While generally composed of trees, groves sometimes included [[shrub]]s and flowers. These plants were also found in [[wood]]s, [[shrubberies]], and [[wilderness]]es, thus blurring the lines of distinctions between these features—several treatise writers and lexicographers defined groves, for example, as small [[wood]]s. The overlapping and indistinct uses of the terms “grove,” “[[wilderness]],” and “[[shrubbery]]” are exemplified by [[George Washington]]’s notations on the garden at [[Mount Vernon]]. In 1782, he wrote that he would immediately plant groups of “[[shrub]]s and ornamental trees,” and decide later which constituted “the grove and which the [[wilderness]],” implying that the grove would ultimately be the less thickly planted of the two. To add to the confusion, [[George Washington|Washington]] on another occasion referred to the arrangement of trees and [[shrub]]s just south of his house as both a grove and a [[shrubbery]]. Texts from the 19th century mentioned [[shrub]]s and flowers in groves less frequently, because these types of plants were increasingly associated with [[shrubberies]]. Thus, as time passed, the distinction between the terms became more clearly drawn.
When attempting to distinguish groves from other features that employed trees (particularly [[wood]]s and [[clump]]s), treatise writers often focused on the question of whether groves should contain undergrowth. Various opinions emerged. [[Batty Langley]] argued in ''New Principles of Gardening'' (1728) for the inclusion of flowering [[shrub]]s with evergreens and deciduous trees. [[Thomas Whately]], however, in ''Observations of Modern Gardening'' (1770), believed that a grove consisted of trees without undergrowth in contrast to [[wood]]s or [[clump]]s, which did contain undergrowth. [[Philip Miller]], in ''The Gardeners Dictionary'' (1754), considered undergrowth as one factor that distinguished a “closed” grove from an “open” one. The “open” form of the feature was made by planting large trees at a distance that permitted tree tops to knit together to create a shady canopy for the [[walk]]s below. The “closed” type was composed of a denser planting of trees, [[shrub]]s, and flowers that could be arranged in figures cut through and circumscribed by [[walk]]s.
[[File:0969.jpg|thumb|left|Fig. 2, [[Thomas Jefferson]], Plan of the grounds at [[Monticello]], 1806.]]
[[File:0018.jpg|thumb|Fig. 3, Pierre Pharoux, Plan of Sperenza, NY [detail], n.d. A “Public Grove” is situated on either side of the “Common Ground.”]]
When attempting to distinguish groves from other features that employed trees (particularly The appellations “open” and “closed,” however, were not common in American discourse, despite [[wood]]Noah Webster|Noah Webster's and [[clump]]s)inclusion of such distinctions in his definition. Although these adjectives were not employed to a significant degree, treatise writers often focused on the question of whether groves should contain undergrowth. Various opinions emergedfitting these characteristics can be identified. [[Batty LangleyThomas Jefferson]] argued , in ''New Principles his 1807 account of Gardening'' (1728) for the inclusion of flowering [[shrubMonticello]]s with evergreens and deciduous , described his intention to trim the lower limbs of the trees. [[Thomas Whately]]in his grove, howevercomposed of a mixture of hardwoods and evergreens, in ''Observations “so as to give the appearance of Modern Gardening'' (1770)open ground, believed that a ” suggesting an “open” grove consisted of trees without undergrowth in contrast to [[woodFig. 2]]s or [[clump]]s, which did contain undergrowth. [[Philip MillerEliza Lucas Pinckney]], in ''The Gardeners Dictionary'' (1754)1742, considered undergrowth as one factor that distinguished evoked the sense of a “closed” grove from an “open” one. The “open” form when she delineated her collection of the feature was made by planting large trees at a distance that permitted tree tops to knit together to create a shady canopy for the and flowers. Likewise, in 1776 [[walkGeorge Washington]]s below. The “closed” suggested a similar type was composed of a denser planting of trees, grove for [[shrubMount Vernon]]s, which he described as an arrangement of flowering trees and flowers that could be arranged in figures cut through and circumscribed by evergreens underplanted with flowering [[walkshrub]]s.
[[File:0972.jpg|thumb|left|Fig. 4, Pierre Pharoux, “General Map of the honorable Wm. frederic Baron of Steuben’s Mannor” [detail], c. 1793.]]
 
The appellations “open” and “closed,” however, were not common in American discourse, despite [[Noah Webster|Noah Webster's]] inclusion of such distinctions in his definition. Although these adjectives were not employed to a significant degree, groves fitting these characteristics can be identified. [[Thomas Jefferson]], in his 1807 account of [[Monticello]], described his intention to trim the lower limbs of the trees in his grove, composed of a mixture of hardwoods and evergreens, “so as to give the appearance of open ground,” suggesting an “open” grove [Fig. 2]. [[Eliza Lucas Pinckney]], in 1742, evoked the sense of a “closed” grove when she delineated her collection of trees and flowers. Likewise, in 1776 [[George Washington]] suggested a similar type of grove for [[Mount Vernon]], which he described as an arrangement of flowering trees and evergreens underplanted with flowering [[shrub]]s.
 
[[George Washington|Washington]]’s account of this “closed” grove also provides a significant clue as to the arrangement of plants. In his 1776 letter to Lund Washington, he specified that the trees “be Planted without any order or regularity,” an aesthetic in keeping with the recommendations of [[Batty Langley|Langley]], whose treatises were owned by [[George Washington|Washington]]. The texts of [[Batty Langley|Langley]] and [[Philip Miller|Miller]] exemplify the gradual shift away from formal or rectilinear arrangements of trees toward more irregular or “[[natural style|natural]]” designs. 17th-century groves might be planted in [[Geometric_style|geometrical]], or otherwise such patterned figures as “the star, the direct Cross, St. Andrew’s Cross,” described by [[A.-J. Dézallier d’Argenville]] (1712). By contrast, [[Batty Langley|Langley]] insisted that groves be planted with “regular Irregularity; not planting them. . . with their Trees in straight Lines ranging every Way, but in a rural Manner, as if they had receiv’d their Situation from Nature itself.” In contrast to authors of earlier treatises, 19th-century American writers, including [[Samuel Deane]] (1790), [[Bernard M’Mahon]] (1806) and the anonymous author of the ''New England Farmer'' (1828), advocated regular arrangements. Few if any signs, however, indicate that Americans made “closed” groves in [[Geometric_style|geometrical]] figures, such as those described in James. Pierre Pharoux’s unexecuted plans for the new town Sperenza, New York [Fig. 3], and for Baron von Steuben’s estate in Mohawk Valley, New York [Fig. 4], are rare exceptions.

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