[[File:0073.jpg|thumb|right|Fig. 3, [[Thomas Jefferson]], Plan of serpentine [[walk]] and flower [[bed]]s at [[Monticello]], May 23, 1808.]]
The use of border to refer to a specific area of the designed landscape devoted to the display of plants and trees changed little during the period between 1600 and 1850. Yet several different, albeit related, meanings of border are found in the American context. A border could refer to the demarcated, outer edge of a discrete and often relatively large garden feature, such as a [[parterre]], [[lawn]], or grass [[plat]] [Figs. 1 and 2]. Antoine-Joseph Dezallier d’Argenville (1712) employed this sense of border while counseling readers to enclose [[parterre]]s to protect the plants within. [[George Washington]], in 1785, requested that several apricot and peach trees be moved to the borders of his grass [[plat]]s. The ''Encyclopaedia, or A Dictionary of Arts, Sciences and Miscellaneous Literature'' (1798) recommended three-to four-foot borders for the outer boundary of a gravel [[walk]] surrounding a [[lawn]].
[[File:0078.jpg|thumb|left|Fig. 4, Anonymous, Plan for a garden, mid-18th century.]]
===Usage===
*[[Washington, George]], February 9, 12, and 18, and March 12 and 14, 1785, describing [[Mount Vernon]], plantation of George Washington, Fairfax County, VA (Jackson and Twohig, eds., 1978: 4:87, 89, 92; 101–2)<ref>George Washington, ''The Diaries of George Washington'', ed. Donald Jackson and Dorothy Twohig, 6 vols. (Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1978), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/9ZIIR3FT view on Zotero].</ref>
:“Transplanted an English Walnut tree. . . but from their size and age I have little expectation of their living. Also moved the Apricots & Peach Trees which stood in the '''borders''' of the grass [[plat]]s which from the same causes little expectation is entertained of their living. . .
*[[C. M. (Charles Mason) Hovey|Hovey, C. M. (Charles Mason)]], October 1839, “Some Remarks upon several Gardens and Nurseries in Providence, Burlington, (N.J.) and Baltimore,” describing the residence of Horace Binney, Burlington, NJ (''Magazine of Horticulture'' 5: 363)<ref>C. M. Hovey, “Some Remarks upon Several Gardens and Nurseries, in Providence, Burlington, (N.J.) and Balitmore,” ''Magazine of Horticulture, Botany, and All Useful Discoveries and Improvements in Rural Affairs'' 5, no. 10 (October 1839): 361–76, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/N4I3HBZD view on Zotero].</ref>
:“The [[flower garden]] is nearly a [[square]], and is laid out with one main circular [[walk]], running round the whole, and a '''border''' for flowers on each side; the centre forming a [[lawn]] scattered over with several large fruit trees.”
*[[C. M. (Charles Mason) Hovey|Hovey, C. M. (Charles Mason)]], November 1839, “Notices of Gardens and Horticulture, in Salem, Mass.,” describing Elias Hasket Derby House, Salem, MA (''Magazine of Horticulture'' 5: 410–11)<ref>Charles Mason Hovey, “Notices of Gardens and Horticulture, in Salem, Mass.,” ''Magazine of Horticulture, Botany, and All Useful Discoveries and Improvements in Rural Affairs'' 5, no. 11 (November 1839): 401–16, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/25HW5NZ9 view on Zotero].</ref>
:“The garden lies to the south of the mansion, and is, we should judge, nearly a [[square]]. It is laid out with straight [[walk]]s, running at right angles, with flower '''borders''' on each side of the [[alley]]s, and the [[square]]s occupied by fruit trees.”
:“In the first place, the [[nursery]] is laid out in angular divisions, diverging from a common centre. These divisions are separated from each other by wide [[walk]]s and [[avenue]]s, on each side of which is a '''border''' some eight or nine feet wide. These '''borders''' are planted with specimen trees, inside of which are the [[quarter]]s for the [[nursery]] stock.”
 
 
===Citations===
*[[C. M. (Charles Mason) Hovey|Hovey, C. M. (Charles Mason)]], March 1840, “Some Remarks on the Formation of the Margins of Flower Beds on Grass Plots or Lawns” (''Magazine of Horticulture'' 6: 84–85)<ref>C. M. Hovey, “Some Remarks on the Formation of the Margins of Flower Beds on Grass Plots or Lawns,” ''Magazine of Horticulture, Botany, and All Useful Discoveries and Improvements in Rural Affairs'' 6, no. 3 (March 1840): 84–86, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/keywords_in_early_american_landscape_design/items/itemKey/ETMJJXR6/q/Some%20Remarks%20on%20the%20Formation view on Zotero].</ref>
:“We are glad to learn that our observations have been the means of drawing attention to the subject, and that they have, in some instances, induced amateurs to adopt the style of planting small grass [[plot]]s, and forming upon them circular, or other shaped [[bed]]s, for flowers. . . the method is, generally, to be much preferred to the old, and almost universally followed system, of forming gravelled [[walk]]s, with board, grass, or box [[edging]]s, and dug '''borders'''.”
<gallery widths="170px" heights="170px" perrow="7">
 
File:1055.jpg|Michael van der Gucht, “Four Designs for Cloisters,” in A.-J. Dézallier d’Argenville, ''The Theory and Practice of Gardening'' (1712), pl. 9.
File:0078.jpg|Anonymous, Plan for a garden, mid-18th century.
File:0166.jpg|[[Thomas Jefferson]], Sketch of the garden and flower [[bed]]s at [[Monticello]], June 7, 1807. “Oval [[bed]]s of flowering [[shrub]]s” [written on verso].
File:1037.jpg|William Cobbett, “Plan for a Garden,” in ''The American Gardener'' (1819), p. 33, pl. 1. “The Hot-[[bed]] Ground'''borders''', NoNos 2. 1& 3 are 9 feet wide."
File:1312.jpg|[[J. C. Loudon]], Moveable edgings: basket edging and the earthenware '''border''', in ''An Encyclopaedia of Gardening'' (1826), p. 296, figs. 219 and 220.
File:1346.jpg|[[J. C. Loudon]], Plan of a [[Flower_garden|flower garden]] with irregular '''borders''' (c), in ''An Encyclopaedia of Gardening'' (1826), p. 791, fig. 540.
File:0935.jpg|Alexander Walsh, “Plan of a Garden,” in ''New England Farmer'' 19, no. 39 (March 31, 1841): 308. "B B B outside '''borders''' 6 ft. wide. . ."
File:1050.jpg|Richard Dolben, “Plan for [[Flower_garden|Flower Garden]],” 1847.
File:0393.jpg|Anonymous, “English [[Flower_garden|Flower-Garden]],” in [[A. J. Downing]], ''A Treatise on the Theory and Practice of Landscape Gardening'' (1849), p. : 434, fig. 78.
File:0942.jpg|Anonymous, “Plan of a Suburban Garden,” in [[A. J. Downing]], ed., ''Horticulturist'' 3, no. 8 (February 1849): pl. opp. 353. “The “'''borders'''” are “under “(under the vines, E,).”Inscription on p. 380.
</gallery>
<gallery widths="170px" heights="170px" perrow="7">
 
File:1055.jpg|Michael van der Gucht, “Four Designs for Cloisters,” in A.-J. Dézallier d’Argenville, ''The Theory and Practice of Gardening'' (1712), pl. 9.
File:0073.jpg|[[Thomas Jefferson]], Plan of serpentine [[walk]] and flower [[bed]]s at [[Monticello]], May 23, 1808.
File:0253.jpg|John Durand, ''Two Little Boys in a Garden'', c. 1765.
File:00652262.jpg|Anonymous, ''The South West [[Prospect ]] of the [[Seat ]] of Colonel George Boyd of Portsmouth'', NHNew Hampshire, New England, 1774''.
File:0256.jpg|The Beardsley Limner, ''Mrs. Hezekiah Beardsley (Elizabeth Davis)'', c. 1788–90.

Warning: Cannot modify header information - headers already sent by (output started at /opt/rh/httpd24/root/var/www/html/mediawiki/extensions/MobileFrontend/includes/diff/InlineDiffFormatter.php:103) in /opt/rh/httpd24/root/var/www/html/mediawiki/includes/WebResponse.php on line 42

Warning: Cannot modify header information - headers already sent by (output started at /opt/rh/httpd24/root/var/www/html/mediawiki/extensions/MobileFrontend/includes/diff/InlineDiffFormatter.php:103) in /opt/rh/httpd24/root/var/www/html/mediawiki/includes/WebResponse.php on line 42

Warning: Cannot modify header information - headers already sent by (output started at /opt/rh/httpd24/root/var/www/html/mediawiki/extensions/MobileFrontend/includes/diff/InlineDiffFormatter.php:103) in /opt/rh/httpd24/root/var/www/html/mediawiki/includes/WebResponse.php on line 42

Warning: Cannot modify header information - headers already sent by (output started at /opt/rh/httpd24/root/var/www/html/mediawiki/extensions/MobileFrontend/includes/diff/InlineDiffFormatter.php:103) in /opt/rh/httpd24/root/var/www/html/mediawiki/includes/WebResponse.php on line 42
Changes - History of Early American Landscape Design
A Project of the Center for Advanced Study in the Visual Arts, National Gallery of Art
History of Early American Landscape Design
HEALD will be upgrading in spring 2021. New features and content will be available in May. Thank you for your patience as we modernize!

Changes

[http://www.nga.gov/content/ngaweb/research/casva/research-projects.html A Project of the National Gallery of Art, Center for Advanced Study in the Visual Arts ]
A Project of the Center for Advanced Study in the Visual Arts

National Gallery of Art, Washington


Warning: Cannot modify header information - headers already sent by (output started at /opt/rh/httpd24/root/var/www/html/mediawiki/extensions/MobileFrontend/includes/diff/InlineDiffFormatter.php:103) in /opt/rh/httpd24/root/var/www/html/mediawiki/includes/WebResponse.php on line 42

Warning: Cannot modify header information - headers already sent by (output started at /opt/rh/httpd24/root/var/www/html/mediawiki/extensions/MobileFrontend/includes/diff/InlineDiffFormatter.php:103) in /opt/rh/httpd24/root/var/www/html/mediawiki/includes/WebResponse.php on line 42

Warning: Cannot modify header information - headers already sent by (output started at /opt/rh/httpd24/root/var/www/html/mediawiki/extensions/MobileFrontend/includes/diff/InlineDiffFormatter.php:103) in /opt/rh/httpd24/root/var/www/html/mediawiki/includes/WebResponse.php on line 42