*<div id="Linnaeus"></div>Bartram, William and John Bartram Jr., August 16, 1783, in a letter to Carl Linnaeus Jr. (quoted in Fry 2011: 74)<ref name="Fry_2011">Fry 2011, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/JNCISBCU view on Zotero.]</ref> [[#Linnaeus_cite|back up to History]]:“This very beautiful Shrub I discovered growing in Florida about 5 years ago & brought the ripe seed to Philadelphia, from these seed grew 5 plants, two of which were taken to France by Monsr. Gerard Emasedor to these States & were to be planted in the Royal garden at Versailes. Two plants are here now finely in Flower in the open ground, & perfectly resist our hardest Winters.”[[#Linnaeus_cite|back up to History]]
*[[Manasseh Cutler|Cutler, Manasseh]], July 14, 1787, describing the [[Bartram Botanic Garden and Nursery]] and his encounter with members of the Bartram family&mdash;probably William and his brother John Bartram Jr. (1888: 1:272–74)<ref name="Cutler_1888">Manasseh Cutler, ''Life, Journals and Correspondence of Rev. Manasseh Cutler, LL.D.'', ed. William Parker Cutler and Julia Perkin Cutler (Cincinnati: Robert Clarke & Co., 1888), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/ASAS6SD5 view on Zotero].</ref>
:“We crossed the [[Schuylkill River|Schuylkill]], at what is called the lower ferry, over the floating [[bridge]], to [[Gray’s Garden|Gray’s tavern]], and, in about two miles, came to Mr. Bartram’s [[seat]]. We alighted from our carriages, and found our company were : Mr. [Caleb] Strong, Governor [Alexander] Martin, Mr. [George] Mason and son, Mr. [Hugh] Williamson, Mr. [James] Madison, Mr. [John] Rutledge, and Mr. [Alexander] Hamilton, all members of Convention, [[Samuel Vaughan|Mr. Vaughan]], and Dr. [Gerardus] Clarkson and son. Mr. Bartram lives in an ancient Fabric, built with stone, and very large, which was the seat of his father. His house is on an [[eminence]] fronting to the [[Schuylkill River|Schuylkill]], and his garden is on the declivity of the hill between his house and the river. We found him, with another man, hoeing in his garden, in a short jacket and trowsers, and without shoes or stockings. He at first stared at us, and seemed to be somewhat embarrassed at seeing so large and gay a company so early in the morning. Dr. Clarkson was the only person he knew, who introduced me to him, and informed him that I wished to converse with him on botanical subjects, and, as I lived in one of the Northern States, would probably inform him of trees and plants which he had not yet in his collection; that the other gentlemen wished for the pleasure of a walk in his garden. I instantly entered on the subject of botany with as much familiarity as possible, and inquired after some rare plants which I had heard that he had. He presently got rid of his embarrassment, and soon became very sociable, which was more than I expected, from the character I had heard of the man. I found him to be a practical botanist, though he seemed to understand little of the theory. We ranged the several [[alley]]s, and he gave me the generic and specific names, place of growth, properties, etc., so far as he knew them. This is a very ancient garden, and the collection is large indeed, but is made principally from the Middle and Southern States. It is finely situated, as it partakes of every kind of soil, has a fine stream of water, and an artificial [[pond]], where he has a good collection of aquatic plants. There is no situation in which plants or trees are found but that they may be propagated here in one that is similar. But every thing is very badly arranged, for they are neither placed ornamentally nor botanically, but seem to be jumbled together in heaps. The other gentlemen were very free and sociable with him, particularly Governor Martin, who has a smattering of botany and a fine taste for natural history. There are in this garden some very large trees that are exotic, particularly an English oak, which he assured me was the only one in America. He had the Pawpaw tree, or Custard apple. It is small, though it bears fruit ; but the fruit is very small. He has also a large number of aromatics, some of them trees, and some plants. One plant I thought equal to cinnamon. The Franklin tree is very curious. It has been found only on one particular spot in Georgia. . . . From the house is a [[walk]] to the river, between two rows of large, lofty trees, all of different kinds, at the bottom of which is a [[summerhouse|summer-house]] on the bank, which here is a ledge of rocks, and so situated as to be convenient for fishing in the river, where a plenty of several kinds of fish may be caught. Mr. Bartram showed us several natural curiosities in the place where he keeps his seeds; they were principally fossils. He appeared fond of exchanging a number of his trees and plants for those which are peculiar to the Northern States. We proposed a correspondence, by which we could more minutely describe the productions peculiar to the Southern and Northern States.
:“About nine, we took our leave of Mr. Bartram, who appeared to be well pleased with his visitors, and returned to [[Gray’s Garden|Gray’s tavern]], where we breakfasted.”
*Bartram, William, 1789, describing settlements of the Muscogulge and Cherokee Indians (1853: 51&ndash;53)<ref name="Bartram_1853">William Bartram, “Observations on the Creek and Cherokee Indians, 1789, with Prefatory and Supplementary Notes by E.G. Squier,” ''Transactions of the American Ethnological Society'' 3, part 1 (1853): 1–81, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/CWNCZI8N view on Zotero].</ref>
:“PLAN OF THE ANCIENT CHUNKY-[[yard|YARD]].
:“The subjoined plan . . . will illustrate the form and character of these [[yard]]s.
:“''A'', the great area, surrounded by [[terrace]]s or banks.
:“''B'', a circular [[eminence]], at one end of the [[yard]], commonly nine or ten feet higher than the ground round about. Upon this [[mound]] stands the great ''Rotunda'', ''[[hothouse|Hot House]]'', or ''Winter Council House'', of the present Creeks. It was probably designed and used by the ancients who constructed it, for the same purpose.
*Bartram, William, 1789, describing Indian settlements in North Carolina, Georgia, and Florida (1853: 57&ndash;58)<ref name="Bartram_1853"></ref>
:“In the Cherokee country, all over Carolina, and the Northern and Eastern parts of Georgia, wherever the ruins of ancient Indian towns appear, we see always beside these remains one vast, conical-pointed [[mound]]. To [[mound]]s of the kind I refer when I speak of ''pyramidal [[mound]]s''. To the south and west of the Altamaha, I observed none of these in any part of the Muscogulge country, but always flat or square structures. The vast [[mound]]s upon the St. John’s, Alachua, and Musquito rivers, differ from those amongst the Cherokee with respect to their adjuncts and appendages, particularly in respect to the great highway or [[avenue]], sunk below the common level of the earth, extending from them, and terminating either in a vast savanna or natural plain, or an artificial [[pond]] or [[lake]]. A remarkable example occurs at Mount Royal, from whence opens a glorious view of Lake George and its environs.
:“Fig. 6 is a perspective plan of this great [[mound]] and its [[avenue]]s, the latter leading off to an expansive savanna or natural [[meadow]]. A, the [[mound]], about forty feet in perpendicular height; B, the highway leading from the [[mound]] in a straight line to the [[pond]] C, about a half a mile distant. . . . The sketch of the [[mound]] also illustrates the character of the [[mound]]s in the Cherokee country; but the last have not the highway or [[avenue]], and are always accompanied by vast square [[terrace]]s, placed upon one side or the other. On the other hand, we never see the square [[terrace]]s accompanying the high [[mound]]s of East Florida.” [Fig. 4]
*Bartram, William, 1791, describing Lake George, GA, and settlements of the Muscogulge and Cherokee Indians (1791; repr., 1928: 101&ndash;2, 407)<ref name="Bartram_1928"></ref>
:“At about fifty yards distance from the landing place, stands a magnificent Indian [[mount]]. . . . But what greatly contributed towards completing the magnificence of the scene, was a noble Indian highway, which led from the great [[mount]], on a straight line, three quarters of a mile, first through a point or wing of the orange [[grove]], and continuing thence through an awful forest of live oaks, it was terminated by palms and laurel magnolias, on the verge of an oblong artificial [[lake]], which was on the edge of an extensive [[green]] level savanna. . . .The glittering water [[pond]] played on the sight, through the dark [[grove]], like a brilliant diamond, on the bosom of the illumined savanna, bordered with various flowery shrubs and plants. . . .
:“From the river St. Juans, Southerly, to the point of the peninsula of Florida, are to be seen high pyramidal [[mount]]s with spacious and extensive [[avenue]]s, leading from them out of the town, to an artificial [[lake]] or [[pond]] of water; these were evidently designed in part for ornament or monuments of magnificence, to perpetuate the power and grandeur of the nation.”
*Bartram, William, 1791, describing an Indian town in Cuscowilla, GA (1791; repr., 1928: 167&ndash;68)<ref name="Bartram_1928"></ref>
:“Upon our arrival we repaired to the public [[square]] or council-house, where the chiefs and senators were already convened. . . .
:“The banquet succeeded; the ribs and choicest fat pieces of the bullocks, excellently well barbecued, were brought into the apartment of the public [[square]], constructed and appointed for feasting.”
*Bartram, William, 1791, describing an Indian town in Georgia (1791; repr., 1928: 169&ndash;70)<ref name="Bartram_1928"></ref>
:“They plant but little here about the town; only a small garden [[plot]] at each habitation. . . . Their [[plantation]], which supplies them with the chief of their vegetable provisions . . . lies on the rich prolific lands bordering on the great Alachua savanna, about two miles distance. This [[plantation]] is one common enclosure, and is worked and tended by the whole community.”
Image:1746.jpg|William Bartram, Plan of a “plantation” (or “villa”) of a Creek Indian chief, in “Observations on the Creek and Cherokee Indians” (1789), from ''Transactions of the American Ethnological Society'' 3, part 1 (1853): 38, fig. 1.
Image:1749.jpg|William Bartram, “Plan of the Ancient Chunky-[[Yard]],” in “Observations on the Creek and Cherokee Indians” (1789), from ''Transactions of the American Ethnological Society'' 3, part 1 (1853): 52, fig. 2.
Image:1747.jpg|William Bartram, “Arrangement of the Chunky-[[Yard]], Public [[Square]], and Rotunda of the ''modern'' Creek towns,” in “Observations on the Creek and Cherokee Indians” (1789), from ''Transactions of the American Ethnological Society'' 3, part 1 (1853): 54, fig. 3.
Image:1748.jpg|William Bartram, Plan of a Cherokee Private “Habitation,” in “Observations on the Creek and Cherokee Indians” (1789), from ''Transactions of the American Ethnological Society'' 3, part 1 (1853): 56, fig. 5.
Image:1815.jpg|William Bartram, A Great [[Mound ]] and its Avenues[[Avenue]]s, at [[Mount ]] Royal, near Lake George, Georgia, in “Observations on the Creek and Cherokee Indians” (1789), from ''Transactions of the American Ethnological Society'' 3, part 1 (1853): 57, fig. 6.
</gallery>

Warning: Cannot modify header information - headers already sent by (output started at /opt/rh/httpd24/root/var/www/html/mediawiki/extensions/MobileFrontend/includes/diff/InlineDiffFormatter.php:103) in /opt/rh/httpd24/root/var/www/html/mediawiki/includes/WebResponse.php on line 42

Warning: Cannot modify header information - headers already sent by (output started at /opt/rh/httpd24/root/var/www/html/mediawiki/extensions/MobileFrontend/includes/diff/InlineDiffFormatter.php:103) in /opt/rh/httpd24/root/var/www/html/mediawiki/includes/WebResponse.php on line 42

Warning: Cannot modify header information - headers already sent by (output started at /opt/rh/httpd24/root/var/www/html/mediawiki/extensions/MobileFrontend/includes/diff/InlineDiffFormatter.php:103) in /opt/rh/httpd24/root/var/www/html/mediawiki/includes/WebResponse.php on line 42

Warning: Cannot modify header information - headers already sent by (output started at /opt/rh/httpd24/root/var/www/html/mediawiki/extensions/MobileFrontend/includes/diff/InlineDiffFormatter.php:103) in /opt/rh/httpd24/root/var/www/html/mediawiki/includes/WebResponse.php on line 42
Changes - History of Early American Landscape Design
A Project of the Center for Advanced Study in the Visual Arts, National Gallery of Art
History of Early American Landscape Design

Changes

[http://www.nga.gov/content/ngaweb/research/casva/research-projects.html A Project of the National Gallery of Art, Center for Advanced Study in the Visual Arts ]
A Project of the Center for Advanced Study in the Visual Arts

National Gallery of Art, Washington


Warning: Cannot modify header information - headers already sent by (output started at /opt/rh/httpd24/root/var/www/html/mediawiki/extensions/MobileFrontend/includes/diff/InlineDiffFormatter.php:103) in /opt/rh/httpd24/root/var/www/html/mediawiki/includes/WebResponse.php on line 42

Warning: Cannot modify header information - headers already sent by (output started at /opt/rh/httpd24/root/var/www/html/mediawiki/extensions/MobileFrontend/includes/diff/InlineDiffFormatter.php:103) in /opt/rh/httpd24/root/var/www/html/mediawiki/includes/WebResponse.php on line 42

Warning: Cannot modify header information - headers already sent by (output started at /opt/rh/httpd24/root/var/www/html/mediawiki/extensions/MobileFrontend/includes/diff/InlineDiffFormatter.php:103) in /opt/rh/httpd24/root/var/www/html/mediawiki/includes/WebResponse.php on line 42