[[File:0605.jpg|thumb|left|650 px|Fig. 1, Lieut. Birch, ''Plan of St. Augustine, Fla.'', 1819.]]
The term grove referred to both natural and planted arrangements of trees, as indicated by [[Noah Webster]]’s definition of 1828. American gardeners such as [[Bernard M’Mahon]] (1806) realized the potential of indigenous vegetation and simply thinned existing trees to create so-called “natural” groves. Trees could also be planted where none existed to create “artificial” groves. Whether natural or artificial, groves of trees were an important element in the ornamental landscape, serving aesthetic and agricultural purposes. As [[Samuel Deane]] explained in the ''New-England Farmer'' (1790), groves could provide shade and windbreaks as well as syrup, firewood, and fruit. As a formal element, groves defined [[border]]s of gardens, created backdrops, and, as seen in the sketch of St. Augustine’s orange grove [Fig. 1], offered sites for collecting specific plants.
Changes - History of Early American Landscape Design