<div id="Fig_2"></div>[[File:0969.jpg|thumb|Fig. 2, [[Thomas Jefferson]], Plan of the grounds at Monticello, 1806. [[#Fig_2_cite|Back to texts.]]]]
Hedges were found throughout America, but the plant materials employed in them varied, depending on the purpose of the hedge and the climate of its particular region. <span id="Prince_cite"></span>In 1828, William Prince praised hedges, particularly of buckthorn and maclura, as windbreaks affording protection in areas subject to severe winds ([[#Prince|view text]]). Fast-growing evergreens were recommended for hedges needed to screen an area, although they were not advised for situations calling for trimmed effect or where a long shadow was undesirable. In these cases, the arborvitae, which grows quickly and densely, was the most common choice. At times, the screening effect does not appear to have been intentional; <span id="Hovey_cite"></span>in 1839, for example, [[C. M. (Charles Mason) Hovey|C. M. Hovey]] described the fish [[pond]] of the [[Elias Hasket Derby House]] in Salem, Massachusetts, as being entirely surrounded by an eight-foot high impenetrable hedge ([[#Hovey|view text]]). Where such an effect was desired, various types of thorn were effective as impenetrable barriers. [[Andrew Jackson Downing|Downing]] noted that “there are few creatures, however bold, who care to ‘come to the ''scratch''’ twice with such a foe.”<ref>A. J. Downing, “A Chapter on Hedges,” ''Horticulturist'' 1 (February 1847): 346, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/keywords_in_early_american_landscape_design/items/itemKey/3BBFEPHX view on Zotero].</ref> Cacti were similarly used at the California missions to create barriers around fields. Plants for ornamental hedges, however, were selected for their foliage, blossoms, and berries. For instance, a wild rose hedge was planted at [[Mount Vernon]], while the deep green foliage of the privet was admired at [[Oatlands]], D. P. Manice’s residence in Hempstead, New York. Because of their combination of flowering beauty and edible produce, fruit trees, such as apple, peach, and orange, were sometimes planted as [[espalier]] hedges (see [[Espalier]]). [[Thomas Jefferson]] capitalized on the many uses of hedges: he designed thorn hedges to enclose his [[orchard]] and garden area [Fig. 2], planned hedgethorn and privet or cedar to line his [[slope]]s, and, in a proposal of 1771, used a hedge to screen his [[icehouse]] from view [Fig. 3].<ref>Jefferson purchased much of his plant material for Monticello from Thomas Main, a nurseryman and author of an 1807 work on hedges. See Brenda Bullion, “Early American Farming and Gardening Literature: ‘Adapted to the Climates and Seasons of the United States,’” ''Journal of Garden History'' 12, no. 1 (1992): 37–38, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/5MKAGJ2V view on Zotero].</ref>
[[File:0167.jpg|left|thumb|Fig. 3, [[Thomas Jefferson]], General plan of the summit of Monticello Mountain, before May 1768.]]
Changes - History of Early American Landscape Design
A Project of the Center for Advanced Study in the Visual Arts, National Gallery of Art
History of Early American Landscape Design
HEALD will be upgrading in spring 2021. New features and content will be available this summer. Thank you for your patience!


[http://www.nga.gov/content/ngaweb/research/casva/research-projects.html A Project of the National Gallery of Art, Center for Advanced Study in the Visual Arts ]
A Project of the Center for Advanced Study in the Visual Arts

National Gallery of Art, Washington