’, ''Arnoldia'', 49 (1989), 14–23"Ducere sol[https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/K567H4M4 view on Zoterol]</ref>icitae jucunda oblivia vitae"
:The [The walks were[view]] planted on each side with from this spot is delightful. It embraces the most beautiful & curious flowers & shrubs. They are in some parts enclosed with [[picturesque]] banks of the Lombardy poplar except here & there openings are left to give you Po-tomac, a view portion of some fine trees or beautiful prospect beyondthe city, & in others, shaded by arbours and an expanse of the wild grapewater, or clumps of large trees under which are placed the bridge terminates the [[view]]. . . A few feet below the [[Summerhouse|sum-mer-house]] the rocks afford the '''seats ''', where you those who are fond of fishing may rest yourself & enjoy indulge in this amusement. From the cool air[[portico]] on the oppo-site [139] side of the house, Georgetown, Calorama, the beautiful '''seat''' of Joel Barlow, Esq. and the adjacent finely-wooded hills, appear a [[vista]]."
* Constantia Lambert, John, 1816, describing Boston, MA (1816: 2:328)<ref>John Lambert, ''Travels through Canada, and the United States of North America in the Years 1806, 1807, and 1808'', 2 vols. (London: Baldwin, Cradock, and Joy, 1816), [pseudhttps://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/T9KUEDWH view on Zotero].</ref>:“From an elevated part of the town the spectator enjoys a succession of the most beautiful [[view]]s that imagination can conceive. Around him, as far as the eye can reach, are to be seen towns, villages, country '''seats''', 24 June 1790rich farms, “Description and [[pleasure ground|pleasure-grounds]], seated upon the summits of Gray’s Gardenssmall hills, Pennsylvania” (Massachusetts Magazine 3: 415)hanging on the brows of gentle [[Terrace/Slope|slopes]], or reclining in the laps of spacious valleys, whose shores are watered by a beautiful river, across which are thrown several [[bridge]]s and causeways.”
:“At every turn shaded seats are artfully contrived, and the ground abounds with arbours, alcoves, and summer houses, which are handsomely adorned with odoriferous flowers.”
*Randolph, John, 1820s, describing an estate in Roanoke, VA (quoted in Martin 1991: 223n. 46)<ref>Peter Martin, ''The Pleasure Gardens of Virginia: From Jamestown to Jefferson'' (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1991), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/6TAHS88N view on Zotero].</ref>
:“From my earliest childhood I have delighted in the [[grove]]s and solitudes of poor old Matoax. I now recall several of my favorite '''seats''' where I used to ruminate, ‘chewing the cud of sweet and bitter fancies,’ all bitter now.”
* L’Enfant, Pierre-Charles, 1791, describing Washington, D.C. (quoted in Caemmerer 1950: 136, 151) <ref name="Caemmerer 1950"></ref>
:“*[[11 MarchCharles Willson Peale|Peale, in a letter to Thomas JeffersonCharles Willson]] , c. 1825, describing [[Belfield]], estate of Charles Willson Peale, Germantown, PA (Miller et al. , eds. , 2000: 5:381)<ref>Lillian B. Miller and et al., eds., ''The remainder part Selected Papers of that ground towards Georgetown is more brokenCharles Willson Peale and His Family'', vol. It may afford pleasant seats5, but, although the bank ''The Autobiography of the river between the two creeks can command as grand a prospect as any of the other spotsCharles Willson Peale'' (New Haven, it seems to be less commendable for the establishment of a cityCT: Yale University Press, not only because the level surface it presents is but small2000), but because the hights from beyond Georgetown absolutely command the whole. [https://www. zotero. org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/IZAKPCBG view on Zotero].</ref>:“[22 June“He wanted a place to keep the garden seeds & Tools, and in a part of the Garden where a '''seat''' in the shade was often wanted, he built a report shed or small room, and to George Washington] . . . I next made the distribution regular with streets at right angle northhide that Salt-like-south box, and east west but afterwards I opened others on various directions as avenues to and from every principal placestry his art of Painting, wishing by this not merely to contrast he made the front like [a] [[gateway|Gate Way]] with the general regularity nor a step to afford form a greater variety of pleasant seats '''seat''', and prospect above, steps painted as will be obtained from representing a passage through an [[Arch]] beyond which was represented a western sky, and to ornament the advantageous ground upper part over the which [[arch]], he painted several figures on boards cut to the avenues are mostly directed but principally to connect each part outlines of the city with more efficacysaid figures as representing [[statue]]s in sculpture.”
[[File:0300.jpg|thumb|225px|Fig. 10, Thomas Birch, ''Fairmount Water Works'', 1821.]] * WanseySheldon, HenryJohn P., 1794December 10, 1825, describing WorcesterFairmount Waterworks, Mass. Philadelphia, PA ([1794] 1970quoted in Gibson 1988: 645) <ref>Henry WanseyJane Mork Gibson, “The Fairmount Waterworks, ''Henry Wansey and His American JournalPhiladelphia Museum of Art Bulletin'', ed. by David John Jeremy 84 (Philadelphia1988): American Philosophical Society5–40, 1970)[https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/UQTHRX3W RZEZDDEN view on Zotero].</ref>:“Delightful '''seats''', surrounded by various kinds of trees and [[shrubbery]], with gardens containing [[summerhouse|summer houses]], [[vista]]s, embowered [[walk]]s, &c meet your [[view]] in almost every direction, [[wood]]s sloping gently to the river’s edge, by the side of smooth [[lawn]]s, add to the pleasing variety of the scene; and the Schuylkill, with its noble dam and [[bridge]]s serves as a most beautiful finish to the foreground.” [Fig. 10]
:“Most of the houses have a large court before them, full of lilacs and other shrubs, with a seat under them, and a paved walk up the middle.”
*Connor, Juliana Margaret, 1827, describing the garden at the pottery (Lot 48) on Main Street, Salem, NC (quoted in Bynum 1979: 28)<ref name="Bynum 1979"></ref>
:“Afterwards walked into the garden belonging to the establishment where we saw what I conceived to be a curiosity and in itself extremely beautiful. It was a large [[summerhouse|summer house]] formed of eight cedar trees planted in a circle, the tops whilst young were chained together in the center forming a cone. The immense branches were all cut, so that there was not a leaf, the outside is beautifully trimmed perfectly even and very thick within, were '''seats''' placed around and doors or openings were cut, through the branches, it had been planted 40 years.”
* Blandulus [pseud.], November 1794, describing Pleasant Hill, seat of Joseph Barrell, Charlestown, Mass. (quoted in Hammond 1982: 95) <ref>Charles Arthur Hammond, ‘“Where the Arts and the Virtues Unite”: Country Life Near Boston, 1637-1864’ (unpublished Ph.D. diss., Boston University, 1982). [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/VVFZVIKT view on Zotero]</ref>
*Bernhard, Duke of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach, 1828, describing the Bloomingdale Asylum for the Insane, New York, NY (quoted in Little 1972:“Whereonce 64)<ref>Nina Fletcher Little, ''Early Years of the breastwork mark’d McLean Hospital, Recorded in the scenes Journal ofGeorge William Folsom, Apothecary at the Asylum in Charlestown'' (Boston:Francis A. Countway Library of Medicine, 1972), [https:blood,//www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/Q8IX8NHN/ view on Zotero].</ref>:While Freedom’s sons inclosed “The Lunatic Asylum is five miles from the haughty foecity [New York] on a hill,:Rearing its head majestic from afar:The venerable seat in a very healthy situation, the road leads between country '''seats''' and handsome gardens and is one of Barrell stands:Like some strong English Castlethe most pleasant I have seen in America.”
* DwightWailes, TimothyBenjamin L. C., December 29, 17961829, describing mill seats [[Lemon Hill]], estate of [[Henry Pratt]], Philadelphia, PA (quoted in Massachusetts (1821: 2Moore 1954:352359)<ref name="Dwight">Timothy DwightJohn Hebron Moore, “A View of Philadelphia in 1829: Selections from the Journal of B. L. C. Wailes of Natchez, ''Travels; in New-England Pennsylvania Magazine of History and New-YorkBiography'', 4 vols. 78 (New HavenJuly 1954): The Author353–60, 1821-22). [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/VHBP7TH2 Z9IBV7A4 view on Zotero].</ref>:“But the most enchanting [[prospect]] is towards the grand pleasure grove & [[green house]] of a [[Henry Pratt|Mr. Prat[t]]], a gentleman of fortune, and to this we next proceeded by a circutous [''sic''] rout, passing in [[view]] of the fish ponds, [[bower]]s, [[rustic style|rustic]] retreats, [[summerhouse|summer houses]], [[fountain]]s, [[grotto]], &c., &c. The [[grotto]] is dug in a bank [and] is of a circular form, the side built up of rock and arched over head, and a number of Shells [?]. A dog of natural size carved out of marble sits just within the entrance, the guardian of the place. A narrow aperture lined with a [[hedge]] of [[arbor]] vitae leads to it. Next is a round fish pond with a small [[fountain]] playing in the [[pond]]. An Oval & several oblong fish ponds of larger size follow, & between the two last is an artificial [[cascade]]. Several summer houses in [[rustic style]] are made by nailing bark on the outside & thaching the roof. There is also a [[rustic style|rustic]] '''seat''' built in the branches of a tree, & to which a flight of steps ascend. In one of the [[summerhouse|summer houses]] is a Spring with '''seats''' arrond it. The houses are all embelished [''sic''] with marble busts of Venus, Appollo, Diana and a Bacanti. One sits on an Island on the fish pond. All the [[pond]]s filled with handsome coloured fish.”
:“Immediately below the bridge [over Miller’s River] is a fall, furnishing excellent mill-seats, which are occupied by several mills. These are uniformly supplied with an abundance of water, and wear the aspect of great activity, and business, particularly in the sawing of timber.”
*Trollope, Frances Milton, 1830, describing Philadelphia, PA (1832: 2:48–49; 152)<ref>Frances Trollope, ''Domestic Manners of the Americans'', 3rd ed., 2 vols. (London: Wittaker, Treacher, 1832), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/T5RXDF7G view on Zotero].</ref>
:“Near this enclosure [at the State House] is another of much the same description, called [[Washington Square (Philadelphia)|Washington Square]]. Here there was an excellent crop of clover; but as the trees are numerous, and highly beautiful, and several commodious '''seats''' are placed beneath their shade, it is, spite of the long grass, a very agreeable retreat from heat and dust. It was rarely, however, that I saw any of these '''seats''' occupied; the Americans have either no leisure, or no inclination for those moments of ''delassement'' that all other people, I believe, indulge in. . . it is nevertheless the nearest approach to a London square that is to be found in Philadelphia. . . “The Delaware river, above Philadelphia, still flows through a landscape too level for beauty, but it is rendered interesting by a succession of gentlemen’s '''seats''', which, if less elaborately finished in architecture, and garden grounds, than the lovely villas on the Thames, are still beautiful objects to gaze upon as you float rapidly past on the broad silvery stream that washes their [[lawn]]s.”
* Dwight, Timothy, 1799, describing New York, N.Y. (1822: 3:481–82) <ref name="Dwight"></ref>
*[[Andrew Jackson Downing|Downing, Andrew Jackson]], January 1837, “Notices on the State and Progress of Horticulture in the United States,” describing [[Hyde Park]], seat of [[David Hosack]], on the Hudson, NY (''Magazine of Horticulture'' 3: 5)<ref>A. J. Downing, “Notices on the State and Progress of Horticulture in the United States,” ''Magazine of Horticulture, Botany, and All Useful Discoveries and Improvements in Rural Affairs'' 3, no. 1 (January 1837):“the heights1–10, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/keywords_in_early_american_landscape_design/items/itemKey/HPNHTESI/q/Notices%20on%20the%20State%20and%20Progress%20of%20Horticulture view on Zotero].</ref>:“The most distinguished amateur and many patron of gardening, in every sense of the lower groundsword, contain a rich display in this state, was the late [[Dr. Hosack]]. [[Hyde Park]], on the Hudson, the '''seat''' of gentlemen’s country seatsthis gentleman, connected with has been probably the best specimen of a great variety of handsome appendageshighly improved residence in the United States.”
* La Rochefoucauld LiancourtRitchie, François-Alexandre-FrédéricAnna Cora Ogden Mowatt, 1839, duc describing Bonaparte’s Park at estate of Joseph Bonaparte (Count deSurvilliers), 1799Bordentown, describing a house NJ (quoted in Charleston, S.C. (1800: 2Weber 1854:437–38186) <ref> François-Alexandre-FrédéricConstance Weber, duc de La Rochefoucauld Liancourt“A Sketch of Joseph Bonaparte, ” in ''Travels through the United States of North America, the Country of the Iroquois, and Upper Canada, in the Years 1795, 1796, and 1797Godey’s Lady’s Book'', ed. by Brisson Dupont and Charles Ponges, trans. by H. Newman, 2nd edn, 4 vols. (LondonPhiladelphia: RL. A. PhilipsGodey, 18001854). , [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/SRMDWJ2M NEDC6TSD/ view on Zotero].</ref>:“Equally rustic '''seats''' are scattered beneath the shade of the tall trees on its banks, and upon its clear surface a flock of snow-white swans were floating about.”
:“Half a mile from Batavia . . . stands Middletonhouse, the property of Mrs. MIDDLETON, mother-in-law to young Mr. Isard, which is esteemed the most beautiful house in this part of the country. The out-buildings, such as kitchen, wash-house, and offices, are very capacious. The ensemble of these buildings calls to recollection the ancient English country-seats.”
*Hovey, C. M. (Charles Mason), September 1840, “Notes on Gardens and Gardening, in New Bedford, Mass.,” describing the estate of James Arnold, New Bedford, MA (''Magazine of Horticulture'' 6: 364)<ref>Charles Mason Hovey, “Notes on Gardens and Gardening, in New Bedford, Mass.,” ''Magazine of Horticulture, Botany, and All Useful Discoveries and Improvements in Rural Affairs'' 6, no. 9 (September 1840): 361–66, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/QQC7WWZB view on Zotero].</ref>
:“Continuing through the winding [[walk]]s, shady [[bower]]s, and umbrageous retreats, through which rustic '''seats''' were placed, we arrived at the shell [[grotto]].”
*La Rochefoucauld Liancourt, François-Alexandre-Frédéric, duc de, 1799, describing the Woodlands, seat of William Hamilton, near Philadelphia, Pa. (quoted in Madsen 1988: B3) <ref>Karen Madsen, ‘William Hamilton’s Woodlands’, 1988. [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/XN8NN9QN view on Zotero]</ref>
*Adams, Nehemiah, 1842, describing [[Boston Common]], Boston, MA (1842:“You pass 54)<ref>Nehemiah Adams, ''Boston Common'' (Boston: William D. Ticknor and H. B. Williams, 1842), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/VXTWGJ58 view on Zotero].</ref>:“One of the next improvements in the [[Boston Common|Common]] we suspect will be a suitable supply of proper '''seats''' in the Schuylkill at Gray’s-Ferry[[mall]]. As a defence against our American propensity to whittle, the road city government caused some of the wooden '''seats''' to which runs below Woodlands, be sheathed with sheet iron. Vain defence against the seat knife of Mran American whittler! . . William Hamilton: it stands high. The city government thought that they would ‘try what virtue there is in stones.’ Blocks of granite have been deposited there for '''seats'''. . . The stone '''seats''' are smooth only on the upper side, and their rough look is not strictly in Boston taste, though it is seen upon an eminence from excusable, considering the penitentiary object which led to their substitution for wooden '''seats'''. . . The idea of sitting on a natural, rough rock, to enjoy the opposite side beauties of nature, is poetical and in good keeping, but we have tried in vain to make those stone '''seats''' on the river[[mall]] seem poetical.”
* OgdenBuckingham, John CosensJames Silk, 18001842, describing BethlehemRed Sulphur Springs, Pa. VA (pp. 18Colonial Williamsburg Foundation):“In the centre of the valley, is a triangular [[plot]] of grass, 27) <ref>John C. Ogdenwhich has been enclosed with well-finished rails, ''An Excursion into Bethlehem & Nazarethpainted white, and laid out in Pennsylvania[[walk]]s like a [[lawn]], in the Year 1799having also several large and fine trees, under which '''seats'''(Philadelphia: Charles Cist, 1800)are placed for enjoying the shade. [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/U5CTTBGB view on Zotero]</ref>
:“Seats are placed for rest, and to enable the visitors to view the river at leisure. . . .
:“The island is not large, but affords fine walks and an area for exercise, as well as seats and shelters for visitors.”
*Anonymous, December 6, 1842, “Letter from Ministry at New Lebanon to Ministry at Graveland” (Western Reserve Historical Society Library, Shaker Manuscript Collection)
:“And it is my will that your '''seats''' be prepared after the following order. Ye may take boards of sufficient width & thickness to form a '''seat'''. These may be planed. Place these upon square blocks of sufficient bigness to elevate the '''seat''' of a suitable height; and these are sufficient for '''seats''', upon my holy ground. And if ye desire to build a shed, near by the meeting ground under which you can place these '''seats''', at such parts of the year as they are not wanted, ye may freely do it; but if my feast ground is located near your dwellings, you had better carry them there to place under shelter.”
* Clitherall, Eliza Caroline Burgwin (Caroline Elizabeth Burgwin), active 1801, describing the Hermitage, seat of John Burgwin, Wilmington, N.C. (quoted in Flowers 1983: 126) <ref>John Flowers, ‘People and Plants: North Carolina’s Garden History Revisited’, ''Eighteenth Century Life'', 8 (1983), 117–29. [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/FCVW8GHV view on Zotero]</ref>
*Longfellow, Henry Wadsworth, c. 1845, describing the Vassall-Craigie-Longfellow House, Cambridge, MA (quoted in Evans 1993: 41)<ref>Catherine Evans, ''Cultural Landscape Report for Longfellow National Historic Site, History and Existing Conditions'' (Boston:“These National Park Service, North Atlantic Region, 1993), [gardenshttps://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/9TI9GUQN view on Zotero] were extensive and beautifully laid out. There was </ref>:“Made the [[sicflower garden] alcoves and summer houses at the termination of each walk, seats under trees ]; laying it out in the more shady recesses form of a Lyre. Built also the Big Garden, as it was called, [[rustic style|rustic]] '''seat''' in distinction from the flower garden in front of Old Apple tree. Set out the roses under the houseLibrary windows.”
[[Image:0359.jpg|thumb|225px|Fig. 11, Anonymous, “The [[Lake]],” [[Montgomery Place]], in [[A. J. Downing]], ed., ''Horticulturist'' 2, no. 4 (October 1847): 158, fig. 27.]]*Jefferson[[Andrew Jackson Downing|Downing, ThomasAndrew Jackson]], 18041847, describing Monticello[[Montgomery Place]], plantation country home of Thomas JeffersonMrs. Edward (Louise) Livingston, Dutchess County, NY (quoted in Haley 1988: 20, 47, Charlottesville50)<ref>Jacquetta M. Haley, Vaed. , ''Pleasure Grounds: Andrew Jackson Downing and Montgomery Place'' (Massachusetts Historical SocietyTarrytown, Jefferson PapersNY: Sleepy Hollow Press, 1988), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/SSZXJFSC/ view on Zotero].</ref>:“I forgot to beg you before you leave [[Montgomery Place]] to sketch the [[view]] from the bold rustic '''seat''' with rustic balustrade in front*on the high west river [[walk]]. It seems to me one of the very finest things I have seen anywhere.:<nowiki>*</nowiki> that '''seat''' about half way between the steps & the south terminus. . .:“A path on the left of the broad [[lawn]] leads one to the fanciful rustic-gabled '''seat''', among a growth of locusts at the bottom of the [[Terrace/Slope|slope]]. . . Half-way along this morning ramble, a rustic '''seat''', placed on a bold little plateau, at the base of a large tree, eighty feet above the water, and fenced about with a rustic barrier, invites you to linger and gaze at the fascinating river landscape here presented. . .:“A little farther on, we reach a flight of rocky steps, leading up to the [[border]] of the [[lawn]]. At the top of these is a rustic '''seat''' with a thatched canopy, curiously built round the trunk of an aged pine. . .:“This part of the grounds [the [[lake]]] is seen to the most advantage, either toward evening, or in moonlight. Then the effect of contrast in light and shadow is most striking, and the seclusion and beauty of the spot are more fully enjoyable than at any hour. Then you will most certainly be tempted to leave the curious rustic '''seat''', with its roof wrapped round with a rude entablature like Pluto’s crown.” [Fig. 11]
:“Temples or seats at those spots on the walks most interesting either for prospect or the immediate scenery.”
[[File:1097.jpg|thumb|225px|Fig. 12, Thomas S. Sinclair, “Plan of the [[Pleasure Ground]]s and Farm of the [[Pennsylvania Hospital for the Insane]] at Philadelphia,” in Thomas S. Kirkbride, ''American Journal of Insanity'' 4 (April 1848): pl. opp. 280.]]
*Kirkbride, Thomas S., April 1848, describing the [[pleasure ground|pleasure grounds]] and farm of the [[Pennsylvania Hospital for the Insane]], Philadelphia (''American Journal of Insanity'' 4: 349)<ref>Thomas S. Kirkbride, “Description of the Pleasure Grounds and Farm of the Pennsylvania Hospital for the Insane, with Remarks,” ''American Journal of Insanity'' 4, no. 4 (April 1848): 347–54, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/keywords_in_early_american_landscape_design/items/itemKey/9RWM2FH8/q/kirkbride view on Zotero].</ref>
:“The [[summerhouse|summer-houses]], [[rustic style|rustic]]-'''seats''', exercising-swings &c., in this division are all in particularly pleasant positions. The cottage fronts the [[wood]]s, and in every part this portion of the grounds is completely protected from intrusion and observation.” [Fig. 12]
* Scott, Joseph, 1806, describing the Schuylkill River in Pennsylvania (p. 53) <ref>Scott, Joseph, ''A Geographical Description of Pennsylvania'' (Philadelphia: Printed by R. Cochran, 1806). [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/55XKIWPN/]</ref>
*[[J. C. (John Claudius) Loudon|Loudon, J. C. (John Claudius)]], 1850, describing the public gardens in Philadelphia, PA (1850:“The banks of 332–33):“856. ''[[public garden|Public Gardens]]''. . .:“''[[Promenade]] at Philadelphia''. There is a very pretty enclosure before the walnut tree entrance to the river arestate-house, with good well-kept gravel [[walk]]s, and many beautiful flowering trees. It is laid down in grass, not in turf; which, indeed, Mrs. Trollope observes, ‘is a luxury she never saw in many placesAmerica. Near this enclosure is another of a similar description, called [[Washington Square (Philadelphia)|Washington Square]], which has numerous trees, adorned with beautiful country commodious '''seats''' placed beneath their shade.’ (''Ibid''. [''D. M. &c''.] vol. ii. p. 48.) . . .:“''Waterworks at Fair Mount, belonging to near Philadelphia''. ‘. . . On the wealthy citizens farther side of Philadelphia. To these their families usually retirethe river is a gentleman’s '''seat''', in the summer months, from beautiful [[lawn]] of which slopes down to the bustle, water’s edge; and noise groups of the city, weeping willows and to enjoy other trees throw their shadows on the salubrity stream.’ (''Domestic Manners of the country airAmericans'', vol. ii. p. 44.)
===Citations===
*Dezallier d’Argenville, Antoine-Joseph, 1712, ''The Theory and Practice of Gardening'' (1712: 78)<ref> A.-J. (Antoine Joseph) Dézallier d’Argenville, ''The Theory and Practice of Gardening; Wherein Is Fully Handled All That Relates to Fine Gardens, . . . Containing Divers Plans, and General Dispositions of Gardens. . . '', trans. John James (London: Geo. James, 1712), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/RNT8ZVZ8 view on Zotero].</ref>
:“'''SEATS''', or Benches, besides the Conveniency they constantly afford in great Gardens, where you can scarce ever have too many, there is such need of them in walking, look very well also in a Garden, when set in certain Places they are destin’d to, as in the Niches or Sinkings that face principal [[Walk]]s and [[Vista]]s, and in the Halls and Galleries of [[Grove]]s.”
* Martin, William Dickinson, 1809, describing the pleasure grounds at Salem Academy, Salem, N.C. (quoted in Bynum 1979: 29) <ref name="Bynum 1979">Flora Ann L. Bynum, ''Old Salem Garden Guide'' (Winston-Salem, N.C.: Old Salem, 1979). [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/TJB9XNMF view on Zotero]</ref>
*Ware, Isaac, 1756, ''A Complete Body of Architecture'' (1756:“Next636, 641)<ref>Isaac Ware, I visited a flower garden belonging to the female department''A Complete Body of Architecture'' (London: T. Osborne and J. Shipton, 1756), [https://www. zotero. org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/2EK2USKV view on Zotero]. But </ref>:“The first principle is here that there be space to [[walk]], and '''seats''' to rest. These must be proportioned also to one another: it is situated on would be absurd to terminate a vast [[walk]] with a plain bench; nor less ridiculous to erect a hill, pompous [[temple]] where there was not the East end extent of which is high & abrupt; some distance down this, they had dug down right in a hundred yards from the earthbuilding. . .:“He who would know where to place his [[pavilion]], & drawing the dirt forward threw it on rock'''seat''', etc.or [[temple]], thereby forming a horizontal plane of about thirty feet in circumference; & on the back, rose a perpendicular terrace of some heightgarden, which was entirely covered over with a grass peculiar to that vicinage. At must first understand what the bottom purpose of this terrace were arranged circular seatsit is, which, from and what the height true beauty and excellence of the hill in the rear were protected from the sun in an early hour in the afternoongarden itself.”
* MartinSheridan, William DickinsonThomas, 20 May 18091789, describing ''A Complete Dictionary of the WoodlandsEnglish Language'' (1789: n.p.)<ref>Thomas A. Sheridan, seat ''A Complete Dictionary of William Hamiltonthe English Language, near PhiladelphiaCarefully Revised and Corrected by John Andrews. . . '', Pa5th ed. (CWFPhiladelphia: William Young, 1789), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/T5GU4CBQ view on Zotero].</ref>:“'''SEAT''', se’t. s. A chair, bench, or any thing on which one may sit; chair of state; tribunal; mansion, abode; situation, site.”
:“Altho’ much has been done to beautify this delightful seat, much still remains to be done, for the perfecting it in all the capabilities which nature
in her boundless profusion has bestowed.”
*Anonymous, 1798, ''Encyclopaedia'' (1798: 7:561)
:“‘V. '''SEATS''' have a two-fold use; they are useful as places of rest and conversation, and as guides to the points of [[view]] in which the beauties of the surrounding scene are disclosed. Every point of [[view]] should be marked with a '''seat'''; and speaking generally, no '''seat''' ought to appear but in some favourable point of [[view]]. This rule may not be invariable, but it ought seldom to be deviated from.
:“In the ruder scenes of neglected nature, the simple trunk, rough from the woodman’s hands, and the butts or stools of rooted trees, without any other marks of tools upon them than those of the saw which severed them from their stems, are '''seats''' in character; and in romantic or recluse situations, the cave or the [[grotto]] are admissible. But wherever human design has been executed upon the natural objects of the place, the '''seat''' and every other artificial accompaniment ought to be in unison; and whether the bench or the [[alcove]] be chosen, it ought to be formed and finished in such a manner as to unite with the [[wood]], the [[lawn]], and the [[walk]], which lie around it.
:“The colour of '''seats''' should likewise be suited to situations: where uncultivated nature prevails, the natural brown of the [[wood]] itself ought not to be altered; but where the rural art presides, white or stone colour has a much better effect.’ ''Practical Treatise on Planting and Gardening p. 593 &c.''”
* Smith, Margaret Bayard, 1 August 1809, describing Monticello, plantation of Thomas Jefferson, Charlottesville, Va. (1906: 73) <ref>Margaret Bayard Smith, ''The First Forty Years of Washington Society'', ed. by Gaillard Hunt (New York: Charles Scribner’s, 1906). [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/FTDFHRFH view on Zotero]</ref>
*Repton, Humphry, 1803, ''Observations on the Theory and Practice of Landscape Gardening'' (1803: 69, 153)<ref>Humphry Repton, ''Observations on the Theory and Practice of Landscape Gardening'' (London:“MrPrinted by T. Bensley for J. explained Taylor, 1803), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/VVQPC3BI view on Zotero].</ref>:“This would be a proper place for a covered '''seat''', with a shed behind it for horses or open carriages; but it should be set so far back as to me all his plans command the [[view]] under the branches of trees, which are very happily situated for the purpose. . .:“Yet the summit of a naked brow, commanding [[view]]s in every direction, may require a covered '''seat''' or [[pavilion]]; for improvementsuch a situation, where an architectural building is proper, a circular [[temple]] with a dome, such as the roads, [[temple]] of the walksSybils, the seatsor that of Tivoli, the little temples were to be placedis best calculated.”
* FosterAbercrombie, Sir Augustus John, 1812with James Mean, describing Monticello1817, plantation of Thomas Jefferson, Charlottesville, Va. ''Abercrombie’s Practical Gardener'' (19541817: 143465) <ref>Sir Augustus John FosterAbercrombie, ''Jeffersonian America: Notes on the United States Abercrombie’s Practical Gardener Or, Improved System of America Collected in the Years 1805-1806-1807 and 1811-1812Modern Horticulture'', ed(London: T. by Richard Beale Davis (San Marino, CalifCadell and W.: Huntington LibraryDavies, 19541817). , [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/7FU8NDF4 TH54TADZ/ view on Zotero].</ref>:“Fine points of [[view]] claim, in the first place, to be distinguished by '''seats'''. '''Seats''' merely serving as places of rest might announce an intrinsic object by some difference in their construction; and if there be no distant [[prospect]] to engage attention, greater elegance in the accompaniments may create a pleasant resting-place. As to the manner of finishing a '''seat'''; where the house is in sight, a correct taste will expect the bench or [[alcove]] to correspond with the style of the house, so far at least as to be avowedly artificial, neat in the workmanship, and painted. In neglected or wild scenes, withdrawn from the polished [[lawn]], pleasing illusions may be induced by a rough block of timber, the arms of a fantastic root, or forest fagots romantically interwoven, offering a '''seat''' under the canopy of a tree, or within a cave or [[grotto]]. This is admissible on principle, in proportion as every thing surrounding is in character. Not that it can be denied, that whimsical '''seats''' at variance with the situation sometimes afford a degree of amusement, and may do no harm in little gardens, or in a scene too tame to be spoiled: but the effect terminates with the oddity; a place destitute of character can excite no romantic interest.”
:“It is a very delightful ride of twenty-eight miles from Montpellier to the late President Mr. Jefferson’s seat at Monticello.”
[[File:1334.jpg|thumb|225px|Fig. 13, [[J. C. Loudon]], Covered seats of the [[Rustic_style|rustic]] kind, in ''An Encyclopædia of Gardening'', 4th ed. (1826), 357, fig. 336.]]
*[[J. C. (John Claudius) Loudon|Loudon, J. C. (John Claudius)]], 1826, ''An Encyclopaedia of Gardening'' (1826: 355, 357, 809)<ref>J. C. (John Claudius) Loudon, ''An Encyclopaedia of Gardening; Comprising the Theory and Practice of Horticulture, Floriculture, Arboriculture, and Landscape-Gardening'', 4th ed. (London: Longman et al., 1826),[https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/KNKTCA4W view on Zotero].</ref>
:“1805. ''Of convenient decorations'' the variety is almost endless, from the prospect-tower to the rustic '''seat'''; besides aquatic decorations, agreeable to the eye and convenient for the purposes of recreations or culture. Their emplacement, as in the former section, belongs to gardening, and their construction to architecture and engineering. . .
:“1816. ''Roofed '''seats''', boat-houses, moss houses, flint houses, bark huts'', and similar constructions, are different modes of forming resting-places containing '''seats''', and sometimes other furniture or conveniences in or near them. . . [Fig. 13]
:“1817. ''Roofed '''seats''' of a more polished description'' are boarded structures generally semi-octagonal, and placed so as to be open to the south. Sometimes they are portable, moving on wheels, so as to be placed in different positions, according to the hour of the day, or season of the year, which, in confined spots, is a desirable circumstance. Sometimes they turn on rollers, or on a central pivot, for the same object, and this is very common in what are called barrel-'''seats'''. In general they are opaque, but occasionally their sides are glazed, to admit the sun to the interior in winter.
[[File:1335.jpg|thumb|225px|Fig. 14, [[J. C. Loudon]], Elegant structures of the seat kind, in ''An Encyclopædia of Gardening'' 4th ed. (1826), 357, figs. 337 and 338.]]
:“1818. ''Folding chairs''. A sort of medium '''seat''', between the roofed and the exposed, is formed by constructing the backs of chairs, benches, or sofas with hinges, so as they may fold down over the '''seat''', and so protect it from rain. . .
:“1819. ''Elegant structures'' of the '''seat''' kind for summer use, may be constructed of iron rods and wires, and painted canvas; the iron forming the supporting skeleton, and the canvass the protecting tegument. . . [Fig. 14]
:“1820. ''Exposed '''seats''''' include a great variety, rising in gradation from the turf bank to the carved couch. Intermediate forms are stone benches, root stools, sections of trunks of trees, wooden, stone, or cast-iron mushrooms painted or covered with moss, or mat, or heath; the Chinese barrel-'''seat''', the rustic stool, chair, tripod, sofa, the cast-iron couch or sofa, the wheeling-chair, and many subvarieties. . .
:“6157. . . Light [[bower]]s formed of lattice-work, and covered with climbers, are in general most suitable to [[parterre]]s; plain covered '''seats''' suit the general [[walk]]s of the [[shrubbery]].”
* Lambert, John, 1816, describing Boston, Mass. (2:328) <ref>John Lambert, ''Travels through Canada, and the United States of North America in the Years 1806, 1807, and 1808'', 2 vols. (London: Baldwin, Cradock, and Joy, 1816). [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/T9KUEDWH view on Zotero]</ref>
*Anonymous, April 26, 1826, “On Landscapes and Picturesque Gardens” (''New England Farmer'' 4:“From an elevated part of the town the spectator enjoys a succession of the most beautiful views that imagination can conceive. Around him316)<ref>Anonymous, as far as the eye can reach“On Landscape and Picturesque Gardens, are to be seen towns” ''New England Farmer'' 4, villagesno. 40 (April 28, country seats1826): 316, rich farms[https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/keywords_in_early_american_landscape_design/items/itemKey/I3K5QGBZ? view on Zotero].</ref>:“A few fabrics, and pleasure-groundsrustic [[bridge]]s, seated upon the summits of small hills[[hermitage]]s, hanging on the brows of gentle slopesa [[Temple]], or reclining a Chinese Kiosk or Pagoda, not expensive in their execution, would advantageously complete the laps embellishment of spacious valleys, whose shores are watered by a beautiful river, across which are thrown several bridges and causewayscountry '''seat'''.”
* Randolph[[Noah Webster|Webster, JohnNoah]], 1820s1828, describing an estate in Roanoke, Va. ''An American Dictionary of the English Language'' (quoted in Martin 19911828: 2: 223nn.p. 46) <ref>Peter MartinNoah Webster, ''The Pleasure Gardens An American Dictionary of Virginia: From Jamestown to Jeffersonthe English Language'' (Princeton, N2 vols.J(New York: S.: Princeton University PressConverse, 19911828)., [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/6TAHS88NN7BSU467 view on Zotero].</ref>:“'''SEAT''', ''n.'' [It. ''sedia''; Sp. s''ede, sitio'', from L. ''sedes, situs''; Sw. ''sate''; Dan. ''soede''; G. ''sitz''; D. ''zetel'', ''zitplaats''; W. ''sez''; Ir. ''saidh''; W. with a prefix, ''gosod'', whence ''gosodi'', to ''set''. See ''Set'' and ''Sit''. . .]:“1. That on which one sits. . .:“3. Mansion; residence; dwelling; abode; as Italy the '''''seat''''' of empire. The Greeks sent colonies to seek a new '''''seat''''' in Gaul.:“In Alba he shall fix his royal '''''seat'''''. Dryden. :“4. Site; situation. The '''''seat''''' of Eden has never been incontrovertibly ascertained. . .:“8. The place where a thing is settled or established. London is the '''''seat''''' of business and opulence. So we say, the '''''seat''''' of the muses, the '''''seat''''' of arts, the '''''seat''''' of commerce.”
:“From my earliest childhood I have delighted in the groves and solitudes of poor old Matoax. I now recall several of my favorite seats where I used to ruminate, ‘chewing the cud of sweet and bitter fancies,’ all bitter now.”
*Bridgeman, Thomas, 1832, ''The Young Gardener’s Assistant'' (1832: 111)<ref> Thomas Bridgeman, ''The Young Gardener’s Assistant'', 3rd ed. (New York: Geo. Robertson, 1832), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/9FU4SNZK view on Zotero].</ref>
:“In a retired part of the [flower] garden, a rustic '''seat''' may be formed, over and around which honey-suckles and other sweet and ornamental creepers and climbers may he [''sic''] trained on [[trellis]]es, so as to afford a pleasant retirement.”
* Peale, Charles Willson, c. 1825, describing Belfield, estate of Charles Willson Peale, Germantown, Pa. (Miller, Hart, and Ward, eds., 2000: 381) <ref>
Lillian B. Miller and et al, eds., ''The Selected Papers of Charles Willson Peale and His Family: The Autobiography of Charles Willson Peale. Vol. 5.'' (New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1983–2000). [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/IZAKPCBG view on Zotero]</ref>
*Teschemacher, James E., August 1, 1835, “Extracts from Foreign Publications” (''Horticultural Register'' 1:“He wanted a place to keep 308–9)<ref>James E. Teschemacher, “Extracts from Foreign Publications,” ''Horticultural Register, and Gardener’s Magazine'' 1 (August 1, 1835): 304–9, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/keywords_in_early_american_landscape_design/items/itemKey/CNPGMS5X/q/extracts%20from%20foreign%20publications view on Zotero].</ref>:“''From an article On the garden seeds & Tools, various form and character of [[Arbour]]s as objects of use or ornament either in a part of gardens or wild scenery [from Paxton’s Horticultural Register''], we extract the following passages. . .:“‘The closely shaven turf comes about ten feet inside the Garden [[arch]]es where a seat in the shade was often wanted, he built a shed or small roomits edge is cut, and to hide between that Salt-like-box, and to try his art of Painting, he made the front like [a[basin]] Gate Way is covered with a step to form a seatfine tawny sand, with an apparently confused but really symmetrical arrangement of marble pedestals, '''seats''' and above, steps painted as representing [[vase]]s with flowering plants placed upon them. During summer a [[vase]] with a passage through an Arch beyond rare flowering plant is placed under each of the external [[arch]]es except four which was represented a western skyserve as entrances. The entire effect is good, and to ornament his may be considered as one of the upper part over best specimens of the arch, he painted several figures on boards cut to artificial [[bower]] of the outlines of said figures as representing statues in sculpturepresent day.’”
* SheldonSayers, John P.Edward, 10 December 18251838, describing Fairmount Waterworks''The American Flower Garden Companion'' (1838: 14, Philadelphia19, Pa. (quoted in Gibson 1988: 5131) <ref>Jane Mork Gibson, ‘The Fairmount Waterworks’Edward Sayers, ''BulletinThe American Flower Garden Companion, Philadelphia Museum of ArtAdapted to the Northern States''(Boston: Joseph Breck, 84 (19881838), 5–40. [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/RZEZDDEN GHTFN8B2 view on Zotero].</ref>:“At country residences, where a large extent is appropriated to this department [the [[flower garden]]], many convenient and pleasing appendages can be judiciously introduced; as rustic [[arbor]]s, rustic '''seats''', and [[rockery]]; and if water can be connected, it always gives a good effect. All such appendages, I recommend to be constructed in as natural a manner as possible. . .:“In extensive [[pleasure ground]]s the [[rockery]] has a good effect when placed distinct from the [[flower garden]], and near a rustic [[arbor]] or ornamental [[bridge]], or '''seat'''; and if placed by the side of a retired [[walk]], near the [[lawn]] or grass [[plot]], it has an easy effect. . . .:“the margin of the [[pond]] should be planted with drooping willows and trees of a pendulous habit for shade, under which rustic '''seat''' might be properly placed for the accommodation of those who desire to view the sporting fishes, and other interesting objects by which they are surrounded.”[[File:0936.jpg|thumb|225px|Fig. 15, Alexander Walsh, Two seats surrounded by an arched [[arbor]], in ''New England Farmer'' 19, no. 39 (March 31, 1841): 309, fig. 4.]]
:“Delightful seats, surrounded by various kinds of trees and shrubbery, with gardens containing summer houses, vistas, embowered walks, &c meet your view in almost every direction, woods sloping gently to the river’s edge, by the side of
smooth lawns, add to the pleasing variety of the scene; and the Schuylkill, with its noble dam and bridges serves as a most beautiful finish to the foreground.”
*Walsh, Alexander, March 31, 1841, “Remarks on Ornamental Gardening” (''New England Farmer'' 19: 308–9)<ref>Alexander Walsh, “Remarks on Ornamental Gardening, With a Plan of a Fruit, Flower and Vegetable Garden,” ''New England Farmer, and Horticultural Register'' 19, no. 39 (March 31, 1841): 308–9, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/HD2AV62D view on Zotero.]</ref>
:“The garden and [[pleasure ground]] I would describe, is of an oblong form, 165 feet by 120 feet, with one end next the north side of the house. . .
:“X X two '''seats''', each occupying 2 ft. . . T T two '''seats'''. . . surrounded by an arched [[arbor]] 10 ft. high, thrown over the [[walk]], ornamented on one side with honeysuckle, on the other by climbing Boursaut rose.” [Fig. 15]
* Connor, Juliana Margaret, 1827, describing the garden at the pottery (Lot 48) on Main Street, Salem, N.C. (quoted in Bynum 1979: 28) <ref name="Bynum 1979"></ref>
[[File:“Afterwards walked into 1824.jpg|thumb|225px|Fig. 16, Anonymous, “Moveable Garden Seat,” in Jane Loudon, ''Gardening for Ladies'' (1843), 283, fig. 49.]] *[[Jane Loudon|Loudon, Jane]], 1843, ''Gardening for Ladies'' (1843: 283–84)<ref>Jane Loudon, ''Gardening for Ladies; And Companion to the Flower-Garden,'' ed. A. J. Downing (New York: Wiley and Putnam, 1843), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/VJ3SM523 view on Zotero].</ref>:“'''SEATS''' for gardens are either open or covered; the latter being in the form of root-houses, huts, [[pavilion]]s, [[temple]]s, [[grotto]]es, &c., and the former being either fixed, temporary, or portable. Fixed '''seats''' are commonly of stone, either plain stone benches without backs, or stone supports to wooden benches. Sometimes, also, wooden '''seats''' are fixed, as when they are placed round a tree, or when boards are nailed to posts, or when '''seats''' are formed in imitation of mushrooms, as in the garden belonging grounds at Redleaf. Fixed '''seats''' are also sometimes formed of turf. Portable '''seats''' are formed of [[wood]], sometimes contrived to have the back of the establishment where we saw what I conceived '''seat''' folded down when the '''seat''' is not in use; so as to be a curiosity exclude the weather, and avoid the dirt of birds which are apt to perch on them. Another kind of portable '''seat''', which is frequently formed in iron, as shown in itself extremely beautiful''fig.'' 49, is readily wheeled from one part of the grounds to another; and the back of which also folds down to protect the '''seat''' from the weather. It was There is a large summer house formed kind of eight cedar trees planted in camp-stool which serves as a circleportable '''seat''', imported from Norway, and sold at the tops whilst young were chained together low price of 2''s''. 6''d''. or 3''s''.; and there are also straw '''seats''', like half [[beehive]]s, which are, however, only used in garden-huts, or in any situation under cover, because in the center forming open air they would be liable to be soaked with rain. There are a cone. The immense great variety of rustic '''seats''' formed of roots and crooked branches were all cutof trees, so that used both for the open garden and under cover; and there was not are also '''seats''' of cast and wrought iron, of great variety of form. There should always be some kind of analogy between the '''seat''' and the scene of which it forms a part; and for this reason rustic '''seats''' should be confined to rustic scenery; and the '''seats''' for a [[lawn]] or highly kept pleasure-ground ought to be of comparatively simple and architectural forms, and either of [[wood]] or stone, those of [[wood]] being frequently painted of a leafstone colour, and sprinkled over with silver sand before the outside paint is beautifullydry, to give them the appearance of stone. Iron '''seats''', generally speaking, are not sufficiently massive for effect; and the metal conveys the idea of cold in winter and heat in summer. [Fig. 16]trimmed perfectly even :“When '''seats''' are placed along a [[walk]], a gravelled recess ought to be formed to receive them; and very thick withinthere ought, generally, to be a footboard to keep the feet from the moist ground, were whether the '''seat''' is on gravel or on al awn [''sic'']. In a garden where there are several '''seats ''', some ought to be in positions exposed to the sun, and others placed around in the shade, and doors none ought to be put down in a situation where the back of the '''seat''' is seen by a person approaching it before the front. Indeed the backs of all fixed '''seats''' ought to be concealed by shrubs, or openings were cutby some other means, through unless they are circular '''seats''' placed round a tree. '''Seats''' ought not to be put down where there will be any temptation to the persons sitting on them to strain their eyes to the right or left, nor where the boundary of the branchesgarden forms a conspicuous object in the [[view]]. In general, all '''seats''' should be of a stone colour, as harmonizing best with vegetation. Noting can be more unartistical than '''seats''' painted a pea-green, it had been planted 40 yearsand placed among the green of living plants.”
* Bernhard[[File:0398.jpg|thumb|225px|Fig. 17, Duke of Saxe-Weimar-EisenachAnonymous, 1828“[[Rustic_style|Rustic]] Covered Seat, describing ” in [[A. J. Downing]], ''A Treatise on the Bloomingdale Asylum for the InsaneTheory and Practice of Landscape Gardening'', 4th ed. (1849), New York458, Nfig.Y86. ]]*[[Andrew Jackson Downing|Downing, Andrew Jackson]], 1849, ''A Treatise on the Theory and Practice of Landscape Gardening'' (quoted in Little 19721849: 64454–56, 473–74) <ref>Nina Fletcher LittleA. J. [Andrew Jackson] Downing, ''Early Years of A Treatise on the McLean Hospital, Recorded in the Journal Theory and Practice of George William FolsomLandscape Gardening, Apothecary at the Asylum in CharlestownAdapted to North America. . . '' , 4th ed. (BostonNew York: Francis AG. P. Countway Library of MedicinePutnam, 19721849). , [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/Q8IX8NHN/ 5M4S2D64 view on Zotero].</ref>:''“Open and covered '''seats''''', of various descriptions, are among the most convenient and useful decorations for the pleasure-grounds of a country residence. Situated in portions of the [[lawn]] or [[park]], somewhat distant from the house, they offer an agreeable place for rest or repose. If there are certain points from which are obtained agreeable [[prospect]]s or extensive [[view]]s of the surrounding country, a '''seat''', by designating those points, and by affording us a convenient mode of enjoying them, has a double recommendation to our minds.:“Open and covered '''seats''' are of two distinct kinds; one ''architectural'', or formed after artist-like designs, of stone or [[wood]], in Grecian, Gothic, or other forms; which may, if they are intended to produce an elegant effect, have [[vase]]s on pedestals as accompaniments; the other, ''rustic'', as they are called, which are formed out of trucks and branches of trees, roots, etc., in their natural forms. . .:“We consider rustic '''seats''' and structures as likely to be much preferred in the villa and cottage residences of the country. They have the merit of being tasteful and [[picturesque]] in their appearance, and are easily constructed by the amateur, at comparatively little or no expense. There is scarcely a prettier or more pleasant object for the termination of a long [[walk]] in the [[Pleasure_ground|pleasure-grounds]] or [[park]], than a neatly thatched structure of rustic work, with its '''seat''' for repose, and a [[view]] of the landscape beyond. . . [Fig. 17]:''“Unity of expression'' is the maxim and guide in this department of the art, as in every other. . .:“With regard to [[pavilion]]s, summer-houses, rustic '''seats''', and garden edifices of like character, they should, if possible, in all cases be introduced where they are manifestly appropriate or in harmony with the scene. Thus. . . a rustic covered '''seat''' may occupy a secluded, quiet portion of the grounds, where undisturbed meditation be enjoyed.”
:“The Lunatic Asylum is five miles from the city [New York] on a hill, in a very healthy situation, the road leads between country seats and handsome gardens and is one of the most pleasant I have seen in America.”
*Ranlett, William H., 1849, ''The Architect'' (1849; repr., 1976: 1:19)<ref>William H. Ranlett, ''The Architect'', 2 vols. (1849–51; repr., New York: Da Capo, 1976), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/QGQPCB5J view on Zotero].</ref>
:“Probably no portion of the globe, offers a greater variety of beautiful country '''seats''' than the vicinity of New-York. No man who has any taste for the retired tranquillity of a suburban retreat, or the lovely beauty of a [[picturesque]] scene, or the romantic grandeur of an enchanting landscape of cities, towns and country; rivers, bays and ocean, could fail to be suited with some of the numerous situations on the undulated shores, gentle declivities or towering heights of Staten Island, Long Island or the banks of the noble Hudson.”
* Wailes, Benjamin L. C., 29 December 1829, describing Lemon Hill, estate of Henry Pratt, Philadelphia, Pa. (quoted in Moore 1954: 359) <ref>John Hebron Moore, ‘A View of Philadelphia in 1829: Selections from the Journal of B.L.C. Wailes of Natchez’, ''Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography'', 78 (July) (1954), 353–60. [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/Z9IBV7A4 view on Zotero]</ref>
[[File:“But the most enchanting prospect is towards the grand pleasure grove & green house of a Mr0920.jpg|thumb|225px|Fig. Prat[t]18, Anonymous, a gentleman of fortune“Small Bracketed Cottage, and to this we next proceeded by a circutous ” in [[sicA. J. Downing]] rout, passing in view ''The Architecture of the fish pondsCountry Houses'' (1850), bowerspl. opp. 78, rustic retreatsfig. 9.]]*[[Andrew Jackson Downing|Downing, summer housesAndrew Jackson]], fountains1850, grotto''The Architecture of Country Houses'' (1850; repr., &c1968: 80–81)<ref>A., &cJ. The grotto is dug in a bank [andAndrew Jackson] is Downing, ''The Architecture of a circular formCountry Houses; Including Designs for Cottages, Farm-Houses, the side built up of rock and arched over headVillas'' (1850; repr., and a number of Shells [?]New York: D. A dog of natural size carved out of marble sits just within the entranceAppleton; Da Capo, 1968), the guardian of the place[https://www. A narrow aperture lined with a hedge of arbor vitae leads to itzotero. Next is a round fish pond with a small fountain playing in the pondorg/groups/54737/items/itemKey/GRZPQXQI view on Zotero]. An Oval & several oblong fish ponds of</ref>larger size follow, & between the two last is an artificial cascade. Several summer houses in :“The little rustic style are made by nailing bark [[arbor]]s or covered '''seats''' on the outside & thaching of the roof. There is also a rustic seat built bay window may be supposed to answer in some measure in the branches place of a tree, & to which a flight of steps ascend. In one of the summer houses is a Spring with seats arrond it. The houses are all embelished [sic[veranda]] with marble busts of Venus, Appolloand convey at the first glance, Diana an impression of refinement and taste attained in that simple manner so appropriate to a Bacanti. One sits on an Island on the fish pond. All the ponds filled with handsome coloured fishsmall cottage.” [See Fig. 118]
* Trollope[[Andrew Jackson Downing|Downing, Frances MiltonAndrew Jackson]], 1830June 1850, describing Philadelphia, Pa. “Our Country Villages” (1832''Horticulturist'' 4: 2:48–49; 152540–41) <ref>Frances TrollopeA. J. Downing, “Our Country Villages, ''Domestic Manners Horticulturist and Journal of the AmericansRural Art and Rural Taste''4, 3rd edn, 2 volsno. 12 (LondonJune 1850): Wittaker537–41, Treacher, 1832). [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/keywords_in_early_american_landscape_design/items/itemKey/T5RXDF7G 2DJ27X4W/q/our%20country%20villages view on Zotero].</ref>:“The next step, after the possession of such public pleasure-grounds, would be the social and common enjoyment of them. Upon the well-mown glades of [[lawn]], and beneath the shade of the forest trees, would be formed rustic '''seats'''. Little [[arbor]]s would be placed near, where in midsummer evenings ices would be served to all who wished them.”
:“Near this enclosure [at the State House] is another of much the same description, called Washington Square. Here there was an excellent crop of clover; but as the trees are numerous, and highly beautiful, and several commodious seats are placed beneath their shade, it is, spite of the
long grass, a very agreeable retreat from heat and dust. It was rarely, however, that I saw any of these seats occupied; the Americans have either no leisure, or no inclination for those moments of delassement that all other people, I believe, indulge in. . . . it is nevertheless the nearest approach to a London square that is to be found in Philadelphia. . . . “The Delaware river, above Philadelphia, still flows through a landscape too level for beauty, but it is rendered interesting by a succession of gentlemen’s seats, which, if less elaborately finished in architecture, and garden grounds, than the lovely villas on the Thames, are still beautiful objects to gaze upon as you float rapidly past on the broad silvery stream that washes their lawns.”
*[[Andrew Jackson Downing|Downing, Andrew Jackson]], March 1851, “The Management of Large Country Places” (''Horticulturist'' 6: 105–6)<ref>A. J. Downing, “The Management of Large Country Places,” ''Horticulturist and Journal of Rural Art and Rural Taste'' 6, no. 3 (March 1851): 105–8, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/keywords_in_early_american_landscape_design/items/itemKey/HKQH76RW/q/management%20of%20large%20country%20places view on Zotero].</ref>
:“All our country residences may readily be divided into two classes. The first and largest class, is the suburban place of from five to twenty or thirty acres; the second is the country-'''seat''', properly so called, which consists of from 30 to 500 or more acres. . .
:“But in the larger country places, there are ten instances of failure for one of success. This is not owing to the want of natural beauty, for the sites are [[picturesque]], the surface varied, and the [[wood]]s and [[plantation]]s excellent. The failure consists, for the most part, in a certain incongruity and want of distinct character in the treatment of the place as a whole. They are too large to be kept in order as pleasure-grounds, while they are not laid out or treated as [[park]]s. The grass which stretches on all sides of the house, is partly mown for [[lawn]], and partly for hay; the lines of the farm and the ornamental portion of the grounds, meet in a confused and unsatisfactory manner, and the result is a residence pretending to be much superior to a common farm, and not yet rising to the dignity of a really tasteful country '''seat'''.”
*Jaques, George, January 1852, “Landscape Gardening in New-England” (''Horticulturist'' 7: 35)<ref> George Jacques, “Landscape Gardening in New-England,” ''Horticulturist and Journal of Rural Art and Rural Taste'' 7, no. 1 (January 1852): 33–36, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/keywords_in_early_american_landscape_design/items/itemKey/WMEDJ9XX/q/landscape%20gardening%20in%20new-england view on Zotero].</ref>
:“Let woodbine, honey-suckle and climbing roses, here entwine themselves around a [[column]], and wreath themselves there over a window. Here place a rustic '''seat''', half hid among the [[shrubbery]]; there lead a short [[walk]], carelessly curving towards a little vine-clad [[arbor]].”
===Citations===<hr>
==Images==
===Inscribed===
<span id="roundabout_img"></span>
<gallery widths="170px" heights="170px" perrow="7">
 
Image:1722.jpg|[[James Gibbs]], “Two '''Seats''' for the ends of [[Walk]]s,” in ''A Book of Architecture'' (1728), pl. 82.
 
Image:1723.jpg|[[James Gibbs]], “Two other '''Seats''' for the same purpose [for the ends of [[walk]]s],” in ''A Book of Architecture'' (1728), pl. 83.
 
Image:0925.jpg|William Burgis, ''A South East [[View]] of ye Great Town of Boston in New England in America'', 1743. “Capt. Cunningham’s '''Seat'''” is inscribed over a grand house with beds/parterres in front.
 
Image:1737.jpg|Batty and Thomas Langley, “An Umbrello, to a '''Seat''', for to Terminate a [[walk]], [[View]], &c. in a Garden,” in ''Gothic Architecture'' (1747), pl. 31.
 
image:1688.jpg|William and John Halfpenny, “A [[Chinese_manner|Chinese]] [[Alcove]] '''Seat''' Fronting Four Ways,” in ''Rural Architecture in the Chinese Taste'' (1755), pl. 8.
 
File:2262.jpg|Anonymous, ''The South West [[Prospect]] of the '''Seat''' of Colonel George Boyd of Portsmouth, New Hampshire, New England, 1774''.
 
Image:0587.jpg|Anonymous, Plan of the Harbour and City of Annapolis, 1781.
 
Image:0461.jpg|[[Samuel Vaughan]], Plan of Bath [[Berkeley Springs|[Berkeley Springs]]], VA, 1787, from the diary of [[Samuel Vaughan]], June–September 1787. Plan lists “bb” as “two [[Piazza]]s with '''seats'''.”
 
Image:0338.jpg|Anonymous, ''A [[View]] of [[Mount Vernon]]'', c. 1790.
 
Image:0021.jpg|Cornelius Tiebout, ''A [[View]] of the present '''Seat''' of his Excel. the Vice President of the United States'', 1790.
 
Image:1983.jpg|Jeremiah Paul, “[[Robert Morris]]’ '''Seat''' on [[Schuylkill_River|Schuylkill]],” July 20, 1794.
 
Image:1925.jpg|Alexander Robertson, Cleremont the '''seat''' R. R. Livingston, 1796.
 
Image:0939.jpg|[[Charles Fraser]], ''Rice Hope: The '''Seat''' of Dr. William Read, Taken from One of the Rice Fields'', c. 1800.
 
Image:0141.jpg|Thomas Coram, ''The [[Grove]], '''Seat''' of G.A. Hall, Esquire'', c. 1800.
 
Image:0345.jpg|Alexander Robertson (artist), Francis Jukes (engraver), “[[Mount Vernon]] in Virginia,” 1800.
 
Image:2259.jpg|Anonymous, Plan of the Harvard [[Botanic Garden]], c. 1807. “N. Green-'''seats''' or turf banks.”
 
Image:0601.jpg|Anonymous, A plan of the section of land on which the Believers live in the state of Ohio, November 7, 1807. "'''Seat'''" inscribed on top center left.
 
Image:1924.jpg|P. Lodet, ''Clermont, '''Seat''' of the Chancellor Livingston - North River 1807'', 1807.
 
Image:0317.jpg|William Russell Birch, ''Montebello—The '''Seat''' of General Smith'', c. 1808.
 
Image:0326.jpg|William Russell Birch, “The [[View]] from Springland,” in ''The Country '''Seats''' of the United States'' (1808), pl. 2.
 
Image:0311.jpg|William Russell Birch, “Hoboken in New Jersey, the '''Seat''' of Mr. John Stevens,” in ''The Country '''Seats''' of the United States'' (1808), pl. 3.
 
Image:0312.jpg|William Russell Birch, “Hampton, the '''Seat''' of Genl. Chas. Ridgely, Maryland,” in ''The Country '''Seats''' of the United States'' (1808), pl. 4.
 
Image:0303.jpg|William Russell Birch, “Landsdown, the '''Seat''' of the late Wm. Bingham Esq., Pennsylvania,” in ''The Country '''Seats''' of the United States'' (1808), pl. 5.
 
Image:0314.jpg|William Russell Birch, “[[Mount Vernon]], Virginia, the '''Seat''' of the late Genl. G. Washington,” in ''The Country '''Seats''' of the United States'' (1808), pl. 7.
 
Image:0302.jpg|William Russell Birch, “[[Fountain]] Green, Pennsylv.a the '''Seat''' of Mr. S. Meeker,” in ''The Country '''Seats''' of the United States'' (1808), pl. 8.
 
Image:0316.jpg|William Russell Birch, “Devon in Pennsylv.a the '''Seat''' of Mr. Dallas,” in ''The Country '''Seats''' of the United States'' (1808), pl.10.
 
Image:0327.jpg|William Russell Birch, “[[Mount]] Sidney, the '''Seat''' of Genl. John Baker, Pennsylv.a,” in ''The Country '''Seats''' of the United States'' (1808), pl. 11. The inscription reads "[[Mount]] Sidney, the '''Seat''' of Gen.l John Baker, Pennsylv.a / Drawn, Engraved & Published by W. Birch Springland, near Bristol, Pennsylvania."
 
Image:0318.jpg|William Russell Birch, “Montibello the '''seat''' of Genl. S. Smith Maryland,” in ''The Country Seats of the United States'' (1808), pl. 13.
 
Image:0304.jpg|William Russell Birch, “[[The Woodlands|Woodlands]], the '''Seat''' of Mr. Wm. Hamilton, Pennsylva.,” in ''The Country '''Seats''' of the United States'' (1808), pl. 14.
 
Image:0319.jpg|William Russell Birch, “Sedgley '''seat''' of Mr. Wm. Crammond Pennsylva,” in ''The Country '''Seats''' of the United States'' (1808), pl. 15.
 
Image:0301.jpg|William Russell Birch, “[[View]] from [[Belmont_(Philadelphia,_PA)|Belmont]] Pennsyla. the '''Seat''' of Judge Peters,” in ''The Country '''Seats''' of the United States'' (1808), pl.16.
 
Image:0320.jpg|William Russell Birch, “York-Island with a [[View]] of the '''Seats''' of Mr. A. Gracie, Mr. Church &c.,” in ''The Country '''Seats''' of the United States'' (1808), pl. 17.
 
Image:0322.jpg|William Russell Birch, “China Retreat Pennsyl.<sup>a</sup> the '''Seat''' of M.<sup>r</sup> Manigault,” in ''The Country '''Seats''' of the United States'' (1808), pl. 19.
 
Image:0009.jpg|[[Charles Willson Peale]], Letter to Angelica Peale describing his garden at [[Belfield]], November 22, 1815.
 
Image:0164.jpg|Joshua H. Hayward, “A [[View]] of the '''Seat''' of Theodore Lyman, Esqr., in Waltham, taken on the principles of perspective,” Mathematical Thesis, 1818.
 
Image:0082.jpg|Cornelia Jefferson Randolph, attr., “A Garden '''Seat''' by Mr. Jones, From Chamber’s Kew,” c. 1820.
 
Image:1176.jpg|Eliza Susan Quincy, ''View of the seat of Edmund Quincy Esqr.'', 1822. Inscribed on reverse: ''[[View]] / of the [[seat]] of Edmund Quincy Esqr.''
 
Image:1334.jpg|[[J. C. Loudon]], Covered '''seats''' of the [[Rustic_style|rustic]] kind, in ''An Encyclopædia of Gardening'', 4th ed/ (1826), 357, fig. 336.
 
Image:1335.jpg|[[J. C. Loudon]], Elegant structures of the '''seat''' kind, in ''An Encyclopædia of Gardening'', 4th ed. (1826), 357, figs. 337 and 338.
 
Image:1354.jpg|[[J. C. Loudon]], Rough bench in [[Rustic_style|rustic]] hut decorated in [[Shrubbery|shrubberies]], in ''An Encyclopædia of Gardening'', 4th ed. (1826), 809, fig. 561.
 
Image:1792.jpg|Thomas Cole, ''[[View]] of Monte Video, the '''Seat''' of Daniel Wadsworth, Esq.'', 1828.
 
Image:1707.jpg|[[J. C. Loudon]], “'''Seat''' formed of moss and hazel rods" and "[[Trellis|Trellised]] [[arch]]es for climbers,” in ''An Encyclopædia of Gardening'', new ed. (1834), 1196, figs. 960–62.
 
Image:1764.jpg|[[J. C. Loudon]], A [[Rustic_style|rustic]] '''seat''', in ''The Suburban Gardener'' (1838), 467, fig. 173.
 
Image:0679.jpg|James W. Steel, Beech Hill, The Country '''Seat''' of R. Gilmor, Esq., in W. H. Carpenter and T. S. Arthur, eds., ''The Baltimore Book: A Christmas and New Year’s Present'' (1838), pl. opp. 184.
 
Image:1420.jpg|[[J. C. Loudon]], “Covered '''Seat''', of grotesque and [[Rustic_style|rustic]] Masonry,” Cheshunt Cottage, in ''The Gardener’s Magazine'' 15, no. 117 (December 1839): 656, fig. 168.
 
Image:1904.jpg|[[J. C. Loudon]], Elevation of the Back Woodwork of a [[Rustic_style|Rustic]] Covered '''Seat''', Cheshunt Cottage, in ''The Gardener’s Magazine'' 15, no. 117 (December 1839): 660, fig. 168.
 
Image:0936.jpg|Alexander Walsh, Two '''seats''' surrounded by an arched [[arbor]], in ''New England Farmer'' 19, no. 39 (March 31, 1841): 309, fig. 4.
 
Image:1824.jpg|Anonymous, “Moveable Garden '''Seat''',” in [[Jane Loudon]], ''Gardening for Ladies; and Companion to the Flower-Garden'' (1845), 369, fig. 49.
 
Image:0844.jpg|[[Alexander Jackson Davis]], ''[[Montgomery Place]]—Shore '''Seat''''', c. 1847.
 
Image:0358.jpg|Anonymous, “[[Rustic_style|Rustic]] '''Seat''',” [[Montgomery Place]], in [[A. J. Downing]], ed., ''Horticulturist'' 2, no. 4 (October 1847): 157, fig. 26.
 
Image:0361.jpg|Anonymous, “Beaverwyck, the '''Seat''' of Wm. P. Van Rensselaer, Esq.,” in [[A. J. Downing]], ''A Treatise on the Theory and Practice of Landscape Gardening'', 4th ed. (1849), pl. opp. 51, fig. 7.
 
Image:0368.jpg|Anonymous, “The '''Seat''' of George Sheaff, Esq.,” in [[A. J. Downing]], ''A Treatise on the Theory and Practice of Landscape Gardening'', 4th ed. (1849), pl. between 58 and 59, fig. 12.
 
Image:1891.jpg|Anonymous, “Simple [[Rustic_style|rustic]] '''seat''',” in [[A. J. Downing]], ''A Treatise on the Theory and Practice of Landscape Gardening'', 4th ed. (1849), 456, fig. 82.
 
Image:1892.jpg|Anonymous, Simple [[Rustic_style|rustic]] '''seat''' made at the foot of a tree, in [[A. J. Downing]], ''A Treatise on the Theory and Practice of Landscape Gardening'', 4th ed. (1849), 456, fig. 83.
 
Image:0397.jpg|Anonymous, “Covered '''seat''' or [[Rustic_style|rustic]] [[arbor]],” in [[A. J. Downing]], ''A Treatise on the Theory and Practice of Landscape Gardening'', 4th ed. (1849), 457, fig. 84.
 
Image:1893.jpg|Anonymous, Covered '''Seat''' for a mineral, shell, or geological collection, in [[A. J. Downing]], ''A Treatise on the Theory and Practice of Landscape Gardening'', 4th ed. (1849), 457, fig. 85.
 
Image:0398.jpg|Anonymous, “[[Rustic_style|Rustic]] Covered '''Seat''',” in [[A. J. Downing]], ''A Treatise on the Theory and Practice of Landscape Gardening'', 4th ed. (1849), 458, fig. 86.
 
Image:1660.jpg|Robert B. Leuchars, Ground plan of [[conservatory]] designed for gentleman’s country '''seat''', in ''A Practical Treatise on the Construction, Heating, and Ventilation of Hothouses'' (1850), 95, fig. 32.
 
Image:0854.jpg|[[Alexander Jackson Davis]], Shore '''Seat''' for [[Montgomery Place]], Annandale-on-Hudson, New York (elevation and plan), 1870—79.
</gallery>
 
===Associated===
<gallery widths="170px" heights="170px" perrow="7">
 
Image:1055.jpg|Michael van der Gucht, “Four Designs for Cloisters,” in A.-J. Dezallier d’Argenville, ''The Theory and Practice of Gardening'' (1712), pl. 9.
 
Image:0036.jpg|Thomas Lee Shippen, Plan of Westover, 1783. The '''seat''' can be seen at the top of the image, referencing the houses across the river from Westover.
 
Image:0043_2.jpg|John Archibald Woodside, ''[[Lemon Hill]]'', 1807.
 
Image:0313.jpg|William Russell Birch, “The Sun Reflecting on the Dew, a Garden scene, Echo, Pennsylv.a A Place Belonging to Mr. D. Bavarage,” in ''The Country '''Seats''' of the United States'' (1808), pl. 6.
 
Image:0315.jpg|William Russell Birch, “Solitude in Pennsyla. belonging to Mr. Penn,” in ''The Country '''Seats''' of the United States'' (1808), pl. 9.
 
Image:0321.jpg|William Russell Birch, “Mendenhall Ferry, [[Schuylkill_River|Schuylkill]], Pennsylvania,” ''The Country '''Seats''' of the United States'' (1808), pl. 18.
 
Image:0323.jpg|William Russell Birch, “[[View]] from the Elysian Bower, Springland, Pennsylv,a the residence of Mr W. Birch,” ''The Country '''Seats''' of the United States'' (1808), pl. 20.
 
Image:0051.jpg|William Strickland, “[[The Woodlands]],” 1809, in ''Casket'' 5, no. 10 (October 1830): pl. opp. 432.
 
Image:0300.jpg|Thomas Birch, ''Fairmount Water Works'', 1821.
 
Image:0541.jpg|John T. Bowen, ''A [[View]] of Fairmount Water-Works with [[Schuylkill_River|Schuylkill]] in the distance, taken from the [[Mount]]'', 1838.
 
Image:0843.jpg|[[Alexander Jackson Davis]], [[Montgomery Place]], 1844.
 
Image:1049.jpg|N. Vautin, [[View]] of North Side (Rear) of Longfellow House, June 1845.
 
Image:0357.jpg|[[Alexander Jackson Davis]], “[[Montgomery Place]],” in [[A. J. Downing]], ed., ''Horticulturist'' 2, no. 4 (October 1847): pl. opp. 153.
 
Image:0359.jpg|Anonymous, “The [[Lake]],” [[Montgomery Place]], in [[A. J. Downing]], ed., ''Horticulturist'' 2, no. 4 (October 1847): 158, fig. 27.
 
Image:1097.jpg|Thomas S. Sinclair, “Plan of the [[Pleasure_ground|Pleasure Grounds]] and Farm of the [[Pennsylvania Hospital for the Insane]] at Philadelphia,” in Thomas S. Kirkbride, ''American Journal of Insanity'' 4, no. 4 (April 1848): pl. opp. 280.
 
Image:0363.jpg|Anonymous, “[[View]] in the [[Meadow]] [[Park]] at Geneseo,” in [[A. J. Downing]], ed., ''Horticulturist'' 3, no. 4 (October 1848): pl. opp. 153.
 
Image:0350.jpg|[[Alexander Jackson Davis]], “View in the Grounds at Blithewood,” in [[A. J. Downing]], ''A Treatise on the Theory and Practice of Landscape Gardening'', 4th ed. (1849), frontispiece.
 
Image:0355.jpg|Anonymous, “[[View]] in the Grounds at Hyde Park,” in [[A. J. Downing]], ''A Treatise on the Theory and Practice of Landscape Gardening'', 4th ed. (1849), pl. opp. 45, fig. 1.
 
Image:0367.jpg|Anonymous, “[[View]] in the Grounds of James Arnold, Esp.,” in [[A. J. Downing]], ''A Treatise on the Theory and Practice of Landscape Gardening'', 4th ed. (1849), pl. opp. 57.
 
Image:0378.jpg|Anonymous, “Plan of a Suburban Villa Residence,” in [[A. J. Downing]], ''A Treatise on the Theory and Practice of Landscape Gardening'', 4th ed. (1849), 118, fig. 26.
 
Image:0920.jpg|Anonymous, “Small Bracketed Cottage,” in [[A. J. Downing]], ''The Architecture of Country Houses'' (1850), pl. opp. 78, fig. 9.
</gallery>
 
===Attributed===
<gallery widths="170px" heights="170px" perrow="7">
 
Image:0673.jpg|Archibald L. Dick, ''The Battle Ground at Germantown, Cliveden or Chew’s House'', n.d.
 
Image:1680.jpg|Anonymous, Garden '''seat''' from Somerset County, MD, 1780.
 
Image:0477.jpg|John Scoles, “Government House,” January 1795.
 
Image:0324.jpg|William Russell Birch, “Back of the State House, Philadelphia,” 1800.
 
Image:0509.jpg|[[Charles Fraser]], Rice Hope, c. 1803.
 
Image:0330.jpg|[[Anne-Marguerite-Henriette Rouillé de Marigny Hyde de Neuville]], attr., ''Tomb du grande Washington au [[Mount Vernon]]'', 1818.
 
Image:0120.jpg|Anonymous, ''By the Sea'', c. 1820.
 
Image:1949.jpg|Mary Ann Lucy Gries, Needlework sampler with garden bench, 1826.
 
Image:0675.jpg|[[Alexander Jackson Davis]], “[[View]] of the Battery and Castle Garden,” 1826–28.
 
Image:1948.jpg|Mrs. G. W. Whitney, The Adams '''Seat''' in Quincy, 1828.
 
Image:0811.jpg|[[Alexander Jackson Davis]], ''[[View]] of St. John’s Chapel, From the [[Park]]'', 1829.
 
Image:1043.jpg|Sidney Mason Stone, House for Roger Sherman Baldwin, New Haven, CT, c. 1830–40.
 
Image:0490.jpg|Archibald L. Dick, “Elysian Fields, Hoboken (New York in the distance),” in ''[[View]]s in New-York and its Environs'' (1831—34).
 
Image:1025.jpg|Anonymous, “Entrance to [[Mount Auburn Cemetery|Mount Auburn]],” in ''American Magazine of Useful and Entertaining Knowledge'' 1, no. 1 (September 1834): 9.
 
Image:0486.jpg|James Smillie, “Bay and Harbour of New York, From the Battery,” 1831.
 
Image:0424.jpg|[[Alexander Jackson Davis]], Ithiel Town, and James Dakin, ''New York University, Washington Square'', 1833.
 
Image:0464.jpg|Nicolino Calyo, ''Harlem, the Country House of Dr. Edmondson'', 1834.
 
Image:0252.jpg|Henry Walton, Three Sisters in a Landscape, 1838.
 
Image:1033.jpg|Anonymous, “Forest [[Pond]],” in ''The [[Picturesque]] Pocket Companion, and Visitor’s Guide, through Mount Auburn'' (1839), 171.
 
Image:1477.jpg|Anonymous, Honorary membership certificate for Nicholas Biddle in “The Horticultural Association of the Valley of the Hudson” [detail], June 1839.
 
image:0525.jpg|William E. Winner, ''Garden Scene Near Philadelphia'', c. 1840.
 
Image:1103.jpg|W. Mason, “[[Pennsylvania Hospital for the Insane]],” c. 1841, in Thomas S. Kirkbride, ''Reports of the Pennsylvania Hospital for the Insane: for the Year 1841'' (1841), frontispiece.
 
Image:0895.jpg|Edwin Whitefield, Sketch of Pokahoe, 1841–44. A seat is located on the lawn, nestled in the trees, seen left of center of the view.
 
Image:0448.jpg|Anonymous, ''Brother and Sister'', c. 1845.
 
Image:2283.jpg|Anonymous (artist), Nathaniel Currier (lithographer), “[[View]] of the Great Conflagration at New York,” 1845. The seats are located around the fountain.
 
Image:1063.jpg|James Smillie, “[[Mount Auburn Cemetery]],” in Cornelia W. Walter, ''Mount Auburn Illustrated'' (1847; repr., 1850), frontispiece.
 
Image:0110.jpg|Joseph Goldsborough Bruff (artist), Edward Weber & Co. (lithographer), ''Elements of National Thrift and Empire'', c. 1847.
 
Image:0487.jpg|William Wade, ''Castle Garden: From the Battery'', 1848.
 
Image:0384.jpg|Anonymous, “The Bracketed Mode,” in [[A. J. Downing]], ''A Treatise on the Theory and Practice of Landscape Gardening'', 4th ed. (1849), 393, fig. 52.
 
Image:0547.jpg|Ernst Georg Fischer, ''Dr. Edmondson and Family'', c. 1850.
 
Image:0442.jpg|Anonymous, ''Memorial to Nicholas M.S. Catlin'', c. 1852.
 
Image:0218.jpg|Augustus Weidenbach, ''[[Belvedere]]'', c. 1858.
 
Image:0396.jpg|Anonymous, “A circular [[pavilion]],” in [[A. J. Downing]], ''A Treatise on the Theory and Practice of Landscape Gardening'', 4th ed. (1849), 456, fig. 81.
 
Image:1001.jpg|Anonymous, “Mount Fordham—the Country '''Seat''' of Lewis G. Morris, Esq.,” in [[A. J. Downing]], ed., ''Horticulturist'' 6, no. 8 (August 1851): pl. opp. 345.
</gallery>
 
<hr>
==Notes==
<references>
</references>
[[Category: Keywords]]
[[Category: Garden Ornaments/Embellishments]]
[[Category: Architecture]]

Warning: Cannot modify header information - headers already sent by (output started at /opt/rh/httpd24/root/var/www/html/mediawiki/extensions/MobileFrontend/includes/diff/InlineDiffFormatter.php:103) in /opt/rh/httpd24/root/var/www/html/mediawiki/includes/WebResponse.php on line 42

Warning: Cannot modify header information - headers already sent by (output started at /opt/rh/httpd24/root/var/www/html/mediawiki/extensions/MobileFrontend/includes/diff/InlineDiffFormatter.php:103) in /opt/rh/httpd24/root/var/www/html/mediawiki/includes/WebResponse.php on line 42

Warning: Cannot modify header information - headers already sent by (output started at /opt/rh/httpd24/root/var/www/html/mediawiki/extensions/MobileFrontend/includes/diff/InlineDiffFormatter.php:103) in /opt/rh/httpd24/root/var/www/html/mediawiki/includes/WebResponse.php on line 42

Warning: Cannot modify header information - headers already sent by (output started at /opt/rh/httpd24/root/var/www/html/mediawiki/extensions/MobileFrontend/includes/diff/InlineDiffFormatter.php:103) in /opt/rh/httpd24/root/var/www/html/mediawiki/includes/WebResponse.php on line 42
Changes - History of Early American Landscape Design
A Project of the Center for Advanced Study in the Visual Arts, National Gallery of Art
History of Early American Landscape Design
HEALD will be upgrading in spring 2021. New features and content will be available this summer. Thank you for your patience!

Changes

[http://www.nga.gov/content/ngaweb/research/casva/research-projects.html A Project of the National Gallery of Art, Center for Advanced Study in the Visual Arts ]
A Project of the Center for Advanced Study in the Visual Arts

National Gallery of Art, Washington


Warning: Cannot modify header information - headers already sent by (output started at /opt/rh/httpd24/root/var/www/html/mediawiki/extensions/MobileFrontend/includes/diff/InlineDiffFormatter.php:103) in /opt/rh/httpd24/root/var/www/html/mediawiki/includes/WebResponse.php on line 42

Warning: Cannot modify header information - headers already sent by (output started at /opt/rh/httpd24/root/var/www/html/mediawiki/extensions/MobileFrontend/includes/diff/InlineDiffFormatter.php:103) in /opt/rh/httpd24/root/var/www/html/mediawiki/includes/WebResponse.php on line 42

Warning: Cannot modify header information - headers already sent by (output started at /opt/rh/httpd24/root/var/www/html/mediawiki/extensions/MobileFrontend/includes/diff/InlineDiffFormatter.php:103) in /opt/rh/httpd24/root/var/www/html/mediawiki/includes/WebResponse.php on line 42