The artist and lithographer Frances Palmer [Fig. 1] emigrated from her birthplace of Leicester, England, to the United States in 1843 with her husband, Edmund Seymour Palmer (1809–1859), their children, and her younger siblings Maria Bond (b. 1815) and Robert Bond Jr. (b. 1821). She became well known as a professional lithographer during the 1840s–1860s while working in New York City. In the early part of her career in New York, Palmer designed and printed illustrations for several important botanical and architectural texts. Sometime around 1849 she joined the staff as a full-time artist at the N. Currier lithography firm (later known as Currier & Ives).
Palmer began her career in Leicester, England. Her first artistic training likely occurred at Miss Linwood’s academy for girls, a school Palmer attended as a child that was run by the “nationally recognized artist” Mary Linwood (1755–1845). Soon after marrying Edmund Palmer in 1832, the twenty-year-old Frances Palmer began to work as a professional artist.<ref>Linwood specialized in creating needlework copies of paintings by artists such as Thomas Gainsborough, Sir Joshua Reynolds, and Rembrandt van Rijn and framing them under glass to emulate the original oil paintings. Charlotte Streifer Rubinstein, ''Fanny Palmer: The Life and Work of a Currier & Ives Artist,'' ed. Diann Benti (Syracuse, NY: Syracuse University Press, 2018), 2, 6, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/keywords_in_early_american_landscape_design/items/itemKey/KJ9CVGZ9 view on Zotero].</ref> By 1841 Palmer and her husband had opened a lithography business together in Leicester, for which Frances worked primarily as the artist and draftsman and Edmund as the printer. They advertised experience printing a wide range of subjects, including “[[View]]s, architectural and botanical drawings, maps, plans of estates, railway sections, elevations, law forms, invoice heads, tickets, checks, fac similes [''sic''], circulars and writings, of every description, and in every character.”<ref>Charlotte Streifer Rubinstein, "Palmer, Frances," ''The Grove Encyclopedia of American'', vol. 4, edited by Joan M. Marter (New York: Oxford University Press, 2011), 10, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/keywords_in_early_american_landscape_design/items/itemKey/RI8BBRS6 view on Zotero]. Quote from advertisement in Thomas Cook’s ''Trade Directory of Leicester'' (1842); qtd. in Rubinstein 2018, 12, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/keywords_in_early_american_landscape_design/items/itemKey/KJ9CVGZ9 view on Zotero].</ref> <span id="Leicester_cite"></span>The Palmers received a commission to produce illustrations of [[picturesque]] local [[view]]s for a publication by the local scholar Thomas Rossell Potter entitled ''The History and Antiquities of Charnwood Forest'' (1842).<ref>T. R. Potter, ''The History and Antiquities of Charnwood Forest'' (London: Hamilton, Adams, and Co., 1842), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/keywords_in_early_american_landscape_design/items/itemKey/WHD47PID view on Zotero].</ref> They also published ''Sketches in Leicestershire'' (1842–431842–1843), a portfolio of twenty-seven local [[view]]s, thirteen of which were fully designed and lithographed by Frances ([[#Leicester|view text]]).<ref>Rubinstein 2018, 16, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/keywords_in_early_american_landscape_design/items/itemKey/KJ9CVGZ9 view on Zotero].</ref>
[[File:2208.jpg|left|thumb|Fig. 2, E. Jones, F. [Fanny] Palmer, and E. Palmer (lithographers), Alexander Jackson Davis (architect), Suburban Gothic Villa, Murray Hill, N.Y. City. Residence of W. C. Waddell, Esq. 5th Avenue, Between 37 & 38th Street. Below, Plans of First and Second Floors, n.d.]]
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