[[File:2169_cropped.jpg|thumb|left|Fig. 2, Charles Willson Peale, ''William Bartram'', c. 1808.]]
[[File:00002170.jpg|thumb|left|Fig. 3, Titian Ramsay Peale, ''The Gigantic Mastodon'', 1821.]]
As the Revolutionary War drew to a close, Peale began a series of portraits of statesmen, designers, and naturalists—including [[Thomas Jefferson]], [[Benjamin Henry Latrobe]], [[William Bartram]], among many others—who he believed would shape the future of the new nation [Fig. 2].<ref>Ward 2004, 83, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/keywords_in_early_american_landscape_design/items/itemKey/BCITM4SK view on Zotero]. Ward describes this series as a “pantheon that would perpetuate American republicanism.”</ref> Many of these figures were members of the American Philosophical Society, one of Philadelphia’s first learned societies, to which Peale had likewise been elected in 1786.<ref>Sellers 1969, 214, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/keywords_in_early_american_landscape_design/items/itemKey/PWCSA5AD view on Zotero].</ref> Their portraits became a key feature of his Philadelphia Museum, which he opened following his official “retirement” from painting in 1794. The institution, a “world in miniature,” married Peale’s keen interest in natural history with his passion for art. Developed to enlighten and educate the public, the museum’s central gallery or “Long Room” featured preserved zoological specimens arranged in discrete dioramas according to the Linnaean system—the prevailing taxonomy of the second half of the 18th century—surmounted by Peale’s portraits of American patriots (see Fig. 1).<ref>Sidney Hart and David C. Ward, “Peale’s Philadelphia Museum,” in Lillian B. Miller and David C. Ward, eds., ''New Perspectives on Charles Willson Peale'' (Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press, 1991), 222–23, 233, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/keywords_in_early_american_landscape_design/items/itemKey/XDT5MHM3 view on Zotero]. Though Peale would continue to paint in the coming years, his output was less prodigious; see Sellers 1969, 262, for Peale’s notice of his retirement in ''Claypoole’s Daily Advertiser'' (April 24, 1794), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/keywords_in_early_american_landscape_design/items/itemKey/PWCSA5AD view on Zotero].</ref> Following Peale’s ambitious exhumation of mastodon bones in Newburgh, New York, in 1801, he included the reassembled skeleton in his galleries [Fig. 3].
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