[[File:0605.jpg|thumb|left|550 px|Fig. 1, Lieut. Birch, ''Plan of St. Augustine, Fla.'', 1819.]]
The term grove referred to both natural and planted arrangements of trees, as indicated by [[Noah Webster]]’s definition of 1828. American gardeners such as [[Bernard M’Mahon]] (1806) realized the potential of indigenous vegetation and simply thinned existing trees to create so-called “natural” groves. Trees could also be planted where none existed to create “artificial” groves. Whether natural or artificial, groves of trees were an important element in the ornamental landscape, serving aesthetic and agricultural purposes. As [[Samuel Deane]] explained in the ''New-England Farmer'' (1790), groves could provide shade and windbreaks as well as syrup, firewood, and fruit. As a formal element, groves defined [[border]]s of gardens, created backdrops, and, as seen in the sketch of St. Augustine’s orange grove [Fig. 1], offered sites for collecting specific plants.
While generally composed of trees, groves sometimes included [[shrub]]s and flowers. These plants were also found in [[wood]]s, [[shrubberies]], and [[wilderness]]es, thus blurring the lines of distinctions between these features—several treatise writers and lexicographers defined groves, for example, as small [[wood]]s. The overlapping and indistinct uses of the terms “grove,” “[[wilderness]],” and “[[shrubbery]]” are exemplified by [[George Washington]]’s notations on the garden at [[Mount Vernon]]. In 1782, he wrote that he would immediately plant groups of “[[shrub]]s and ornamental trees,” and decide later which constituted “the grove and which the [[wilderness]],” implying that the grove would ultimately be the less thickly planted of the two. To add to the confusion, [[George Washington|Washington]] on another occasion referred to the arrangement of trees and [[shrub]]s just south of his house as both a grove and a [[shrubbery]]. Texts from the 19th century mentioned [[shrub]]s and flowers in groves less frequently, because these types of plants were increasingly associated with [[shrubberies]]. Thus, as time passed, the distinction between the terms became more clearly drawn.
When attempting to distinguish groves from other features that employed trees (particularly [[wood]]s and [[clump]]s), treatise writers often focused on the question of whether groves should contain undergrowth. Various opinions emerged. [[Batty Langley]] argued in ''New Principles of Gardening'' (1728) for the inclusion of flowering [[shrub]]s with evergreens and deciduous trees. [[Thomas Whately]], however, in ''Observations of Modern Gardening'' (1770), believed that a grove consisted of trees without undergrowth in contrast to [[wood]]s or [[clump]]s, which did contain undergrowth. [[Philip Miller]], in ''The Gardeners Dictionary'' (1754), considered undergrowth as one factor that distinguished a “closed” grove from an “open” one. The “open” form of the feature was made by planting large trees at a distance that permitted tree tops to knit together to create a shady canopy for the [[walk]]s below. The “closed” type was composed of a denser planting of trees, [[shrub]]s, and flowers that could be arranged in figures cut through and circumscribed by [[walk]]s.
[[File:0969.jpg|thumb|left|Fig. 2, [[Thomas Jefferson]], Plan of the grounds at [[Monticello]], 1806.]]
[[File:0972.jpg|thumb|left|Fig. 4, Pierre Pharoux, “General Map of the honorable Wm. frederic Baron of Steuben’s Mannor” [detail], c. 1793.]]
[[George Washington|Washington]]’s account of this “closed” grove also provides a significant clue as to the arrangement of plants. In his 1776 letter to Lund Washington, he specified that the trees “be Planted without any order or regularity,” an aesthetic in keeping with the recommendations of [[Batty Langley|Langley]], whose treatises were owned by [[George Washington|Washington]]. The texts of [[Batty Langley|Langley]] and [[Philip Miller|Miller]] exemplify the gradual shift away from formal or rectilinear arrangements of trees toward more irregular or “[[natural style|natural]]” designs. 17th-century groves might be planted in [[Geometric_style|geometrical]], or otherwise such patterned figures as “the star, the direct Cross, St. Andrew’s Cross,” described by [[A.-J. Dézallier d’Argenville]] (1712). By contrast, [[Batty Langley|Langley]] insisted that groves be planted with “regular Irregularity; not planting them. . . with their Trees in straight Lines ranging every Way, but in a rural Manner, as if they had receiv’d their Situation from Nature itself.” In contrast to authors of earlier treatises, 19th-century American writers, including [[Samuel Deane]] (1790), [[Bernard M’Mahon]] (1806) and the anonymous author of the ''New England Farmer'' (1828), advocated regular arrangements. Few if any signs, however, indicate that Americans made “closed” groves in [[Geometric_style|geometrical]] figures, such as those described in James. Pierre Pharoux’s unexecuted plans for the new town Sperenza, New York [Fig. 3], and for Baron von Steuben’s estate in Mohawk Valley, New York [Fig. 4], are rare exceptions.
[[File:0730.jpg|thumb|Fig. 5, [[William Russell Birch]], “The Grove in Springland,” before 1805.]]
In either the regular or irregular arrangement, groves were often designed to accommodate garden structures or decorative elements. [[William A. Bentley|William Bentley]] (1791), for example, called attention to the [[pond]] with [[Statue|statuary]] found in the midst of the grove at [[Pleasant Hill]], Joseph Barrell’s estate in Charlestown, Massachusetts; [[Margaret Bayard Smith]] (1809) recorded that [[Thomas Jefferson|Jefferson]] intended to place a monument to a friend in the midst of a grove at [[Monticello]]. [[William Russell Birch]] situated a Gothic chapel in the grove at Springland [Fig. 5].
In addition to providing settings for decorative objects, groves sometimes displayed rare or unusual tree specimens. At [[Mount Vernon]], [[George Washington|Washington]] contrasted his northern grove, to be made up entirely of locust trees, with his southern grove, to be planted with “clever,” “curious,” and “ornamental” trees and [[shrub]]s. At [[The Woodlands]], [[William Hamilton]] also filled his groves with rare ornamental trees.
[[File:0036.jpg|thumb|Fig. 8, [[Thomas Lee Shippen]], Plan of Westover, 1783. The grove is marked at “&c” at upper left quadrant. ]]*[[Thomas Lee Shippen|Shippen, Thomas Lee]], December 31, 1783, describing Westover, seat of William Byrd III, on the James River, VA (1952: n.p.)<ref>Thomas Lee Shippen, ''Westover Described in 1783: A Letter and Drawing Sent by Thomas Lee Shippen, Student of Law in Williamsburg, to His Parents in Philadelphia'' (Richmond, VA: William Byrd Press, 1952), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/3IWWPMJ5 view on Zotero].</ref>
:“The crooked line markd x [on the accompanying drawing] shews you where the garden is which is very large and exceedingly beautiful indeed. The one opposite to it &c is the place where there is a pretty '''grove''' neatly kept, from which the walk thro’ one of the pretty [[gate]]s markd g leads you to the improved grounds before the house.” [Fig. 8]
[[File:0722.jpg|thumb|Fig. 9, Anonymous, “Barrell Farm,” Pleasant Hill, 1817. A “Poplar Grove” was located on axis with main house, between the fish pond on the Barrell property and the river. ]]
*[[William A. Bentley|Bentley, William]], June 12, 1791, describing [[Pleasant Hill]], seat of Joseph Barrell, Charlestown, MA (1962: 1:264)<ref>William Bentley, ''The Diary of William Bentley, D.D., Pastor of the East Church, Salem, Massachusetts'' (Gloucester, MA: Peter Smith, 1962), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/B63ABACF view on Zotero].</ref>
:“[June] 12. Was politely received at dinner by Mr Barrell, & family, who shewed me his large & elegant arrangements for amusement, & philosophic experiments. . . His Garden is beyond any example I have seen. A young '''grove''' is growing in the back ground, in the middle of which is a [[pond]], decorated with four ships at anchor, & a marble figure in the centre. The [[Chinese manner]] is mixed with the European in the [[Summer house]] which fronts the House, below the [[Flower Garden]].” [Fig. 9]
*[[Latrobe, Benjamin Henry]], March 17, 1807, describing the [[White House]], Washington, DC (Colonial Williamsburg Foundation)
:“In removing the ground, it would certainly be necessary to go down in front of the colonnade to the level of about one foot below the bases of the [[Column]]s but, it will certainly not deprive this colonnade of any part of its beauty to pass behind a few gentle Knolls and '''groves''' or [[Clump]]s in its front, and much expense of removing earth would be thereby saved.”
*[[Margaret Bayard Smith|Smith, Margaret Bayard]], August 1, 1809, describing [[Monticello]], [[plantation]] of [[Thomas Jefferson]], Charlottesville, VA (1906: 73)<ref>Margaret Bayard Smith, ''The First Forty Years of Washington Society'', ed. Gaillard Hunt (New York: Charles Scribner’s, 1906), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/FTDFHRFH view on Zotero].</ref>
:“As we passed the graveyard, which is about half way down the mountain, in a sequestered spot, he told me he there meant to place a small gothic building,—higher up, where a beautiful little [[mound]] was covered with a '''grove''' of trees, he meant to place a monument to his friend Wythe.”
:“From the boat or [[summerhouse|summer house]], several paths diverge. . . the first passes round the [[lake]], and generally out of sight of it, for a quarter of a mile, until descending a very steep bank, through a '''grove''' of evergreens, so dark as to be almost impervious to the rays of the sun, even at noon day.” [Fig. 10]
*Bryant, William Cullen, August 25, 1821, describing the [[Vale]], estate of Theodore Lyman, Waltham, MA(1975: 108–9)<ref>William Cullen Bryant, ''The Letters of William Cullen Bryant'', ed. William Cullen II Bryant and Thomas G. Voss (New York: Fordham University Press, 1975), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/3X5XUJ6A/ view on Zotero].</ref>
:“He took me to the seat of Mr. Lyman. . . It is a perfect paradise. . . A hard rolled [[walk]], by the side of a brick [[wall]]. . . led us to a '''grove''' of young forest trees on the top of [an] [[eminence]] in the midst of which was a [[Chinese_manner|Chinese]] [[temple]].”
*[[Harriet Martineau|Martineau, Harriet]], May 4, 1835, describing New Orleans, LA (1838: 1:274)<ref>Harriet Martineau, ''Retrospect of Western Travel'', 2 vols. (London: Saunders and Otley, 1838), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/KEG83GHS view on Zotero].</ref>
:“In the neighbourhood of Mobile, my relative, who has a true English love of gardening, had introduced the practice [of gardens]; and I there saw villas and cottages surrounded with a luxuriant growth of Cherokee roses, honeysuckles, and myrtles, while '''groves''' of orange-trees appeared in the background.”
*[[Joseph Breck|Breck, Joseph]], February 1, 1836, describing [[Bellmont Place]], residence of John Perkins Cushing, Watertown, MA (''Horticultural Register'' 2: 43)<ref>Joseph Breck, “Gardens, Hot-Houses, &c., in the Vicinity of Boston,” ''Horticultural Register, and Gardener’s Magazine'' 2 (February 1, 1836): 41–47, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/IK2ZAWSC view on Zotero].</ref>
:“The approach to the mansion from the road is by a winding [[avenue]] through a fine '''grove''' of ancient deciduous trees. The first view of the garden and ranges of glass structure, as we emerged from the '''grove''', was truly magnificent.”
*Willis, Nathaniel Parker, 1840, describing [[Mount Auburn Cemetery]], Cambridge, MA (1840: 348)<ref>Nathaniel Parker Willis, ''American Scenery; Or, Land, Lake, and River: Illustrations of Transatlantic Nature'', 2 vols. (London: George Virtue, 1840), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/T5CMW67U/ view on Zotero].</ref>
:“This [[picturesque]] and beautiful [[burial ground|burial-place]] occupies a '''grove''', formerly an academic and sylvan retreat for the students of [[Harvard College]], near by.”
[[File:1097.jpg|thumb|Fig. 11, Thomas S. Sinclair, “Plan of the Pleasure Grounds and Farm of the Pennsylvania Hospital for the Insane at Philadelphia,” in Thomas S. Kirkbride, ''American Journal of Insanity'' 4, no. 4 (April 1848): pl. opp. 280.]]
*[[Thomas S. Kirkbride|Kirkbride, Thomas S.]], April 1848, describing the [[pleasure ground]]s and farm of the [[Pennsylvania Hospital for the Insane]], Philadelphia, PA (''American Journal of Insanity'' 4: 348)<ref>Thomas S. Kirkbride, “Description of the Pleasure Grounds and Farm of the Pennsylvania Hospital for the Insane, with Remarks,” ''American Journal of Insanity'' 4, no. 4 (April 1848): 347–54, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/9RWM2FH8 view on Zotero].</ref>
:“The remainder of the grounds on this side of the [[deer-park]] is specially appropriated to the use of the male patients. In this division is a fine '''grove''' of large trees, several detached [[clump]]s of various kinds and a great variety of single trees standing alone or in [[avenue]]s along the different [[walk]]s, which, of brick, gravel or tan, are for the men, more than a mile and a quarter in extent. The '''groves''' are fitted up with seats and [[summer house]]s, and have various means of exercise and amusement connected with them. . .
:“The work-shop and lumber-yard are just within the main entrance on the west—adjoining which is a fine '''grove''', in which is the gentlemen’s ten-pin alley.” [Fig. 11]
*Committee on the Capitol Square, Richmond City Council, July 26, 1851, describing [[John Notman]]’s 's plans for the [[Capitol Square]], Richmond, VA (quoted in Greiff 1979: 162)<ref>Constance Greiff, ''John Notman, Architect, 1810–1865'' (Philadelphia: Athenaeum of Philadelphia, 1979), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/SXT2RI6Z view on Zotero].</ref>
:“The most beautiful feature of the contemplated alterations of the [[Square]], however, will be found in the arrangement of the trees and [[shrubbery]]. Instead of planting these in parallel rows, like an ordinary [[orchard]] some attention will be paid to [[landscape gardening]]—'''groves''', [[arbour]]s, [[parterre]]s, and [[fountain]]s will combine to render the [[Square]] a place of delightful resort.”
===Citations===
[[File:1054.jpg|thumb|Fig. 12, [[Michael van der Gucht]], “Designs of Groves of a Middle Height,” [[A.-J. Dézallier d’Argenville]], ''The Theory and Practice of Gardening'' (1712), pl. 4c, n.p.]]*[[Antoine-Joseph Dezallier d’Argenville|Dezallier d’Argenville, Antoine-Joseph]], 1712, ''The Theory and Practice of Gardening'' (1712: 48–49)<ref>A.-J. (Antoine Joseph) Dézallier d’Argenville, ''The Theory and Practice of Gardening; Wherein Is Fully Handled All That Relates to Fine Gardens, . . . Containing Divers Plans, and General Dispositions of Gardens'', trans. John James (London: Geo. James, 1712), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/RNT8ZVZ8 view on Zotero].</ref>
:“''The French'' call a '''Grove''' ''Bosquet'', from the ''Italian'' Word ''Bosquetto'', a little [[Wood]] of small Extent, as much as to say, a Nosegay, or Bunch of Green.
:“''[[WOOD]]S'' and '''Groves''' make the ''Relievo'' of Gardens, and serve infinitely to improve the flat Parts, as [[Parterre]]s and [[Bowling-green]]s. Care should be taken to place them so, that they may not hinder the Beauty of the [[Prospect]]. . .
*[[Batty Langley|Langley, Batty]], 1728, ''New Principles of Gardening'' (1728; repr., 1982: Introduction, 195–203)<ref>Batty Langley, ''New Principles of Gardening, or The Laying out and Planting Parterres, Groves, Wildernesses, Labyrinths, Avenues, Parks, &c'' (London: A. Bettesworth and J. Batley, etc., 1728; repr. New York: Garland, 1982), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/MRDTAEKC view on Zotero].</ref>
:“Their [Nobility and Gentry of England] ''Wildernesses'' and '''''Groves''''' (when they planted any) were always placed at the most remote Parts of the Garden: So that before we can enter them, in the ''Heat of Summer'', when they are most useful, we are obliged to pass thro’ the ''scorching Heat of the Sun''.
:“Indeed, ’tis oftentimes necessary to place '''''Groves''''' and open ''Wildernesses'' in such remote Parts of Gardens, from whence ''pleasant [[Prospect]]s are taken''; but then we should always take care to plant ''proportionable [[Avenue]]s'' leading from the House to them, under whose ''Shade'' we might with Pleasure pass and repass at any time of the Day. . .
:“XVIII. That the Intersection of [[Walk]]s be adorn’d with [[Statue]]s, large open Plains, '''Groves''', Cones of Fruit, of Ever-Greens, of Flowering [[Shrub]]s, of Forest Trees, [[Bason]]s, [[Fountain]]s, [[Sun-Dial]]s, and [[Obelisk]]s. . .
:“XXV. '''Groves''' of Standard Ever-Greens, as Yew, Holly, Box, and Bay-Trees, are very pleasant, especially when a delightful [[Fountain]] is plac’d in their Center. . .
[[File:1053.jpg|thumb|Fig. 13, [[Batty Langley]], “Design of a ''rural Garden'', after the new manner,” in ''New Principles of Gardening'' (1728), pl. III, opp. 208.]]
:“XXXII. In the Planting of '''Groves''', you must observe a regular Irregularity; not planting them according to the common Method like an [[Orchard]], with their Trees in straight Lines ranging every Way, but in a rural Manner, as if they had receiv’d their Situation from Nature itself.
:“XXXIII. Plant in and about your several '''Groves''', and other Parts of your Garden, good store of Black-Cherry and other Trees that produce Food for Birds, which will not a little add to the Pleasure thereof. . .
*[[Philip Miller|Miller, Philip]], 1754, ''The Gardeners Dictionary'' (1754; repr., 1969: 588–90)<ref>Philip Miller, ''The Gardeners Dictionary'' (New York: Verlag Von J. Cramer, 1969), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/356Q24EP view on Zotero].</ref>
:“'''GROVES''' are the greatest Ornaments to a Garden; nor can a Garden be complete which has not one or more of these. In small Gardens there is scarce room to admit of '''Groves''' of any Extent; yet in these there should be at least one contrived, which should be as large as the Ground will allow it: and where these are small, there is more Skill required in the Disposition, to give them the Appearance of being larger than they really are. . .
:“These '''Groves''' are not only great Ornaments to Gardens, but are also the greatest Relief against the violent Heats of the Sun, affording Shade to walk under, in the hottest Part of the Day, when the other Parts of the Garden are useless; so that every Garden is defective which has not Shade.
*[[Isaac Ware|Ware, Isaac]], 1756, ''A Complete Body of Architecture'' (1756: 649–51)<ref>Isaac Ware, ''A Complete Body of Architecture'' (London: T. Osborne and J. Shipton, 1756), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/2EK2USKV view on Zotero].</ref>
:“The disposition of '''groves''' is a consideration not enough regarded: we err in it greatly; we plant the trees too close, and we make the [[walk]]s too narrow. The person who goes into them to be free from the sun is choaked for want of air; and the same closeness occasions a continual damp, very dangerous at such seasons. Every thing in them is gloomy and disagreeable. Instead of this, a kind of cheerfulness may be diffused even there; and we may have solitude, shade, and retirement, without a savage darkness of dreary wet. . .
:“Let the [[plantation]] be made of selected trees, as we have proposed, and let them have good distance: they will grow more vigorously, and the [[walk]] will be more wholesome.
*[[Thomas Whately|Whately, Thomas]], 1770, ''Observations on Modern Gardening'' (1770; repr., 1982: 36, 46–48)<ref>Thomas Whately, ''Observations on Modern Gardening'', 3rd ed. (1770; repr., London: Garland, 1982), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/QKRK8DCD/ view on Zotero].</ref>
:“Every [[plantation]] must be either a ''[[wood]]'', a '''''grove''''', a ''[[clump]]'', or a ''single tree''. “A wood is composed of both trees and underwood, covering a considerable space. A '''grove''' consists of trees without underwood; a [[clump]] differs from either only in extent. . .
:“The prevailing character of a [[wood]] is generally grandeur. . . But the character of a '''grove''' is ''beauty''; fine trees are lovely objects; a '''grove''' is an assemblage of them; in which every individual retains much of its own peculiar elegance; and whatever it loses, is transferred to the superior beauty of the whole. To a '''grove''', therefore, which admits of endless variety in the disposition of the trees, differences in their shapes and their greens are seldom very important, and sometimes they are detrimental. . .
*[[Samuel Deane|Deane, Samuel]], 1790, ''The New-England Farmer'' (1790: 116)<ref>Samuel Deane, ''The New-England Farmer, or Georgical Dictionary'' (Worcester, MA: Isaiah Thomas, 1790), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/S8QQDHP6 view on Zotero].</ref>
:“'''GROVE''', a row or [[walk]] of trees planted close, for ornament and shade.
:“Formerly a '''grove''' made in regular lines, was considered as most ornamental. But modern improvers are rather disgusted with the uniformity of a '''grove''', and prefer those which appear as if they were the work of nature or chance. As taste alters from time to time, I shall not undertake to determine which are most grand or beautiful. As my great object is real improvement and advantage, I shall here attend to '''groves''' in regular lines.
*Abercrombie, John, with [[James Mean]], 1817, ''Abercrombie’s Practical Gardener'' (1817: 479)<ref>John Abercrombie, ''Abercrombie’s Practical Gardener Or, Improved System of Modern Horticulture'' (London: T. Cadell and W. Davies, 1817), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/TH54TADZ view on Zotero].</ref>
:“A '''''grove''''' is distinguished from a ''[[wood]]'', by being without underwood. Like the [[clump]], it may be intersected by the garden-[[walk]]s. . .
:“A '''grove''' may have a fine effect on a level; but a '''grove''' rooted in unequal ground, gently curving along the side of a hill, is capable of more various beauty, by the [[view]]s and openings from the interior.”
*[[Nehemiah Adams|Adams, Nehemiah]], 1838, ''The Boston Common'' (1838: 39–40)<ref>Nehemiah Adams, ''Boston Common'' (Boston: William D. Ticknor and H. B. Williams, 1842), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/VXTWGJ58/ view on Zotero].</ref>
:“A dense '''grove''' of large evergreen trees of several species, might be planted in the centre of a [[park]] or [[green]], as large or larger than the [[Boston Common|Common]], to great advantage. It would form a beautiful ornament to the landscape, by the contrast of its foliage with that of the deciduous trees, in the summer—and in the winter, by the display of deep verdure when all else was desolated. In the cooler parts of the year, it would furnish a pleasant retreat from the rough winds of the season, and furnish an incentive to out-of-door exercise to those who might otherwise forego its advantages. . .
:“the disposition of the trees on the [[Boston Common|Common]] is apt to strike one as too stiff and formal, for the greatest degree of beauty. The science of [[landscape gardening]], our ignorance of which is so easily explained by the small amount of wealth with a comparatively new country can afford to devote to its practice, would have dictated differently. Had its principles been regarded, we should have seen trees of various foliage, here standing alone, and there intermingled in [[copse]]s and '''groves'''— arranged, indeed, so as to imitate nature herself, in her [[picturesque]]ness as well as her beauty.”
*[[William H. Ranlett|Ranlett, William H.]], 1849, ''The Architect'' (1849; repr., 1976: 1:5)<ref>William H. Ranlett, ''The Architect'', 2 vols. (1849; repr., New York: Da Capo, 1976), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/QGQPCB5J view on Zotero].</ref>
:“The one [cottage in Design I] here described, stands about fifty yards from the road, fronts eastnorth-east, and is nearly surrounded by fruit trees, which are preferred to forest trees by those who wish to combine utility with ornament, though for shade and ornament, the latter are generally chosen. A '''grove''' affords, to a house, a natural protection in both Summer and Winter.”
File:0018.jpg|Pierre Pharoux, Plan of Sperenza, NY [detail], n.d. A “Public Grove” is situated on either side of the “Common Ground.”
File:1425.jpg| Michael van der Gucht, “The general Plan of a Garden drawn upon Paper” and “The same Plan of Garden mark'd out upon ye Ground,” in A.-J. Dézallier d’Argenville, ''The Theory and Practice of Gardening'' (1712), 124.
File:14251426.jpg| Michael van der Gucht, “The general Plan of a Garden Parterre C drawn & Squar’d over upon Paper” and Paper,” “The same Plan of Garden mark'd Parterre C Squared out & traced upon ye Ground,” and “The Grove V & ye Bowling-green X design’d upon paper,” in [[A.-J. Dézallier d’Argenville]], ''The Theory and Practice of Gardening'' (1712), 124130.
File:14261054.jpg|Michael van der Gucht, “The Parterre C drawn & Squar’d over upon Paper,” “The same Parterre C Squared out & traced upon ye Ground“Designs of Groves of a Middle Height,” and “The Grove V & ye Bowling-green X design’d upon paper,” in [[A.-J. Dézallier d’Argenville]], ''The Theory and Practice of Gardening'' (1712), 130pl. 4c, n.p.
File:1054.jpg|Michael van der Gucht, “Designs of Groves of a Middle Height,” [[A.-J. Dézallier d’Argenville]], ''The Theory and Practice of Gardening'' (1712), pl. 4c, n.p.  File:1053.jpg|[[Batty Langley]], “Design of a ''rural Garden'', after the new manner,” in ''New Principles of Gardening'' (1728), pl. III, opp. 208.
File:0134.jpg|Christian Remick, ''A Prospective View of part of the Commons'', c. 1768.
File:0005.jpg|Amy Cox, attr., ''Box Grove'', c. 1800.
File:0728.jpg|[[William Russell Birch]], ''Plan of Springland'', c. 1800.
File:0736.jpg|[[William Russell Birch]], ''View of the Chapel/Smokehouse at Springland, with Steeple Detail and Plan'', c. 1800.
File:0882.jpg|Anonymous, Plan of Williamsburg, Virginia (copy after Unknown Draftsman’s Plan), after 1800.
File:0090.jpg|[[Thomas Jefferson]], Letter describing plans for a “Garden Olitory,” c. 1804.
File:0734.jpg|[[William Russell Birch]], ''Front of the Aviary/Grove, Springland'', before 1805.
File:0730.jpg|[[William Russell Birch]], “The Grove in Springland,” before 1805.
File:0969.jpg|[[Thomas Jefferson]], Plan of the grounds at Monticello, 1806.
<gallery widths="170px" heights="170px" perrow="7">
File:1378.jpg|[[Batty Langley]], “Design of an Avenue with its Wildernesses on each Side,” in ''New Principles of Gardening'' (1728), pl. V.
File:1382.jpg|[[Batty Langley]], “An Improvement of a beautiful Garden at Twickenham,” in ''New Principles of Gardening'' (1728), pl. IX.
File:1384.jpg|[[Batty Langley]], One of two “Designs for Gardens that lye irregularly to the ground House. . . House opening to the North upon a plain Parterre of Grass,” in ''New Principles of Gardening'' (1728), pl. XI.
File:1386.jpg|[[Batty Langley]], “Part of a Park Exhibiting their manner of Planting, after a more Grand manner than has been done before,” in ''New Principles of Gardening'' (1728), pl. XIII.
File:0036.jpg|Thomas Lee Shippen, Plan of Westover, 1783. The grove is marked at “&c” at upper left quadrant.

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Changes - History of Early American Landscape Design
A Project of the Center for Advanced Study in the Visual Arts, National Gallery of Art
History of Early American Landscape Design
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Changes

[http://www.nga.gov/content/ngaweb/research/casva/research-projects.html A Project of the National Gallery of Art, Center for Advanced Study in the Visual Arts ]
A Project of the Center for Advanced Study in the Visual Arts

National Gallery of Art, Washington


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