*<div id="Stiles"></div>Stiles, Ezra, September 30, 1754, describing [[Springettsbury]], near Philadelphia, PA (1892: 375)<ref>“Ezra Stiles in Philadelphia, 1754,” ''Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography'' 16 (1892): 375–76, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/T7C8P48I view on Zotero].</ref> [[#Stiles_cite|back up to historyHistory]]
:“. . . besides the beautiful [[walk]], ornamented with evergreens, we saw . . . Spruce '''hedges''' cut into beautiful figures, &c., all forming the most agreeable variety, & even regular confusion & disorder.”
*<div id="Hovey"></div>[[C. M. (Charles Mason) Hovey|Hovey, C. M. (Charles Mason)]], November 1839, “Notices of Gardens and Horticulture, in Salem, Mass.,” describing [[Elias Hasket Derby House]], Salem, MA (''Magazine of Horticulture'' 5: 410–11),<ref>Charles Mason Hovey, “Notices of Gardens and Horticulture, in Salem, Mass.,” ''Magazine of Horticulture, Botany, and All Useful Discoveries and Improvements in Rural Affairs'' 5, no. 11 (November 1839): 401–16, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/25HW5NZ9 view on Zotero].</ref> [[#Hovey_cite|back up to historyHistory]]
:“The extent of the garden and [[pleasure ground]] is several acres. The garden lies to the south of the mansion, and is, we should judge, nearly a [[square]]. It is laid out with straight [[walk]]s, running at right angles, with flower [[border]]s on each side of the [[alley]]s, and the [[square]]s occupied by fruit trees; the [[greenhouse|green-house]] and grapery stand in the centre of the garden, and are screened on the back by a '''hedge'''.
:“In the centre of the garden is a small oval [[pond]], containing gold fish: this [[pond]] is '''hedge''’d round with the buckthorn, which has now been planted over thirty years! It is not over eight feet high, and is thickly set with branches and foliage from the top to bottom, and perfectly impenetrable.”
*<div id="Ware"></div>[[Isaac Ware|Ware, Isaac]], 1756, ''A Complete Body of Architecture'' (1756: 641, 645),<ref>Isaac Ware, ''A Complete Body of Architecture'' (London: T. Osborne and J. Shipton, 1756), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/2EK2USKV view on Zotero].</ref> [[#Ware_cite|back up to historyHistory]]
:“When a garden is already made in an ill spot, all that can be done is to open agreeable [[view]]s by clearing away [[wall]]s and '''hedges''' in the grounds . . . this is to be done when something pleasing, some [[view]] of elegant, wild nature can be let in. . . .
:“A [[meadow]] and its '''hedge''' excelled all the beauty of our former gardens; because the [[parterre]] there afforded only the ill fruits of labour, and the '''hedge''' lost the very vegetable character. In the wild state of nature all is free, all therefore is cheerful, and all pleasing. . . . Instead of the precise regularity we have so lately and so difficultly banished, in those vast gardens that have been described to us so happily, there scarce appears a strait line. The profusion of flowers with which they are embellished are stuck in natural '''hedges''' or raised on irregular hillocks, mimicking savage nature, only in a state of more variety.”
*<div id="Deane"></div>[[Samuel Deane|Deane, Samuel]], 1790, ''The New-England Farmer'' (1790: 91–92)<ref>Samuel Deane, ''The New-England Farmer, or Georgical Dictionary'' (Worcester, MA: Isaiah Thomas, 1790), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/S8QQDHP6 view on Zotero].</ref> [[#Deane_cite|back up to historyHistory]]
:“[[FENCE]]. . . .
:“In some places it is best to make '''hedge''' [[fence]]s. There are two kinds of [[fence]] that go by this name, dead '''hedge''', and quickset '''hedge'''.
*<div id="Prince"></div>Prince, William, 1828, ''A Short Treatise on Horticulture'' (1828: 84, 91, 98, 103, 109–10, 112)<ref>William Prince, ''A Short Treatise on Horticulture'' (New York: T. and J. Swords, 1828), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/I6VKDDB8 view on Zotero].</ref> [[#Prince_cite|back up to historyHistory]]
:“''Live '''hedges'''''.—The trees mostly used for '''hedges''' are the White English Hawthorn, the Holly, the Red Cedar, and the Privet. In the vicinity of Baltimore and Washington cities, they use two species of American Hawthorn, which appear to have decided advantages over the European. The Rhamnus catharticus forms a most beautiful '''hedge'''. . . .
:“''Crataegus oxycantha, or European White Thorn.''—This is the common species used throughout England for '''hedges''', and which has been considerably planted in this country for the same purpose. It answers very well trained as ornamental tree among [[shrubbery]], but is far less suitable for '''hedges''' than many of our native species. . . .
*<div id="Downing"></div>[[Andrew Jackson Downing|Downing, Andrew Jackson]], February 1838, “On the Cultivation of Hedges in the United States” (''Magazine of Horticulture'' 4: 41, 43),<ref>Andrew Jackson Downing, “On the Cultivation of Hedges in the United States,” ''Magazine of Horticulture, Botany, and All Useful Discoveries and Improvements in Rural Affairs'' 4, no. 2 (February 1838): 41–44, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/W2IAAB7S view on Zotero].</ref> [[#Downing_cite|back up to historyHistory]]
:“In many sections of the Union, where timber is becoming scarce, and stone for fencing does not abound, a substitute is anxiously sought after, and must be found in some species of plant, capable of making a close and impenetrable '''hedge'''. The advantages of live [[fence]]s are, great durability, imperviousness to man and beast, a trifling expense in keeping in order, and the great beauty and elegance of their appearance. Harmonizing in color with the pleasant green of the [[lawn]] and fields, they may, without (like board [[fence]]s) being offensive to the eye, be brought, in many places, quite near to the dwelling-house. . . .
:“The [[wall]] of masonry, the iron paling, or the wooden [[fence]], may be well suited to the vicinity of houses or crowded towns; but for harmony of color, freshness of foliage, durability, and, in short, all that is most desirable for beauty and protection, the ''verdant '''hedge''''' is without an equal.”
*<div id="Hooper"></div>Hooper, Edward James, 1842, ''The Practical Farmer, Gardener and Housewife'' (1842: 155)<ref>Edward James Hooper, ''The Practical Farmer, Gardener and Housewife, or Dictionary of Agriculture, Horticulture, and Domestic Economy'' (Cincinnati, OH: George Conclin, 1842), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/2T83BDXR view on Zotero].</ref> [[#Hooper_cite|back up to historyHistory]]
:“'''HEDGES'''. These are becoming, and in some situations have become, highly desirable. Where there is plenty of rail timber, it will naturally be used for [[fence]]s before any live enclosures. Where there is plenty of rocks also, these are the best and in the end the most economical materials for [[fence]]s that can be used. But where no rocks are found, and no rail timber, it will be useful to substitute live '''hedges'''. In different sections of the country different kinds of plants proper for live [[fence]]s will naturally exist. The locust for this purpose is one of the most valuable trees in the south. The Buckthorn in New England. . . . The European hawthorn . . . in the west.”
*<div id="Loudon"></div>[[Jane Loudon|Loudon, Jane]], 1845, ''Gardening for Ladies'' (1845: 206, 244),<ref>Jane Loudon, ''Gardening for Ladies; and Companion to the Flower-Garden'', ed. A. J. Downing (New York: Wiley & Putnam, 1845), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/3Q5GCH4I view on Zotero].</ref> [[#Loudon_cite|back up to historyHistory]]
:“'''Hedges''' may either be of evergreens, neatly cut, so as to form living [[wall]]s with standard plants at regular distances, to imitate architectural piers; or they may be formed of a mixture of different kinds of flowering [[shrub]]s, with evergreen standard low trees at regular distances. . . .
:“'''HEDGES''' for [[flower garden|flower-garden]]s should be composed of ornamental plants, such as ''Cydònia japónica'', Privet, Laurestinus, ''Rìbes sanguínea'', Roses, and double-blossomed Furze, or Ivy and other climbers, trained over iron [[trellis]]-work. The '''hedge''' to a flower-garden should never be stiff and formal, so as to look like a mere barrier; but it should be so arranged, and should consist of plants which harmonize so well with the flowers in the garden, as to make them appear a part of it. For farther details on this subject, see [[fence|FENCE]]S.”
[[File:0379.jpg|thumb|Fig. 14, Anonymous, “View of a Picturesque farm (''ferme ornée''),” in [[A. J. Downing]], ''A Treatise on the Theory and Practice of Landscape Gardening'', 4th ed. (1849), 120, fig. 27.]]
*<div id="Downing_1849"></div>[[Andrew Jackson Downing|Downing, Andrew Jackson]], 1849, ''A Treatise on the Theory and Practice of Landscape Gardening'' (1849; repr., 1991: 119, 302, 305, 310, 344–45)<ref>A. J. [Andrew Jackson] Downing, ''A Treatise on the Theory and Practice of Landscape Gardening, Adapted to North America'', 4th ed. (1849; repr., Washington, DC: Dumbarton Oaks Research Library and Collection, 1991), [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/items/itemKey/K7BRCDC5/ view on Zotero].</ref> [[#Downing_1849_cite|back up to historyHistory]]
:“In Fig. 27, is shown part of an embellished farm, treated in the [[picturesque]] style throughout. The various trees, under grass or tillage, are divided and bounded by winding roads, ''a'', bordered by '''hedges''' of buckthorn, cedar, and hawthorn, instead of wooden [[fence]]s. . . .[Fig. 14]
:“We have ourselves tried the experiment with a '''hedge''' of it [arbor vitae] about 200 feet long,which was transplanted about five or six feet high from the native ''habitats'' of the young trees, and which fully answers our expectations respecting it, forming a perfectly thick screen, and an excellent shelter on the north of a range of buildings at all seasons of the year, growing perfectly thick without trimming, from the very ground upwards. . . .

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