[[File:0720.jpg|thumb|Fig. 7, Charles Bulfinch, Ground plan of the two wings added to the Pleasant Hill, 1818. The “upper terrace” and “lower terrace” link all the buildings.]]
[[File:1042.jpg|thumb|Fig. 8, Michael van der Gucht, Illustration for chapter entitled: “Of different Terrasses and Stairs, with their most exact Proportions,” 1712.]]
Terraces of varying widths were also employed in sites with a steep grade in order to make for arable and easily navigated level areas, to control erosion, and to create the visual effects made possible by a series of slopes and flats (see [[Fall/Falling_garden|Fall]]). These terraces were supported by earthen slopes or masonry [[wall]]s, supports which were referred to variously as banks, slopes, and terrace walls. They were also sometimes simply called by the more general term, “terrace,” as in William Dickinson Martin’s 1808 description of a “perpendicular terrace” at Salem, North Carolina. Designs for public institutions, such as Charles Bulfinch’s 1818 design for two wings to be added to the seat of Joseph Barrell in order to create the McLean Asylum [Fig. 7], used terraces to frame views of the buildings’ fa&ccedil;des while accommodating the slope of the land. The terraces of a [[Fall/Falling_garden|falling garden]] were generally separated by turfed slopes or, less commonly, masonry [[wall]]s. As <span id="Argenville_cite"></span> Antoine-Joseph Dezallier d'Argenville (1712) noted, gardens were less susceptible to erosion if their terraces were created by cutting into an existing hillside rather than constructed out of fill ([[#Argenville|view text]]) [Fig. 8].The planting schemes of [[Fall/Falling_garden|falling garden]] terraces varied from simple turf to kitchen and flower beds, although images of terraces rarely showed plantings in detail. Among the few surviving examples is [[Thomas Jefferson|Jefferson’s]] diagram (c. 1804) for a garden olitory, in which he specified a hedge at the “foot of the terras” designed to accommodate differing heights of the [[lawn]] and [[kitchen garden]]. In 1840, <span id="Hovey_cite"></span>[[C. M. (Charles Mason) Hovey|C. M. Hovey]] referred to the efforts of the Messrs. Winship of Brighton, Massachusetts, to transform the embankment of a railroad right-of-way on [[C. M. (Charles Mason)Hovey|Hovey’s]] land into an attractive terraced garden ([[#Hovey|view text]]). While the use of terraces and slopes to create [[Fall/Falling_garden|falling gardens]] seems to have declined in popularity after the early 19th century, its use continued through mid-century in large formal landscapes of public gardens, such as the University of Virginia, and anywhere uneven or steep topography offered a challenge.
—''Elizabeth Kryder-Reid''
*[[C. M. (Charles Mason) Hovey|Hovey, C. M. (Charles Mason)]], November 1839, “Notices of Gardens and Horticulture, in Salem, Mass.,” describing Elfin Glen, residence of P. Dodge, Salem, MA (''Magazine of Horticulture'' 5: 404)<ref>C. M. Hovey, “Notices of Gardens and Horticulture, in Salem, Mass.,” ''Magazine of Horticulture, Botany, and All Useful Discoveries and Improvements in Rural Affairs'' 5, no. 11 (November 1839): 401–16, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/keywords_in_early_american_landscape_design/items/itemKey/25HW5NZ9/q/notices%20of%20gardens%20and%20horticulture view on Zotero].</ref>
:“The cottage stands near the road, and is entered from the west front; on the south end is a [[piazza]]; the drawing-room opens into this, and thence into the garden to an open space, answering somewhat the purpose of a '''terrace''', neatly gravelled.”
[[File:0536.jpg|thumb|Fig. 11, George Lehman, “Fairmount Waterworks. From the Forebay,” 1833.]]
*<div id="Hovey"></div>[[C. M. (Charles Mason) Hovey|Hovey, C. M. (Charles Mason)]], November 1840, “Some Notes on Gardens, and the state of Horticulture, in Worcester, Mass.,” describing the grounds of Messrs. Winship, Brighton, MA (''Magazine of Horticulture'' 6: 402)<ref>C. M. Hovey, “Some Notes on Gardens, and the state of Horticulture, in Worcester, Mass.,” ''Magazine of Horticulture, Botany, and All Useful Discoveries and Improvements in Rural Affairs'' 6, no. 11 (November 1840): 401–7, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/keywords_in_early_american_landscape_design/items/itemKey/6RNGMU3F view on Zotero].</ref>
:“We recollect of reading, in the last volume of the ''Gardener’s Magazine'', some remarks on treating the ground on the margins of rail-roads, where there were embankments of any extent. These remarks we had marked for insertion in our pages, but had forgotten them until the present moment, when called to our mind as we passed the grounds of the Messrs. Winship, in Brighton. The road passes immediately through the nursery, dividing it in two parts; but these gentlemen have so arranged the sandy embankments with '''terraces''', planted with shrubs, &c., as to render them very ornamental. We only wish that other gentlemen who are able, would take the same pride in improving the embankments where they pass through their lands.
*[[C. M. (Charles Mason) Hovey|Hovey, C. M. (Charles Mason)]], April 1842, “Notes made during a Visit to New York, Philadelphia, Baltimore, &c.,” describing the U.S. Capitol, Washington, DC (''Magazine of Horticulture'' 8: 127)<ref>C. M. Hovey, “Notes made during a Visit to New York, Philadelphia, Baltimore, &c.,” ''Magazine of Horticulture, Botany, and All Useful Discoveries and Improvements in Rural Affairs'' 8, no. 4 (April 1842): 121–29 , [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/keywords_in_early_american_landscape_design/items/itemKey/IRC7B9MN/q/Notes%20made%20during%20a%20visit view on Zotero].</ref>
:“The main entrance to the west front is from Pennsylvania Avenue, where the grounds form a semi-circle, of which the [[avenue]] is the centre; a very broad [[walk]] leads from them, up the ascending surface, to the main steps, which descend from a broad semi-circular '''terrace''': two other entrances of this part of the grounds are placed at the angles or sides of this semi-circle, which also, by a straight [[walk]], lead up to the broad '''terrace'''. From this lower '''terrace''', a long flight of steps leads to the upper one, upon which the building of the Capitol is placed: on the turf between the [[walk]]s, are oval and circular [[bed]]s, planted with shrubs and roses, and filled with dahlias and other annual flowers.”
*[[C. M. (Charles Mason) Hovey|Hovey, C. M. (Charles Mason)]], September 1851, “Notes on Gardens and Nurseries,” describing Rose Hill, residence of George Leland, Waltham, MA (''Magazine of Horticulture'' 17: 411)<ref>C. M. Hovey, “Notes on Gardens and Nurseries,” ''Magazine of Horticulture, Botany, and All Useful Discoveries and Improvements in Rural Affairs'' 17, no. 9 (September 1851): 410–12, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/keywords_in_early_american_landscape_design/items/itemKey/DR542Z2D/q/notes%20on%20gardens%20and%20nurseries view on Zotero].</ref>
:“Descending the steps we reach the garden, which covers and extent of two or more acres in the form of a parallelogram, the end next Newton street. The '''slope''' is laid out in '''terraces''' on the right of the steps, and on the left is located the range of forcing houses, which is 104 feet long, comprising a centre and two wings, the former the [[greenhouse]], twenty-five feet, and the latter vineries, forty feet each.”
File:0072.jpg|[[Thomas Jefferson]], [[Monticello]]: [[orchard]] and vineyard (plat), c. 1778. “Foot of '''terras'''” is inscribed above the [[wall]].
File:1749.jpg|[[William Bartram]], “Plan of the [[Ancient_style|Ancient ]] Chunky-[[Yard]],” in “Observations on the Creek and Cherokee Indians” (1789), from ''Transactions of the American Ethnological Society'', vol. 3, part 1 (1853), p. 52, fig. 2. Platform [[mound]]s are located at B and C.
Image:0090a.jpg|[[Thomas Jefferson]], Letter describing plans for a “Garden Olitory,” c. 1804.
File:1339.jpg|J. C. Loudon, “Levelling for '''terrace-slopes''',” in ''An Encyclopaedia of Gardening'' (1826), p. 377, fig. 369.
File:1433.jpg|James H. Dakin, “La Grange '''Terrace''', La Fayette Place, City of New York,” 1831—34.
File:1247.jpg|[[Alexander Jackson Davis]], '“Villa for David Codwise, near New Rochelle, NY (project; elevation and four plans),” 1835.
<gallery widths="170px" heights="170px" perrow="7">
Image:0187.jpg|Anonymous, [[Mount ]] Clare, n.d.
Image:1378.jpg|Batty Langley, “Design of an [[Avenue]] with its [[Wilderness|Wildernesses]] on each Side,” in ''New Principles of Gardening'' (1728), pl. V.
Image:0074.jpg|[[Thomas Jefferson]], Plan showing the rectangular flower [[bed]]s and proposed [[temple]]s at the corners of the '''terrace ''' [[walk]]s at [[Monticello]], before August 4, 1772.
Image:0755.jpg|George Beck, ''[[View ]] of Baltimore from Howard [[Park]]'', c. 1796.
Image:0331.jpg|George Washington, ''Drawing and Notes for a [[Ha-Ha/Sunk_fence|Ha-Ha]] [[Wall]] at [[Mount Vernon]], October 1798'', 1798.
Image:0992.jpg|Charles B. Lawrence (attr.), ''[[Point Breeze]], the Estate of Joseph Napoleon Bonaparte at Bordentown, New Jersey'', 1817–20.
Image:2006.jpg|Joseph Drayton, ''[[View ]] near Bordenton, from the Gardens of the Count de Survilliers'', c. 1820.
Image:1018.jpg|Thomas Birch, [[Point Breeze]], c. 1820, in Edward J. Nygren, ''Views [[View]]s and Visions: American Landscape before 1830'' (1986), p. 146, pl. 120.
Image:0251.jpg|Charles Codman, ''Kalorama'', 1821.
Image:0300.jpg|Thomas Birch, ''Fairmount Water Works'', 1821.
Image:1994.jpg|Thomas Doughty, ''[[View ]] of the Fairmount Waterworks, Philadelphia, from the Opposite Side of the [[Schuylkill River]]'', c. 1824–26.
Image:0537.jpg|Tucker Factory, Pair of [[vase]]s with views [[view]]s of the Fairmount Waterworks, c. 1830.
Image:0536.jpg|George Lehman, “Fairmount Waterworks. From the Forebay,” 1833.
Image:0786.jpg|[[Frances Palmer]], “Italian Villa,” in William H. Ranlett, ''The Architect'' (1851), vol. 2, pl. 22, design XXXIII.
File:0632.jpg|Anonymous, [[View ]] of the terraces at Middleton Place, in Alice B. Lockwood, ''Gardens of Colony and State'' (1934), vol. 2, p. 196.
</gallery>
File:0694.jpg|Thomas Ender, Main [[Alley]] Leading to the [[Fountain]] of the Alligators and the Terrace, 1817.
File:0169.jpg|[[Thomas Jefferson]], Bird’s-eye [[view ]] of the University of Virginia, c. 1820.
File:2119.jpg|Robert Campbell, after Thomas Birch, ''[[View ]] of the Dam and Water Works at Fairmount, Philadelphia'', 1824.
File:0514.jpg|Catherine Mary Wheeler, Sampler, 1825.
File:2013.jpg|Anthony St. John Baker, “Back [[View]] of [[Mount]] Airy, Va.” 1827, in ''Mémoires d’un voyageur qui se repose'' (1850), part IV, p. 520B.
File:1217.jpg|Anthony St. John Baker, [[Mount]] Airy, Virginia; southwest front as viewed from the [[bowling green]], 1827, in ''Mémoires d’un voyageur qui se repose'' (1850), part IV, p. 520B.
File:1281.jpg|John Rubens Smith, West Front of the Capitol, c. 1828.

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