In addition to his international connections, [[Thomas Jefferson|Jefferson]] also helped M’Mahon secure his place within the American community of seedsmen and botanists. In the winter of 1806, just eight months after their correspondence had begun, [[Thomas Jefferson|Jefferson]] arranged for M’Mahon to become one of two recipients of the botanic specimens collected by Meriwether Lewis and William Clark during their expedition to the Pacific Ocean.<ref>Jefferson 1944, 328, 337 [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/keywords_in_early_american_landscape_design/items/itemKey/8ZA5VRP5/q/thomas%20jefferson's%20garden%20book view on Zotero].</ref> The other designated recipient was [[William Hamilton]], also based in the Philadelphia area at his estate [[The Woodlands]]. M’Mahon received seeds and specimens from the expedition in early 1807, and by 1808 he was growing as many as twenty species and six genera that were previously undescribed in the botanical literature.<ref>As quoted in Jefferson 1944, 345, 373, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/keywords_in_early_american_landscape_design/items/itemKey/8ZA5VRP5/q/thomas%20jefferson's%20garden%20book view on Zotero].</ref> M’Mahon hired a German botanist named Frederick Pursh to describe and illustrate the specimens collected by Lewis sometime in the winter of 1807–1808, but the project stalled when Lewis’s health declined in 1808. Lewis proved unable to visit Philadelphia and answer questions about damaged specimens before he died in 1809. Pursh left Philadelphia with his notes and drawings, unpaid, and eventually published a description of the discoveries in England in December of 1813 without the permission of the remaining expedition team.<ref> Frederick Pursh, ''Flora Americae Septentrionalis; or, a Systematic Arrangement and Description of the Plants of North America,'' vol. 1, 2 vols. (London: White, Cochrane, & Co., 1814), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/keywords_in_early_american_landscape_design/items/itemKey/KVNMM4KM/q/frederick%20pursh view on Zotero]. Cox 2004, 12 [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/keywords_in_early_american_landscape_design/items/itemKey/CHM5IVVN/q/i%20never%20yet%20parted view on Zotero].</ref> M’Mahon finally began selling plants from the expedition in 1812, advertising a variety of fragrant currant (''Ribes odoratissimum'') “collected by Messrs. Lewis and Clarke, on the shores of the rivers ''Columbia'' and ''Jefferson,'' and in the ''Rocky Mountains.''”<ref>M’Mahon regularly advertised in the Philadelphia ''Aurora,'' and the currant appears in the edition of March 11, 1812, as quoted in Cox 2004, 127, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/keywords_in_early_american_landscape_design/items/itemKey/CHM5IVVN/q/i%20never%20yet%20parted view on Zotero].</ref> <span id="DemocraticPress_cite"></span>By the end of 1813 he had also relocated his shop from 39 South Second Street to 13 South Second Street, several blocks closer to the center of Philadelphia ([[#DemocraticPress|view text]]).
In 1808 M’Mahon purchased some land “on the township line road, near the Germantown road,” in the area of what is today Fotterall Square, where he opened a [[nursery]] and [[botanic garden]] called Upsal [[Botanic Garden]].<ref>John William Harshberger, ''The Botanists of Philadelphia and Their Work'' (Press of T. C. Davis & Son, 1899), 117, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/keywords_in_early_american_landscape_design/items/itemKey/6C7I6V7V/q/harshberger view on Zotero].</ref> Referencing the [[botanic garden]] of Uppsala University in Sweden restored by the celebrated botanist Carl Linnaeus (1707– 1778), the name of M'Mahon's nursery and garden revealed his knowledge of the history of botany and hint at his scientific ambitions. Although no descriptions of Upsal survive from M’Mahon’s lifetime, early histories and guides to the city briefly mention it as an attraction, including James Mease’s 1811 ''The Picture of Philadelphia.''<ref>James Mease, ''The Picture of Philadelphia: Giving an Account of Its Origin, Increase, and Improvements in Arts, Sciences, and Manufactures, Commerce and Revenue. With a Compendious View of Its Societies ...'' (Published by B. & T. Kite, 1811), 351, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/keywords_in_early_american_landscape_design/items/itemKey/5EXQKRJT/q/picture%20of%20philadelphia view on Zotero].</ref> <span id="Poulsons1818_cite"></span>The earliest extant description, written in 1818, two years after M’Mahon’s death, records about twenty acres of “variegated” land, with “an ample fish [[pond]] and island, supported by a never failing spring” on the property, and several buildings including a “two-storied stone dwelling; a brick and frame kitchen, a large stone building, [[Green House]], a frame stable, coach house, and out buildings” ([[#Poulsons1818|view text]]). With its [[pond]], mixed soils, and [[green house]], the land at Upsal must have afforded M’Mahon with diverse growing conditions for a wide variety of species. The garden continued to attract botanically-minded visitors in the decades following M’Mahon’s death, like the Scottish botanist David Douglas (1799–1834), who visited the property in 1823. <span id="Douglas_cite"></span>In his journal, Douglas briefly described Upsal’s Osage orange trees (''Maclura pomifera''), which were among the most celebrated specimens collected by the Lewis and Clark expedition ([[#Douglas|view text]]). <span id="Report1831_cite"></span>As late as 1830, visitors remarked on the “[[green house]] 60 feet long,” the “beautiful fish and water plants” with which the [[pond]] was stocked, and “a row of native oaks, planted by him [M’Mahon], containing 30 varieties; being all the kinds that he could collect in his day, either with money or zealous exertion” ([[#Report1831|view text]]).
''The American Gardener’s Calendar'' also outlived M’Mahon by several decades, reprinted in a total of eleven editions between 1806 and 1857in Philadelphia. The ''Calendar'' provided readers with month-by-month instructions for the care and maintenance of [[kitchen garden]]s, [[orchard]]s, and [[nursery|nurseries]]. In both structure and content, it borrowed heavily from English garden manuals, and only lightly from American sources. M’Mahon himself admitted his admiration for the ''Gardener’s Dictionary'' by the English botanist Philip Miller (1691–1771).<ref>Sarah Pattee Stetson, “American Garden Books Transplanted and Native, before 1807,” ''William and Mary Quarterly'' 3, ser. 3 (1946): 366, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/keywords_in_early_american_landscape_design/items/itemKey/QIREGNVP/q/transplanted%20and%20native view on Zotero].</ref> Other sources included John Abercrombie’s ''Every Many His Own Gardener,'' which provided a general structure for the work.<ref>For the most comprehensive analysis of his sources to date, see Brenda Bullion, “The Science and Art of Plants and Gardens in the Development of an American Landscape Aesthetic” (Ph.D. diss., Cornell University, 1990), 293–95, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/keywords_in_early_american_landscape_design/items/itemKey/9XGG8N2W/q/brenda%20bullion view on Zotero].</ref> M’Mahon was not, however, completely beholden to these English models. He cited Philadelphian John Beale Bordley’s 1799 ''Essays and Notes on Husbandry and Rural Affairs'' in his discussions of animal husbandry. The distinctly American perspective of the text appears most clearly in his discussion of indigenous flowering plants. <span id="Indigenous_cite"></span>Even before M’Mahon received specimens from the Lewis and Clark expedition, he pleaded with American gardeners to incorporate indigenous species in their ornamental plantings: “In Europe plants are not rejected because they are indigenous, on the contrary they are cultivated with due care; and yet here, we cultivate many foreign trifles, and neglect the profusion of beauties so bountifully bestowed upon us by the hand of nature” ([[#Indigenous|view text]]).
Within M’Mahon’s lifetime, he became especially known for his championing of [[hedge]]s as live fences, and his calendar may have helped popularize them wherever it was read. <span id="Aurora1816_cite"></span> In 1816, his obituary singled out his innovative approach to planting “Quickset [[hedge]]s” from European white thorn (''Crataegus laevigata''), based on observation of the weathering and germination of Hawthorn seeds in the wild ([[#Aurora1816|view text]]). As Brenda Bullion points out, M’Mahon himself understood these live fences as a response to the deforestation of the American countryside, recommending them “particularly in those parts of the Union in which timber has got scarce, and must inevitably become more so in a very rapid progression.”<ref>Bullion 1990, 304–5 [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/keywords_in_early_american_landscape_design/items/itemKey/9XGG8N2W/q/brenda%20bullion view on Zotero].</ref> Here, as elsewhere, his ''Calendar'' had both practical and aesthetic implications for the development of American landscape design.
Landscape design principles formed a small but significant part of the book’s content, and in 1841, the landscape gardener [[A.J. Downing]] described the ''American Gardener’s Calendar'' as the “only American work previously published which treats directly of landscape gardening.”<ref> A. J. Downing, ''A Treatise on the Theory and Practice of Landscape Gardening, Adapted to North America; with a View to the Improvement of Country Residences... with Remarks on Rural Architecture'' (New York and London: Wiley & Putnam, 1841), 20, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/keywords_in_early_american_landscape_design/items/itemKey/PGUEKHNG? view on Zotero].</ref> Squeezed into the month of January, M’Mahon’s introductory overview of “The [[Pleasure ground/Pleasure garden|Pleasure]], or [[Flower Garden]]” quotes extensively from ''The Universal Gardener and Botanist'' by John Abercrombie.<ref>See the entry on Pleasure-Garden in the 1778 and, even more similar, 1797 editions of Thomas Mawe and John Abercrombie, ''The Universal Gardener and Botanist, or A General Dictionary of Gardening and Botany'' (London: Printed for G. Robinson et al, 1778), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/keywords_in_early_american_landscape_design/items/itemKey/ID3XI7NM/q/abercrombie view on Zotero].</ref> This overview effectively popularized a design vocabulary drawn from earlier English works for American audiences, employing terms for plantings like [[lawn]], [[hedge]], and [[parterre]]; architectural elements such as [[temple]], pyramid, and [[obelisk]]; and earthworks including [[slope]], [[terrace]], and [[eminence]].<ref>M’Mahon 1806, 55–69, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/keywords_in_early_american_landscape_design/items/itemKey/HU4JIS9C/q/m'mahon view on Zotero].</ref> M’Mahon’s tastes taste and those of his sources subtly shaped this vocabulary. <span id="Modern_cite"></span>He expressed a preference for the “[[Modern style/Natural style|modern]] garden” in imitation of nature rather than the “too formal works” that characterized the [[Ancient style]] ([[#Modern|view text]]).<ref>M’Mahon 1806, 66 (perspective), 55-56 (modern garden), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/keywords_in_early_american_landscape_design/items/itemKey/HU4JIS9C/q/m'mahon view on Zotero].
</ref> <span id="Variety_cite"></span>Lifting passages from Abercrombie’s ''Universal Gardener and Botanist'' verbatim, he advocated variety in garden design, rather than single-minded adherence to any individual design principle ([[#Variety|view text]]).
The ''Calendar'' quickly gained a wide readership among the agricultural, botanical, and even medical communities (an early copy is listed in the New York Hospital library inventory of 1811).<ref>See the catalog of books in ''An Account of the New-York Hospital'' (New York: Collins & Co., 1811), 63, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/keywords_in_early_american_landscape_design/items/itemKey/64Q6DV2I/q/an%20account%20of%20the%20new-york view on Zotero].</ref> M’Mahon’s horticultural and agricultural guidelines were excerpted in a variety of gardening manuals and almanacs like Fessenden’s 1828 ''The New American Gardener,'' which contains roughly twenty short passages attributed to M’Mahon.<ref>Thomas Fessenden, ed., ''The New American Gardener,'' 1st ed. (Boston: J. B. Russell, 1828), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/keywords_in_early_american_landscape_design/items/itemKey/M8WDX2P7/q/the%20new%20american%20gardener view on Zotero]. Fessenden also quoted liberally from M’Mahon in several of his later works.</ref> In 1819, one unscrupulous publisher named Fielding Lucas Jr. went so far as to reproduce the work nearly in its entirety, retitled ''The Practical American Gardener.''<ref>Ewan 1960, 378, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/keywords_in_early_american_landscape_design/items/itemKey/GAHIWIAR/q/ewan view on Zotero].</ref> <span id="Loudon_cite"></span>The book was also known in Europe, where Loudon praised its pioneering subject and completeness in the 1822 edition of his ''Encyclopaedia of Gardening,'' but expressed skepticism concerning just how widespread the horticultural and agricultural techniques described within really were: “We cannot gather from the work any thing as to the extent of American practice in these particulars” ([[#Loudon|view text]]). ''The book American Gardener's Calendar'' was so successful that in 1846, some thirty years after M’Mahon’s death, his acquaintance Darlington cited the calendar it in his ''Address Before the Chester County Horticultural Society,'' claiming that “although his book was published forty years ago, it is, in my opinion, about as well adapted to our wants—and as replete with practical common sense—as any thing of the kind which has yet appeared in our country.”<ref>William Darlington, ''Address Before the Chester County Horticultural Society, at Their First Annual Exhibition, in the Borough of West Chester, Sept. 11, 1846'' (West Chester, Pa., 1846), 13, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/keywords_in_early_american_landscape_design/items/itemKey/P7C9TXRV/q/darlington view on Zotero].</ref>
—''Alexander Brey''

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Changes - History of Early American Landscape Design
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Bernard M’Mahon

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