==History==
[[File:0417.jpg|thumb|left|Fig. 1, Anonymous, “Rustic prospect-arbor,” in [[A. J. Downing]], ''A Treatise on the Theory and Practice of Landscape Gardening'', 4th ed. (1849), 460, fig. 87.]]
One of the earliest advertisements for the nursery, published in the ''New-York Evening Post'' on June 6, 1825, describes the location of the garden at the intersection of Jamaica and Flatbush turnpikes—which, at the time, was just outside the village of Brooklyn.<ref>Advertisement, ''New-York Evening Post'' (June 6, 1825), p. 3, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/keywords_in_early_american_landscape_design/items/itemKey/DXBVT3AF view on Zotero].</ref> The site, according to one period commentator, was originally “one of the most stony, rugged, sterile pieces of ground on the whole island,” but was transformed by [[André Parmentier|Parmentier’s]] industry into a richly stocked [[nursery]], laid out according to the principles of “[[picturesque]] gardening.”<ref>“Rural Scenery,” ''New England Farmer'' 6, no. 24 (January 4, 1828): 187, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/keywords_in_early_american_landscape_design/items/itemKey/INS7XKSI/q/rural%20scenery view on Zotero].</ref> It featured winding, sinuous [[walk|walking paths]] and, most notably, a [[rustic style|rustic]] [[belvedere]] (and was occasionally referred to as an [[arbor]]) [Fig. 1] that allowed for “a view of the whole garden and the surrounding scenery . . . including Staten Island, the Bay, Governor’s Island, and the city of New York.”<ref>J. W. S., “Foreign Notices: —North America,” ''Gardener’s Magazine, and Register of Rural and Domestic Improvement'' 8, no. 36 (February 1832): 70–77, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/keywords_in_early_american_landscape_design/items/itemKey/69KZ93MG/q/foreign%20notices view on Zotero].</ref> Although the primary business of the [[nursery]] was to sell plants—with a focus on grape vines, fruit trees, and roses—it also served a dual purpose as a place for public enjoyment.<ref>Advertisement, ''New-York Evening Post'' (June 6, 1825), p. 3, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/keywords_in_early_american_landscape_design/items/itemKey/DXBVT3AF view on Zotero].</ref> Indeed, many of [[André Parmentier|Parmentier’s]] sales were made through the post or through agents, such as the seedsman Grant Thorburn, and the Horticultural and Botanical Garden functioned more as promotional tool, drawing visitors and modeling how they might lay out the plants acquired there.<ref>Grant Thorburn, a Scottish-born seedsman and author, is identified as an agent in numerous advertisements for Parmentier’s Horticultural and Botanical Garden. Other agents mentioned in various advertisements include the grocers Charles Swan, Harvey Spencer, and John J. Moore.</ref> To that end, [[André Parmentier|Parmentier]] also offered his services as a landscape designer, and was identified by [[Andrew Jackson Downing|A. J. Downing]] as “the only practitioner . . . of any note” in the United States. Downing described his [[nursery]] as having offered “a specimen of the [[natural style]] of laying out grounds, . . . and contributed not a little to the dissemination of a taste for the [[natural style|natural mode]] of [[landscape gardening]].”<ref>A. J. Downing, ''A Treatise on the Theory and Practice of Landscape Gardening'' (New York & London: Wiley and Putnam; Boston: C. C. Little & Co., 1841), 21–22, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/keywords_in_early_american_landscape_design/items/itemKey/QDVESTBX/q/treatise%20on%20the%20theor view on Zotero].</ref>
[[File:0064.jpg|thumb|Fig. 2, Anonymous, ''Map of [[André Parmentier|Mr. Andrew Parmentier’s]] Horticultural & Botanic Garden, at Brooklyn, Long Island, Two Miles From the City of New York'', c. 1828.]]
In about 1828 [[André Parmentier|Parmentier]] published a broadside of his Horticultural and Botanical Garden featuring a map of the grounds, offering a most detailed view of the layout and design of his [[nursery]] [Fig. 2]. The vineyards and rose [[shrubbery|shrubs]] were enclosed by meandering [[walk]]s that led to the “[[rustic style|Rustic]] [[arbor|Arbour]]” and “French Saloon” at the east corner of the [[plot]] (situated at the upper left on the map), and straight [[alley]]s, lined with fruit trees, divided his [[orchard]]s. Along the eastern edge of the nursery, abutting the Jamaica Turnpike, was a small cluster of buildings that included the barn, [[greenhouse]]s, tool and work houses, as well as the Parmentier family’s home and living quarters for laborers; adjacent to these buildings were hot [[bed]]s and an herbaceous plant garden.<ref>The close quarters may have led to a dispute in July 1830, when one of his laborers beat another with a garden hoe. Newspaper reports are mute on what precipitated the attack but noted that the victim, George Fuller, died shortly thereafter. His attacker, Owen Redden, was tried for murder but eventually acquitted by reason of insanity. See “Outrage,” ''New-York Morning Herald'' (July 9, 1830), p. 2, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/keywords_in_early_american_landscape_design/items/itemKey/SZ2JVFV8 view on Zotero], and “Oyer and Terminer,” ''American'' (June 17, 1831), p. 2, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/keywords_in_early_american_landscape_design/items/itemKey/VCM3W7RT view on Zotero].</ref>The broadside is likely the document Parmentier sent to the Société d’Horticulture de Paris in 1829, and it was later reprinted, with some alterations, in the February 1832 issue of ''Gardener’s Magazine, and Register of Rural and Domestic Improvement''.<ref>The editor of the ''Annales de la Société d’Horticulture de Paris'' noted that Parmentier sent a map of his nursery, along with a letter on the propagation of fruit trees in America; see “Sur les Arbres fruitiers d’Amérique,” ''Annales de la Société d’Horticulture de Paris'' 4 (1829): 352, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/keywords_in_early_american_landscape_design/items/itemKey/WRFUH5XB view on Zotero]. For the 1832 reprint of the map, see ''Gardener's Magazine'' (February 1832): 71, [https://www.zotero.org/groups/54737/keywords_in_early_american_landscape_design/items/itemKey/69KZ93MG/q/foreign%20notices view on Zotero].</ref>

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