==History==
[[File:0974.jpg|thumb|left|Fig. 1, Joseph Jacques Ramée, ''Monument to the memory of general George Washington, to be erected at Baltimore'', design for the [[Washington_Monument_(Baltimore,_MD)|Washington Monument]], 1813.]]
[[File:0901.jpg|thumb|Fig. 2, George Bridport, Alternative designs for Washington Monument, [[Washington_Square_(Philadelphia,_PA)|Washington Square]], Philadelphia, 1816.]]
[[File:0855.jpg|thumb|Fig. 3, [[Alexander Jackson Davis]], ''Garden Arch at Montgomery Place'', c. 1850.]]
<span id="Chambers_cite"></span>Arch had three distinct, yet interrelated meanings or applications in the context of 18th- and 19th-century American landscape design. <span id="Webster_cite"></span>The first, which is the most heavily documented, is the use of arches in association with commemorative celebrations, as specified by [[Ephraim Chambers]] in 1741 ([[#Chambers|view text]]) and reiterated by [[Noah Webster]] in 1828 ([[#Webster|view text]]). The antecedents to this practice include the use of ancient Roman arches: large-scale, inverted U-shaped structures, erected to memorialize military victories. In North America, the building of such celebratory arches occurred most frequently in the immediate post-Revolutionary period. For specific festivities, arches were often made of impermanent materials, as in the case of the temporary arch [[Charles Willson Peale]] created for Philadelphia to mark the declaration of peace on December 2, 1783. General [[George Washington|George Washington’s]] arrival in cities in the early federalist period was frequently marked by the erection of processional arches, such as the arch of cut laurel and evergreen branches erected at Gray’s Ferry in Philadelphia in 1789 [<span id="Fig_6_cite"></span>[[#Fig_6|See Fig. 6]]]. The arch, with its classical referents, was also the symbol of choice for permanent monuments to [[George Washington|President Washington]] in the early 19th century. The designs of Joseph Jacques Ramée in Baltimore and of George Bridport in Philadelphia [Figs. 1 and 2] not only commemorated [[George Washington|Washington’s]] achievements but also marked the entrance as a space set aside for public use.
[[File:17590855.jpg|thumb|left|Fig. 43, [[J. C. Loudon]], “Entrance to the [[Flower_garden|Flower-gardenAlexander Jackson Davis]] at Wimbledon House,” in ''The Suburban GardenerGarden Arch at Montgomery Place'' (1838), p. 641, figc. 2671850.]]
These examples point to a second, closely related function of arches as spatial dividers or [[gate]]s, which also relies upon antique precedents of monumental arches marking entrances to cities or towns. <span id="Southgate_cite"></span>This practice was translated to the American context with shifts in scale and message. Eliza Southgate’s description (1802) of the garden at the Elias Hasket Derby Farm, for example, indicates that arches were used to mark three subdivisions of the landscape and to direct the visitor from the lower to the upper garden ([[#Southgate|view text]]).
[[File:1759.jpg|thumb|Fig. 4, [[J. C. Loudon]], “Entrance to the [[Flower_garden|Flower-garden]] at Wimbledon House,” in ''The Suburban Gardener'' (1838), p. 641, fig. 267.]]
<span id="Peale_cite"></span>The third use of the term stemmed from its most basic meaning, summed up by [[Noah Webster|Webster]] in 1828 as “a segment of part of a circle,” translated in architecture into “a concave or hollow structure of stone or brick”. [[Charles Willson Peale|Peale’s]] description of the stone arch that he created over the stream in his garden exemplifies this definition of arch ([[#Peale|view text]]). Neither celebratory in nature nor necessarily acting as a spatial divider, the arch created a small cave-like space that [[Charles Willson Peale|Peale]] tried unsuccessfully to use as a root cellar.
[[File:1758.jpg|thumb|Fig. 8, [[J. C. Loudon]], “[[Rustic_style|Rustic]] arch and [[vase]],” in ''The Suburban Gardener'' (1838), p. 581, fig. 231.]]
*[[Peale, Charles Willson]], c. 1825, describing Philadelphia, PA (Miller et al., eds., 2000: 5:91)<ref>Lillian B. Miller et al., eds., ''The Selected Papers of Charles Willson Peale and His Family'', vol. 5, ''The Autobiography of Charles Willson Peale'' (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2000), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/IZAKPCBG view on Zotero].</ref>
[[File:1758.jpg|thumb|Fig. 8, [[J. C. Loudon]], “[[Rustic_style|Rustic]] arch and [[vase]],” in ''The Suburban Gardener'' (1838), p. 581, fig. 231.]]
<div id="Fig_9"></div>[[File:1757.jpg|thumb|Fig. 9, [[J. C. Loudon]], “View of the [[Rustic_style|rustic]] arch,” in ''The Suburban Gardener'' (1838), p. 586, fig. 240. [[#Fig_9_cite|back up to History]]]]
*[[J. C. (John Claudius) Loudon|Loudon, J. C. (John Claudius)]], 1838, describing the grounds of the Lawrencian Villa, residence of Mrs. Lawrence, Drayton Green, near London, England (1838: 581, 584)<ref>J. C. (John Claudius) Loudon, ''The Suburban Gardener, and Villa Companion'' (London: Longman et al., 1838), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/BQVBJ48F view on Zotero].</ref>

Warning: Cannot modify header information - headers already sent by (output started at /opt/rh/httpd24/root/var/www/html/mediawiki/extensions/MobileFrontend/includes/diff/InlineDiffFormatter.php:59) in /opt/rh/httpd24/root/var/www/html/mediawiki/includes/WebResponse.php on line 42

Warning: Cannot modify header information - headers already sent by (output started at /opt/rh/httpd24/root/var/www/html/mediawiki/extensions/MobileFrontend/includes/diff/InlineDiffFormatter.php:59) in /opt/rh/httpd24/root/var/www/html/mediawiki/includes/WebResponse.php on line 42

Warning: Cannot modify header information - headers already sent by (output started at /opt/rh/httpd24/root/var/www/html/mediawiki/extensions/MobileFrontend/includes/diff/InlineDiffFormatter.php:59) in /opt/rh/httpd24/root/var/www/html/mediawiki/includes/WebResponse.php on line 42

Warning: Cannot modify header information - headers already sent by (output started at /opt/rh/httpd24/root/var/www/html/mediawiki/extensions/MobileFrontend/includes/diff/InlineDiffFormatter.php:59) in /opt/rh/httpd24/root/var/www/html/mediawiki/includes/WebResponse.php on line 42
Changes - History of Early American Landscape Design
A Project of the Center for Advanced Study in the Visual Arts, National Gallery of Art
History of Early American Landscape Design

Changes

[http://www.nga.gov/content/ngaweb/research/casva/research-projects.html A Project of the National Gallery of Art, Center for Advanced Study in the Visual Arts ]
A Project of the Center for Advanced Study in the Visual Arts

National Gallery of Art, Washington


Warning: Cannot modify header information - headers already sent by (output started at /opt/rh/httpd24/root/var/www/html/mediawiki/extensions/MobileFrontend/includes/diff/InlineDiffFormatter.php:59) in /opt/rh/httpd24/root/var/www/html/mediawiki/includes/WebResponse.php on line 42

Warning: Cannot modify header information - headers already sent by (output started at /opt/rh/httpd24/root/var/www/html/mediawiki/extensions/MobileFrontend/includes/diff/InlineDiffFormatter.php:59) in /opt/rh/httpd24/root/var/www/html/mediawiki/includes/WebResponse.php on line 42

Warning: Cannot modify header information - headers already sent by (output started at /opt/rh/httpd24/root/var/www/html/mediawiki/extensions/MobileFrontend/includes/diff/InlineDiffFormatter.php:59) in /opt/rh/httpd24/root/var/www/html/mediawiki/includes/WebResponse.php on line 42