See also: [[The Hills]], [[Lemon Hill]]
'''Springettsbury''', a property owned by successive generations of the Penn family, overlooked the [[Schuylkill River]] on the northern outskirts of Philadelphia. It was the site of the first ornamental [[pleasure garden]] in Pennsylvania and initiated the fashion for garden-villa retreats on the banks of the [[Schuylkill River|Schuylkill]].<ref> Elizabeth McLean and Mark Reinberger, "Springettsbury: A Lost Estate of the Penn Family,” ''Journal of the New England Garden History Society'', 7 (fall 1999): 35, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/SS4N3EJ8 view on Zotero]; Elizabeth McLean and Mark Reinberger, "Isaac Norris’s Fairhill: Architecture, Landscape, and Quaker Ideals in a Philadelphia Colonial Country Seat,” ''Winterthur Portfolio'', 32 (Winter 1997), 273, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/RCDDA6MM view on Zotero].</ref>
==Overview==
William Penn, the English Quaker Proprietor of Pennsylvania, first visited the colony in 1682. In addition to establishing Pennsbury, a manor house and garden some distance from Philadelphia, Penn carved out Springettsbury as a suburban estate immediately adjacent to the city.<ref> McLean and Reinberger 1999, 34,[https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/SS4N3EJ8 view on Zotero]; Roach, April 1968, 178&ndash;79; William Henry Egle, ''An Illustrated History of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, Civil, Political and Military: From Its Earliest Settlement to the Present Time'' (Philadelphia: E. M. Gardner, 1880), 1020, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/ERTVADNU view on Zotero].</ref> With the intention of producing wine as a source of revenue, Penn imported grape vines from Bordeaux and, in 1683, employed the French Huguenot refugee and vigneron André Doz to lay out a vineyard on a 200-acre section of Springettsbury that became known as Vineyard Hill. Penn soon returned to England but continued to send European vines to Doz, who also experimented with the cultivation of indigenous American grapes.<ref>McLean and Reinberger 1999, 41, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/SS4N3EJ8 view on Zotero]; Thomas Pinney, ''A History of Wine in America: From the Beginnings to Prohibition'' (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1989), 32&ndash;33, 101&ndash;2, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/HHVCQQVU view on Zotero]; Frederick B. Tolles, “William Penn on Public and Private Affairs, 1686: An Important New Letter,” ''Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography'' 80 (April 1956): 244, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/3UWWR8BE view on Zotero]; Albert Cook Myers, ed., ''Narratives of Early Pennsylvania, West New Jersey, and Delaware, 1630&ndash;1707, Original Narratives of Early American History'' (New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1912), 13: 227&ndash;28, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/UD4DZNCM view on Zotero]; J. Thomas Scharf and Thompson Westcott, ''History of Philadelphia, 1609&ndash;1884'', 3 vols. (Philadelphia: L. H. Everts & Co., 1884), 3:2281&ndash;82, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/8RJIVE6G view on Zotero]. </ref> Wine production proved unsuccessful and, just prior to his death in 1718, Penn gave a large tract of Springettsbury land that included Vineyard Hill to Jonathan Dickinson.<ref> Scharf and Westcott 1884, 3:2282, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/8RJIVE6G view on Zotero]. </ref> Penn's family later gave another portion of the estate to their legal counselor, Andrew Hamilton (c.1676–1741), which he enlarged through subsequent purchases to form the country seat Bush Hill.<ref> John Fanning Watson and Willis P. Hazard, ''Annals of Philadelphia, and Pennsylvania, in the Olden Time'', 3 vols. (Philadelphia: Edwin S. Stuart, 1884), 3:493, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/GNIVQS8S view on Zotero]. </ref>
[[File:2005.jpg|thumb|Fig. 1, John Hill, ''This Plan of the City of Philadelphia and Its Environs (shewing the improved parts)'', 1796.]] [[File:2005_detail.jpg|thumb|Fig. 12, John Hill, ''This Plan of the City of Philadelphia and Its Environs (shewing the improved parts)'' [detail], 1796.]] Penn's son Thomas (1702&ndash;1775) arrived in Philadelphia in 1732 and assumed the role of Proprietor. Although he persisted in his father’s attempt to create a wine-producing vineyard at Springettsbury,<ref> McLean and Reinberger 1999, 41, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/SS4N3EJ8 view on Zotero]; Richard Hockley, “Selected Letters from the Letter-Book of Richard Hockley, of Philadelphia, 1739&ndash;1742 (Concluded),” ''Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography'', 28 (1904): 435, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/2HQX4C7S view on Zotero]; Richard Hockley, “Selected Letters from the Letter-Book of Richard Hockley, of Philadelphia, 1739&ndash;1742 (Continued),” ''Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography'', 27 (1903): 421–35, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/IDIFQ59I view on Zotero].</ref> Thomas Penn did not conceive of the estate as predominantly a working farm. Rather, he developed it as a weekend and summer retreat in the manner of an English suburban villa.<ref> McLean and Reinberger 1999, 34&ndash;35,[https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/SS4N3EJ8 view on Zotero]. </ref> His modest brick house, erected between 1737 and 1740, appears in a map of 1796 [Fig. 1and 2]. It stood at the center of an extensive landscape composed in the “[[ancient style]]” that was just passing out of fashion in England, including long, gravel [[walk]]s lined with trees or [[hedge]]s. There was also a [[wilderness]], a [[labyrinth]] (the earliest known in the colony) fashioned of hornbeam, a fish[[pond]], and a garden, divided in two by a privet [[hedge]]. Enclosed by a board [[fence]] with ornamental [[gate]]s, the garden (commonly known as “The Proprietor’s Garden”) boasted gravel [[walk]]s, [[parterre]]s, spruce topiary, and painted wooden [[seat]]s.<ref> Sharon White, ''Vanished Gardens: Finding Nature in Philadelphia'' (Athens: University of Georgia Press, 2008), 19 [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/22U3PGWS view on Zotero]; McLean and Reinberger 1999, 37&ndash;40, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/SS4N3EJ8 view on Zotero]; Hockley 1903, 428, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/IDIFQ59I view on Zotero]; Thomas Penn, “Letters of Thomas Penn to Richard Hockley, 1746&ndash;1748,” ''Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography'' 40 (1916): 225, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/JQMD99FQ view on Zotero]; Daniel Fisher, “Extracts from the Diary of Daniel Fisher, 1755,” ''Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography'' 17 (1893): 267&ndash;68, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/9FV6JSTI view on Zotero]; “Ezra Stiles in Philadelphia, 1754,” ''Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography'' 16 (1892): 375, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/T7C8P48I view on Zotero]; Watson and Hazard 1884, 3:400, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/GNIVQS8S view on Zotero].</ref> Penn’s sister Margaret Freame (1704&ndash;1751) described the gardens at Springettsbury as her “Chief amusement” in November 1735,<ref> Howard M. Jenkins, ''The Family of William Penn, Founder of Pennsylvania, Ancestors and Descendants'' (Philadelphia: The author, 1899), 240, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/9DXNG396 view on Zotero].</ref> and around 1740 she erected a “pretty bricked [[greenhouse|Green House]]”—one of the first in Pennsylvania—to replace the “small room in the garden [with] a German stove” in which oranges imported from England had previously been wintered.<ref> White 2008, 19, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/22U3PGWS, view on Zotero]; McLean and Reinberger 1999, 42, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/SS4N3EJ8 view on Zotero]; Carmen Weber, “The Greenhouse Effect: Gender-Related Tradition in Eighteenth-Century Gardening,” in ''Landscape Archaeology: Reading and Interpreting the American Historical Landscape'', ed. Rebecca Yamin and Karen Bescherer Metheny (Knoxville: The University of Tennessee Press, 1996), 4, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/92DA3QAZ view on Zotero]; Reinberger and McLean 1997, 262, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/RCDDA6MM view on Zotero]; Fisher 1893, 267, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/9FV6JSTI view on Zotero].</ref> During the warmer months, lime trees were displayed in a quincunx pattern in the garden, where lemons and citrons also flourished.<ref> McLean and Reinberger 1999, 42, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/SS4N3EJ8 view on Zotero]; Hockley 1903, 428, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/IDIFQ59I view on Zotero]; Myers 1904, 71&ndash;72, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/UD4DZNCM view on Zotero]; "Ezra Stiles in Philadelphia,” 1892, 375, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/T7C8P48I view on Zotero]; Fisher 1893, 267&ndash;268, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/9FV6JSTI view on Zotero]. </ref> Other fruit (including apples, pears, peaches, cherries, figs, and grapes) grew in the [[orchard]] and vineyard.<ref> McLean and Reinberger 1999, 41, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/SS4N3EJ8 view on Zotero].</ref> [[Peter Collinson]] provided many of the imported plants, among them grape vines, jasmine, horse chestnuts, cornelian cherries, pyracantha, boxwood, and honeysuckle.<ref>John Bartram, ''The Correspondence of John Bartram 1734&ndash;1777'', ed. Edmund Berkeley and Dorothy Smith Berkeley (Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 1992), 64, 82, 108, 115, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/NZGMIACI view on Zotero]; White 2008, 14, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/22U3PGWS, view on Zotero]; McLean and Reinberger 1999, 40&ndash;41,[https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/SS4N3EJ8 view on Zotero]. </ref> In 1737 [[Peter Collinson|Collinson]] orchestrated an introduction between Thomas Penn and [[John Bartram]], who was developing a [[Bartram Botanic Garden and Nursery|botanic garden and commercial nursery]] several miles away on the banks of the lower [[Schuylkill River]]. Penn loaned [[John Bartram|Bartram]] his copy of Mark Catesby's ''The Natural History of Carolina, Florida, and the Bahama Islands'', and some years later commissioned [[John Bartram|Bartram]] “to procure some Curiosities for him” on his travels.<ref>Bartram 1992, 64, 94, 152, 219, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/NZGMIACI view on Zotero].</ref>
One of the more fashionable elements of the Springettsbury landscape was the [[deer park]] (again, the first known example in the colony), which Penn filled with deer imported from England, as well as with wild turkey and pheasants.<ref> White 2008, 16, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/22U3PGWS, view on Zotero]; Lorett Treese, ''Storm Gathering: The Penn Family and the American Revolution'' (University Park: Penn State Press, 1992), 23, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/RV94U384 view on Zotero]; Penn 1916, 238, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/JQMD99FQ view on Zotero]; Fisher 1893, 268, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/9FV6JSTI view on Zotero]. </ref> Following his return to England in 1741, Penn expressed a desire to introduce changes at Springettsbury in keeping with the rising English taste for a naturalistic "[[modern style]]" in garden design. These included creating a number of framed [[vista]]s, replacing the “palisadoe” at the end of a [[walk]] with a [[ha-ha]], and removing the quickset [[hedge]] to open up the fields.<ref> McLean and Reinberger 1999, 39, 44, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/SS4N3EJ8 view on Zotero].</ref> Nothing seems to have come of [[John Bartram|Bartram’s]] proposal in 1743 that Penn provide him with an “annual salary worth while to furnish his [[walk]]s with all ye natural production of trees shrubs & plants which grow in our four governments.”<ref> Bartram 1992, 217.</ref> Concerned by the theft of fruit from Springettsbury in 1746, Penn made plans to erect a [[wall]] separating his property from Bush Hill, noting: “When the rest of the Ground is well paled round I shal [''sic''] hope to be secure.”<ref> Penn 1916, 224, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/JQMD99FQ view on Zotero].</ref>

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Changes - History of Early American Landscape Design
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History of Early American Landscape Design

Changes

[http://www.nga.gov/content/ngaweb/research/casva/research-projects.html A Project of the National Gallery of Art, Center for Advanced Study in the Visual Arts ]
A Project of the Center for Advanced Study in the Visual Arts

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