==History==
[[File:00562169 cropped.jpg|thumb|left|Fig. 1, John or William BartramCharles Willson Peale, ''A Draught of John Bartram’s House and Garden as it appears from the RiverWilliam Bartram'', 1758c. 1808.]]
The son of the Pennsylvania Quaker naturalist [[John Bartram]] (1699&ndash;1777) and his second wife, Ann Mendenhall (1703&ndash;1789), William Bartram showed an early interest in botanical pursuits. As a teenager, William accompanied his father on collecting expeditions and made drawings of North American plants that the elder Bartram sent to colleagues in England and Europe. William’s drawings were greatly admired by contemporaries and were thought by many to rival illustrations produced by well-established British artists Georg Dionysius Ehret (1708&ndash;1770) and George Edwards (1694&ndash;1773).<ref>Amy R. W. Meyers, “From Nature and Memory: William Bartram’s Drawings of North American Flora and Fauna,” in ''Knowing Nature: Art and Science in Philadelphia, 1740&ndash;1840'', ed. by Amy R. W. Meyers (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2011), 130, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/DDFDA34C view on Zotero]; Margaret Pritchard, “A Protracted View: The Relationship between Mapmakers and Naturalists in Recording the Land,” in ''Knowing Nature'', 24, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/KBA7IFG8 view on Zotero]; Charlotte M. Porter, “Philadelphia Story: Florida Gives William Bartram a Second Chance,” ''Florida Historical Quarterly'' 71, no. 3 (January 1993): 310&ndash;13, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/RC4D4TQA view on Zotero]. From January 1752 until July 1755, William Bartram attended the Philadelphia Academy, where he studied French and Latin and may have also received instruction in drawing. Joel T. Fry, “America’s ‘Ancient Garden’: The Bartram Botanic Garden, 1728&ndash;1850,” in ''Knowing Nature'', 72, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/JNCISBCU view on Zotero].</ref> Despite the praise William received for his drawing abilities, John Bartram saw it as a pastime, not a profession. In 1755, he wrote to his London friend and patron, the merchant Peter Collinson (1694–1768), “My son William is just turned of sixteen, [and] . . . it is now time to propose some way for him to get his liveing by[.] I dont want him to be what is commonly called A gentleman[.] I want to put him to some business by which he may with care & industry get A temperate re[a]sonable living[.] I am afraid Botany & drawing will not afford him one.”<ref>John Bartram to Collinson, September 25 and April 27, 1755, in ''The Correspondence of John Bartram: 1734–77'', ed. Edmund Berkeley and Dorothy Smith Berkeley (Tallahassee: University Presses of Florida, 1992), 387, 385, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/keywords_in_early_american_landscape_design/items/itemKey/NZGMIACI/q/correspondence%20of%20john%20bartram view on Zotero]. See also the introduction to ''William Bartram: The Search for Nature’s Design'', ed. Thomas Hallock and Nancy Hoffman (Athens: The University of Georgia Press, 2010), 1–15, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/keywords_in_early_american_landscape_design/items/itemKey/MXWPBPH7/q/the%20search%20for%20nature's%20design view on Zotero].</ref>
[[File:0056.jpg|thumb|left|Fig. 2, John or William Bartram, ''A Draught of John Bartram’s House and Garden as it appears from the River'', 1758.]]Taking a pragmatic approach to his son’s future, the elder [[John Bartram|Bartram]] apprenticed young William to Captain James Child, a Philadelphia merchant, from approximately 1756 until 1760. William continued to draw during this time and is likely the creator of the 1758 illustration of the [[Bartram Botanic Garden and Nursery]] at Kingsessing near Philadelphia [Fig. 12]. Although he was industrious in his apprenticeship, William’s subsequent attempt to establish himself as a merchant failed miserably. He had moved to Ashwood, North Carolina, and letters from that time speak to the difficulty he experienced: “I am unfortunate in ar[r]iving to a bad Markett, a wrong Season of the year, and the excessive rains has almost destroyed the Country,” he informed his father in May 1761. His fortunes did not improve, and in 1764 he explained to his older half-brother Isaac, “I would write to Father but I am afraid my Letters gives him Uneasiness.”<ref>William Bartram to Isaac Bartram, [1764], ''The Search for Nature’s Design'', 48, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/keywords_in_early_american_landscape_design/items/itemKey/MXWPBPH7/q/the%20search%20for%20nature's%20design view on Zotero].</ref>[[Image:2078.jpg|thumb|right|Fig. 23, James Trenchard after William Bartram, ''Franklinia alatamaha'', c. 1786.]]
In 1765, John Bartram was honored with the commission of King’s Botanist to the southern colonies, and he invited William to leave North Carolina and join him on an expedition through the Florida peninsula. William was so taken with East Florida’s landscape that he planned to establish, much to his father’s chagrin, an indigo and rice plantation along the St. Johns River. Despite his misgivings, John purchased tools, seed, and six slaves for William’s plantation, which met an even more ignoble end than his merchant business. The acres William acquired were swampy and stagnant, the weather unbearably hot, and he was plagued by illness, despair, and, quite possibly, profound guilt for a speculation premised on slave labor. After visiting William in September 1766, the Bartrams’ friend Henry Laurens wrote of his “forlorn state,” and he suggested John send additional provisions. Rather than continue to invest in William’s plantation, John encouraged him to return home to Kingsessing.<ref>Laurens to John Bartram, August 9, 1766, ''The Search for Nature’s Design'', 62, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/keywords_in_early_american_landscape_design/items/itemKey/MXWPBPH7/q/the%20search%20for%20nature's%20design view on Zotero]. Christopher Iannini reads Bartram’s “pilgrimage” in ''Travels'' as an act of penance for the sin of slave holding. See ''Fatal Revolutions: Natural History, West Indian Slavery, and the Routes of American Literature'' (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2012), 181, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/keywords_in_early_american_landscape_design/items/itemKey/2ZGRU793/q/fatal%20revolutions view on Zotero].</ref>
William’s years as a merchant and planter left little time for drawing, but he quickly took up the practice after returning to the family home and garden. He began by making figures for Collinson, who actively sought out potential patrons for his young friend. He found one in the London physician John Fothergill (1712–1780), who would underwrite a nearly four-year botanizing journey through the Carolinas, Georgia, and East and West Florida. Between March 1773 and January 1777, William sent Fothergill seeds and specimens of subtropical plants, and at least 38 drawings of the region’s flora and fauna. Among the seeds he collected were those of a tree he and his father had encountered near the Altamaha River near Fort Barrington, Georgia, in 1765, which he wished to name ''Franklinia alatamaha'' [sic] [Fig. 23], after Benjamin Franklin (1706–1790). William later recalled, “We never saw it grow in any other place, nor have I ever seen it growing wild, in all my travels, from Philadelphia to Point Coupe, on the banks of the Mississippi, which must be allowed a very singular and unaccountable circumstance; at this place there are two or three acres of ground where it grows plentifully.” <span id="Linnaeus_cite"></span>The plant flowered in [[Bartram Botanic Garden and Nursery|Bartram’s garden]] in August 1781 and, two years later, Bartram prepared a detailed description and botanical drawing of the specimen for the Swedish botanist Carl Linnaeus Jr. (1741&ndash;1783) ([[#Linnaeus|view text]]). Younger generations of naturalists tried to locate the plant along the Altamaha River but were unsuccessful; all existing specimens of the tree are believed to have descended from the seeds William collected.<ref>Quoted in Fry 2011, 74, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/JNCISBCU view on Zotero]. According to Fry, all existing Franklinia may be descended from William Bartram’s plants. See also Judith Magee, ''The Art and Science of William Bartram'' (University Park: The Pennsylvania State University Press in association with the Natural History Museum, London, 2007), 64&ndash;68, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/RXVNQ2VK view on Zotero].</ref>
Once he returned from his extended botanizing expedition, William worked toward refashioning his field notes into a literary hybrid of natural history, travelogue, and religious allegory, which became his ''Travels Through North & South Carolina, Georgia, East & West Florida, the Cherokee Country, the Extensive Territories of the Muscogulges, or Creek Confederacy, and the Country of the Chactaws; Containing An Account of the Soil and Natural Productions of Those Regions, Together with Observations on the Manners of the Indians'', published in 1791. His ''Travels'' received mixed response from critics: published nearly fifteen years after his expedition, the plash and flow of the book’s language seemed out of place in a work of natural history, and many of William’s scientific discoveries had already been published by others. The book, however, was praised by Romantic authors and poets in America and Europe, who reveled in its rich description and verbal meander.<ref>John Livingston Lowes and N. Bryllion Fagin were the first to consider Bartram’s influence on the Romantics; see Lowes’s ''The Road to Xanadu: A Study in the Ways of the Imagination'' (Boston: Houghton Mifflin Co., 1927), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/keywords_in_early_american_landscape_design/items/itemKey/288XK8PU view on Zotero]; and Fagin’s ''William Bartram: Interpreter of the American Landscape'' (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1933), esp. “Bartram’s Influence on Literature,” 128–94, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/keywords_in_early_american_landscape_design/items/itemKey/VI936QDX view on Zotero].</ref>
*<div id="Linnaeus"></div>Bartram, William and John Bartram Jr., August 16, 1783, in a letter to Carl Linnaeus Jr. (quoted in Fry 2011: 74)<ref name="Fry_2011">Fry 2011, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/JNCISBCU view on Zotero.]</ref> [[#Linnaeus_cite|back up to History]]:“This very beautiful Shrub I discovered growing in Florida about 5 years ago & brought the ripe seed to Philadelphia, from these seed grew 5 plants, two of which were taken to France by Monsr. Gerard Emasedor to these States & were to be planted in the Royal garden at Versailes. Two plants are here now finely in Flower in the open ground, & perfectly resist our hardest Winters.”[[#Linnaeus_cite|back up to History]]
*[[Manasseh Cutler|Cutler, Manasseh]], July 14, 1787, describing the [[Bartram Botanic Garden and Nursery]] and his encounter with members of the Bartram family&mdash;probably William and his brother John Bartram Jr. (1888: 1:272–74)<ref name="Cutler_1888">Manasseh Cutler, ''Life, Journals and Correspondence of Rev. Manasseh Cutler, LL.D.'', ed. William Parker Cutler and Julia Perkin Cutler (Cincinnati: Robert Clarke & Co., 1888), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/ASAS6SD5 view on Zotero].</ref>
:“We crossed the [[Schuylkill River|Schuylkill]], at what is called the lower ferry, over the floating [[bridge]], to [[Gray’s Garden|Gray’s tavern]], and, in about two miles, came to Mr. Bartram’s [[seat]]. We alighted from our carriages, and found our company were : Mr. [Caleb] Strong, Governor [Alexander] Martin, Mr. [George] Mason and son, Mr. [Hugh] Williamson, Mr. [James] Madison, Mr. [John] Rutledge, and Mr. [Alexander] Hamilton, all members of Convention, [[Samuel Vaughan|Mr. Vaughan]], and Dr. [Gerardus] Clarkson and son. Mr. Bartram lives in an ancient Fabric, built with stone, and very large, which was the seat of his father. His house is on an [[eminence]] fronting to the [[Schuylkill River|Schuylkill]], and his garden is on the declivity of the hill between his house and the river. We found him, with another man, hoeing in his garden, in a short jacket and trowsers, and without shoes or stockings. He at first stared at us, and seemed to be somewhat embarrassed at seeing so large and gay a company so early in the morning. Dr. Clarkson was the only person he knew, who introduced me to him, and informed him that I wished to converse with him on botanical subjects, and, as I lived in one of the Northern States, would probably inform him of trees and plants which he had not yet in his collection; that the other gentlemen wished for the pleasure of a walk in his garden. I instantly entered on the subject of botany with as much familiarity as possible, and inquired after some rare plants which I had heard that he had. He presently got rid of his embarrassment, and soon became very sociable, which was more than I expected, from the character I had heard of the man. I found him to be a practical botanist, though he seemed to understand little of the theory. We ranged the several [[alley]]s, and he gave me the generic and specific names, place of growth, properties, etc., so far as he knew them. This is a very ancient garden, and the collection is large indeed, but is made principally from the Middle and Southern States. It is finely situated, as it partakes of every kind of soil, has a fine stream of water, and an artificial [[pond]], where he has a good collection of aquatic plants. There is no situation in which plants or trees are found but that they may be propagated here in one that is similar. But every thing is very badly arranged, for they are neither placed ornamentally nor botanically, but seem to be jumbled together in heaps. The other gentlemen were very free and sociable with him, particularly Governor Martin, who has a smattering of botany and a fine taste for natural history. There are in this garden some very large trees that are exotic, particularly an English oak, which he assured me was the only one in America. He had the Pawpaw tree, or Custard apple. It is small, though it bears fruit ; but the fruit is very small. He has also a large number of aromatics, some of them trees, and some plants. One plant I thought equal to cinnamon. The Franklin tree is very curious. It has been found only on one particular spot in Georgia. . . . From the house is a [[walk]] to the river, between two rows of large, lofty trees, all of different kinds, at the bottom of which is a [[summerhouse|summer-house]] on the bank, which here is a ledge of rocks, and so situated as to be convenient for fishing in the river, where a plenty of several kinds of fish may be caught. Mr. Bartram showed us several natural curiosities in the place where he keeps his seeds; they were principally fossils. He appeared fond of exchanging a number of his trees and plants for those which are peculiar to the Northern States. We proposed a correspondence, by which we could more minutely describe the productions peculiar to the Southern and Northern States.
:“About nine, we took our leave of Mr. Bartram, who appeared to be well pleased with his visitors, and returned to [[Gray’s Garden|Gray’s tavern]], where we breakfasted.”
*Bartram, William, 1789, describing settlements of the Muscogulge and Cherokee Indians (1853: 51&ndash;53)<ref name="Bartram_1853">William Bartram, “Observations on the Creek and Cherokee Indians, 1789, with Prefatory and Supplementary Notes by E.G. Squier,” ''Transactions of the American Ethnological Society'' 3, part 1 (1853): 1–81, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/CWNCZI8N view on Zotero].</ref>
:“PLAN OF THE ANCIENT CHUNKY-[[yard|YARD]].
:“The subjoined plan . . . will illustrate the form and character of these [[yard]]s.
:“''A'', the great area, surrounded by [[terrace]]s or banks.
:“''B'', a circular [[eminence]], at one end of the [[yard]], commonly nine or ten feet higher than the ground round about. Upon this [[mound]] stands the great ''Rotunda'', ''[[hothouse|Hot House]]'', or ''Winter Council House'', of the present Creeks. It was probably designed and used by the ancients who constructed it, for the same purpose.
*Bartram, William, 1789, describing Indian settlements in North Carolina, Georgia, and Florida (1853: 57&ndash;58)<ref name="Bartram_1853"></ref>
:“In the Cherokee country, all over Carolina, and the Northern and Eastern parts of Georgia, wherever the ruins of ancient Indian towns appear, we see always beside these remains one vast, conical-pointed [[mound]]. To [[mound]]s of the kind I refer when I speak of ''pyramidal [[mound]]s''. To the south and west of the Altamaha, I observed none of these in any part of the Muscogulge country, but always flat or square structures. The vast [[mound]]s upon the St. John’s, Alachua, and Musquito rivers, differ from those amongst the Cherokee with respect to their adjuncts and appendages, particularly in respect to the great highway or [[avenue]], sunk below the common level of the earth, extending from them, and terminating either in a vast savanna or natural plain, or an artificial [[pond]] or [[lake]]. A remarkable example occurs at Mount Royal, from whence opens a glorious view of Lake George and its environs.
:“Fig. 6 is a perspective plan of this great [[mound]] and its [[avenue]]s, the latter leading off to an expansive savanna or natural [[meadow]]. A, the [[mound]], about forty feet in perpendicular height; B, the highway leading from the [[mound]] in a straight line to the [[pond]] C, about a half a mile distant. . . . The sketch of the [[mound]] also illustrates the character of the [[mound]]s in the Cherokee country; but the last have not the highway or [[avenue]], and are always accompanied by vast square [[terrace]]s, placed upon one side or the other. On the other hand, we never see the square [[terrace]]s accompanying the high [[mound]]s of East Florida.” [Fig. 4]
*Bartram, William, 1791, describing Lake George, GA, and settlements of the Muscogulge and Cherokee Indians (1791; repr., 1928: 101&ndash;2, 407)<ref name="Bartram_1928"></ref>
:“At about fifty yards distance from the landing place, stands a magnificent Indian [[mount]]. . . . But what greatly contributed towards completing the magnificence of the scene, was a noble Indian highway, which led from the great [[mount]], on a straight line, three quarters of a mile, first through a point or wing of the orange [[grove]], and continuing thence through an awful forest of live oaks, it was terminated by palms and laurel magnolias, on the verge of an oblong artificial [[lake]], which was on the edge of an extensive [[green]] level savanna. . . .The glittering water [[pond]] played on the sight, through the dark [[grove]], like a brilliant diamond, on the bosom of the illumined savanna, bordered with various flowery shrubs and plants. . . .
:“From the river St. Juans, Southerly, to the point of the peninsula of Florida, are to be seen high pyramidal [[mount]]s with spacious and extensive [[avenue]]s, leading from them out of the town, to an artificial [[lake]] or [[pond]] of water; these were evidently designed in part for ornament or monuments of magnificence, to perpetuate the power and grandeur of the nation.”
*Bartram, William, 1791, describing an Indian town in Cuscowilla, GA (1791; repr., 1928: 167&ndash;68)<ref name="Bartram_1928"></ref>
:“Upon our arrival we repaired to the public [[square]] or council-house, where the chiefs and senators were already convened. . . .
:“The banquet succeeded; the ribs and choicest fat pieces of the bullocks, excellently well barbecued, were brought into the apartment of the public [[square]], constructed and appointed for feasting.”
*Bartram, William, 1791, describing an Indian town in Georgia (1791; repr., 1928: 169&ndash;70)<ref name="Bartram_1928"></ref>
:“They plant but little here about the town; only a small garden [[plot]] at each habitation. . . . Their [[plantation]], which supplies them with the chief of their vegetable provisions . . . lies on the rich prolific lands bordering on the great Alachua savanna, about two miles distance. This [[plantation]] is one common enclosure, and is worked and tended by the whole community.”
*Pursh, Frederick, 1814, describing a visit to [[Bartram Botanic Garden and Nursery]] in 1799 (1814: 1:vi)<ref>Frederick Pursh, ''Flora Americae Septentrionalis; Or, a Systematic Arrangement and Description of the Plants of North America'', 2 vols. (London: White, Cochrane, & Co., 1814), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/KVNMM4KM view on Zotero].</ref>
:“Near Philadelphia I found the [[botanic garden]] of Messrs. John and William Bartram. This is likewise an old establishment, founded under the patronage of the late Dr. Fothergill, by the father of the now living Bartrams. This place, delightfully situated on the banks of the Delaware, is kept up by the present proprietors, and probably will increase under the care of the son of [[John Bartram]], a young gentleman of classical education, and highly attached to the study of botany. Mr. William Bartram, the well known author of “Travels through North and South Carolina,” I found a very intelligent, agreeable, and communicative gentleman; and from him I received considerable information about the plants of that country, particularly respecting the habitats of a number of rare and interesting trees. It is with the liveliest emotions of pleasure I call to mind the happy hours I spent in this worthy man’s company, during the period I lived in his neighbourhood.
 
<hr>
Image:1746.jpg|William Bartram, Plan of a “plantation” (or “villa”) of a Creek Indian chief, in “Observations on the Creek and Cherokee Indians” (1789), from ''Transactions of the American Ethnological Society'' 3, part 1 (1853): 38, fig. 1.
Image:1749.jpg|William Bartram, “Plan of the Ancient Chunky-[[Yard]],” in “Observations on the Creek and Cherokee Indians” (1789), from ''Transactions of the American Ethnological Society'' 3, part 1 (1853): 52, fig. 2.
Image:1747.jpg|William Bartram, “Arrangement of the Chunky-[[Yard]], Public [[Square]], and Rotunda of the ''modern'' Creek towns,” in “Observations on the Creek and Cherokee Indians” (1789), from ''Transactions of the American Ethnological Society'' 3, part 1 (1853): 54, fig. 3.
Image:1748.jpg|William Bartram, Plan of a Cherokee Private “Habitation,” in “Observations on the Creek and Cherokee Indians” (1789), from ''Transactions of the American Ethnological Society'' 3, part 1 (1853): 56, fig. 5.
Image:1815.jpg|William Bartram, A Great [[Mound ]] and its Avenues[[Avenue]]s, at [[Mount ]] Royal, near Lake George, Georgia, in “Observations on the Creek and Cherokee Indians” (1789), from ''Transactions of the American Ethnological Society'' 3, part 1 (1853): 57, fig. 6.
</gallery>
==Notes==
<references/>
</referenceshr>
[[Category: People|Bartram, William]]

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Changes - History of Early American Landscape Design
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A Project of the Center for Advanced Study in the Visual Arts

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