In about 1828 [[André Parmentier|Parmentier]] published a broadside of his Horticultural and Botanical Garden featuring a map of the grounds, offering a most detailed view of the layout and design of his [[nursery]] [Fig. 2]. The vineyards and rose [[shrubbery|shrubs]] were enclosed by meandering [[walk]]s that led to the “[[rustic style|Rustic]] [[arbor|Arbour]]” and “French Saloon” at the east corner of the [[plot]] (situated at the upper left on the map), and straight [[alley]]s, lined with fruit trees, divided his [[orchard]]s. Along the eastern edge of the nursery, abutting the Jamaica Turnpike, was a small cluster of buildings that included the barn, [[greenhouse]]s, tool and work houses, as well as the Parmentier family’s home and living quarters for laborers; adjacent to these buildings were hot [[bed]]s and an herbaceous plant garden.<ref>The close quarters may have led to a dispute in July 1830, when one of his laborers beat another with a garden hoe. Newspaper reports are mute on what precipitated the attack but noted that the victim, George Fuller, died shortly thereafter. His attacker, Owen Redden, was tried for murder but eventually acquitted by reason of insanity. See “Outrage,” ''New-York Morning Herald'' (July 9, 1830), p. 2, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/keywords_in_early_american_landscape_design/items/itemKey/SZ2JVFV8 view on Zotero], and “Oyer and Terminer,” ''American'' (June 17, 1831), p. 2, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/keywords_in_early_american_landscape_design/items/itemKey/VCM3W7RT view on Zotero].</ref>The broadside is likely the document Parmentier sent to the Société d’Horticulture de Paris in 1829, and it was later reprinted, with some alterations, in the February 1832 issue of ''Gardener’s Magazine, and Register of Rural and Domestic Improvement''.<ref>The editor of the ''Annales de la Société d’Horticulture de Paris'' noted that Parmentier sent a map of his nursery, along with a letter on the propagation of fruit trees in America; see “Sur les Arbres fruitiers d’Amérique,” ''Annales de la Société d’Horticulture de Paris'' 4 (1829): 352, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/keywords_in_early_american_landscape_design/items/itemKey/WRFUH5XB view on Zotero]. For the 1832 reprint of the map, see ''Gardener's Magazine'' (February 1832): 71, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/keywords_in_early_american_landscape_design/items/itemKey/69KZ93MG/q/foreign%20notices view on Zotero].</ref>
[[File:2227.jpg|thumb|left|Fig. 3, Prosper Desobry, ''Map of Parmentier's Garden, Brooklyn, to be sold at auction on Wednesday, Novr. 13th, 1833, at 12 o'clock at the Merchant's Exchange by Pine & Van Antwerp, 1833''.]]
The article that accompanied the 1832 publication of the map was intended to aid in the sale of the Horticultural and Botanical Garden. [[André Parmentier|Parmentier]] had died in November 1830 after a prolonged illness, and his widow, Sylvie, endeavored to maintain the property following his death under increasingly difficult circumstances. In March 1831 parts of the property, including a barn and outhouses, were destroyed by arson, and in September of that year the Parmentiers’ son Léon died at the age 12.<ref>For information on the fire at Parmentier’s Horticultural and Botanical Garden, see ''American'' (March 17, 1831), p. 2, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/keywords_in_early_american_landscape_design/items/itemKey/TNER2ST7 view on Zotero], and for the death notice of Léon Ghislain Leopold Parmentier, see ''American'' (September 20, 1831), p. 2, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/keywords_in_early_american_landscape_design/items/itemKey/R2NERJC5 view on Zotero].</ref> Sylvie Parmentier subsequently put the nursery up for sale in November 1831. Finding no immediate buyers, she continued to oversee the garden until November 1833, when she sold it to Dr. Adrian Vanderveer of nearby Flatbush. Vanderveer paid $53,000 for the garden, which he divided into lots and sold them at auction for nearly $70,000.<ref>Some papers cite the original sale price as $57,000; see “Price of Farms,” ''New-York American'' (November 22, 1833), p. 4, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/keywords_in_early_american_landscape_design/items/itemKey/ZB28JDE7 view on Zotero]. For additional details of the sale and subsequent auction, see “Parmentier’s Garden,” ''New-York Evening Post'' (October 23, 1833), p. 2, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/keywords_in_early_american_landscape_design/items/itemKey/CSXXMK56/q/parmentier's%20garden view on Zotero], “All in the Wrong,” ''Commercial Advertiser'' (November 9, 1833), p. 3, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/keywords_in_early_american_landscape_design/items/itemKey/4AV8M7X3 view on Zotero], and ''New-York American'' (November 19, 1833), p. 4, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/keywords_in_early_american_landscape_design/items/itemKey/CQZTHBC6 view on Zotero].</ref>
==Texts==
*Anonymous, June 6, 1825, advertisement for Parmentier’s Horticultural and Botanical Garden (''New-York Evening Post'')<ref>Advertisement, ''New-York Evening Post'' (June 6, 1825), p. 3, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/keywords_in_early_american_landscape_design/items/itemKey/DXBVT3AF view on Zotero].</ref>
:“[[André Parmentier|ANDREW PARMENTIER]] has established himself in America with a view to Horticulture, and has already set on foot a [[nursery]] of considerable extent and variety, of ornamental & fruit-bearing trees, at the cross-roads formed by the intersection of the Jamaica & Flatbush turnpikes. . . . He has also a fine collection of [[shrubbery|shrubs]] and flowers, in [[pot]]s, for sale.
:“[[André Parmentier|Mr. P.]] intends to devote particular care to adding to his collection, those European fruits and remarkable rare trees, which are as yet unknown here, or have not been generally introduced into the United States.
*A Horticulturist [pseud.], August 1, 1826, “To the Editor of the N. Y. Advertiser” (''Commercial Advertiser'')<ref>A Horticulturist [pseud.], “To the Editor of the N. Y. Advertiser,” ''Commercial Advertiser'' (August 1, 1826): 2, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/keywords_in_early_american_landscape_design/items/itemKey/5THTV3GU view on Zotero].</ref>
:“Sir—I went yesterday to see the Garden owned by [[André Parmentier|Mr. Andrew Parmentier]]. . . . The improvements he has made in that establishment, during the short time he has been there, are really astonishing; among which may be seen peach trees planted in April, 1825, which were inoculated in the same year, and are at present between three and four feet high, having been planted but 15 months. His flower plants, which are kept covered during the heat of the day by a simple and easy method, are by that means kept a long time in blossom, and form a charming and delightful [[view]]. There are always a great number in blossom, his collection amounting to above 5000 in [[pot]]s. He has besides planted 20,000 grape vines, which will occupy at least five acres of ground, and are likely, in a very few years, to furnish the market of the city of New-York with an abundant supply of that excellent and wholesome fruit. [[André Parmentier|Mr. Parmentier]] has arranged his garden in the [[modern style|picturesque style]], with a [[rustic style|rustic]] [[belvedere|Belvidere]] placed at the corner of Jamaica road, which displays a most extensive perspective. It is the first of the kind erected in the United States, and will be covered with grape vines next fall. Mr. Parmentier was very polite and attentive to me, in showing me all the details of his large establishment, which contains 24 acres of land, and is surrounded with a solid stone [[fence]].
:“This [[Botanic Garden]] can be visited free of expense; and, as it is likely to become the most important one of the kind in the United States, strangers of taste visiting New-York, will find it to their gratification to view this garden, which is only two miles from New-York.”
*Anonymous, May 19, 1827, “Mr. Parmentier’s Garden” (''New-York Evening Post'')<ref>“Mr. Parmentier’s Garden,” ''New-York Evening Post'' (May 19, 1827), p. 2, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/keywords_in_early_american_landscape_design/items/itemKey/XT8G5JP2 view on Zotero].</ref>
:“At the [[greenhouse|green houses]] in Mr. Parmentier’s Horticultural Garden in Brooklyn . . . the admirers of flowers may see many rare and elegant varieties of roses, together with many other curious and beautiful flowers now in blossom. . . . [[André Parmentier|Mr. Parmentier]] has introduced into this country the species of rose with red petals emitting the perfume of tea, sometimes called the red tea rose of Florence; this is also in flower. The Napoleon rose, and the Maria Louisa rose, with a number of others, will also be in bloom in a few days. As these plants are cultivated in [[pot]]s, their transportation may be safely effected at any season.”
*Anonymous, January 4, 1828, “Rural Scenery” (''New England Farmer'' 6: 187)<ref>“Rural Scenery,” ''New England Farmer'' 6, no. 24 (January 4, 1828): 187, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/keywords_in_early_american_landscape_design/items/itemKey/INS7XKSI/q/rural%20scenery view on Zotero].</ref>
:“''Landscape and Picturesque Gardens.''—Among the embellishments which attend the increase of wealth, the cultivation of the sciences, and the refinement of taste, none diversify and heighten the beauty of rural scenery, more than [[picturesque]] and landscape gardens. . . .
:“For the introduction into this country of the design and execution of [[landscape gardening|landscape]] and [[picturesque]] gardening, the public is much indebted to [[André Parmentier|Mr. A. Parmentier]], proprietor of the Horticultural Botanic Garden, Brooklyn, two miles from this city. His own garden, for which he made so advantageous a choice, may give us some idea of his taste. The [[border]]s are composed of every variety of trees and [[shrubbery|shrubs]] that are found in his [[nursery|nurseries]]. The [[walk]]s are sinuous, adapted to the irregularity of the ground, and affording to visitors a continual change of scenery, which is not enjoyed in gardens laid out in even surfaces, and in right lines. His dwelling and French saloon are in accordance with the surrounding rural aspect. In his gardens are 25,000 vines planted and arranged in the manner of the vineyards of France.”
*Viator [pseud.], August 15, 1828, “Nurseries and Gardens on Long Island” (''New England Farmer'' 7: 25)<ref>Viator [pseud.], “Nurseries and Gardens on Long Island,” ''New England Farmer, and Horticultural Journal'' 7, no. 4 (August 15, 1828): 25, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/keywords_in_early_american_landscape_design/items/itemKey/HFMDHNUX view on Zotero].</ref>
:“At Brooklyn we called at the celebrated Horticultural Garden of [[André Parmentier|Mr. ANDRE PARMENTIER]]. This is a recent establishment begun in 1825. It contains 20 acres, and is surrounded by a [[wall]] of masonry, after the manner which we are told is practised on the old continent. . . . This garden, so far as completed, has been laid out by the very intelligent proprietor in the most [[modern style]] and with great taste; for in the branch of ornamental and [[picturesque]] gardening, [[André Parmentier|Mr. Parmentier]], it is believed, greatly excels.”
*Anonymous, October 3, 1828, “Parmentier’s Horticultural Garden, Near Brooklyn” (''New England Farmer'' 7: 85)<ref>Anonymous, October 3, 1828, “Parmentier’s Horticultural Garden, Near Brooklyn,” ''New England Farmer, and Horticultural Journal'' 7, no. 11 (October 3, 1828): 84–85, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/keywords_in_early_american_landscape_design/items/itemKey/ZC2KF67E/q/parmentier's view on Zotero].</ref>
:“To the left of the garden an [[avenue]] leads to a [[rustic style|Rustic]] [[Arbor]] curiously constructed of the crooked limbs of trees, in their rough state, covered with bark and moss; from the top of this [[arbor]] a [[view]] of the whole garden, and the surrounding scenery is exhibited, extending to Staten Island, the bay, Governor’s Island, and the city; at some distance from the [[rustic style|rustic]] [[arbor]] is the French saloon, a beautiful oval, skirted with privet. . . .
:“The [[greenhouse|green-house]] department, although not so extensive as some in our vicinity, contains many beautiful plants exhibited with the same tasteful arrangement which characterizes the whole of [[André Parmentier|Mr. Parmentier’s]] establishment; even the method in disposing the [[pot]]s according to some principle of grouping or contrasting the color and size of the flowers, entertains the eye, and shows the variety of ways in which a skillful gardener may distribute his materials to produce [[picturesque]] effect.”
*Anonymous, March 17, 1831, describing an act of arson at Parmentier’s Horticultural and Botanic Garden (''New-York American'')<ref>''New-York American'' (March 17, 1831), p. 2, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/keywords_in_early_american_landscape_design/items/itemKey/R6RNKXMT view on Zotero].</ref>
:“We regret to be obliged to state, that the barn and outhouses attached to Madame Parmentier’s garden, near Brooklyn, were destroyed last night by fire, together with carts, garden tools and a horse. . . . [W]e are authorized by one of Mrs. Parmentier’s neighbors to offer a reward of one hundred dollars for the apprehension and conviction of the incendiary.”
*S., J. W., February 1832, “Parmentier’s Garden, Near Brooklyn,” (''Gardener’s Magazine'' 8: 70–72)<ref>J. W. S., “Foreign Notices: —North America,” ''Gardener’s Magazine, and Register of Rural and Domestic Improvement'' 8, no. 36 (February 1832): 70–77, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/keywords_in_early_american_landscape_design/items/itemKey/69KZ93MG/q/J.%20W.%20S. view on Zotero].</ref>
:“I have compiled from different authorities . . . an account of one of the first [[botanic garden]]s which has ever been established in this country, viz. that of [[André Parmentier|Parmentier]] about two miles from Brooklyn, Long Island. The following map . . . will serve to convey some idea of the general disposition of the whole; but I am confident that neither plan nor description can furnish any adequate idea of the particular beauties of the place. Its establishment may, indeed, be looked upon as an epoch in the history of American horticulture; as, though the various branches of that science were before understood and practised by most of our gardeners, it had not attained its full perfection until the arrival of [[André Parmentier|M. Parmentier]]. . . . [T]he garden of [[André Parmentier|M. Parmentier]] is, perhaps, the most striking instance we have of all the different departments of gardening being combined extensively and with scientific skill. The rapidity with which this garden was formed added to its effect. Nearly twenty-five acres of ground were originally enclosed; and the inhabitants of the vicinity beheld, with astonishment, in the short space of three years, one of the most stony, rugged, sterile pieces of ground on the whole island, which seemed to bid defiance to the labours of man, stored with the most luxuriant fruit, and blooming with the most beautiful flowers. . . .
:“In the northern parts of the garden are [[nursery|nurseries]], containing young plants of every kind of tree which is to be found in the beds. To the left of the garden, an [[avenue]] leads to a [[rustic style|rustic]] [[arbor|arbour]], in the grotesque style, constructed of the crooked limbs of trees in their rough state, covered with bark and moss: from the top of this [[arbor|arbour]], a [[view]] of the whole garden and the surrounding scenery is obtained; including Staten Island, the Bay, Governor’s Island, and the city of New York. . . .
:“In short, this establishment is well worthy of notice as one of the few examples in the neighbourhood of New York, of the art of laying out a garden so as to combine the principles of [[landscape gardening|landscape-gardening]] with the conveniences of the [[nursery]] or [[orchard]].”
*Anonymous, June 20, 1833, “Mrs. Parmentier’s Garden” (''New-York Spectator'')<ref>“Mrs. Parmentier’s Garden,” ''New-York Spectator'' (June 20, 1833), p. 1, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/keywords_in_early_american_landscape_design/items/itemKey/ARQEVA2S view on Zotero].</ref>
:“Those ladies and gentlemen who have not entirely yielded themselves to languor and repose during the brightest hours of the morning, would find themselves richly repaid by a visit to the “garden of roses” (as we must be permitted to call it) of Mrs. Parmentier. . . . A lady’s taste is visible in the neatness and floral embellishments of Mrs. Parmentier’s Garden, and though there is a large domain to superintend, and though a vast variety of trees and [[Shrubbery]] for the ornament and for use, call for attention in the liberal department of the [[nursery]], yet nothing is neglected—all is equally subject to the most assiduous care and preserving industry.”
*[[Andrew Jackson Downing|Downing, Andrew Jackson]], 1849, ''A Treatise on the Theory and Practice of Landscape Gardening'', 4th ed. (1849: 459–60)<ref>A. J. Downing, ''A Treatise on the Theory and Practice of Landscape Gardening'', 4th ed. (New York: George P. Putnam; London: Longman, Brown, Green & Longman, 1849), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/keywords_in_early_american_landscape_design/items/itemKey/5M4S2D64/q/treatise%20on%20the%20theor view on Zotero].</ref>
:“Those of our readers who may have visited the delightful garden and grounds of [[André Parmentier|M. Parmentier]], near Brooklyn, some half a dozen years since . . . will readily remember the rustic prospect-[[arbor]] or [[belvedere|tower]], Fig. 87, which was situated at the extremity of his place . . . from its summit, though the garden [[walk]]s afforded no [[prospect]], a beautiful reach of neighborhood for many miles was enjoyed.”
File:0064.jpg|Anonymous, ''Map of Mr. Andrew Parmentier’s Horticultural & Botanic Garden, at Brooklyn, Long Island, Two Miles From the City of New York'', c. 1828.
File:2227.jpg|Prosper Desobry, ''Map of Parmentier's Garden, Brooklyn, to be sold at auction on Wednesday, Novr. 13th, 1833, at 12 o'clock at the Merchant's Exchange by Pine & Van Antwerp, 1833.'' File:0417.jpg|Anonymous, “Rustic “[[Rustic_style|Rustic]] prospect-arbor,” in A. J. Downing, ''A Treatise on the Theory and Practice of Landscape Gardening'', 4th ed. (1849), 460, fig. 87. File:2225.jpg|William Hooker, ''Hooker’s map of the village of Brooklyn in the year 1827'', 1861.  File:2225_detail.jpg|William Hooker, ''Hooker’s map of the village of Brooklyn in the year 1827'' [detail], 1861.  
</gallery>
==Other Resources==
[httphttps://www.brooklynhistory.org/blog/2012/02/24/brooklyns-secret-garden/ Brooklyn Historical Society]
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