[[File:0969.jpg|thumb|left|Fig. 2, [[Thomas Jefferson]], Plan of the grounds at [[Monticello]], 1806.]]
[[File:0018.jpg|thumb|Fig. 3, Pierre Pharoux, Plan of Sperenza, NY [detail], n.d. A “Public Grove” is situated on either side of the “Common “[[Common]] Ground.”]]
The appellations “open” and “closed,” however, were not common in American discourse, despite [[Noah Webster|Noah Webster's]] inclusion of such distinctions in his definition. Although these adjectives were not employed to a significant degree, groves fitting these characteristics can be identified. [[Thomas Jefferson]], in his 1807 account of [[Monticello]], described his intention to trim the lower limbs of the trees in his grove, composed of a mixture of hardwoods and evergreens, “so as to give the appearance of open ground,” suggesting an “open” grove [Fig. 2]. [[Eliza Lucas Pinckney]], in 1742, evoked the sense of a “closed” grove when she delineated her collection of trees and flowers. Likewise, in 1776 [[George Washington]] suggested a similar type of grove for [[Mount Vernon]], which he described as an arrangement of flowering trees and evergreens underplanted with flowering [[shrub]]s.
[[File:0059.jpg|thumb|left|Fig. 6, [[Benjamin Henry Latrobe]], Spring house—elevation and plan, from “Buildings Erected or Proposed to be Built in Virginia,” 1795–99.]]
[[File:0134.jpg|thumb|Fig. 7, Christian Remick, ''A Prospective [[View ]] of part of the Commons[[Common]]s'', c. 1768.]]
Groves provided shade and settings for [[walk]]s that linked buildings in a unified composition. They sheltered or highlighted important architectural features. Groves of evergreens or shade trees were well suited for graves and church settings because of the associations with perpetual life. [[Eliza Lucas Pinckney|Pinckney]] and [[Charles Willson Peale]] both spoke of the aura of solemnity found in the deep shade and quiet of their respective groves. Alexander Hamilton (1744) called the “darkened and shaded” grove very “romantick.” Architect [[Benjamin Henry Latrobe]] depicted a [[temple]] deep in a grove, a scene that recalled idealized landscapes associated with the classical past [Fig. 6]. Funerary associations of the grove, dating back to antiquity, made the feature an especially appropriate setting for commemorative monuments and landscape [[cemeteries]].
[[File:0036.jpg|thumb|Fig. 8, Thomas Lee Shippen, Plan of Westover, 1783. The grove is marked at “&c” at upper left quadrant. ]]
*Shippen, Thomas Lee, December 31, 1783, describing Westover, seat of William Byrd III, on the James River, VA (1952: n.p.)<ref>Thomas Lee Shippen, ''Westover Described in 1783: A Letter and Drawing Sent by Thomas Lee Shippen, Student of Law in Williamsburg, to His Parents in Philadelphia'' (Richmond, VA: William Byrd Press, 1952), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/3IWWPMJ5 view on Zotero].</ref>
:“The crooked line markd x [on the accompanying drawing] shews you where the garden is which is very large and exceedingly beautiful indeed. The one opposite to it &c is the place where there is a pretty '''grove''' neatly kept, from which the walk thro’ one of the pretty [[gate]]s markd g leads you to the improved grounds before the house.” [Fig. 8]
*[[Manasseh Cutler|Cutler, Manasseh]], July 14, 1787, describing [[Gray's Garden|Gray’s Tavern]], Philadelphia, PA (1987: 1:275–77)<ref name="Cutler"></ref>
:“As we were walking on the northern side of the Garden, upon a beautiful glacis, we found ourselves on the borders of a '''grove''' of wood and upon the brow of a steep hill. . . . At a distance, we could just see three very high arched [[bridge]]s, one beyond the other. . . We saw them through the '''grove''', the branches of the trees partly concealing them, which produced the more romantic and delightful effect. As we advanced on the brow of this hill, we observed a small foot-path, which led by several windings into the '''grove'''. We followed it; and though we saw that it was the work of art, yet it was a most happy imitation of nature. It conducted us along the declivity of the hill, which on every side was strewed with flowers in the most artless manner, and evidently seemed to be the bounty of nature without the aid of human care. At length we seemed to be lost in the [[wood]]s, but saw in the distance an antique building, to which our path led us. . . At this [[hermitage]] we came into a spacious graveled [[walk]], which directed its course further along the '''grove''', which was tall [[wood]] interspersed with close thickets of different growth. As we advanced, we found our gravel [[walk]] dividing itself into numerous branches, leading into different parts of the '''grove'''. We directed our course nearly north, though some of our company turned into the other [[walk]]s, but were soon out of sight, and thought proper to return and follow us. We at length came to a considerable [[eminence]], which was adorned with an infinite variety of [[bed]]s of flowers and artificial '''groves''' of flowering [[shrub]]s. On the further side of the eminence was a [[fence]], beyond which we perceived an extensive but narrow opening. When we came to the [[fence]], we were delightfully astonished with the [[view]] of one of the finest [[cascade]]s in America. . . The distance we judged to be about a quarter of a mile, which being seen through the narrow opening in the tall '''grove''', and the fine mist that rose incessantly from the rocks below, had a most delightful effect.”
[[File:0722.jpg|thumb|Fig. 9, Anonymous, “Barrell Farm,” Pleasant Hill, 1817. A “Poplar Grove” was located on axis with main house, between the fish pond on the Barrell property and the river. ]]
*Bentley, William, June 12, 1791, describing Pleasant Hill, seat of Joseph Barrell, Charlestown, MA (1962: 1:264)<ref>William Bentley, ''The Diary of William Bentley, D.D., Pastor of the East Church, Salem, Massachusetts'' (Gloucester, MA: Peter Smith, 1962), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/B63ABACF view on Zotero].</ref>
[[File:1097.jpg|thumb|Fig. 11, Thomas S. Sinclair, “Plan of the [[Pleasure ground/Pleasure garden|Pleasure Grounds ]] and Farm of the [[Pennsylvania Hospital for the Insane ]] at Philadelphia,” in Thomas S. Kirkbride, ''American Journal of Insanity'' 4, no. 4 (April 1848): pl. opp. 280.]]
*Kirkbride, Thomas S., April 1848, describing the [[pleasure ground]]s and farm of the [[Pennsylvania Hospital for the Insane]], Philadelphia, PA (''American Journal of Insanity'' 4: 348)<ref>Thomas S. Kirkbride, “Description of the Pleasure Grounds and Farm of the Pennsylvania Hospital for the Insane, with Remarks,” ''American Journal of Insanity'' 4, no. 4 (April 1848): 347–54, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/9RWM2FH8 view on Zotero].</ref>
:“The remainder of the grounds on this side of the [[deer-park]] is specially appropriated to the use of the male patients. In this division is a fine '''grove''' of large trees, several detached [[clump]]s of various kinds and a great variety of single trees standing alone or in [[avenue]]s along the different [[walk]]s, which, of brick, gravel or tan, are for the men, more than a mile and a quarter in extent. The '''groves''' are fitted up with seats and [[summer house]]s, and have various means of exercise and amusement connected with them. . .
<gallery widths="170px" heights="170px" perrow="7">
File:0018.jpg|Pierre Pharoux, Plan of Sperenza, NY [detail], n.d. A “Public Grove” is situated on either side of the “Common “[[Common]] Ground.”
File:1425.jpg| Michael van der Gucht, “The general Plan of a Garden drawn upon Paper” and “The same Plan of Garden mark'd out upon ye Ground,” in A.-J. Dézallier d’Argenville, ''The Theory and Practice of Gardening'' (1712), 124.
File:1426.jpg|Michael van der Gucht, “The [[Parterre ]] C drawn & Squar’d over upon Paper,” “The same [[Parterre ]] C Squared out & traced upon ye Ground,” and “The Grove V & ye [[Bowling green|Bowling-green ]] X design’d upon paper,” in A.-J. Dézallier d’Argenville, ''The Theory and Practice of Gardening'' (1712), 130.
File:1054.jpg|Michael van der Gucht, “Designs of '''Groves''' of a Middle Height,” A.-J. Dézallier d’Argenville, ''The Theory and Practice of Gardening'' (1712), pl. 4c, n.p.
File:1053.jpg|Batty Langley, “Design of a ''rural Garden'', after the new manner,” in ''New Principles of Gardening'' (1728), pl. III, opp. 208. '''Groves''' are indicated at R, O, N, and Y.
File:0134.jpg|Christian Remick, ''A Prospective [[View ]] of part of the Commons[[Common]]s'', c. 1768.
Image:2258.jpg|Sydney L. Smith (engraver) from a watercolor drawing by Christian Remick (c. 1768) . A Prospective [[View]] of part of the '''Commons[[Common]]s''', 1902. Boston Pictorial Archive, Boston Public Library.
File:0167.jpg|[[Thomas Jefferson]], General plan of the summit of [[Monticello]] Mountain, before May 1768. '''Grove''' is written at the top left on this plan, along with a tally of specific trees.
File:0005.jpg|Amy Cox, attr., ''Box '''Grove''''', c. 1800.
File:0728.jpg|William Russell Birch, ''Plan of Springland'', c. 1800.
File:0736.jpg|William Russell Birch, ''[[View ]] of the Chapel/Smokehouse at Springland, with Steeple Detail and Plan'', c. 1800. "Seated in the '''Grove'''" inscribed in the left corner.
File:0882.jpg|Anonymous, Plan of Williamsburg, Virginia (copy after Unknown Draftsman’s Plan), after 1800.
File:0090.jpg|[[Thomas Jefferson]], Letter describing plans for a “Garden Olitory,” c. 1804.
File:0734.jpg|William Russell Birch, ''Front of the Aviary/'''Grove''', Springland'', before 1805.
File:0730.jpg|William Russell Birch, “The '''Grove ''' in Springland,” before 1805.
File:0969.jpg|[[Thomas Jefferson]], Plan of the grounds at [[Monticello]], 1806.
File:0291.jpg|Anonymous, ''The Ample Grove'', c. 1810–25.
File:0722.jpg|Anonymous, “Barrell Farm,” Pleasant Hill, 1817. A “Poplar Grove” '''Grove'''” was located on axis with main house, between the fish [[pond ]] on the Barrell property and the river.
File:0605.jpg|Lieut. Birch, ''Plan of St. Augustine, Fla.'', 1819. “Fish orange grove” '''grove'''” is inscribed on island.
File:1077.jpg|James Smillie, “Green-Wood [[Cemetery/Burying ground/Burial ground|Cemetery]],” in Nehemiah Cleaveland, ''Green-Wood Illustrated'' (1847), flyleaf.
File:1087.jpg|James Smillie, “Bay-'''Grove ''' Hill,” in Nehemiah Cleaveland, ''Green-Wood Illustrated'' (1847), opp. 26.
</gallery>
<gallery widths="170px" heights="170px" perrow="7">
File:1378.jpg|Batty Langley, “Design of an [[Avenue ]] with its [[Wildernesses ]] on each Side,” in ''New Principles of Gardening'' (1728), pl. V.
File:1382.jpg|Batty Langley, “An Improvement of a beautiful Garden at Twickenham,” in ''New Principles of Gardening'' (1728), pl. IX.
File:1384.jpg|Batty Langley, One of two “Designs for Gardens that lye irregularly to the ground House. . . House opening to the North upon a plain [[Parterre ]] of Grass,” in ''New Principles of Gardening'' (1728), pl. XI.
File:1386.jpg|Batty Langley, “Part of a [[Park ]] Exhibiting their manner of Planting, after a more Grand manner than has been done before,” in ''New Principles of Gardening'' (1728), pl. XIII.
File:0036.jpg|Thomas Lee Shippen, Plan of Westover, 1783. The '''grove ''' is marked at “&c” at upper left quadrant.
File:0069.jpg|Samuel Vaughan, Plan of [[Mount Vernon]], 1787.
File:0905.jpg|Pierre Pharoux, Plan for Esperanza (Speranza), 1794–95.
File:0906.jpg|Pierre Pharoux, Courthouse Square, Speranza, 1794–95.
File:0087.jpg|[[Benjamin Henry Latrobe]], ''[[View ]] of [[Mount Vernon ]] looking to the North'', July 17, 1796.
File:0710.jpg|J. Weiss, ''Home of George Washington, “The Father of His Country,”'' 1797.
File:1183.jpg|[[J. C. Loudon]], Groves, in ''An Encyclopædia of Gardening'' (1826), 943, figs. 629a and b.
File:1097.jpg|Thomas S. Sinclair, “Plan of the [[Pleasure ground/Pleasure garden|Pleasure Grounds ]] and Farm of the [[Pennsylvania Hospital for the Insane ]] at Philadelphia,” in Thomas S. Kirkbride, ''American Journal of Insanity'' 4, no. 4 (April 1848): pl. opp. 280.
File:0771.jpg|[[Frances Palmer]], “Ground [[Plot ]] of Brier Cottage,” in William H. Ranlett, ''The Architect'' (1849), vol. 1, pl. 2.
File:0783.jpg|[[Frances Palmer]], “Waldwic Cottage,” in William H. Ranlett, ''The Architect'' (1851), vol. 2, 31.
File:0135.jpg|Unknown, Gardiner Gilman House Overmantel, c. 1800.
File:2037.jpg|Thomas Kelah Wharton, '''''Grove ''' of Poplars with a Memorial Bust, David Hosack Estate, Hyde Park, New York'', c. 1832.
</gallery>

Warning: Cannot modify header information - headers already sent by (output started at /opt/rh/httpd24/root/var/www/html/mediawiki/extensions/MobileFrontend/includes/diff/InlineDiffFormatter.php:59) in /opt/rh/httpd24/root/var/www/html/mediawiki/includes/WebResponse.php on line 42

Warning: Cannot modify header information - headers already sent by (output started at /opt/rh/httpd24/root/var/www/html/mediawiki/extensions/MobileFrontend/includes/diff/InlineDiffFormatter.php:59) in /opt/rh/httpd24/root/var/www/html/mediawiki/includes/WebResponse.php on line 42

Warning: Cannot modify header information - headers already sent by (output started at /opt/rh/httpd24/root/var/www/html/mediawiki/extensions/MobileFrontend/includes/diff/InlineDiffFormatter.php:59) in /opt/rh/httpd24/root/var/www/html/mediawiki/includes/WebResponse.php on line 42

Warning: Cannot modify header information - headers already sent by (output started at /opt/rh/httpd24/root/var/www/html/mediawiki/extensions/MobileFrontend/includes/diff/InlineDiffFormatter.php:59) in /opt/rh/httpd24/root/var/www/html/mediawiki/includes/WebResponse.php on line 42
Changes - History of Early American Landscape Design
A Project of the Center for Advanced Study in the Visual Arts, National Gallery of Art
History of Early American Landscape Design
HEALD will be upgrading in spring 2021. New features and content will be available this summer. Thank you for your patience!

Changes

[http://www.nga.gov/content/ngaweb/research/casva/research-projects.html A Project of the National Gallery of Art, Center for Advanced Study in the Visual Arts ]
A Project of the Center for Advanced Study in the Visual Arts

National Gallery of Art, Washington


Warning: Cannot modify header information - headers already sent by (output started at /opt/rh/httpd24/root/var/www/html/mediawiki/extensions/MobileFrontend/includes/diff/InlineDiffFormatter.php:59) in /opt/rh/httpd24/root/var/www/html/mediawiki/includes/WebResponse.php on line 42

Warning: Cannot modify header information - headers already sent by (output started at /opt/rh/httpd24/root/var/www/html/mediawiki/extensions/MobileFrontend/includes/diff/InlineDiffFormatter.php:59) in /opt/rh/httpd24/root/var/www/html/mediawiki/includes/WebResponse.php on line 42

Warning: Cannot modify header information - headers already sent by (output started at /opt/rh/httpd24/root/var/www/html/mediawiki/extensions/MobileFrontend/includes/diff/InlineDiffFormatter.php:59) in /opt/rh/httpd24/root/var/www/html/mediawiki/includes/WebResponse.php on line 42