==Texts==
[[File:2095.jpg|thumb|Fig. 5, Pierre-Charles L’Enfant, ''Plan of the city intended for the permanent seat of the government of t[he] United States'', 1791.]]
*<div id="LEnfant_resort"></div>[[Pierre-Charles L’Enfant|L’Enfant, Pierre-Charles]], June 22, 1791, describing in a report to [[George Washington]] his plans for Washington, DC (quoted in Caemmerer 1950: 151&ndash;53)<ref>Caemmerer 1950, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/PHWTAERT/ view on Zotero].</ref> [[#LEnfant_resort_cite|back up to History]]
:“I placed the three grand Departments of State contigous to the principle Palace and on the way leading to the Congressional House the gardens of the one together with the [[park]] and other improvement on the dependency are connected with the publique [[walk]] and [[avenue]] to the Congress house in a manner as most [must] form a whole as grand as it will be agreeable and convenient to the whole city which form [from] the distribution of the local [locale] will have an early access to this place of general resort and all along side of which may be placed play houses, room of assembly, accademies and all such sort of places as may be attractive to the learned and afford diversion to the idle.” [Fig. 5] [[#LEnfant_resort_cite|back up to History]]
[[File:1134.jpg|thumb|Fig. 6, Facsimile reproduction of Pierre-Charles L’Enfant’s ''Plan of the City intended for the Permanent Seat of the Government of the United States'', made in 1887.]]
*<div id="LEnfant_Grand"></div>[[Pierre-Charles L’Enfant|L’Enfant, Pierre-Charles]], January 4, 1792, from notes on “Plan of the City” describing Washington, DC (quoted in Caemmerer 1950: 163–65)<ref>Caemmerer 1950, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/PHWTAERT view on Zotero].</ref> [[#LEnfant_Grand_cite|back up to History]]
:“F. Grand [[Cascade]], formed of water from the sources of the Tiber.
:“K. well-improved field. . . .” [Fig. 6]
[[#LEnfant_Grand_cite|back up to History]]
*Anonymous, January 2, 1808, describing in the ''Washington Expositor'' the National Mall, Washington, DC (quoted in O’Malley 1989: 99–100)<ref>O’Malley 1989, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/IJ3JTTJB view on Zotero].</ref>
:“At present these large appropriations afford an increase to the pasturage of the city, more beneficial to the poor citizens, than their culture in the ordinary courses. . . . by laying off those in their occupancy so as to afford ample [[walk]]s open at seasonable hours and under proper regulations to the public, it will give to the city, much earlier than there is otherwise reasonable cause to hope for, agreeable [[promenade]]s, as conducive to the health of the inhabitants, as to the beauty of the places.”
*[[Robert Mills|Mills, Robert]], February 23?, 1841, in a letter to Joel R. Poinsett, describing his design for the National Mall, Washington, DC (Scott, ed., 1990: n.p.)<ref> Scott 1990, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/9CEBJWW8 view on Zotero].</ref>
:“Agreeably to your requisition to prepare a plan of improvement to that part of the [[Mall]] lying between 7th and 12th Street West for a [[botanic garden]] . . . I have the honor to submit the following Report. . . .
:“Drawing No. 1 presents a general plan of the entire [[Mall]], including that annexed to the President’s house, with the particular improvement proposed of that part intended for the Institution and its objects. . . .[<span id="Fig_3_cite"></span>[[#Fig_3|See Fig. 3]]]
:“The relative position of the Capitol, President’s House, and other public buildings are laid down, as also the position of the proposed buildings for the Institution; the adjacent streets and [[avenue]]s are also shown, with the line of the [[Canal]] which courses through the City, at the foot of the Capitol hill to the Eastern Branch near the Navy Yard, thus making of the south western section, a complete island. . . .
:“The principle upon which this plan is founded is two fold, one is to provide suitable space for a [[Botanic garden]], the other to provide locations for subjects allied to agriculture, the propagation of useful and ornamental trees native and foreign, the provision of sites for the erection of suitable buildings to accommodate the various subjects to be lectured on and taught in the Institution. . . .
:“The [[Botanic garden]] is laid out in the centre fronting and opening to the south. On each side of this the grounds are laid out in serpentine [[walk]]s and in [[picturesque]] divisions forming [[plat]]s for grouping the various trees to be introduced and creating shady [[walk]]s for those visiting the establishments. . . .
:“A range of trees is proposed to surround three sides of the [[square]] which is intended to be laid open by an iron or other railing, the north side to be enclosed with a high brick wall to serve as a shelter and to secure the various [[hothouse|hot houses]] and other buildings of inferior character.
:“The main building for the Institution is located about 300 feet south of the [[wall]] fronting the [[Botanic garden]], from which it is separated by a circular road, in the centre of which is a [[fountain]] of water from the [[basin]] of which pipes are led underground thro’ the [[walk]]s of the garden, for irrigating the same at pleasure, the [[fountain]]s may be supplied from the [[canal]] flowing near the north [[wall]] of inclosure. . . .
:“By means of Groups and [[vista]]s of trees, [[picturesque]] [[view]]s may be obtained of the various buildings and other such objects as may be of a monumental character and thus there would be an attraction produced which would draw many of our citizens and strangers to partake of the pleasure of promenading here.”
*Mudd, Ignatius, 1849, describing the grounds of the United States Capitol and the reconstruction of the National Mall, Washington, DC (U.S. Congress, 31st Congress, 1st Session, doc. 30)
:“A disposition on the part of Congress to make the [[public ground|public grounds]] what they were originally designed to be. . . . An ornament and attraction to the capital of the nation.”
[[File:0023.jpg|thumb|Fig. 7, A. J. Downing, ''Plan Showing Proposed Method of Laying Out the Public Grounds at Washington'', 1851. Manuscript copy by Nathaniel Michler, 1867.]]
*<div id="Downing"></div>[[Andrew Jackson Downing|Downing, Andrew Jackson]], 1851, describing plans for improving the [[public ground|public grounds]] in Washington, DC (quoted in Washburn 1967: 54&ndash;55)<ref>Wilcomb E. Washburn, “Vision of Life for the Mall,” ''AIA Journal'' 47, no. 3 (March 1967): 52&ndash;59. [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/TA59MHC7 view on Zotero]</ref> [[#Downing_cite|back up to History]]
:“My object in this Plan has been three-fold:
:“This comprises the open Ground directly south of the President’s House. Adopting suggestions made me at Washington I propose to keep the large area of this ground open, as a place for parade or military reviews, as well as public festivities or celebrations. A circular carriage [[drive]] 40 feet wide and nearly a mile long shaded by an [[avenue]] of Elms, surrounds the Parade, while a series of foot-paths, 10 feet wide, winding through [[thicket]]s of trees and shrubs, forms the boundary to this [[park]], and would make an agreeable shaded [[promenade]] for pedestrians.
:“I propose to take down the present small stone [[gate]]s to the President’s Grounds, and place at the end of Pennsylvania Avenue a large and handsome [[arch|Archway]] of marble, which shall not only form the main entrance from the City to the whole of the proposed new Grounds, but shall also be one of the principal Architectural ornaments of the city; inside of this [[arch]]-way is a semicircle with three [[gate]]s commanding three carriage roads. Two of these lead into the Parade or President’s [[Park]], the third is a private carriage-[[drive]] into the President’s grounds; this [[gate]] should be protected by a Porter’s lodge, and should only be open on reception days, thus making the President’s grounds on this side of the house quite private at all other times. . . .
:“2nd: Monument [[Park]].
:“This comprises the fine [[plot]] of ground surrounding the [[Washington Monument (Washington, DC)|Washington monument]] and bordered by the Potomac. To reach it from the President’s [[Park]] I propose to cross the [[canal]] by a wire suspension [[bridge]], sufficiently strong for carriages, which would permit vessels of moderate size to pass under it, and would be an ornamental feature in the grounds. I propose to plant Monument [[Park]] wholly with ''American'' trees, of large growth, disposed in open groups, so as to al[l]ow of fine [[vista]]s of the Potomac river. . . .
:“4th: Smithsonian [[Park]] or [[pleasure ground|Pleasure Grounds]].
:“6th: The [[Botanic Garden]].
:“This is the spot already selected for this purpose and containing three [[greenhouse|green-houses]]. It will probably at some future time, be filled with a collection of hardy plants. I have only shown how the carriage-[[drive]] should pass through it (Crossing the [[canal]] again here) and making the exit by a large [[gateway]] opposite the middle [[gate]] of the Capitol Grounds. . . .
:“The pleasing natural undulations of surface, where they occur, I propose to retain, instead of expending money in reducing them to a level. The surface of the [[Park]]s, generally, should be kept in grass or [[lawn]], and mown by the ''mowing machine'' used in England, by which, with a man and horse, the labor of six men can be done in one day. . . .
:“A national [[Park]] like this, laid out and planted in a thorough manner, would exercise as much influence on the public taste as [[Mount Auburn Cemetery]] near Boston, has done. Though only twenty years have elapsed since that spot was laid out, the lesson there taught has been so largely influential that at the present moment the United States, while they have no public [[park]]s, are acknowledged to possess the finest rural [[cemetery|cemeteries]] in the world. The [[public ground|Public Grounds]] at Washington treated in the manner I have here suggested, would undoubtedly become a Public School of Instruction in every thing that relates to the tasteful arrangement of [[park]]s and grounds, and the growth and culture of trees, while they would serve, more than anything else that could be devised, to embellish and give interest to the Capital. The straight lines and broad [[Avenue]]s of the streets of Washington would be pleasantly relieved and contrasted by the beauty of curved lines and natural groups of trees in the various [[park]]s. By its numerous public buildings and broad [[Avenue]]s, Washington will one day command the attention of every stranger, and if its un-improved [[public ground|public grounds]] are tastefully improved they will form the most perfect background or setting to the City, concealing many of its defects and heightening all its beauties.”[[#Downing_cite|back up to History]]
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