==History==
[[File:1009.jpg|left|thumb|Fig. 1, Anonymous, ''Homestead of Humphrey H. Nye, New Bedford'', 1860–65.]]
Throughout the history of American gardens, hedges were used for a variety of practical and ornamental purposes. The feature created divisions within the garden, protected tender plants from cross-winds, formed barriers against both animal and human intruders, screened unsightly [[view]]s, outlined ornamental [[bed]]s and [[walk]]s [Fig. 1], and brought flowering variety to the garden. <span id="Downing_cite"></span>According to [[Andrew Jackson Downing|A. J. Downing]] (1838), hedges were ideal for these purposes because their architectural form functioned much like a [[fence]] or [[wall]], while their organic material allowed them to harmonize with planting arrangements and to articulate other forms of architecture to the landscape ([[#Downing|view text]]). <span id="Deane_cite"></span>As [[Samuel Deane]] noted in 1790, live hedges were preferable to [[fence]]s and “dead hedges” (wattle [[fence]]s using woven plant material) because the living plants created a “perpetual fence” whose posts never decayed and stakes never failed ([[#Deane|view text]]). Their versatility also made them adaptable to any scale, whether enclosing a field, screening a privy, or edging a [[bed]] (see [[Fence]]).
<div id="Fig_2"></div>[[File:0969.jpg|thumb|Fig. 2, [[Thomas Jefferson]], Plan of the grounds at Monticello, 1806. [[#Fig_2_cite|Back to texts.]]]]
Hedges were found throughout America, but the plant materials employed in them varied, depending on the purpose of the hedge and the climate of its particular region. <span id="Prince_cite"></span>In 1828, William Prince praised hedges, particularly of buckthorn and maclura, as windbreaks affording protection in areas subject to severe winds ([[#Prince|view text]]). Fast-growing evergreens were recommended for hedges needed to screen an area, although they were not advised for situations calling for trimmed effect or where a long shadow was undesirable. In these cases, the arborvitae, which grows quickly and densely, was the most common choice. At times, the screening effect does not appear to have been intentional; <span id="Hovey_cite"></span>in 1839, for example, [[C. M. (Charles Mason) Hovey|C. M. Hovey]] described the fish [[pond]] of the [[Elias Hasket Derby House]] in Salem, Massachusetts, as being entirely surrounded by an eight-foot high impenetrable hedge ([[#Hovey|view text]]). Where such an effect was desired, various types of thorn were effective as impenetrable barriers. [[Andrew Jackson Downing|Downing]] noted that “there are few creatures, however bold, who care to ‘come to the ''scratch''’ twice with such a foe.”<ref>A. J. Downing, “A Chapter on Hedges,” ''Horticulturist'' 1 (February 1847): 346, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/keywords_in_early_american_landscape_design/items/itemKey/3BBFEPHX view on Zotero].</ref> Cacti were similarly used at the California missions to create barriers around fields. Plants for ornamental hedges, however, were selected for their foliage, blossoms, and berries. For instance, a wild rose hedge was planted at [[Mount Vernon]], while the deep green foliage of the privet was admired at [[Oatlands]], D. P. Manice’s residence in Hempstead, New York. Because of their combination of flowering beauty and edible produce, fruit trees, such as apple, peach, and orange, were sometimes planted as [[espalier]] hedges (see [[Espalier]]). [[Thomas Jefferson]] capitalized on the many uses of hedges: he designed thorn hedges to enclose his [[orchard]] and garden area [Fig. 2], planned hedgethorn and privet or cedar to line his [[slope]]s, and, in a proposal of 1771, used a hedge to screen his [[icehouse]] from view [Fig. 3].<ref>Jefferson purchased much of his plant material for Monticello from Thomas Main, a nurseryman and author of an 1807 work on hedges. See Brenda Bullion, “Early American Farming and Gardening Literature: ‘Adapted to the Climates and Seasons of the United States,’” ''Journal of Garden History'' 12, no. 1 (1992): 37–38, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/5MKAGJ2V view on Zotero].</ref>
[[File:0167.jpg|left|thumb|Fig. 3, [[Thomas Jefferson]], General plan of the summit of Monticello Mountain, before May 1768.]]
Early evidence of hedges in the American landscape may be found in books of instruction on the delineation or division of arable fields, a practice taken directly from European agricultural tradition. Hedges created by close planting and interweaving of [[shrub]]s to create a dense barrier were categorized in many horticultural and agricultural treatises as a type of [[fence]], rather than identified with other planting arrangements such as [[thicket]], [[grove]], and group. The discourse about the advantages of hedges over [[fence]]s was particularly rich in the American agricultural literature of the early 19th century. Proponents of the new “scientific agriculture,” such as John Adams and Ezekiel Hersey Derby, reported their experiments with different plant varieties and techniques for forming hedges [Fig. 4].<ref>For example, see Ezekiel Hersey Derby, “Cultivation and Management of the Buckthorn. . . for Live Hedges,” ''Horticultural Register'' 2 (January 1, 1836): 27–29. For a discussion of scientific farming in the Boston area, see Charles Arthur Hammond, “‘Where the Arts and the Virtues Unite’: Country Life Near Boston, 1637–1864” (PhD diss., Boston University, 1982), chapters 2 and 3, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/VVFZVIKT view on Zotero].</ref>
The aesthetic treatment of garden hedges was discussed and debated throughout much of the 18th and 19th centuries. Authors and gardeners variously praised and dismissed both trimmed and untrimmed hedges, depending upon the prevailing taste and the particular situation of the hedge. <span id="Stiles_cite"></span>[[Ezra Stiles]] admired the spruce hedges at [[Springettsbury]], near Philadelphia, which were cut into beautiful figures in 1754 ([[#Stiles|view text]]), and in 1762 <span id="Callender_cite"></span>[[Hannah Callender Sansom]] described a hedge [[labyrinth]] at [[Belmont (Philadelphia)|Belmont]], [[William Peters|Judge William Peters's]] estate near Philadelphia ([[#Callender|view text]]). <span id="Ware_cite"></span>In contrast, [[Isaac Ware]], writing in 1756, praised the “natural hedge. . . mimicking savage nature” ([[#Ware|view text]]). In 1832, both [[H. A. S. Dearborn]] and [[Thomas Bridgeman]] commended trimmed and trained hedges while other writers, such as [[Andrew Jackson Downing|Downing]] and [[Jane Loudon]], allowed the merits of both formal and [[natural style|naturalistic]] styles. <span id="Loudon_cite"></span>In 1845 [[Jane Loudon|Loudon]] praised evergreen hedges “neatly cut, so as to form living [[wall]]s,” while in the [[flower garden]] she proposed a less “stiff and formal” appearance that would “harmonize. . . with the flowers” ([[#Loudon|view text]]). <span id="Downing_cite"></span>In the 1849 edition of his treatise, [[Andrew Jackson Downing|Downing]] noted that trimmed hedges were “elegant substitutes for stone or wooden [[fence]]s,” while irregular or [[picturesque]] hedges were handsome additions to a landscape of the “[[natural style]]” ([[#Downing_1849|view text]]).
—''Elizabeth Kryder-Reid''
*[[J. P. Brissot de Warville|Brissot de Warville, J. P.]], September 6, 1788, describing the enclosure of pastures in America (1792: 253)<ref>J.-P. (Jacques-Pierre) Brissot de Warville, ''New Travels in the United States Performed in 1788'' (New York: T. & J. Swords, 1792), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/TKXB2WAU view on Zotero].</ref>
:“Mr. L. thinks it best to replace them [wooden rail [[fence]]s] by ditches six feet deep, of which he throws the earth upon his [[meadow]]s, and [[border]]s the sides with '''hedges'''; and thus renders the passage impracticable to the cattle. This is an agricultural operation, which cannot be too much recommended to the Americans.”
*[[John Lambert|Lambert, John]], 1816, describing the vicinity of Charleston, SC (1816: 2:228)<ref name="Lambert 1816">John Lambert, ''Travels through Canada, and the United States of North America in the Years 1806, 1807, and 1808'', 2 vols. (London: Baldwin, Cradock, and Joy, 1816), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/T9KUEDWH view on Zotero].</ref>
:“Between the tavern and Charleston, the road is lined with the '''hedges''' and [[fence]]s belonging to several handsome [[plantation]]s: the houses are, however, seldom seen, being built a considerable distance back.”
*[[John Lambert|Lambert, John]], 1816, describing the northern and mid-Atlantic States (1816: 2:231–32)<ref name="Lambert 1816"></ref>
:“A contrary practice is adopted in the northern and middle states, where a succession of farms, [[meadow]]s, gardens, and habitations, continually meet the eye of the traveller; and if '''hedges''' were substituted for rail [[fence]]s, those States would very much resemble some of the English counties.”
*Hulme, Thomas, June 28, 1818, describing the settlement of Morris Birkbeck, [[New Harmony]], IN (quoted in Cobbett 1819b: 475)<ref>William Cobbett, ''The American Gardener'', 1st ed. (Claremont, NH: Manufacturing Company, 1819), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/9CBPIU6H view on Zotero].</ref>
:“910. I very much admire Mr. Birkbeck’s mode of fencing. . . . The banks [of the ditches] were growing beautifully, and looked altogether very neat as well as formidable; though a live '''hedge''' (which he intends to have) instead of dead poles and rails, upon top, would make the [[fence]] far more effectual as well as handsomer.”
[[File:0662.jpg|thumb|Fig. 7, Anonymous, Rose-Lawn, residence of Edgar M. Vanderburgh, c. 1830-40, in Alice B. Lockwood, ''Gardens of Colony and State'' (1931), vol. 1, p. 296.]]
*[[Martha Ogle Forman|Forman, Martha Ogle]], April 21, 1823, describing Rose Hill, home of [[Martha Ogle Forman]], Baltimore County, MD (1976: 158)<ref name="Forman 1976">Martha Ogle Forman, ''Plantation Life at Rose Hill: The Diaries of Martha Ogle Forman, 1814–1845'' (Wilmington: Historical Society of Delaware, 1976), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/EHQ6UZGE view on Zotero].</ref>
:“The hedger, Mr. Green, arrived here this evening, he laid a part of the Apple '''hedge''' and all the thorn '''hedge'''.” [Fig. 7]
*Waln, Robert, Jr., 1825, describing the [[Friends Asylum for the Insane]], near Frankford, PA (1825: 231–32)<ref>Robert Jr. Waln, “An Account of the Asylum for the Insane, Established by the Society of Friends, near Frankford, in the Vicinity of Philadelphia,” ''Philadelphia Journal of the Medical and Physical Sciences'' 1 (new series) (1825): 225–51, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/D39BHTPH/ view on Zotero].</ref>
:“The [[flower garden]], extending from the vestibule to a dark green '''hedge''' of cedar, which separates it from the [[kitchen garden]], offers a rich repast to the eye. . .
:“About twenty acres of the farm are in a state of cultivation; the rest is woodland. It is separated from the road which passes in front of it, by a flourishing thorn-'''hedge'''.”
*Committee of the Pennsylvania Horticultural Society, 1830, describing Sweet Briar, seat of [[Samuel Breck]], vicinity of Philadelphia, PA (quoted in Boyd 1929: 425)<ref name="Boyd 1929">James Boyd, ''A History of the Pennsylvania Horticultural Society, 1827–1927'' (Philadelphia: Pennsylvania Horticultural Society, 1929), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/UN9TRH8T view on Zotero].</ref>:“[[Samuel Breck|Mr“Mr. Breck]] has taken considerable pains with a '''hedge''' of white hawthorn (Crataegus), which he planted in 1810, and caused to be plashed, stalked, and dressed last Spring by two Englishmen, who understood the business well. Yet he apprehends the whole of the plants will gradually decay, and oblige him to substitute a post and rail [[fence]]. Almost every attempt to cultivate a live [[fence]] in the neighborhood of Philadelphia seems to have failed. The foliage disappears in August, and the plant itself is short lived in our climate.”
*[[H. A. S. Dearborn|Dearborn, H. A. S.]], 1832, describing [[Mount Auburn Cemetery]], Cambridge, MA (quoted in Harris 1832: 82–83)<ref>Thaddeus William Harris, ''A Discourse Delivered before the Massachusetts Horticultural Society on the Celebration of Its Fourth Anniversary, October 3, 1832'' (Cambridge, MA: E. W. Metcalf, 1832), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/3A3UDHF3 view on Zotero].</ref>
:“'''Hedges''', used as inclosures, will disappoint expectation, and require to be entirely eradicated after a few years, if even for a short time they should have a pleasing effect, when young, healthy, vigorous, and well managed. They are only proper for extensive grounds, farms, or large gardens, embracing some ten or twenty acres, or for long lines of circumvallation, which are to be seen at a distance, in which the imperfections, occasioned by insects and the ravages of time, are lost in the perspective, but should never be employed to surround a mere [[parterre]], a buisson of roses, or a [[bed]] of hyacinths. To look even beautiful, '''hedges''', of all kinds, require constant attention; they must be kept clear of weeds, and be pruned and clipped several times in the course of the season of vegetation, and this, too, by a skilful hand.”
*[[C. M. (Charles Mason) Hovey|Hovey, C. M. (Charles Mason)]], June 1835, “Notices of some of the Gardens and Nurseries in the neighborhood of New York and Philadelphia,” describing [[Landreth Nurseries|D. and C. Landreth’s Nursery]] on Federal Street, Philadelphia, PA (''American Gardeners’ Magazine'' 1: 201)<ref>Charles Mason Hovey, “Notices of some of the Gardens and Nurseries in the neighbourhood of New York and Philadelphia; taken from Memoranda made in the Month of March last,” ''American Gardener’s Magazine and Register of Useful Discoveries and Improvements in Horticulture and Rural Affairs'' 1, no. 6 (June 1835): 201–6, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/WGMGZFER view on Zotero].</ref>
:“The object of a '''hedge''' is generally to keep from the grounds cattle and other animals; though in some instances, they are only set to obscure one part of the garden from the other, or to hide some disagreeable object from the eye.”
*[[Harriet Martineau|Martineau, Harriet]], 1835, describing Charleston, SC (1838: 1:228)<ref>Harriet Martineau, ''Retrospect of Western Travel'', 2 vols. (London: Saunders and Otley, 1838), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/H2BW5FRU view on Zotero].</ref>
:“The country is flat and sandy, and the only objects are planters’ mansions, surrounded with evergreen [[wood]]s, the gardens exhibiting the tropical yucca, and fenced with '''hedges''' of the Cherokee rose.”
*[[Martha Ogle Forman|Forman, Martha Ogle]], April 30, 1838, describing Rose Hill, home of [[Martha Ogle Forman]], Baltimore County, MD (1976: 396)<ref name="Forman 1976"></ref>
:“The General planting a '''hedge''' of Osage apple from the poplar tree [[gate]] to the [[wood]]s [[gate]] between the horse chestnuts row.”
*<div id="Hovey"></div>[[C. M. (Charles Mason) Hovey|Hovey, C. M. (Charles Mason)]], November 1839, “Notices of Gardens and Horticulture, in Salem, Mass.,” describing [[Elias Hasket Derby House]], Salem, MA (''Magazine of Horticulture'' 5: 410–11),<ref>Charles Mason Hovey, “Notices of Gardens and Horticulture, in Salem, Mass.,” ''Magazine of Horticulture, Botany, and All Useful Discoveries and Improvements in Rural Affairs'' 5, no. 11 (November 1839): 401–16, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/25HW5NZ9 view on Zotero].</ref>
:“The extent of the garden and [[pleasure ground]] is several acres. The garden lies to the south of the mansion, and is, we should judge, nearly a [[square]]. It is laid out with straight [[walk]]s, running at right angles, with flower [[border]]s on each side of the [[alley]]s, and the [[square]]s occupied by fruit trees; the [[greenhouse|green-house]] and grapery stand in the centre of the garden, and are screened on the back by a '''hedge'''.
:“In the centre of the garden is a small oval [[pond]], containing gold fish: this [[pond]] is '''hedge''’d round with the buckthorn, which has now been planted over thirty years! It is not over eight feet high, and is thickly set with branches and foliage from the top to bottom, and perfectly impenetrable.” [[#Hovey_cite|back up to History]]
[[File:0878_detail.jpg|thumb|Fig. 8, Anonymous, “Ground Plan of a portion of Downing’s Botanic Gardens and Nurseries [detail],” in ''Magazine of Horticulture'' 7, no. 11 (November 1841): 404.]]
*[[C. M. (Charles Mason) Hovey|Hovey, C. M. (Charles Mason)]], November 1841, “Select Villa Residences,” describing [[Highland Place]], estate of [[Andrew Jackson Downing]], Newburgh, NY (''Magazine of Horticulture'' 7: 406)<ref>Charles Mason Hovey, “Select Villa Residences, with Descriptive Notices of each; accompanied with Remarks and Observations on the principles and practice of Landscape Gardening: intended with a view to illustrate the Art of Laying out, Arranging, and Forming Gardens and Ornamental Grounds,” ''Magazine of Horticulture, Botany, and All Useful Discoveries and Improvements in Rural Affairs'' 7, no. 11 (November 1841): 401–11, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/SXS8ZS3J view on Zotero].</ref>
:“18. [[Flower garden]], in front of the [[greenhouse]]. . . Under the arbor vitae '''hedge''', which is here planted against the boundary line, the [[greenhouse]] plants are principally placed during summer.
:“19. '''Hedge''' or screen of arbor vitae, shutting out the back shed, compost ground, &c. The arbor vitae is well adapted for this purpose, growing rapidly, and forming a perfect screen in three or four years.” [Fig. 8]
[[File:1047.jpg|thumb|Fig. 9, Alexander W. Longfellow, Sketch of the grounds of the Vassall-Craigie-Longfellow House, 1844.]]
*Longfellow, Samuel, September 3, 1845, in a letter to Annie Pierce, describing [[Vassall-Craigie-Longfellow House]], Cambridge, MA (quoted in Evans 1993: 40)<ref>Catherine Evans, ''Cultural Landscape Report for Longfellow National Historic Site, History and Existing Conditions'' (Boston: National Park Service, North Atlantic Region, 1993), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/9TI9GUQN view on Zotero].</ref>
:“A buckthorn '''hedge''' has been made between us & Mr. Hastings, and Mr. Worcester not satisfied with the rustic open [[fence]] which separates between us demands a '''hedge''' there also which will cover up entirely the glimpse that I get from my western window and which I do not at all like to loose [''sic''].” [Fig. 9]
*[[C. M. (Charles Mason) Hovey|Hovey, C. M. (Charles Mason)]], August 1846, “Notes of a Visit to several Gardens in the Vicinity of Washington, Baltimore, Philadelphia, and New York,” describing [[Landreth Nurseries|D. and C. Landreth’s Nursery]] on Federal Street, Philadelphia, PA (''Magazine of Horticulture'' 12: 284)<ref>Charles Mason Hovey, “Notes of a Visit to several Gardens in the Vicinity of Washington, Baltimore, Philadelphia, and New York, in October, 1845,” ''Magazine of Horticulture, Botany, and All Useful Discoveries and Improvements in Rural Affairs'' 12, no. 8 (August 1846): 281–85, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/N2J7VZ6S view on Zotero].</ref>
:“Referring to our account above mentioned, we particularly alluded to the fine '''hedges''' of the arbor vitae which existed here, and recommended this fine tree as peculiarly well adapted for screens or '''hedges''' to shut out one part of the garden from another, or hide disagreeable objects. Twelve years’ experience has convinced us of the correctness of our remarks, and we may still urge them upon the attention of our readers. The arbor vitae is unquestionably one of the finest of evergreen trees, and far superior to any other for forming '''hedges''' or screens.”
===Citations===
*[[John Parkinson|Parkinson, John]], 1629, ''Paradisi in Sole Paradisus Terrestris'' (1629; repr., 1975: 5)<ref>John Parkinson, ''Paradisi in Sole Paradisus Terrestris'' (Norwood, NJ: W. J. Johnson, 1975), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/7G5933QV view on Zotero].</ref>
:“To forme it [the garden] therfore with [[walk]]s, crosse the middle both waies, and round about it also with '''hedges''', with [[square]]s, knots and trayles, or any other worke within the foure [[square]] parts, is according as every mans conceit alloweth of it, and they will be at the charge.”
*[[Richard Bradley|Bradley, Richard]], 1719–20, ''New Improvements of Planting and Gardening'' (1719: 1.2:7, 17; 1720: 2.3:27–28)<ref>Richard Bradley, ''New Improvements of Planting and Gardening, Both Philosophical and Practical . . .'' 3rd ed., 2 vols. (London: W. Mears, 1719–20), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/U8DEKNZ4 view on Zotero].</ref>
:“[vol. 1] They [ever-greens] are so ornamental where they are rightly managed, that I think no Garden can be compleat without ’em; they make beautiful and useful '''Hedges'''. . . .
:“It [the Yew-Tree] is of great use for '''Hedges''', and make most agreeable Divisions in Gardens; it is customary to [[fence]] in the [[Quarter]]s of [[Wilderness]] Works with these Plants, where they have a very good Effect. . .
[[File:1053.jpg|thumb|Fig. 10, [[Batty Langley]], “Design of a ''rural Garden'', after the new manner,” in ''New Principles of Gardening'' (1728), pl. III.]][[File:1383.jpg|thumb|Fig. 11, [[Batty Langley]], One of two “Designs for Gardens that lye irregularly to the grand House . . . ,” in ''New Principles of Gardening'' (1728), pl. X.]]*[[Batty Langley|Langley, Batty]], 1728, ''New Principles of Gardening'' (1728: vii–ix, xiii)<ref name="Langley">Batty Langley, ''New Principles of Gardening, or The Laying Out and Planting Parterres, Groves, Wildernesses, Labyrinths, Avenues, Parks, &c'' (London : Printed for A. Bettesworth and J. Batley et al.,1728), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/AN26GF5X view on Zotero].</ref>
:“Plate III. is the Design of a ''rural Garden'', after the new manner, . . .
:“The '''Hedges''' that are planted between the aforesaid Trees which form the Sides of the [[Walk]]s are of ''English'', ''Dutch'' and ''French Elms'', ''Lime'', ''Hornbeam'', ''Maple'', ''Privet'', ''Yew'', ''Holly'', ''Arbutus'', ''Phillyrea'', ''Norway Fir'', ''Ilex'', ''Bay'', ''Laurel'', ''Laurus-Tinnus'', ''Piracantha'', ''Juniper'', and the ''English Furze''; and indeed, a beutiful [[Plantation]] should not only be adorned with entire [[Walk]]s and '''Hedges''' of Trees of all Sorts, as well as Fruit as others; but intermix’d together in many parts, as if Nature had placed them there with her own Hand. . . [Fig. 10]
*[[Batty Langley|Langley, Batty]], 1728, ''New Principles of Gardening'' (1728: 195–99)<ref name="Langley"></ref>
:“''General'' DIRECTIONS, ''&c''. . .
:“XIX. . . .
*[[Samuel Johnson|Johnson, Samuel]], 1755, ''A Dictionary of the English Language'' (1755: 1:n.p.)<ref>Samuel Johnson, ''A Dictionary of the English Language: In Which the Words Are Deduced from the Originals and Illustrated in the Different Significations by Examples from the Best Writers'', 2 vols. (London: W. Strahan for J. and P. Knapton, 1755), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/GE2JPJR3 view on Zotero].</ref>
:“'''HEDGE'''. ''n.s''. [. . . Saxon.] A [[fence]] made round grounds with prickly bushes.”
*<div id="Ware"></div>[[Isaac Ware|Ware, Isaac]], 1756, ''A Complete Body of Architecture'' (1756: 641, 645),<ref>Isaac Ware, ''A Complete Body of Architecture'' (London: T. Osborne and J. Shipton, 1756), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/2EK2USKV view on Zotero].</ref>
:“When a garden is already made in an ill spot, all that can be done is to open agreeable [[view]]s by clearing away [[wall]]s and '''hedges''' in the grounds. . . this is to be done when something pleasing, some [[view]] of elegant, wild nature can be let in. . .
:“A [[meadow]] and its '''hedge''' excelled all the beauty of our former gardens; because the [[parterre]] there afforded only the ill fruits of labour, and the '''hedge''' lost the very vegetable character. In the wild state of nature all is free, all therefore is cheerful, and all pleasing. . . Instead of the precise regularity we have so lately and so difficultly banished, in those vast gardens that have been described to us so happily, there scarce appears a strait line. The profusion of flowers with which they are embellished are stuck in natural '''hedges''' or raised on irregular hillocks, mimicking savage nature, only in a state of more variety.” [[#Ware_cite|back up to History]]
*[[Philip Miller|Miller, Philip]], 1759, ''The Gardeners Dictionary'' (1759: n.p.)<ref>Philip Miller, ''The Gardeners Dictionary: Containing the Methods of Cultivation and Improving the Kitchen, Fruit, and Flower Garden. As Also, the Physick Garden, Wilderness, Conservatory, and Vineyard . . . Interspers’d with the History of the Plants, the Characters of Each Genus and the Names of All the Particular Species, in Latin and English; and an Explanation of All the Terms Used in Botany and Gardening, Etc.'', 7th ed. (London: Philip Miller, 1759), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/4XH23U3R view on Zotero].</ref>
:“[After a description of the types of trees used in '''hedges''', Miller notes that] '''[h]edges''' are either planted to make [[fence]]s around enclosures, or to part off or divide several parts of a Garden; when they are designed as outward [[fence]]s, they are planted either with Hawthorne, Crabs, or Blackthorn, which is slow; but those '''hedges''' which are planted in Gardens, either to surround [[Wilderness]] [[Quarter]]s, or to screen the other parts of a Garden from Sight, are planted with various Sorts of plants, according to the fancy of the Owner some preferring Evergreen '''Hedges''', in which case the Holly is best, next to the Yew, then Laurel, &c. . .
:“The taste in Gardening having been greatly altered of late Years for the better, these clipped '''Hedges''' have been almost excluded; and it is hoped that a little Time will entirely banish them out of English gardens, as it has done by the shorne evergreens, which a few years since were esteemed the greatest beauties in gardens. The latter was introduced by the Dutch Gardeners, and that of tall '''Hedges''' with Trellage work was in imitation of the French gardens; in some of which of the Iron Trellage to support the trees which composed their cabinets, [[portico]]s, [[bower]]s, [[pavilion|Pavilons]], and other pieces of rural architecture, amounted to a very great sum.”
*<div id="Deane"></div>[[Samuel Deane|Deane, Samuel]], 1790, ''The New-England Farmer'' (1790: 91–92)<ref>Samuel Deane, ''The New-England Farmer, or Georgical Dictionary'' (Worcester, MA: Isaiah Thomas, 1790), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/S8QQDHP6 view on Zotero].</ref>
:“[[FENCE]]. . .
:“In some places it is best to make '''hedge''' [[fence]]s. There are two kinds of [[fence]] that go by this name, dead '''hedge''', and quickset '''hedge'''.
*[[Thomas Bridgeman|Bridgeman, Thomas]], 1832, ''The Young Gardener’s Assistant'' (1832: 110, 133–34)<ref>Thomas Bridgeman, ''The Young Gardener’s Assistant'', 3rd ed. (New York: Geo. Robertson, 1832), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/9FU4SNZK view on Zotero].</ref>
:“A [[Flower Garden]] should be protected from cold cutting winds by close [[fence]]s, or [[plantation]]s of [[shrub]]s, forming a close and compact '''hedge''', which should be neatly trimmed every year. . .
:“[[Shrub]]s are not only necessary to the embellishment of a [[flower garden]], but many kinds of them are eligible for '''hedges''' to it, and may be planted at a trifling expense. These '''hedges''' should be frequently trimmed and trained, the sides cut even, and the tops sparingly clipped, so as to make them ornamental, as well as useful, and also to increase the vigour of their growth.”
*[[George William Johnson|Johnson, George William]], 1847, ''A Dictionary of Modern Gardening'' (1847: 221, 286–88)<ref>George William Johnson, ''A Dictionary of Modern Gardening'', ed. David Landreth (Philadelphia: Lea and Blanchard, 1847), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/D6PQSNAN/ view on Zotero].</ref>
:“[[fence|FENCES]] are employed to mark the boundary of property, to exclude trespassers, either human or quadrupedal, and to afford shelter. They are either live [[fence]]s, and are then known as '''''hedges''''', or dead, and are then either ''banks'', ''ditches'', ''palings'', or ''[[wall]]s''; or they are a union of those two, to which titles the reader is referred. . .
:“'''HEDGE''', properly includes every kind of [[fence]], but the present details apply for the most part to growing [[fence]]s. . .
*[[Elder, Walter]], 1849, ''The Cottage Garden of America'' (1849: 178)<ref>Walter Elder, ''The Cottage Garden of America'' (Philadelphia: Moss, 1849), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/NNC7BTFT/ view on Zotero].</ref>
:“THE cheapest, most beautiful, and durable [[fence]]s are '''hedges''', and all dividing [[fence]]s of cottage gardens, should be made of '''hedges'''; there are several kinds of plants well adapted for the purpose.”
*[[Joseph Breck|Breck, Joseph]], 1851, ''The Flower-Garden'' (1851: 20)<ref>Joseph Breck, ''The Flower-Garden, or Breck’s Book of Flowers'' (Boston: John P. Jewett, 1851), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/HN3UEKMP view on Zotero].</ref>
:“Every fine [[flower garden|[flower] garden]] should be well secured by [[fence]] or '''hedge''', if at all exposed to the public road. A '''hedge''' is far the prettiest, if well managed, neat, and ornamental.”
<gallery widths="170px" heights="170px" perrow="7">
Image:1053.jpg|[[Batty Langley]], “Design of a ''rural Garden'', after the new manner,” in ''New Principles of Gardening'' (1728), pl. III. “The Hedges that are planted between the. . . Trees which form the Sides of the Walks. . .”
Image:1383.jpg|[[Batty Langley]], One of two “Designs for Gardens that lye irregularly to the grand House. . . ,” in ''New Principles of Gardening'' (1728), pl. X. “Slope H is planted with Hedges of ''different Ever-Greens''.”
Image:0078.jpg|Anonymous, Plan for a garden, mid-18th century. Hedges marked in the middle of the plan.

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