The bath and bathhouse in America had many forms, including private versions attached to houses or separately constructed in a garden, and public baths at resorts, in [[public garden]]s, and at the seaside. The term “bath” referred both to the structure covering the water and to the watering receptacle or pool itself. The structures were sometimes called bathhouses or bathing houses. Baths at natural sources of mineral waters were also referred to as spas and springs.
[[File:0461.jpg|thumb|right|Fig. 2, [[Samuel Vaughan]], Plan of Bath ([[Berkeley Springs|[Berkeley Springs]]]), VA [detail], 1787, from the diary of Samuel Vaughan, June–September 1787. “f. a large Bath for swimming” and “g. a Bath for Poor People.”]]
Although garden treatise literature contains few references to garden baths, other evidence indicates that the bathhouse held a prominent position in American ornamental landscapes. Baths were situated in public gardens, such as a public bath and garden in Norfolk, Virginia, or Bathsheba’s Bath and Bower in Philadelphia, and in many private gardens, such as John Donnell’s Willow Brook in Baltimore and [[Charles Willson Peale|Charles Willson Peale's]] [[Belfield]] in Philadelphia. Baths at private estates might be simple, as suggested by the note in the ''South Carolina Gazette'' in 1733, of “frames, Planks, &c. to be fix’d in and about a Spring. . . intended for a Cold Bath.” They also could be quite substantial, as was Charles Carroll of Carrollton’s stone-lined bath, which he ordered in 1778 to measure ten by eight feet with a depth of four-and-a-half feet. Few detailed descriptions of the architecture of these bathhouses survive, however. At Monte Video in Connecticut, the bathhouse was described merely as Gothic. More is known about the architecture of public baths, where the structures were larger and often quite elaborate. Many textual descriptions and images of baths survive because they were considered civic amenities, such as the bath at Castle Garden in New York [Fig. 1]. [[Samuel Vaughan|Samuel Vaughan's]] plan of 1787 for the town of Bath included “baths [at a] for company 5 by 18 feet that fills in 5 minutes & emties [''sic''] in four,” dressing rooms [''b''], two [[piazza]]s with [[seat]]s [''bb''], a large bath for swimming [''f''], and a separate “Bath for Poor People [''g'']” [Fig. 2]. Sophie Madeleine du Pont in 1837 described and sketched a bathhouse at Warm Springs (Berkeley Springs), Virginia (later West Virginia), with a thirty-foot octagonal masonry [[basin]] and four separate bathing rooms [Fig. 3].
<gallery widths="170px" heights="170px" perrow="7">
Image:0461.jpg|[[Samuel Vaughan]], Plan of Bath ([[Berkeley Springs|[Berkeley Springs]]]), VA [detail], 1787, from the diary of Samuel Vaughan, June–September 1787. “f. a large '''Bath''' for swimming” and “g. a '''Bath''' for Poor People.”
Image:0462.jpg|[[Samuel Vaughan]], “Warm or [[Berkeley Springs]], in Virginia,” 1787, from the diary of Samuel Vaughan, June–September 1787.
Image:0781.jpg|[[Frances Palmer]], Plan and section of Villa at Oswego, New York, in William H. Ranlett, ''The Architect'' (1851), vol. 2, pl. 12. “'''bath-house''', L.”
 
Image: 2288.jpg|Map of White Sulphur Springs, Greenbrier County, Virginia, 1854.
 
Image: 2288_detail1.jpg|Map of White Sulphur Springs, Greenbrier County, Virginia, 1854 [detail].
</gallery>
Image:0703.jpg|Lewis Miller, “The Yellow Sulphur Springs, Montgomery County,” n.d.
Image:2280.jpg|[[Pierre Pharoux]], Speranza, in ''Architectural drawings and maps Frontal [[view]] of two [[Pierre Pharouxpavilion]]''s on the water for the city of Speranza, 1795.
Image:2281.jpg|[[Pierre Pharoux]], Aerial [[view]] of two [[pavilion]]s on the water for the city of Speranza, in ''Architectural drawings and maps of Pierre Pharoux'', 1795.
Image:2116.jpg|Edwin Whitefield, ''[[Fountain]] [[Park]] near Philadelphia. Residence of A. McMakin Esq.'', c. 1850.

Warning: Cannot modify header information - headers already sent by (output started at /opt/rh/httpd24/root/var/www/html/mediawiki/extensions/MobileFrontend/includes/diff/InlineDiffFormatter.php:33) in /opt/rh/httpd24/root/var/www/html/mediawiki/includes/WebResponse.php on line 42

Warning: Cannot modify header information - headers already sent by (output started at /opt/rh/httpd24/root/var/www/html/mediawiki/extensions/MobileFrontend/includes/diff/InlineDiffFormatter.php:33) in /opt/rh/httpd24/root/var/www/html/mediawiki/includes/WebResponse.php on line 42

Warning: Cannot modify header information - headers already sent by (output started at /opt/rh/httpd24/root/var/www/html/mediawiki/extensions/MobileFrontend/includes/diff/InlineDiffFormatter.php:33) in /opt/rh/httpd24/root/var/www/html/mediawiki/includes/WebResponse.php on line 42

Warning: Cannot modify header information - headers already sent by (output started at /opt/rh/httpd24/root/var/www/html/mediawiki/extensions/MobileFrontend/includes/diff/InlineDiffFormatter.php:33) in /opt/rh/httpd24/root/var/www/html/mediawiki/includes/WebResponse.php on line 42
Changes - History of Early American Landscape Design
A Project of the Center for Advanced Study in the Visual Arts, National Gallery of Art
History of Early American Landscape Design
HEALD will be upgrading in spring 2021. New features and content will be available this summer. Thank you for your patience!

Changes

[http://www.nga.gov/content/ngaweb/research/casva/research-projects.html A Project of the National Gallery of Art, Center for Advanced Study in the Visual Arts ]
A Project of the Center for Advanced Study in the Visual Arts

National Gallery of Art, Washington


Warning: Cannot modify header information - headers already sent by (output started at /opt/rh/httpd24/root/var/www/html/mediawiki/extensions/MobileFrontend/includes/diff/InlineDiffFormatter.php:33) in /opt/rh/httpd24/root/var/www/html/mediawiki/includes/WebResponse.php on line 42

Warning: Cannot modify header information - headers already sent by (output started at /opt/rh/httpd24/root/var/www/html/mediawiki/extensions/MobileFrontend/includes/diff/InlineDiffFormatter.php:33) in /opt/rh/httpd24/root/var/www/html/mediawiki/includes/WebResponse.php on line 42

Warning: Cannot modify header information - headers already sent by (output started at /opt/rh/httpd24/root/var/www/html/mediawiki/extensions/MobileFrontend/includes/diff/InlineDiffFormatter.php:33) in /opt/rh/httpd24/root/var/www/html/mediawiki/includes/WebResponse.php on line 42