==History==
[[File:0974.jpg|thumb|left|Fig. 1, Joseph Jacques Ramée, ''Monument to the memory of general George Washington, to be erected at Baltimore'', design for the [[Washington_Monument_(Baltimore,_MD)|Washington Monument]], 1813.]]
[[File:0901.jpg|thumb|Fig. 2, George Bridport, Alternative designs for Washington Monument, [[Washington_Square_(Philadelphia,_PA)|Washington Square]], Philadelphia, 1816.]]
[[File:0855.jpg|thumb|Fig. 3, [[Alexander Jackson Davis]], ''Garden Arch at Montgomery Place'', c. 1850.]]<span id="Chambers_cite"></span>Arch had three distinct, yet interrelated meanings or applications in the context of 18th- and 19th-century American landscape design. <span id="Webster_cite"></span>The first, which is the most heavily documented, is the use of arches in association with commemorative celebrations, as specified by [[Ephraim Chambers]] in 1741 ([[#Chambers|view text]]) and reiterated by [[Noah Webster]] in 1828 ([[#Webster|view text]]). The antecedents to this practice include the use of ancient Roman arches: large-scale, inverted U-shaped structures, erected to memorialize military victories. In North America, the building of such celebratory arches occurred most frequently in the immediate post-Revolutionary period. For specific festivities, arches were often made of impermanent materials, as in the case of the temporary arch [[Charles Willson Peale]] created for Philadelphia to mark the declaration of peace on December 2, 1783. General [[George Washington|George Washington’s]] arrival in cities in the early federalist period was frequently marked by the erection of processional arches, such as the arch of cut laurel and evergreen branches erected at Gray’s Ferry in Philadelphia in 1789 [<span id="Fig_6_cite"></span>[[#Fig_6|See Fig. 6]]]. The arch, with its classical referents, was also the symbol of choice for permanent monuments to [[George Washington|President Washington]] in the early 19th century. The designs of Joseph Jacques Ramée in Baltimore and of George Bridport in Philadelphia [Figs. 1 and 2] not only commemorated [[George Washington|Washington’s]] achievements but also marked the entrance as a space set aside for public use.
[[File:17590855.jpg|thumb|left|Fig. 43, [[J. C. Loudon]], “Entrance to the [[Flower_garden|Flower-gardenAlexander Jackson Davis]] at Wimbledon House,” in ''The Suburban GardenerGarden Arch at Montgomery Place'' (1838), pc. 641, fig. 2671850.]]These examples point to a second, closely related function of arches as spatial dividers or [[gate]]s, which also relies upon antique precedents of monumental arches marking entrances to cities or towns. <span id="Southgate_cite"></span>This practice was translated to the American context with shifts in scale and message. Eliza Southgate’s description (1802) of the garden at the [[Elias Hasket Derby Farm]], for example, indicates that arches were used to mark three subdivisions of the landscape and to direct the visitor from the lower to the upper garden ([[#Southgate|view text]]).
[[File:1759.jpg|thumb|Fig. 4, [[J. C. Loudon]], “Entrance to the [[Flower_garden|Flower-garden]] at Wimbledon House,” in ''The Suburban Gardener'' (1838), p. 641, fig. 267.]]
<span id="Peale_cite"></span>The third use of the term stemmed from its most basic meaning, summed up by [[Noah Webster|Webster]] in 1828 as “a segment of part of a circle,” translated in architecture into “a concave or hollow structure of stone or brick”. [[Charles Willson Peale|Peale’s]] description of the stone arch that he created over the stream in his garden exemplifies this definition of arch ([[#Peale|view text]]). Neither celebratory in nature nor necessarily acting as a spatial divider, the arch created a small cave-like space that [[Charles Willson Peale|Peale]] tried unsuccessfully to use as a root cellar.
* Bentley, William, October 22, 1790, describing the [[Elias Hasket Derby Farm]], Peabody, MA (1962: 1:180)<ref name="Bentley">William Bentley, ''The Diary of William Bentley, D.D., Pastor of the East Church, Salem, Massachusetts'' (Gloucester, MA: Peter Smith, 1962), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/B63ABACF/ view on Zotero].</ref>
:“[231] 22. . . . The Principal Garden is in three parts. . . We ascend from the house two steps in each division. The passages have no [[gate]]s, only a naked '''arch''' with a key stone frame, of wood painted white above 10 feet high.”
* <div id="Southgate"></div>Southgate, Eliza, July 6, 1802, describing [[Elias Hasket Derby Farm]], Peabody, MA (quoted in Kimball 1940: 75–76)<ref>Fiske Kimball, ''Mr. Samuel McIntire, Carver, the Architect of Salem'' (Portland, ME: Southworth-Anthoensen, 1940), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/I9J3RBHB view on Zotero].</ref>
:“There are 3 divisions in the gardens, and you pass from the lower one to the upper thro’ several '''arches''' rising one above the other. From the lower [[gate]] you have a fine perspective view of the whole range, rising gradually until the sight is terminated by a [[hermitage]]. The [[summer house]] in the center has an '''arch''' thro’ it, with 3 doors on each side which open into little apartments and one of them opens to a staircase by which you ascend into a square room, the whole size of the building.” [[#Southgate_cite|back up to History]]
[[File:1234_detail.jpg|thumb|200px|Fig. 7, John Vanderlyn, [[George_Washington|''George Washington'']] [detail], 1834.]] *[[Latrobe, Benjamin Henry]], March 17, 1807, in a letter to [[Thomas Jefferson]], describing the [[White House]], Washington, DC (Colonial Williamsburg Foundation)
:“My idea is to carry the road below the hill under a [[Wall]] about 8 feet high opposite to the center of the [[White House|president’s house]]. At this point, I should propose, at a future day to throw an '''Arch''', or '''Arches''' over the road in order to procure a private communication between the [[pleasure ground]] of the [[White House|president’s house]] and the [[park]] which reaches to the river, and which will probably be also planted, and perhaps be open to the public.” [Fig. 7]
*[[Forman, Martha Ogle]], September 1, 1824, describing the entrance of the Marquis de La Fayette into Newark, NJ (1976: 187)<ref>Martha Ogle Forman, ''Plantation Life at Rose Hill: The Diaries of Martha Ogle Forman, 1814–1845'' (Wilmington, DE: Historical Society of Delaware, 1976), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/EHQ6UZGE view on Zotero].</ref>
:“The entrance of La Fayette into Newark was very interesting, he was ushered in by the firing of Cannon and ringing of bells. They had erected on the [[green]] a number of '''arches''' representing the different states, all wreathed with Laurels and the effect was very beautiful.”
[[File:1758.jpg|thumb|Fig. 8, [[J. C. Loudon]], “[[Rustic_style|Rustic]] arch and [[vase]],” in ''The Suburban Gardener'' (1838), p. 581, fig. 231.]]
*[[Peale, Charles Willson]], c. 1825, describing Philadelphia, PA (Miller et al., eds., 2000: 5:91)<ref>Lillian B. Miller et al., eds., ''The Selected Papers of Charles Willson Peale and His Family'', vol. 5, ''The Autobiography of Charles Willson Peale'' (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2000), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/IZAKPCBG view on Zotero].</ref>
[[File:1758.jpg|thumb|Fig. 8, [[J. C. Loudon]], “[[Rustic_style|Rustic]] arch and [[vase]],” in ''The Suburban Gardener'' (1838), p. 581, fig. 231.]]
<div id="Fig_9"></div>[[File:1757.jpg|thumb|Fig. 9, [[J. C. Loudon]], “View of the [[Rustic_style|rustic]] arch,” in ''The Suburban Gardener'' (1838), p. 586, fig. 240. [[#Fig_9_cite|back up to History]]]]
*[[J. C. (John Claudius) Loudon|Loudon, J. C. (John Claudius)]], 1838, describing the grounds of the Lawrencian Villa, residence of Mrs. Lawrence, Drayton Green, near London, England (1838: 581, 584)<ref>J. C. (John Claudius) Loudon, ''The Suburban Gardener, and Villa Companion'' (London: Longman et al., 1838), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/BQVBJ48F view on Zotero].</ref>
===Citations===
* <div id="Chambers"></div>[[Chambers, Ephraim]], 1741, ''Cyclopaedia'' (1741: 1:n.p.)<ref>Ephraim Chambers, ''Cyclopaedia, or An Universal Dictionary of Arts and Sciences . . .'', 5th ed., 2 vols. (London: D. Midwinter et al., 1741–43) [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/PTXK378N view on Zotero].</ref>
:“'''ARCH''', in architecture, is a concave structure, raised with a mould bent in form of the '''''arch''''' of a curve, and serving as the inward support of any superstructure. . . .
*[[Repton, Humphry]], 1803, ''Observations on the Theory and Practice of Landscape Gardening'' (1803: 144, 146)<ref>Humphry Repton, ''Observations on the Theory and Practice of Landscape Gardening'' (London: Printed by T. Bensley for J. Taylor, 1803), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/VVQPC3BI view on Zotero].</ref>
:“If the entrance to a [[park]] be made from a town or village, the [[gate]] may with great propriety be distinguished by an '''arch'''. . .
*[[Andrew Jackson Downing|Downing, Andrew Jackson]], 1850, ''The Architecture of Country Houses'' (1850; repr., 1968: 353, 354)<ref>A. J. [Andrew Jackson] Downing, ''The Architecture of Country Houses; Including Designs for Cottages, Farm-Houses, and Villas'' (New York: D. Appleton, 1850; repr., New York: Da Capo, 1968), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/GRZPQXQI view on Zotero].</ref>
:“Looking at the exterior of this design, the student of expression will find it marked by dignity, variety, and harmony;...harmony in the predominance of the round-'''arch''' and other features of the style chosen. . .
:“We see refined culture symbolized in the round-'''arch''', with its continually recurring curves of beauty, in the spacious and elegant [[arcade]]s, inviting to leisurely conversations, in all those outlines and details, suggestive of restrained and orderly action, as contrasted with the upward, aspiring, imaginative feeling indicated in the pointed or Gothic styles of architecture. . .
:“In calling this villa ''Romanesque'', we only wish to be understood that we have gleaned from that style certain ideas of composition, which, appearing to us well suited for our purpose, we have adopted them in designing a country-house suited to a first class residence here....The prevalence of the round-'''arch''', of [[arcade]]s, of intersecting '''arches''', and of roofs higher than in the Grecian style, but lower than in Gothic styles, characterizes this architecture." [Fig. 12]
<hr>
Image:1757.jpg|[[J. C. Loudon]], “View of the [[Rustic_style|rustic]] arch,” in ''The Suburban Gardener'' (1838), p. 586, fig. 240.
Image:0935.jpg|Alexander Walsh, “Plan of a Garden,” in ''New England Farmer'' 19, no. 39 (March 31, 1841): 308. “TT. . . two seats [[seat]]s surrounded by an arched [[arbor]]"
Image:0855.jpg|[[Alexander Jackson Davis]], ''Garden Arch at Montgomery Place'', c. 1850.
File:1256.jpg|[[Robert Mills]], ''[[Monticello]]: 2nd version (west elevation)'', recto, 1803.
Image:0974.jpg|Joseph Jacques Ramée, ''Monument to the memory of general George Washington, to be erected at Baltimore'', design for the [[Washington_Monument_(Baltimore,_MD)|Washington Monument]], 1813.
Image:0901.jpg|George Bridport, Alternative designs for Washington Monument, [[Washington_Square_(Philadelphia,_PA)|Washington Square]], Philadelphia, 1816.
Image:1233.jpg|[[Anne-Marguerite-Henriette Rouillé de Marigny Hyde de Neuville]], ''Entrance [[Gate]] to the [[White House]] Garden, Washington, DC'', 1818.
Image:1234.jpg|John Vanderlyn, [[George_Washington|''George Washington'']], 1834.
Image:0831.jpg|[[Robert Mills]], Sketch for a Monument to President Andrew Jackson, c. 1835–40.
Image:1759.jpg|[[J. C. Loudon]], “Entrance to the [[Flower_garden|Flower-garden]] at Wimbledon House,” in ''The Suburban Gardener'' (1838), p. 641, fig. 267.
Image:0040.jpg|W. H. Bartlett, “Washington from the President’s House,” in Nathaniel Parker Willis, ''American Scenery'' (1840), vol. 2, pl. 26. Arch is in shadow in center bottom of image.
Image:1039.jpg|Anonymous, The [[Flower_garden|Flower-Garden]], in Joseph Breck, ''The Flower-Garden: or, Breck’s Book of Flowers'' (1841), frontispiece.
FileImage:1213.jpg|C. A. Hedin, “Front ''Front Elevation on Live Oak Street'',1853.
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Changes - History of Early American Landscape Design
A Project of the Center for Advanced Study in the Visual Arts, National Gallery of Art
History of Early American Landscape Design

Changes

[http://www.nga.gov/content/ngaweb/research/casva/research-projects.html A Project of the National Gallery of Art, Center for Advanced Study in the Visual Arts ]
A Project of the Center for Advanced Study in the Visual Arts

National Gallery of Art, Washington


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