<div id="Fig_2"></div>[[File:0969.jpg|thumb|Fig. 2, [[Thomas Jefferson]], Plan of the grounds at [[Monticello]], 1806. [[#Fig_2_cite|Back to texts.]]]]
Hedges were found throughout America, but the plant materials employed in them varied, depending on the purpose of the hedge and the climate of its particular region. <span id="Prince_cite"></span>In 1828, William Prince praised hedges, particularly of buckthorn and maclura, as windbreaks affording protection in areas subject to severe winds ([[#Prince|view text]]). Fast-growing evergreens were recommended for hedges needed to screen an area, although they were not advised for situations calling for trimmed effect or where a long shadow was undesirable. In these cases, the arborvitae, which grows quickly and densely, was the most common choice. At times, the screening effect does not appear to have been intentional; <span id="Hovey_cite"></span>in 1839, for example, [[C. M. (Charles Mason) Hovey|C. M. Hovey]] described the fish [[pond]] of the Elias Hasket Derby House in Salem, Massachusetts, as being entirely surrounded by an eight-foot high impenetrable hedge ([[#Hovey|view text]]). Where such an effect was desired, various types of thorn were effective as impenetrable barriers. [[Andrew Jackson Downing|Downing]] noted that “there are few creatures, however bold, who care to ‘come to the ''scratch''’ twice with such a foe.”<ref>A. J. Downing, “A Chapter on Hedges,” ''Horticulturist'' 1 (February 1847): 346, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/keywords_in_early_american_landscape_design/items/itemKey/3BBFEPHX view on Zotero].</ref> Cacti were similarly used at the California missions to create barriers around fields. Plants for ornamental hedges, however, were selected for their foliage, blossoms, and berries. For instance, a wild rose hedge was planted at [[Mount Vernon]], while the deep green foliage of the privet was admired at Oatlands, D. P. Manice’s residence in Hempstead, New York. Because of their combination of flowering beauty and edible produce, fruit trees, such as apple, peach, and orange, were sometimes planted as [[espalier]] hedges (see [[Espalier]]). [[Thomas Jefferson]] capitalized on the many uses of hedges: he designed thorn hedges to enclose his [[orchard]] and garden area [Fig. 2], planned hedgethorn and privet or cedar to line his [[slope]]s, and, in a proposal of 1771, used a hedge to screen his [[icehouse]] from view [Fig. 3].<ref>Jefferson purchased much of his plant material for Monticello from Thomas Main, a nurseryman and author of an 1807 work on hedges. See Brenda Bullion, “Early American Farming and Gardening Literature: ‘Adapted to the Climates and Seasons of the United States,’” ''Journal of Garden History'' 12, no. 1 (1992): 37–38, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/5MKAGJ2V view on Zotero].</ref>
[[File:0167.jpg|left|thumb|Fig. 3, [[Thomas Jefferson]], General plan of the summit of [[Monticello]] Mountain, before May 1768.]]
*[[George Washington|Washington, George]], 1785, describing [[Mount Vernon]], plantation of [[George Washington]], Fairfax County, VA (Jackson and Twohig, eds., 1978: 4:102, 115)<ref>George Washington, ''The Diaries of George Washington'', ed. Donald Jackson and Dorothy Twohig, 6 vols. (Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1979), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/CKQVPUC3 view on Zotero].</ref>
:“[March 14] Planted the 9 young peach Trees which I brought from Mr. Cockburns in the No. Garden—viz.. . . 2 in the [[border]] of the Walk leading from the [[Espalier]] '''hedge''' towards the other cross [[walk]]. . .
:“[April 8] The ground being too wet. . . I was unable to touch that which I had been preparing for grass; and therefore began to hoe that wch. lyes between the New circular ditches, & the Wild rose '''hedges'''.”
*Committee of the Pennsylvania Horticultural Society, 1830, describing a country residence near Philadelphia, PA (quoted in Boyd 1929: 438–39)<ref name="Boyd 1929"></ref>
:“On viewing this [[seat]], our attention was immediately drawn to the handsome '''hedges''' of Hornbeam and Pinus Canadensis. We were delighted with the latter; never having seen it before. Its fine green foliage contrasts very sweetly with the delicate appearance of the tender shoots. These '''''hedge'''’s are trimmed periodically and kept in excellent order.''
*Dearborn, H. A. S., 1832, describing [[Mount Auburn Cemetery]], Cambridge, MA (quoted in Harris 1832: 82–83)<ref>Thaddeus William Harris, ''A Discourse Delivered before the Massachusetts Horticultural Society on the Celebration of Its Fourth Anniversary, October 3, 1832'' (Cambridge, MA: E. W. Metcalf, 1832), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/3A3UDHF3 view on Zotero].</ref>
:'''''Hedges''', used as inclosures, will disappoint expectation, and require to be entirely eradicated after a few years, if even for a short time they should have a pleasing effect, when young, healthy, vigorous, and well managed. They are only proper for extensive grounds, farms, or large gardens, embracing some ten or twenty acres, or for long lines of circumvallation, which are to be seen at a distance, in which the imperfections, occasioned by insects and the ravages of time, are lost in the perspective, but should never be employed to surround a mere [[parterre]], a buisson of roses, or a [[bed]] of hyacinths. To look even beautiful, '''hedges''', of all kinds, require constant attention; they must be kept clear of weeds, and be pruned and clipped several times in the course of the season of vegetation, and this, too, by a skilful hand.''
*[[C. M. (Charles Mason) Hovey|Hovey, C. M. (Charles Mason)]], June 1835, “Notices of some of the Gardens and Nurseries in the neighborhood of New York and Philadelphia,” describing D. and C. Landreth’s Nursery on Federal Street, Philadelphia, PA (''American Gardeners’ Magazine'' 1: 201)<ref>Charles Mason Hovey, “Notices of some of the Gardens and Nurseries in the neighbourhood of New York and Philadelphia; taken from Memoranda made in the Month of March last,” ''American Gardener’s Magazine and Register of Useful Discoveries and Improvements in Horticulture and Rural Affairs'' 1, no. 6 (June 1835): 201–6, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/WGMGZFER view on Zotero].</ref>
:“The object of a '''hedge''' is generally to keep from the grounds cattle and other animals; though in some instances, they are only set to obscure one part of the garden from the other, or to hide some disagreeable object from the eye.”
*<div id="Hovey"></div>[[C. M. (Charles Mason) Hovey|Hovey, C. M. (Charles Mason)]], November 1839, “Notices of Gardens and Horticulture, in Salem, Mass.,” describing Elias Hasket Derby House, Salem, MA (''Magazine of Horticulture'' 5: 410–11),<ref>Charles Mason Hovey, “Notices of Gardens and Horticulture, in Salem, Mass.,” ''Magazine of Horticulture, Botany, and All Useful Discoveries and Improvements in Rural Affairs'' 5, no. 11 (November 1839): 401–16, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/25HW5NZ9 view on Zotero].</ref>
:“The extent of the garden and [[pleasure ground]] is several acres. The garden lies to the south of the mansion, and is, we should judge, nearly a [[square]]. It is laid out with straight [[walk]]s, running at right angles, with flower [[border]]s on each side of the [[alley]]s, and the [[square]]s occupied by fruit trees; the [[greenhouse|green-house]] and grapery stand in the centre of the garden, and are screened on the back by a '''hedge'''.
:“In the centre of the garden is a small oval [[pond]], containing gold fish: this [[pond]] is '''hedge''’d round with the buckthorn, which has now been planted over thirty years! It is not over eight feet high, and is thickly set with branches and foliage from the top to bottom, and perfectly impenetrable.” [[#Hovey_cite|back up to History]]
*[[C. M. (Charles Mason) Hovey|Hovey, C. M. (Charles Mason)]], October 1840, “Notes on Gardens and Gardening, in New Bedford, Mass.,” describing the estate of James Arnold, New Bedford, MA (''Magazine of Horticulture'' 6: 363)<ref>Charles Mason Hovey, “Notes on Gardens and Gardening, in New Bedford, Mass.,” ''Magazine of Horticulture, Botany, and All Useful Discoveries and Improvements in Rural Affairs'' 6, no. 10 (October 1840): 361–66, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/QQC7WWZB view on Zotero].</ref>
:“Passing into a straight [[walk]] which leads from the [[conservatory]], by the [[flower garden]], (which is screaned by a [[hedge]] from the [[lawn]] front,).”
[[File:0878_detail.jpg|thumb|Fig. 8, Anonymous, “Ground Plan of a portion of Downing’s [[Botanic Garden]]s and [[Nursery|Nurseries]] [detail],” in ''Magazine of Horticulture'' 7, no. 11 (November 1841): 404.]]
*[[C. M. (Charles Mason) Hovey|Hovey, C. M. (Charles Mason)]], November 1841, “Select Villa Residences,” describing Highland Place, estate of [[Andrew Jackson Downing]], Newburgh, NY (''Magazine of Horticulture'' 7: 406)<ref>Charles Mason Hovey, “Select Villa Residences, with Descriptive Notices of each; accompanied with Remarks and Observations on the principles and practice of Landscape Gardening: intended with a view to illustrate the Art of Laying out, Arranging, and Forming Gardens and Ornamental Grounds,” ''Magazine of Horticulture, Botany, and All Useful Discoveries and Improvements in Rural Affairs'' 7, no. 11 (November 1841): 401–11, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/SXS8ZS3J view on Zotero].</ref>
:“18. [[Flower garden]], in front of the [[greenhouse]]. . . Under the arbor vitae '''hedge''', which is here planted against the boundary line, the [[greenhouse]] plants are principally placed during summer.
:“19. '''Hedge''' or screen of arbor vitae, shutting out the back shed, compost ground, &c. The arbor vitae is well adapted for this purpose, growing rapidly, and forming a perfect screen in three or four years.” [Fig. 8]
*[[C. M. (Charles Mason) Hovey|Hovey, C. M. (Charles Mason)]], August 1846, “Notes of a Visit to several Gardens in the Vicinity of Washington, Baltimore, Philadelphia, and New York,” describing D. and C. Landreth’s Nursery on Federal Street, Philadelphia, PA (''Magazine of Horticulture'' 12: 284)<ref>Charles Mason Hovey, “Notes of a Visit to several Gardens in the Vicinity of Washington, Baltimore, Philadelphia, and New York, in October, 1845,” ''Magazine of Horticulture, Botany, and All Useful Discoveries and Improvements in Rural Affairs'' 12, no. 8 (August 1846): 281–85, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/N2J7VZ6S view on Zotero].</ref>
:“Referring to our account above mentioned, we particularly alluded to the fine '''hedges''' of the arbor vitae which existed here, and recommended this fine tree as peculiarly well adapted for screens or '''hedges''' to shut out one part of the garden from another, or hide disagreeable objects. Twelve years’ experience has convinced us of the correctness of our remarks, and we may still urge them upon the attention of our readers. The arbor vitae is unquestionably one of the finest of evergreen trees, and far superior to any other for forming '''hedges''' or screens.”

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