[[File:0969.jpg|thumb|left|Fig. 2, [[Thomas Jefferson]], Plan of the grounds at [[Monticello]], 1806.]]
[[File:0018.jpg|thumb|Fig. 3, [[Pierre Pharoux]], Plan of Esperanza, NY [detail], n.d. A “Public Grove” is situated on either side of the “[[Common]] Ground.”]]
The appellations “open” and “closed,” however, were not common in American discourse, despite [[Noah Webster|Noah Webster's]] inclusion of such distinctions in his definition. Although these adjectives were not employed to a significant degree, groves fitting these characteristics can be identified. [[Thomas Jefferson]], in his 1807 account of [[Monticello]], described his intention to trim the lower limbs of the trees in his grove, composed of a mixture of hardwoods and evergreens, “so as to give the appearance of open ground,” suggesting an “open” grove [Fig. 2]. [[Eliza Lucas Pinckney]], in 1742, evoked the sense of a “closed” grove when she delineated her collection of trees and flowers. Likewise, in 1776 George Washington suggested a similar type of grove for [[Mount Vernon]], which he described as an arrangement of flowering trees and evergreens underplanted with flowering [[shrub]]s.
File:0018.jpg|[[Pierre Pharoux]], Plan of Esperanza, NY [detail], n.d. A “Public '''Grove'''” is situated on either side of the “[[Common]] Ground.”
File:1425.jpg| Michael van der Gucht, “The general Plan of a Garden drawn upon Paper” and “The same Plan of Garden mark'd out upon ye Ground,” in A.-J. Dézallier d’Argenville, ''The Theory and Practice of Gardening'' (1712), 124.
Changes - History of Early American Landscape Design