The term grove referred to both natural and planted arrangements of trees, as indicated by [[Noah Webster]]’s definition of 1828. American gardeners such as [[Bernard M’Mahon]] (1806) realized the potential of indigenous vegetation and simply thinned existing trees to create so-called “natural” groves. Trees could also be planted where none existed to create “artificial” groves. Whether natural or artificial, groves of trees were an important element in the ornamental landscape, serving aesthetic and agricultural purposes. As Samuel Deane explained in the ''New-England Farmer'' (1790), groves could provide shade and windbreaks as well as syrup, firewood, and fruit. As a formal element, groves defined [[border]]s of gardens, created backdrops, and, as seen in the sketch of St. Augustine’s orange grove [Fig. 1], offered sites for collecting specific plants.
While generally composed of trees, groves sometimes included [[shrub]]s and flowers. These plants were also found in [[wood]]s, [[shrubberies]], and [[wilderness]]es, thus blurring the lines of distinctions between these features—several treatise writers and lexicographers defined groves, for example, as small [[wood]]s. The overlapping and indistinct uses of the terms “grove,” “[[wilderness]],” and “[[shrubbery]]” are exemplified by [[George Washington]]’s Washington’s notations on the garden at [[Mount Vernon]]. In 1782, he wrote that he would immediately plant groups of “[[shrub]]s and ornamental trees,” and decide later which constituted “the grove and which the [[wilderness]],” implying that the grove would ultimately be the less thickly planted of the two. To add to the confusion, [[George Washington|Washington]] on another occasion referred to the arrangement of trees and [[shrub]]s just south of his house as both a grove and a [[shrubbery]]. Texts from the 19th century mentioned [[shrub]]s and flowers in groves less frequently, because these types of plants were increasingly associated with [[shrubberies]]. Thus, as time passed, the distinction between the terms became more clearly drawn.
When attempting to distinguish groves from other features that employed trees (particularly [[wood]]s and [[clump]]s), treatise writers often focused on the question of whether groves should contain undergrowth. Various opinions emerged. Batty Langley argued in ''New Principles of Gardening'' (1728) for the inclusion of flowering [[shrub]]s with evergreens and deciduous trees. Thomas Whately, however, in ''Observations of Modern Gardening'' (1770), believed that a grove consisted of trees without undergrowth in contrast to [[wood]]s or [[clump]]s, which did contain undergrowth. Philip Miller, in ''The Gardeners Dictionary'' (1754), considered undergrowth as one factor that distinguished a “closed” grove from an “open” one. The “open” form of the feature was made by planting large trees at a distance that permitted tree tops to knit together to create a shady canopy for the [[walk]]s below. The “closed” type was composed of a denser planting of trees, [[shrub]]s, and flowers that could be arranged in figures cut through and circumscribed by [[walk]]s.
[[File:0969.jpg|thumb|left|Fig. 2, [[Thomas Jefferson]], Plan of the grounds at [[Monticello]], 1806.]]
[[File:00182282.jpg|thumb|Fig. 3, [[Pierre Pharoux]], Plan of SperenzaEsperanza, NY [detail], n.d. A “Public Grove” is situated on either side of the “Common “[[Common]] Ground.”]]
The appellations “open” and “closed,” however, were not common in American discourse, despite [[Noah Webster|Noah Webster's]] inclusion of such distinctions in his definition. Although these adjectives were not employed to a significant degree, groves fitting these characteristics can be identified. [[Thomas Jefferson]], in his 1807 account of [[Monticello]], described his intention to trim the lower limbs of the trees in his grove, composed of a mixture of hardwoods and evergreens, “so as to give the appearance of open ground,” suggesting an “open” grove [Fig. 2]. [[Eliza Lucas Pinckney]], in 1742, evoked the sense of a “closed” grove when she delineated her collection of trees and flowers. Likewise, in 1776 [[George Washington]] suggested a similar type of grove for [[Mount Vernon]], which he described as an arrangement of flowering trees and evergreens underplanted with flowering [[shrub]]s.
[[File:09722255.jpg|thumb|left|Fig. 4, [[Pierre Pharoux]], “General Map of the honorable Wm. frederic Baron of Steuben’s Mannor” [detail], c. 1793.]][[George Washington|Washington]]’s Washington’s account of this “closed” grove also provides a significant clue as to the arrangement of plants. In his 1776 letter to Lund Washington, he specified that the trees “be Planted without any order or regularity,” an aesthetic in keeping with the recommendations of Langley, whose treatises were owned by [[George Washington|Washington]]. The texts of Langley and Miller exemplify the gradual shift away from formal or rectilinear arrangements of trees toward more irregular or “[[natural style|natural]]” designs. 17th-century groves might be planted in [[Geometric_style|geometrical]], or otherwise such patterned figures as “the star, the direct Cross, St. Andrew’s Cross,” described by A.-J. Dézallier d’Argenville (1712). By contrast, |Langley insisted that groves be planted with “regular Irregularity; not planting them. . . with their Trees in straight Lines ranging every Way, but in a rural Manner, as if they had receiv’d their Situation from Nature itself.” In contrast to authors of earlier treatises, 19th-century American writers, including Samuel Deane (1790), [[Bernard M’Mahon]] (1806) and the anonymous author of the ''New England Farmer'' (1828), advocated regular arrangements. Few if any signs, however, indicate that Americans made “closed” groves in [[Geometric_style|geometrical]] figures, such as those described in James. [[Pierre Pharoux’s Pharoux]]’s unexecuted plans for the new town SperenzaEsperanza, New York [Fig. 3], and for Baron von Steuben’s estate in Mohawk Valley, New York [Fig. 4], are rare exceptions.
[[File:0730.jpg|thumb|Fig. 5, William Russell Birch, “The Grove in Springland,” before 1805.]]
In either the regular or irregular arrangement, groves were often designed to accommodate garden structures or decorative elements. William Bentley (1791), for example, called attention to the [[pond]] with [[Statue|statuary]] found in the midst of the grove at Pleasant Hill, Joseph Barrell’s estate in Charlestown, Massachusetts; Margaret Bayard Smith (1809) recorded that [[Thomas Jefferson|Jefferson]] intended to place a monument to a friend in the midst of a grove at [[Monticello]]. William Russell Birch situated a Gothic chapel in the grove at Springland [Fig. 5].
In addition to providing settings for decorative objects, groves sometimes displayed rare or unusual tree specimens. At [[Mount Vernon]], [[George Washington|Washington]] contrasted his northern grove, to be made up entirely of locust trees, with his southern grove, to be planted with “clever,” “curious,” and “ornamental” trees and [[shrub]]s. At [[The Woodlands]], [[William Hamilton]] also filled his groves with rare ornamental trees.
[[File:0059.jpg|thumb|left|Fig. 6, [[Benjamin Henry Latrobe]], Spring house—elevation and plan, from “Buildings Erected or Proposed to be Built in Virginia,” 1795–99.]]
[[File:0134.jpg|thumb|Fig. 7, Christian Remick, ''A Prospective [[View ]] of part of the Commons[[Common]]s'', c. 1768.]]
Groves provided shade and settings for [[walk]]s that linked buildings in a unified composition. They sheltered or highlighted important architectural features. Groves of evergreens or shade trees were well suited for graves and church settings because of the associations with perpetual life. [[Eliza Lucas Pinckney|Pinckney]] and [[Charles Willson Peale]] both spoke of the aura of solemnity found in the deep shade and quiet of their respective groves. Alexander Hamilton (1744) called the “darkened and shaded” grove very “romantick.” Architect [[Benjamin Henry Latrobe]] depicted a [[temple]] deep in a grove, a scene that recalled idealized landscapes associated with the classical past [Fig. 6]. Funerary associations of the grove, dating back to antiquity, made the feature an especially appropriate setting for commemorative monuments and landscape [[cemeteries]].
*[[George Washington|Washington, George]], August 19, 1776, in a letter to Lund Washington, describing [[Mount Vernon]], [[plantation]] of [[George Washington]], Fairfax County, VA (quoted in Riley 1989: 7)<ref>John P. Riley, ''The Icehouses and Their Operations at Mount Vernon'' (Mount Vernon, VA: Mount Vernon Ladies’ Association, 1989), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/76PVTIZM view on Zotero].</ref>
:“Plant Trees in the room of all dead ones in proper time this Fall. and as I mean to have '''groves''' of Trees at each end of the dwelling House, that at the South end to range in a line from the South East Corner to Colo. Fairfax’s, extending as low as another line from the Stable to the dry Well, and towards the Coach House . . . from the No. Et. Corner of the other end of the House to range so as to show the Barn &ca. in the Neck. . . these Trees to be Planted without any order or regularity (but pretty thick, as they can at any time be thin’d) and to consist that at the North end, of locusts altogether. and that at the South, of all the clever kind of Trees (especially flowering ones) that can be got, such as Crab apple, Poplar, Dogwood, Sasafras, Laurel, Willow (especially yellow and Weeping Willow, twigs of which may be got from Philadelphia) and many others which I do not recollect at present; those to be interspersed here and there with ever greens such as Holly, Pine, and Cedar, also Ivy; to these may be added the Wild flowering [[Shrub]]s of the larger kind, such as the fringe Trees and several other kinds that might be mentioned.”
*[[George Washington|Washington, George]], December 25, 1782, describing [[Mount Vernon]], [[plantation]] of [[George Washington]], Fairfax County, VA (quoted in Johnson 1953: 87–88)<ref>Gerald W. Johnson, ''Mount Vernon: The Story of a Shrine'' (New York: Random House, 1953), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/F2JS5DHZ view on Zotero].</ref>
:“I wish that the afore-mentioned [[shrub]]s and ornamental and curious trees may be planted at both ends that I may determine hereafter from circumstances and appearances which shall be the '''grove''' and which the [[wilderness]]. It is easy to extirpate Trees from any spot but time only can bring them to maturity.”
[[File:0036.jpg|thumb|Fig. 8, Thomas Lee Shippen, Plan of Westover, 1783. The grove is marked at “&c” at upper left quadrant. ]]
*Shippen, Thomas Lee, December 31, 1783, describing Westover, seat of William Byrd III, on the James River, VA (1952: n.p.)<ref>Thomas Lee Shippen, ''Westover Described in 1783: A Letter and Drawing Sent by Thomas Lee Shippen, Student of Law in Williamsburg, to His Parents in Philadelphia'' (Richmond, VA: William Byrd Press, 1952), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/3IWWPMJ5 view on Zotero].</ref>
:“The crooked line markd x [on the accompanying drawing] shews you where the garden is which is very large and exceedingly beautiful indeed. The one opposite to it &c is the place where there is a pretty '''grove''' neatly kept, from which the walk thro’ one of the pretty [[gate]]s markd g leads you to the improved grounds before the house.” [Fig. 8]
*[[George Washington|Washington, George]], 1785 and 1786, describing [[Mount Vernon]], [[plantation]] of [[George Washington]], Fairfax County, VA (Jackson and Twohig, eds., 1978: 4:99, 107, 304)<ref>George Washington, ''The Diaries of George Washington'', ed. Donald Jackson and Dorothy Twohig, 6 vols (Charlottesville, VA: University Press of Virginia, 1978), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/9ZIIR3FT view on Zotero].</ref>
:“[March 7, 1785] Planted all my Cedars, all my Papaw, and two Honey locust Trees in my [[Shrubberies]] and two of the latter in my '''groves'''—one at each (side) of the House and a large Holly tree on the Point going to the Sein landing. . .
:“Finished Plowing the Ground adjoining the Pine '''Grove''', designed for Clover & Orchard grass Seed. . .
*[[Manasseh Cutler|Cutler, Manasseh]], July 14, 1787, describing [[Gray's Garden|Gray’s Tavern]], Philadelphia, PA (1987: 1:275–77)<ref name="Cutler"></ref>
:“As we were walking on the northern side of the Garden, upon a beautiful glacis, we found ourselves on the borders of a '''grove''' of wood and upon the brow of a steep hill. . . . At a distance, we could just see three very high arched [[bridge]]s, one beyond the other. . . We saw them through the '''grove''', the branches of the trees partly concealing them, which produced the more romantic and delightful effect. As we advanced on the brow of this hill, we observed a small foot-path, which led by several windings into the '''grove'''. We followed it; and though we saw that it was the work of art, yet it was a most happy imitation of nature. It conducted us along the declivity of the hill, which on every side was strewed with flowers in the most artless manner, and evidently seemed to be the bounty of nature without the aid of human care. At length we seemed to be lost in the [[wood]]s, but saw in the distance an antique building, to which our path led us. . . At this [[hermitage]] we came into a spacious graveled [[walk]], which directed its course further along the '''grove''', which was tall [[wood]] interspersed with close thickets of different growth. As we advanced, we found our gravel [[walk]] dividing itself into numerous branches, leading into different parts of the '''grove'''. We directed our course nearly north, though some of our company turned into the other [[walk]]s, but were soon out of sight, and thought proper to return and follow us. We at length came to a considerable [[eminence]], which was adorned with an infinite variety of [[bed]]s of flowers and artificial '''groves''' of flowering [[shrub]]s. On the further side of the eminence was a [[fence]], beyond which we perceived an extensive but narrow opening. When we came to the [[fence]], we were delightfully astonished with the [[view]] of one of the finest [[cascade]]s in America. . . The distance we judged to be about a quarter of a mile, which being seen through the narrow opening in the tall '''grove''', and the fine mist that rose incessantly from the rocks below, had a most delightful effect.”
[[File:0722.jpg|thumb|Fig. 9, Anonymous, “Barrell Farm,” Pleasant Hill, 1817. A “Poplar Grove” was located on axis with main house, between the fish pond on the Barrell property and the river. ]]
*Bentley, William, June 12, 1791, describing Pleasant Hill, seat of Joseph Barrell, Charlestown, MA (1962: 1:264)<ref>William Bentley, ''The Diary of William Bentley, D.D., Pastor of the East Church, Salem, Massachusetts'' (Gloucester, MA: Peter Smith, 1962), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/B63ABACF view on Zotero].</ref>
*[[C. M. (Charles Mason) Hovey|Hovey, C. M. (Charles Mason)]], November 1839, describing Elfin Glen, residence of P. Dodge, Salem, MA (''Magazine of Horticulture'' 5: 404)<ref>Charles Mason Hovey, “Notices of Gardens and Horticulture, in Salem, Mass.,” ''Magazine of Horticulture, Botany, and All Useful Discoveries and Improvements in Rural Affairs'' 5, no. 11 (November 1839): 401–16, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/25HW5NZ9 view on Zotero].</ref>
:“In front of the cottage, and extending to the limits of the garden, on the west, ornamental [[shrub]]s and forest trees are thickly planted, and are making a rapid and healthy growth; in a few years they will form a dense and shady '''grove'''.”
[[File:1097.jpg|thumb|Fig. 11, Thomas S. Sinclair, “Plan of the [[Pleasure ground/Pleasure garden|Pleasure Grounds ]] and Farm of the [[Pennsylvania Hospital for the Insane ]] at Philadelphia,” in Thomas S. Kirkbride, ''American Journal of Insanity'' 4, no. 4 (April 1848): pl. opp. 280.]]
*Kirkbride, Thomas S., April 1848, describing the [[pleasure ground]]s and farm of the [[Pennsylvania Hospital for the Insane]], Philadelphia, PA (''American Journal of Insanity'' 4: 348)<ref>Thomas S. Kirkbride, “Description of the Pleasure Grounds and Farm of the Pennsylvania Hospital for the Insane, with Remarks,” ''American Journal of Insanity'' 4, no. 4 (April 1848): 347–54, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/9RWM2FH8 view on Zotero].</ref>
:“The remainder of the grounds on this side of the [[deer-park]] is specially appropriated to the use of the male patients. In this division is a fine '''grove''' of large trees, several detached [[clump]]s of various kinds and a great variety of single trees standing alone or in [[avenue]]s along the different [[walk]]s, which, of brick, gravel or tan, are for the men, more than a mile and a quarter in extent. The '''groves''' are fitted up with seats and [[summer house]]s, and have various means of exercise and amusement connected with them. . .
*[[C. M. (Charles Mason) Hovey|Hovey, C. M. (Charles Mason)]], March 1849, describing the residence of Gen. Elias W. Leavenworth, Syracuse, NY (''Magazine of Horticulture'' 15: 98)<ref>C. M. Hovey, “Notes of a Visit to Several Gardens & Nurseries in Western New York,” ''Magazine of Horticulture, Botany, and All Useful Discoveries and Improvements in Rural Affairs'' 15, no. 3 (March 1849): 97–105, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/keywords_in_early_american_landscape_design/items/itemKey/T6A833UU view on Zotero].</ref>
:“. . . this [the fruit garden] and the house occupy about half of the ground: the other half has been made a most beautiful '''grove'''; this was done by a judicious cutting away of whole trees in some places, and by pruning and thinning the branches in others, leaving the whole a [[picturesque]] mass, which years of time and labor could not have produced.”
[[File:1183.jpg|thumb|Fig. 14, [[J. C. Loudon]], "Groves", in ''An Encyclopædia of Gardening'' (1826), 943, figs. 629a and b.]]
*[[J. C. (John Claudius) Loudon|Loudon, J. C. (John Claudius)]], 1826, ''An Encyclopaedia of Gardening'' (1826: 942–43)<ref>J. C. (John Claudius) Loudon, ''An Encyclopaedia of Gardening; Comprising the Theory and Practice of Horticulture, Floriculture, Arboriculture, and Landscape-Gardening'', 4th ed. (London: Longman et al., 1826), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/KNKTCA4W view on Zotero].</ref>
:“6813. ''With respect to the disposition of the trees within the [[plantation]]'', they may be placed regularly in rows, [[square]]s, parallelograms, or quincunx; irregularly in the manner of groups; without undergrowths, as in '''''groves''''' (''fig. 629. a, b''); with undergrowths, as in [[wood]]s (''c''); all undergrowths, as in ''[[copse]]-[[wood]]s'' (''d''). Or they may form ''[[avenue]]s'' ''(fig. 630. a''); double [[avenue]]s (''b''); [[avenue]]s intersecting in the manner of a Greek cross (''c''); of a martyr’s cross (''d''); of a star (''e''); or of a cross patée, or duck’s foot (''patée d’oye'') (''f'').” [Fig. 14]
<gallery widths="170px" heights="170px" perrow="7">
File:00182282.jpg|[[Pierre Pharoux]], Plan of SperenzaEsperanza, NY [detail], n.d. A “Public Grove” '''Grove'''” is situated on either side of the “Common “[[Common]] Ground.”
File:1425.jpg| Michael van der Gucht, “The general Plan of a Garden drawn upon Paper” and “The same Plan of Garden mark'd out upon ye Ground,” in A.-J. Dézallier d’Argenville, ''The Theory and Practice of Gardening'' (1712), 124.
File:1426.jpg|Michael van der Gucht, “The [[Parterre ]] C drawn & Squar’d over upon Paper,” “The same [[Parterre ]] C Squared out & traced upon ye Ground,” and “The Grove V & ye [[Bowling green|Bowling-green ]] X design’d upon paper,” in A.-J. Dézallier d’Argenville, ''The Theory and Practice of Gardening'' (1712), 130.
File:1054.jpg|Michael van der Gucht, “Designs of '''Groves''' of a Middle Height,” A.-J. Dézallier d’Argenville, ''The Theory and Practice of Gardening'' (1712), pl. 4c, n.p.
File:1053.jpg|Batty Langley, “Design of a ''rural Garden'', after the new manner,” in ''New Principles of Gardening'' (1728), pl. III, opp. 208. '''Groves''' are indicated at R, O, N, and Y.
File:0134.jpg|Christian Remick, ''A Prospective [[View ]] of part of the [[Boston Common|Commons]]'', c. 1768.
ImageFile:2258.jpg|Sydney L. Smith (engraver) from a watercolor drawing by Christian Remick (c. 1768) . , ''A Prospective [[View]] of part of the '''[[Boston Common|Commons']]'', 1902. Boston Pictorial Archive, Boston Public Library.
File:0167.jpg|[[Thomas Jefferson]], General plan of the summit of [[Monticello]] Mountain, before May 1768. '''Grove''' is written at the top left on this plan, along with a tally of specific trees.
File:00052255.jpg|Amy Cox[[Pierre Pharoux]], attr“General Map of the honorable Wm., ''Box Grove''frederic Baron of Steuben’s Mannor”, c. 18001793. The groves are indicated with "i” in the center of the image.
File:07280005.jpg|William Russell BirchAmy Cox, attr., ''Box '''Grove'''Plan of Springland'', c. 1800.
File:07360728.jpg|William Russell Birch, ''View Plan of the Chapel/Smokehouse at Springland, with Steeple Detail and Plan'', c. 1800. "Seated in the '''Grove'''" ” is inscribed in the left cornercenter, just above the rotunda, along the yellow path.
File:0736.jpg|William Russell Birch, ''[[View]] of the Chapel/Smokehouse at Springland, with Steeple Detail and Plan'', c. 1800. "Seated in the '''Grove'''" inscribed in the left corner. Image:0141.jpg|Thomas Coram, ''The '''Grove''', [[Seat]] of G.A. Hall, Esquire'', c. 1800. File:0882.jpg|Anonymous, Plan of Williamsburg, Virginia (copy after Unknown Draftsman’s Plan), after 1800. '''Grove''' is inscribed on bottom left.
File:0090.jpg|[[Thomas Jefferson]], Letter describing plans for a “Garden Olitory,” c. 1804.
File:0734.jpg|William Russell Birch, ''Front of the Aviary/'''Grove''', Springland'', before 1805. File:0730.jpg|William Russell Birch, “The '''Grove''' in Springland,” before 1805.
File:07300969.jpg|William Russell Birch[[Thomas Jefferson]], “The Plan of the grounds at [[Monticello]], 1806. "'''Grove in Springland,” before 1805'''" inscribed at center right.
File:09690291.jpg|[[Thomas Jefferson]]Anonymous, Plan of the grounds at Monticello''The Ample Grove'', 1806c. 1810–25. "'''grove'''" is inscribed on top right.
File:02910722.jpg|Anonymous, “Barrell Farm,” Pleasant Hill, 1817. A “Poplar '''The Ample Grove'''” was located on axis with main house, c. 1810–25between the fish [[pond]] on the Barrell property and the river.
File:07220605.jpg|AnonymousLieut. Birch, “Barrell Farm''Plan of St. Augustine,” Pleasant HillFla.'', 18171819. A “Poplar Grove” was located on axis with main house, between the fish pond on the Barrell property and the river“Fish orange '''grove'''” is inscribed left of center.
File:06051183.jpg|Lieut[[J. BirchC. Loudon]], "'''Groves'''", in ''Plan An Encyclopædia of St. Augustine, Fla.Gardening''(1826), 943, 1819figs. “Fish orange grove” is inscribed on island629a and 629b.
File:2037.jpg|Thomas Kelah Wharton, "'''Grove''' of Poplars with a Memorial Bust, David Hosack Estate, Hyde Park, New York," c. 1832. File:1077.jpg|James Smillie, “Green“Greenwood [[Cemetery/Burying ground/Burial ground|Cemetery]],” in Nehemiah Cleaveland, ''Green-Wood CemeteryIllustrated'' (1847), flyleaf. “Sycamore '''Grove'''." File:1087.jpg|James Smillie, “Bay-'''Grove''' Hill,” in Nehemiah Cleaveland, ''Green-Wood Illustrated'' (1847), flyleafopp. 26. File:2297.jpg|Matthew Vassar, ''Plan of Springside'', 1851." Locust '''Grove''' Drive (18)."
File:1087.jpg|James Smillie, “Bay-Grove Hill,” in Nehemiah Cleaveland, ''Green-Wood Illustrated'' (1847), opp. 26.
</gallery>
<gallery widths="170px" heights="170px" perrow="7">
File:1378.jpg|Batty Langley, “Design of an [[Avenue ]] with its Wildernesses [[Wilderness]]es on each Side,” in ''New Principles of Gardening'' (1728), pl. V.
File:1382.jpg|Batty Langley, “An Improvement of a beautiful Garden at Twickenham,” in ''New Principles of Gardening'' (1728), pl. IX.
File:1384.jpg|Batty Langley, One of two “Designs for Gardens that lye irregularly to the ground House. . . House opening to the North upon a plain [[Parterre ]] of Grass,” in ''New Principles of Gardening'' (1728), pl. XI.
File:1386.jpg|Batty Langley, “Part of a [[Park ]] Exhibiting their manner of Planting, after a more Grand manner than has been done before,” in ''New Principles of Gardening'' (1728), pl. XIII.
File:0036.jpg|Thomas Lee Shippen, Plan of Westover, 1783. The '''grove ''' is marked at “&c” at upper left quadrant.
File:0069.jpg|Samuel Vaughan, Plan of [[Mount Vernon]], 1787.
File:09052271.jpg|[[Pierre Pharoux]], Plan for of Esperanza (Speranza), 1794–95.1794, Architectural drawings and maps of Pierre Pharoux, HM 2028
File:09062274.jpg|[[Pierre Pharoux]], Plan of Courthouse [[Square]] in Esperanza, SperanzaArchitectural drawings and maps of Pierre Pharoux, 1795, 1794–95HM 2028.
File:0087.jpg|[[Benjamin Henry Latrobe]], ''[[View ]] of [[Mount Vernon ]] looking to the North'', July 17, 1796.
File:0710.jpg|J. Weiss, ''Home of George Washington, “The Father of His Country,”'' 1797.
File:1052.jpg|Daniel Wadsworth, “Monte-Video,” in Benjamin Silliman, ''Remarks Made on a Short Tour between Hartford and Quebec, in the Autumn of 1819'' (1824), frontispiece.
File:1183.jpg|[[J. C. Loudon]], Groves, in ''An Encyclopædia of Gardening'' (1826), 943, figs. 629a and b. File:1097.jpg|Thomas S. Sinclair, “Plan of the [[Pleasure ground/Pleasure garden|Pleasure Grounds ]] and Farm of the [[Pennsylvania Hospital for the Insane ]] at Philadelphia,” in Thomas S. Kirkbride, ''American Journal of Insanity'' 4, no. 4 (April 1848): pl. opp. 280.
File:0771.jpg|[[Frances Palmer]], “Ground [[Plot ]] of Brier Cottage,” in William H. Ranlett, ''The Architect'' (1849), vol. 1, pl. 2.
File:0783.jpg|[[Frances Palmer]], “Waldwic Cottage,” in William H. Ranlett, ''The Architect'' (1851), vol. 2, 31.
File:0135.jpg|Unknown, Gardiner Gilman House Overmantel, c. 1800.
File:2037.jpg|Thomas Kelah Wharton, ''Grove of Poplars with a Memorial Bust, David Hosack Estate, Hyde Park, New York'', c. 1832.
</gallery>

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