Although defined with slight variations in treatises, the pleasure ground was consistently associated with beauty, order, and the improvement of nature. As such, the feature was promoted frequently as an ideal complement to a well-designed house, as <span id="Latrobe1_cite"></span>[[Benjamin Henry Latrobe]] insisted in 1805 ([[#Latrobe1|view text]]). Typically located in close proximity to the house, the pleasure ground was visible and easily accessible from prominent rooms of the house. British landscape designer <span id="Repton_cite"></span>Humphry Repton occasionally described the pleasure ground as “dressed,” which underscores the term’s reference to an improved part of the landscape ([[#Repton|view text]]).
[[File:0973.jpg|thumb|left|Fig. 1, [[Pierre Pharoux]], “Plan of Tivoli Laid Out into Town Lots” [detail], NY, 1795. The pleasure ground is located to the left of the grid town plan.]]
Pleasure ground was also a term applied to [[public garden]]s [Fig. 1]. The term implied both ornament and outdoor enjoyment, explaining its frequent use in relation to urban [[park]]s. Assigning the term to such spaces signaled that they were treated aesthetically, designed in accord with principles used in private grounds. This parallel was relevant particularly for spaces that had been formerly utilitarian. For example, when [[Boston Common]] was redesigned into a public [[park]], various contemporary speakers described the resulting space as a pleasure ground in order to reaffirm its shift in use from a site for husbandry to one of public amusement and enjoyment.<ref>Also see A. J. Downing’s writings between 1850 and 1851 about public parks and his plans for the National Mall in Washington, DC. The latter included a pleasure ground in front of the Smithsonian Institution, to be filled with ornamental plantings and a monumental park.</ref> [[Common]]s, in fact, typically had been used for activities such as grazing or bivouacking.
*<div id="Jefferson"></div>[[Thomas Jefferson|Jefferson, Thomas]], 1804, describing [[Monticello]], [[plantation]] of [[Thomas Jefferson]], Charlottesville, VA (quoted in Nichols and Griswold 1978: 110–11)<ref>Frederick Doveton Nichols and Ralph E. Griswold, ''Thomas Jefferson, Landscape Architect'', (Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1978), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/RUZC4Q3D view on Zotero].</ref>
:“At the Rocks . . . a turning Tuscan [[temple]]. . . proportions of Pantheon, . . . at the Point, . . . build Demosthene’s lantern. . . The [[kitchen garden]] is not the place for ornaments of this kind. [[bower]]s and [[trellis|treillages]] suit that better, & these [[temple]]s will be better disposed in the '''pleasure grounds'''.” [[#Jefferson_cite|back up to History]]
*<div id="Drayton"></div>Drayton, Charles, November 2, 1806, describing [[The Woodlands]], seat of [[William Hamilton]], near Philadelphia, PA (1806: 54)<ref>Charles Drayton, “The Diary of Charles Drayton I, 1806,” Drayton Hall: A National Historic Trust Site, http://lcdl.library.cofc.edu/lcdl/catalog/lcdl:27554, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/HAARCGXN view on Zotero].</ref>
:“The <u>Approach</u>, its road, [[wood]]s, [[lawn]] & [[clump]]s, are laid out with much taste & ingenuity. Also the location of the Stables; with a [[Yard]] between the house, stables, [[lawn]] of approach or [[park]], & the '''pleasure ground''' or '''garden'''.” [[#Drayton_cite|back up to History]]
[[File:0301.jpg|thumb|Fig. 9, William Russell Birch, “View “[[View]] from [[Belmont_(Philadelphia,_PA)|Belmont ]] Pennsyl.<sup>a</sup>the [[Seat]] the Seat of Judge Peters,” in ''The Country Seats of the United States of North America'' (1808), pl. 16.]]
*[[Andrew Jackson Downing|Downing, Andrew Jackson]], 1849, describing [[Belmont_(Philadelphia,_PA)|Belmont]], estate of Judge [[William Peters]], near Philadelphia, PA (1849: 42–43)<ref name="Downing 1849"></ref>
:“Its proprietor had a most extended reputation as a scientific agriculturist, and his place was also no less remarkable for the design and culture of its '''pleasure-grounds''', than for the excellence of its farm. Long and stately [[avenue]]s, with [[vista]]s terminated by [[obelisk]]s, a garden adorned with marble [[vase]]s, busts, and [[statue]]s, and '''pleasure grounds''' filled with the rarest trees and [[shrub]]s, were conspicuous features here.” [Fig. 9]
*[[C. M. (Charles Mason) Hovey|Hovey, C. M. (Charles Mason)]], December 1849, describing Oatlands, residence of D. F. Manice, Hempstead, NY (''Magazine of Horticulture'' 15: 529)<ref>Charles Mason Hovey, “Notes of a Visit to Oatlands, Hempstead, L.I., N.Y., the Residence of D. F. Manice, Esq.,” ''Magazine of Horticulture, Botany, and All Useful Discoveries and Improvements in Rural Affairs'' 15, no. 12 (December 1849): 529–33, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/ZIRK5R8N view on Zotero].</ref>
:“The house is a handsome building, in a kind of castellated gothic, standing about fifty feet from the road, with the [[conservatory]] and [[hothouse]], and [[flower garden]] on the left,—the [[kitchen garden]] and forcing-houses on the right,—and the [[lawn]] and '''pleasure ground''', in the rear of the house, separating it from the [[park]].”
[[File:1371.jpg|thumb|Fig. 10, [[J. C. Loudon]], Plan of a pleasure-ground with [[labyrinth]], in ''An Encyclopaedia of Gardening'', 4th ed. (1826), 1021, fig. 719.]]
*[[J. C. (John Claudius) Loudon|Loudon, J. C. (John Claudius)]], 1826, ''An Encyclopaedia of Gardening'' (1826: 451, 1021)<ref name="Loudon_1826">J. C. (John Claudius) Loudon, ''An Encyclopaedia of Gardening; Comprising the Theory and Practice of Horticulture, Floriculture, Arboriculture, and Landscape-Gardening'', 4th ed. (London: Longman et al., 1826), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/KNKTCA4W view on Zotero].</ref>
:“2355. To unite the agreeable with the useful is an object common to all the departments of gardening. The [[kitchen-garden]], the [[orchard]], the [[nursery]], and the forest, are all intended as scenes of recreation and visual enjoyment, as well as of useful culture; and enjoyment is the avowed object of the [[flower-garden]], [[shrubbery]], and '''pleasure-ground'''. . .
:“Previous artists had confined their efforts within the rigid [[wall]]s of the garden, but [William] Kent, who saw in all nature a garden-landscape, demolished the [[wall]]s, introduced the [[ha-ha]], and by blending the [[park]] and the garden, substituted for the primness of the old inclosure, the freedom of the '''pleasure-ground'''. . .
:“In '''pleasure-grounds''', while the whole should exhibit a general plan, the different scenes presented to the eye, one after the other, should possess sufficient variety in the detail to keep alive the interest of the spectator, and awaken further curiosity.
:“. . . while, in a more elevated and enlightened taste, we are able to dispose them [trees] in our '''pleasure-grounds''' and [[parkspark]]s, around our houses, in all the variety of groups, masses, [[thicket]], and single trees, in such a manner as to rival the most beautiful scenery of general nature.” [[#Downing_cite|back up to History]]
<gallery>
Image:0973.jpg|[[Pierre Pharoux]], “Plan of Tivoli Laid Out into Town Lots” [detail], NY, 1795. “Pleasure ground” “'''Pleasure ground'''” is inscribed on the left of the plan.
Image:1371.jpg|[[J. C. (John Claudius) Loudon]], Plan of a "''The '''pleasure-ground with labyrinth'''''", in ''An Encyclopaedia of Gardening'', 4th ed. (1826), 1021, fig. 719.
Image:0935.jpg|Alexander Walsh, “Plan of a Garden,” and '''Pleasure Ground''', in ''New England Farmer'' 19, no. 39 (March 31, 1841): 308.
FileImage:13031097.jpg|John Warner BarberThomas S. Sinclair, “North-western view in “Plan of the central part '''Pleasure Grounds''' and Farm of the Village of Roxbury[[Pennsylvania Hospital for the Insane]] at Philadelphia,” in Thomas S. Kirkbride, ''Historical CollectionsAmerican Journal of Insanity'' 4, no. 4 (1844April 1848), 483: pl. opp. 280. “Gentlemens '''Pleasure Grounds'''” to the far right of the plan. “Ladies '''Pleasure Grounds'''” just right of the hospital buildings.
Image:10970378.jpg|Thomas S. SinclairAnonymous, “Plan of the Pleasure Grounds and Farm of the a Suburban Villa Residence” in [[Pennsylvania Hospital for the InsaneAndrew Jackson Downing|A. J. Downing]] at Philadelphia,” in Thomas S. Kirkbride, ''American Journal A Treatise on the Theory and Practice of InsanityLandscape Gardening'' 4, no4th ed. 4 (April 18481849): pl, 118, fig. opp26. 280. “Gentlemens “'''Pleasure Grounds” to the far right of the plan. “Ladies Pleasure Grounds” just right of the hospital buildingsground'''” is marked as b.
Image:03781967.jpg|Anonymous, “Plan of a Suburban Villa Residence” in [[Andrew Jackson Downing|A. J. Downing]], ''A Treatise on Plan Showing Proposed Method of Laying Out the Theory and Practice of Landscape Gardening[[Public garden/Public ground|Public Grounds]] at Washington'', 4th ed. (1849), 118, fig. 26. “Pleasure ground” is marked as b1851.
Image:19670023.jpg|[[Andrew Jackson Downing|A. J. Downing]], ''Plan Showing Proposed Method of Laying Out the [[Public garden/Public ground|Public Grounds]] at Washington'', 1851. Manuscript copy by Nathaniel Michler, 1867.  Image:0023_detail6.jpg|[[Andrew Jackson Downing|A. J. Downing]], ''Plan Showing Proposed Method of Laying Out the [[Public_ground|Public Grounds ]] at Washington''[detail], 1851. Manuscript copy by Nathaniel Michler, 1867.
Image:0023.jpg|[[Andrew Jackson Downing|A. J. Downing]], ''Plan Showing Proposed Method of Laying Out the Public Grounds at Washington'', 1851. Manuscript copy by Nathaniel Michler, 1867. “Smithsonian Pleasure Grounds” is inscribed bellow “Smithsonian Institution.”
</gallery>
<gallery>
Image:0153.jpg|John Drayton, ''A [[View ]] of the Battery and Harbour of New York, and the Ambuscade Frigate'', 1794.
Image:0099.jpg|[[Benjamin Henry Latrobe]], Sketch plan for landscaping the grounds of the President’s House, c. 1802—5.
Image:0304.jpg|William Russell Birch, “[[The Woodlands|Woodlands]] the [[Seat ]] of M.<sup>r</sup> W.<sup>m</sup> Hamilton Pennsylv.<sup>a</sup>,” in ''The Country Seats of the United States of North America'' (1808), pl. 14.
Image:0301.jpg|William Russell Birch, “View “[[View]] from [[Belmont_(Philadelphia,_PA)|Belmont ]] Pennsyl.<sup>a</sup>the [[Seat]] the Seat of Judge Peters,” in ''The Country Seats of the United States of North America'' (1808), pl. 16.
Image:1176.jpg|Eliza Susan Quincy, ''[[View ]] of the [[seat ]] of Edmund Quincy Esqr.'', 1822.
Image:1101.jpg|Anonymous, “Bloomingdale Asylum for the Insane,” ''American Magazine for Useful and Entertaining Knowledge'' 1, no. 1 (September 1834): 6.
Image:0849.jpg|[[Alexander Jackson Davis]], ''[[View ]] in Grounds at [[Blithewood]], [[Seat ]] of Robt. Donaldson, Dutchess Co. Hud[son] riv[er]. N.Y.'', 1840.
Image:0355.jpg|Anonymous, “View “[[View]] in the Grounds at [[Hyde Park” Park (on the Hudson River, NY)|Hyde Park]]” in [[Andrew Jackson Downing|A. J. Downing]], ''A Treatise on the Theory and Practice of Landscape Gardening'', 4th ed. (1849), 45, fig. 1.
Image:0360.jpg|Anonymous, “Kenwood, Residence of J. Rathbone, Esq. near Albany, N.Y.” in [[Andrew Jackson Downing|A. J. Downing]], ''A Treatise on the Theory and Practice of Landscape Gardening'', 4th ed. (1849), 50, fig. 9.
Image:0364.jpg|Anonymous, “Belmont Place, near Boston, the [[seat ]] of J. P. Cushing, Esq.” in [[Andrew Jackson Downing|A. J. Downing]], ''A Treatise on the Theory and Practice of Landscape Gardening'', 4th ed. (1849), pl. opp 54, fig. 10.
Image:0365.jpg|Anonymous, “Mr. Dunn’s Cottage, [[Mount]] Holly, N. J.” in [[Andrew Jackson Downing|A. J. Downing]], ''A Treatise on the Theory and Practice of Landscape Gardening'', 4th ed. (1849), pl. opp. 54, fig. 11.
Image:0367.jpg|Anonymous, “View “[[View]] in the Grounds of James Arnold, Esq.” in [[Andrew Jackson Downing|A. J. Downing]], ''A Treatise on the Theory and Practice of Landscape Gardening'', 4th ed. (1849), pl. opp. 57.
Image:0368.jpg|Anonymous, “The [[Seat ]] of George Sheaff, Esq.” in [[Andrew Jackson Downing|A. J. Downing]], ''A Treatise on the Theory and Practice of Landscape Gardening'', 4th ed. (1849), pl. between 58 and 59, fig. 12.
Image:0369.jpg|Anonymous, “Mrs. Camac’s Residence,” in [[Andrew Jackson Downing|A. J. Downing]], ''A Treatise on the Theory and Practice of Landscape Gardening'', 4th ed. (1849), pl. between 58 and 59, fig. 13.
Image:0376.jpg|Anonymous, “Plan of the foregoing grounds as a Country [[Seat]], after ten years’ improvement,” in [[Andrew Jackson Downing|A. J. Downing]], ''A Treatise on the Theory and Practice of Landscape Gardening'', 4th ed. (1849), 114, fig. 24.
Image:0377.jpg|Anonymous, “Plan of a Mansion Residence, laid out in the [[natural style]]” in [[Andrew Jackson Downing|A. J. Downing]], ''A Treatise on the Theory and Practice of Landscape Gardening'', 4th ed. (1849), 115, fig. 25. Pleasure grounds are at ''g'' and ''h''.
</gallery>
Image:0557.jpg|Sarony & Major, ''Iranistan, an Oriental Ville'', 1852—54.
File:2099.jpg|Anonymous, “Lemon “[[Lemon Hill]],” in M. M. Ballou, ed., ''Ballou’s Pictorial Drawing-Room Companion'' 8, no. 19 (May 12, 1855): 297.
</gallery>

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